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LTTE AND TERRORISM IN SRILANKA

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. BACKGROUND AND FORMATION ............. Error! Bookmark not defined. TERRORIST ATTACKS UNDERTAKEN........................................................6 WORLDWIDE OPERATION ........................................................................... 7 SRI LANKAN WAR ......................................................................................... 9 INDIA AND SRI LANKA............................................................................... 10 INDIA AND US &WORLD RESPONSE TO LTTE ....................................... 12 MILITARY DEFEAT ...................................................................................... 14 UNITED NATIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION .......................... 15 REGROUPING AND PRESENT SCENARIO ................................................ 17 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................... 19 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................ 21

INTRODUCTION

The ethnic conflict of Sri Lanka is a well-known issue of the international political arena. Desire to maintain the unitary state structure of the country, while weakening the political solution to the deadly ethnic civil war in Sri Lanka, aggravated the ethnic tensions between the Tamils and the Sinhalese, the dominant majority ethnic group . The campaign evolved into the Sri Lankan Civil War, which was one of the longest running armed conflicts in Asia until the LTTE was defeated by the Sri Lankan Military in May 2009. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) was founded in May 1976 by Velupillai Prabhakaran, it waged a raging secessionist campaign that sought to create Tamil Eelam, an independent state in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Post nine eleven the LTTE was listed as a terrorist organization both in the UK and USA and subsequently in 2006 by the European Union. It is the only terrorist group which once possessed its own Military Tigers (infantry), Sea Tigers (sea wing) and Air Tigers (Air Wing), in the world, began its armed campaign in Sri Lanka for a separate Tamil homeland in 1983. Continued fundraising abroad through which terrorist activities in Sri Lanka are being sustained by the LTTE, has become a major factor militating against government's search for a political solution on the basis of extensive devolution of power to address the grievances of all groups comprising the country's citizenry. The activities of the LTTE abroad have also received considerable publicity in Sri Lanka. There is therefore a growing public opinion against the impunity with which the LTTE conducts its fundraising activities and their propaganda work directed at sustaining terrorism in Sri Lanka. This project aims to provides an overview of the conflict, emphasizing on the role played by LTTE. It attempts to look at how the Sinhalese political elites in their quest for a power attempted to consolidate the unitary structure of the country since country's independence in

1948, and the Sinhalese unwillingness to share the power with the Tamils led the Tamils to lose trust in the state and its institutions and thus, gave birth to the violent Tamil political movements including that of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). Finally the current scenario in Sri lanka would be dealt with .

BACKGROUND AND FORMATION

A sizable group in Sri lanka is the Indian Tamils. They are differentiated from the Sri lanka tamils by the time of their arrival in Sri lanka. They are the descendants of south Indians brought to Sri lanka by the british to work on the tea and coffee estates in the 19th centuary. They believe that they are culturally distinct from the Srilanka tamils and both groups consider themselves to be separate ethnic groups. When India was still a British colony, British colonial authorities made all the Tamilian people move, they moved to a lot of countries among them, Sri Lanka, with one of the biggest population of Tamils. Back in the days of the British Empire, the divide and rule policies of the British rulers created lots of animosity between the Sinhala majority and the minority Tamils. The problem occurred when the Tamils first moved from India, since they were all new to the country and to all the traditions those people had, they started to be treated in a different way, not the way they treated others. The government did not support them and they started to live in poverty, but even though a lot of time passed since then, nothing changed, many of Tamilians are still experiencing poor living conditions as well as working conditions. In the '50s a series of laws were passed that drastically reduced the opportunities for education and employment available to Tamils in Srilanka. Though many of these laws were repealed by later governments. It didn't stop the powder keg exploding in 1983 when terrorists killed 13 Sri Lankan soldiers in the northern province. Sections of the Sinhala community enraged by this incidence took to the streets burning and looting Tamil shops and homes. The authorities took some time to bring the situation under control. This was the point of no return. Many tamils left the country, the economy and the tourism industry in particular suffered heavy blows from which it has not fully recovered 15 years later. And the support for the Tamil militants grew.

Terrorism in Sri Lanka actually began in 1970 with the formation of a militant student body called the "Tamil Students Movement" to protest government plans to limit access of Tamil students to universities. Very soon this movement went underground and turned to overt terrorist activities. Violence escalated in Jaffna from 1972 onwards, beginning with the publication of a new constitution seen by the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) as anti-Tamil. The year 1972 saw the formation of two Tamil terrorist groups the Tamil New Tigers (TNT) and Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), splinter groups of the original Tamil Students Movement.

In July 1983, countrywide riots and clashes between Sinhalese and Tamils left thousands of Tamils dead and several hundred thousand as refugees. Large number of Government forces were deployed in the Northern and Eastern Provinces. This period marks the beginning of the LTTE guerrilla campaign against the Sri Lankan Government. The LTTE was formed on May 5, 1976 Headquartered in the Wanni region, under the leadership of Velupillai Prabhakaran, and emerged as perhaps the most lethal, well organised and disciplined terrorist force . Its ultimate goal -: to seize control of the country from the Sinhalese ethnic majority and create an independent Tamil state ,the Tamil Eelam in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka.

TERRORISTS ATTACKS UNDERTAKEN


The LTTE is notorious for its suicide bombings. Since the late 1980s,. Targets have included transit hubs, Buddhist shrines, and office buildings. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the LTTE invented the suicide belt and pioneered the use of women in suicide attacks. The group has conducted approximately two hundred suicide attacks, assassinated two world leadersthe only terrorist organization to do so1. Beyond suicide bombings, the LTTE has used conventional bombs and Claymore mines to attack political and civilian targets,.. In an April 2008 report, the U.S. State Department also accused the LTTE of engaging in abductions and extortion. According to which violations of the 2002 cease-fire agreement by both the LTTE and the government killed more than 5,000 people since 2006. Assassinations and attacks on officials allegedly committed by the LTTE include the following2: y The May 1991 assassination of former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi at a campaign rally in India by a woman tiger who was allegedly raped by IPKF blew herself up killing former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi along with 16 other bystanders. the May 1993 assassination of Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa which also killed 23 bystanders; the July 1999 assassination of a Sri Lankan member of parliament, Neelan Thiruchelvam, an ethnic Tamil involved in a government-sponsored peace initiative; a pair of December 1999 suicide bombings in Colombo that wounded Sri Lankan President Chandrika Kumaratunga;

y y y

http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2008/january/tamil_tigers011008

http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lankaseparatists/p9242

y y y y y y

the June 2000 assassination of Sri Lankan Industry Minister C.V. Goonaratne; the August 2005 assassination of Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar; the January 2008 assassination of a member of parliament from the opposition United National Party (UNP), T. Maheswaran; the January 2008 assassination of Sri Lankan Nation-Building Minister D. M. Dassanayake; the February 2008 assassination of two cadres of the political party and paramilitary group Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP); and the April 2008 assassination of Sri Lankan Highway Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle.

WORLDWIDE OPERATION
It set up a parallel civil administration within its territory by establishing structures such as a Police force, law courts, postal services, banks, administrative offices, television and radio broadcasting station, etc. The most prominent of the LTTE state structure' is the Tamil Eelam Judiciary and the Tamil Eelam Police. The Tamil Eelam Police, with its headquarters at Kilinochchi was formed in year 1993, and reportedly has several wings, including traffic, crime prevention, crime detection, information bureau, administration and a special force. LTTE cadres collect taxes, its courts administer their version of justice and the entire law and order machinery is LTTE-controlled. The LTTE is still believed to have a wide network of publicity and propaganda activities with offices and cells located in at least 54 countries. The largest and most important centers were located in leading western states with large Tamil expatriate communities, most notably the UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Canada and Australia3. In addition to these States, the LTTE is also known to be represented in countries as far-flung as Cambodia, Burma, South Africa and Botswana. Its publicity networks covering Europe, Australia and North America also included radio and TV satellites. Another important aspect of LTTEs strategy is fundraising. The majority of financial support comes from six main areas, all of which contain large Tamil Diasporas: Switzerland, Canada, Australia, the UK, the US, and the Scandinavian countries. The LTTE has established a wide network of offices and cells practically across the globe. They have secured a considerable degree of visibility in the United Kingdom the headquarters of its "International Secretariat" as well as in Canada, France, Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Australia and South Africa. These networks of offices and
3

www.state.gov/documents/organization/65479.pdf

cells carry out propaganda, organize the procurement and movement of weapons and raise funds from the Tamil Diaspora4. The LTTE's overt organizations supported Tamil separatism by lobbying foreign governments and the United Nations. The LTTE also used its international contacts to procure weapons, communications, and bomb making equipment. The LTTE exploited large Tamil communities in North America, Europe, and Asia to obtain funds and supplies for its fighters in Sri Lanka. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam were involved in numerous trans national criminal activities, including partnerships with Pakistani heroin producers/traffickers, alien smuggling, extortion from Tamil families living abroad, and various forms of fraud. All this in order to raise funds for their insurgent activities in Sri Lanka . The LTTE also attacked several ships in Sri Lankan waters, including foreign commercial vessels and infrastructure targets such as commuter trains, buses, oil tanks, and power stations. The LTTE prefered to attack vulnerable government facilities then withdraw before reinforcements arrive, or to time its attacks to take advantage of security lapses on holidays, at night, or in the early morning. Reports also claim that LTTE raises money through drug running, particularly heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia. The LTTE is in a particularly advantageous position to traffic narcotics due to the highly efficient international network it has developed to smuggle munitions around the world. Many of these arms routes pass either directly through or very close to major drug producing and transit centers, including Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, southern China, Afghanistan and Pakistan5. Military and arms procurement played a vital part in the LTTEs battle against the Government sources. The LTTE arms network was headed by Kumaran Pathmanathan colloquially known as "KP." At the heart of the KPs operations was a highly secretive shipping network. The ships frequently visit Japan, Indonesia, Singapore, South Africa, Burma, Turkey, France, Italy and Ukraine, scouting for arms.

http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:oJd8o44lyvMJ:www.srilankaembassy.be/PressRealease/PressReleas eFullText.pdf+They+have+secured+a+considerable+degree+of+visibility+in+the+United+Kingdom+%E2%80%93+th e+headquarters+of+its+%22International+Secretariat%22+%E2%80%93+as+well+as+in+Canada,+France,+Germany ,+Holland,+Switzerland,+Italy,+Sweden,+Denmark,+Norway,+Australia+and+South+Africa.+These+networks+of+off ices+and+cells+carry+out+propaganda,+organize+the+procurement+and+movement+of+weapons+and+raise+fun ds+from+the+Tamil+Diaspora.&hl=en&gl=in&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShahtUTNhtlnrLaKMWBwgOy0mCNuTcIlc50dKc NpezKV2SmT1WOfsSrqzjGV6wzTnNYcq4h9xoxYZRsP3C2Ud7K4SkwkIvQiByw5g2HxlHlDMty7x_WhCTNY5FG7DSJsroyf_I&sig=AHIEtbQ6N9GleLg1fzBHRHDZ4oqJO5OFZw&pli=1


5

http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=D936BCDBEFB0DD3A11CC3C643143D8AB.inst2_3a?docId= 104071982

The LTTE also attacked several commercial ships flying foreign flags in the waters off the north and east of the country. In 1998, threats were directed at domestic air carriers flying between Colombo and Jaffna, and in September of that year, a domestic civilian aircraft flying from Colombo to Jaffna crashed, killing everyone on board. The cause of the accident is still unknown. Moreover, the generally unrestrained liberal democratic freedom that the LTTE has been allowed to enjoy in these states has enabled the group to slowly build and develop a complex, multilayered and truly integrated global support structure which has become increasingly difficult to detect and root out.

THE SRILANKAN WAR

The Sri Lankan Civil War , was a an on-and-off insurgency against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and other few rebel groups, which fought to create an independent Tamil state named Tamil Eelam in the north and the east of the island. After two decades of fighting and four failed attempts at peace talks, including the unsuccessful deployment of the Indian Army, the Indian Peace Keeping Force from 1987 to 1990, a lasting negotiated settlement to the conflict appeared possible when a cease-fire was declared in December 2001, and a ceasefire agreement signed with international mediation in 2002. However, limited hostilities renewed in late 2005 and the conflict began to escalate until the government launched a number of major military offensives against the LTTE beginning in July 2006, driving the LTTE out of the entire Eastern province of the island. The LTTE then declared they would "resume their freedom struggle to achieve statehood. The War ended in May 2009 after surviving for nearly 26 years and causing significant hardships for the population, environment and the economy of the country, with an estimated 80,000 100,000 people killed during its course.

INDIA AND SRLANKA

India became involved in the conflict in the 1980s for a number of reasons, including its leaders desire to project India as the regional power in the area and worries about India's own Tamils seeking independence as well as a flood of refugees entering India. The latter was particularly strong in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, where ethnic kinship led to strong support for independence for Sri Lankan Tamils. Throughout the conflict, the Indian central and state governments supported both sides in different ways. Beginning in the 1980s, India, through its intelligence agency, provided arms, training and monetary support to a number of Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups, including the LTTE and its rival Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO). After subsequent negotiations, India and Sri Lanka entered into the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord in July 1987. Thoughout the negotiations, India had acted as an intermediary between the Sri lanka government and the Tigers. The peace accord assigned a certain degree of regional autonomy in the Tamil areas with Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF) controlling the regional council and called for the Tamil militant groups to lay down their arms. India was to send a peacekeeping force, named the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), part of the Indian Army, to Sri Lanka to enforce the disarmament and to watch over the regional council. Although the accord was signed between the governments of Sri Lanka and India, and the Tamil militant groups did not have a role in the agreement, most Tamil militant groups accepted it. But the LTTE rejected the accord because they opposed the candidate, who belonged to the EPRLF, for chief administrative officer of the merged Northern and Eastern provinces. Instead, the LTTE named three other candidates for the position, which India rejected. The LTTE subsequently refused to hand over their weapons to the IPKF.

Thus LTTE found itself engaged in military conflict with the Indian Army, and launched its first attack on an Indian army rations truck on October 8, killing five Indian para-commandos who were on board by strapping burning tires around their necks. The government of India decided that the IPKF should disarm the LTTE by force, and the Indian Army launched number of assaults on the LTTE, including a month-long campaign dubbed Operation Pawan to win control of the Jaffna peninsula from the LTTE. The ruthlessness of this campaign, and the Indian army's subsequent anti-LTTE operations made it extremely unpopular among many Tamils in Sri Lanka Sri Lankan nationalist sentiment led many Sinhalese to oppose the continued Indian presence in Sri Lanka. These led to the Sri Lankan government's call for India to quit the island.

SRI LANKA AND US

Certainly because of the suffering and bloodshed that the Tamil Tigers have caused, US stated that its ruthless tactics have inspired terrorist networks worldwide, including al Qaeda in Iraq. Also the group has placed operatives in their own backyard, discreetly raising money to fund its bloody terrorist campaign overseas, including purchases of weapons and explosives. The U.S. government designated the Tigers a foreign terrorist organization, making their activities illegal & determined to stop them, using the full range of investigative and intelligence capabilities6. In April 2008 , for example, it struck an important blow when the Joint Terrorism Task Force in New York arrested the alleged U.S. director of the Tigers. The man supposedly held several fundraising events at a church and various public schools in Queens and in northern New Jersey in 2004. Also accused of arranging high-level meetings between the groups leaders and U.S. supporters. It has also arrested several Tamil Tiger-related suspects in the New York City region. And in Baltimore, following a multi-agency investigation, a pair of Indonesian men pled guilty and were sentenced recently for working with others to export surface to air missiles, state-of-the-art firearms, machine guns, and night vision goggles to the Tigers in Sri Lanka7. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its January 10, 2008 report stated that the LTTE is one of the most dangerous and deadly extremist outfits in the world ,most capable guerrilla organisation in the world and the world should be concerned about the outfit as they had inspired networks worldwide, including the al-Qaeda in Iraq.
6

http://www.lagunajournal.com/world_terrorist_the_tamil_tigers.htm http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items08/120108-2.html

REACTION OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD TO THE ACTIVITIES OF LTTE8

The earliest action against an LTTE front organization was taken in the U.K., when in October 2000 (even before the LTTE was eventually proscribed in the UK in February 2001), an investigation was launched into the activities of the TRO in UK, and the organization was subsequently removed from the register of charities by the UK Charity Commission on 10 August 2005. One of the findings of the report was that TRO Sri Lanka liaised with the LTTE in determining where funds could be applied and also that the trustees of TRO/UK exercised little or no control over the application of funds in Sri Lanka and failed to demonstrate a clear audit trail relating to expenditure. They also failed to provide the commission with any explanation as to the provenance of some of the funds received from the US and Canada. Although the TRO was de-listed from the charitable organizations list in the UK, it continues to collect funds within the UK, through White Pigeon, another front organization of the LTTE. (It is noteworthy that subsequently both the TRO and White Pigeon were proscribed in the US in 2007.) Notwithstanding the de-listing of the TRO, numerous LTTE front organizations continue to operate in the UK to carry forward the activities done by these organizations for the LTTE. In France, 21 activists belonging to LTTE front organizations including Nadarajah Mathinthiran, in-Charge of the Coordination Committee of Tamils in France (CCTF) were arrested in April, May and September 2007. for criminal conspiracy with a view to perpetrate acts of terrorism, financing of terrorist enterprise and extortion

TIME TO ACT , The LTTE, its Front Organizations, and the Challenge to Europe, EU-US INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON LTTE 9th -10th Dec 2008 EUROPOL The Hague , pdf .

In Italy, on 19 June 2008, Italian police arrested 28 Sri Lankan suspected LTTE sympathisers for providing funding for the group. According to Naples police all suspects are Sri Lankan citizens and extorted money from their fellow nationals in the various cities and sent it home to finance the LTTE. The investigations are continuing. In Denmark, TRO-Denmark has had its assets amounting to DKK 52,000 (over 7,000 Euros) frozen for supporting the LTTE. In Canada, on 13 June 2008, the Government proscribed the Toronto-based front organization of the LTTE, the World Tamil Movement (WTM), under the Anti-Terrorism Act of Canada. The directive issued by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions advised banks and insurance companies to notify the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) or Canadian Security Intelligence Service if they held any accounts linked to the WTM. The LTTE is entrenched in Canada and a 58-page RCMP document refers to the WTM as "the Canadian arm of the LTTE. Documents emerging from the investigations into the WTM have established, inter alia that the WTM is a foreign branch of the LTTE and that the WTM received direct instructions, through an operational manual dated 28 July 2003, from the LTTE Leader Prabhakaran, inter alia, on raising funds for the LTTE. Whether to designate the TRO a terrorist "entity" under the Anti-Terrorism Act, is believed to be currently under consideration in Canada.

MILITARY DEFEAT

In May 16, 2009, the Sri Lankan government declared the twenty-six year long conflict had ended. The military claimed it had defeated the rebels and killed the LTTE's elusive leader Vellupillai Prabhakaran. The group conceded defeat, several LTTE fighters committed suicide when they became surrounded. However, some experts warn it may be too early to write off the group, which has proved to be a ruthless guerilla outfit in the past. Thus collapse of LTTE was due to multiple miscalculations by LTTE leadership primarily Prabhaharan. Main reasons behind the collapse are as follows9.1. LTTE lost the support of Tamil people in Sri lanka . In fact Tamil people were literally happy to see the end of LTTE. This is a far cry from the times when the people affectionately called them as "boys". 2. LTTE was isolated internationally with either countries working against it or standing neutral. For example in spite of the their own rivalry all major powers US, Russia, China and India helped Srilankan forces. 3. LTTE was so much focused on getting the support of West and Tamil Nadu . LTTE made no attempt at all in winning the support of Sinhalese community in the South. Left movement in Srilanka was sympathetic to and many occasions championed the Tamil's struggle. During the ceasefire LTTE could have built an alliance with Left movement in South. On the other hand LTTE's actions during and after ceasefire basically alienated the entire Sinhalese community.
9

http://www.scribd.com/doc/37841537/Indian-Peacekeeping-Force-in-Sri-Lanka

4. India provided much needed intelligence and logistics support for Srilankan forces. LTTE military communication was monitored by Indian agencies and was provided to Srilankan forces. 5. Sri lankan forces were highly professional and ran a well planned and effective campaign under very capable leadership. 6. LTTE lost it's conventional war capability after Karuna's defection and loss of eastern cadres. 7. Without any air protection LTTE lost the conventional war in East. It should have immediately reverted to guerrilla warfare and defended it's rear base in Mullaitivu . Instead it was defending urban areas and places of symbolic value.

UNITED NATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION

By mid-2000, human rights groups estimated that more than one million people in Sri Lanka were internally displaced persons, living in camps, homeless and struggling for survival. As a result, a significant peace movement developed in the late 1990s, with many organizations apart from UN holding peace camps, conferences, trainings and peace meditations, and many other efforts to bridge the two sides at all levels. As early as February 2000, Norway was asked to mediate by both sides, and initial international diplomatic moves began to find a negotiated settlement to the conflict. The UN Security Council demanded that Tamil separatists holding out against the Sri Lankan military surrender renounce terrorism, and allow a UN-assisted evacuation of the remaining civilians in the conflict area, and join the political process allow civilians trapped in the war zone to leave.. The Security Council "strongly condemned" the Tigers and accused them of using civilians trapped in a small strip of land as human shields10. Susan Rice, the US ambassador to the UN, accused both sides guilty of violating the international law."The fact that both sides have been shooting at civilians as they leave the safe zone is one gross manifestation of the apparent violation of international humanitarian law," she said11.

10

http://www.telo.org/February2009.html http://www.crimesofwar.org/onnews/news-gaza5.html

11

China and Russia have been among some countries which have opposed the idea of a formal Security Council discussion of the conflict, which has spanned 26 years, saying it being an internal matter for the Sri Lankans12. Human Rights Watch had suggested The UN Security Council should impose sanctions on armed groups in Sri Lanka for using children in their forces. The LTTE and the Karuna group who used children to fight their battles was a clear violation of international law and Security Council resolutions. Human Rights Watch also called upon the UN Security Council to publicly condemn the Sri Lankan government for failing to investigate cases of child abduction and recruitment in government-controlled territory, and the complicity of its security forces in abductions by the Karuna group. On January 31, 2008, UNICEF reported 1,430 outstanding cases of LTTE child recruitment, including at least 196 children still under the age of 18 in the LTTE ranks. In a report on children and armed conflict worldwide made public in January, the UN secretary-general listed the LTTE for the fifth consecutive time since 2002 for violating international standards regarding the recruitment and use of child soldiers. Listing the Karuna group for the second time13. In a separate report specifically on Sri Lanka issued in December, the secretary-general noted that the Karuna group continued to abduct children, and had failed to effectively engage with the United Nations to end child recruitment. Human Rights Watch also recommended Security Council sanctions against the Karuna group due to its continual violations of international standards. In addition it also criticized the Sri Lankan government for failing to thoroughly investigate cases of abduction and complicity of security forces in child abduction by the Karuna group. Reports by the secretary-general, the Special Advisor to the Special Representative to the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict Allan Rock, and Human Rights Watch have all found complicity by Sri Lankan security forces in the abduction of children by the Karuna group14. As a result of the pressure from the UN , the Members of a government committee was appointed by Human Rights Minister Mahinda Samarasinghe to investigate abductions and child recruitment in the country .

12 13

http://www.scribd.com/doc/38851187/Issues-for-Debate-in-Human-Rights-Selections-from-CQ-Researcher http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,HRW,,LKA,,47bea7ed1e,0.html http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2008/02/20/un-sanction-ltte-karuna-group-child-soldiers

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RE GROUPING & PRESENT SCENARIO


Although the May 16, 2009 defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam has dramatically reduced the diasporas influence, the majority of Tamils outside Sri Lanka continue to support a separate state. Following the defeat of the LTTE, the mood in the diaspora has been a mix of anger, depression and denial. Although many had mixed feelings about the LTTE,as some maintain that it was widely seen as the only group that stood up for Tamils and won them any degree of respect. The Tigers humiliating defeat, the enormous death toll in the final months of the war and the internment of more than a quarter million Tamils left the diaspora feeling powerless, betrayed by the West, demanding justice and, in some cases, wanting revenge. A minority in the community is happy the LTTE is gone, since it directed much of its energy to intimidating and even killing those Tamils who challenged their rule. The international community too has been pressing the government to enact constitutional reforms to share power with and protect the rights of Tamils and other minorities now that the war is over. Most in the country are exhausted by decades of war and are more concerned with rebuilding their lives under difficult circumstances than in continuing the struggle for an independent state. There is no popular support for a return to armed struggle. Without the LTTE to enforce a common political line, Tamil leaders in Sri Lanka are proposing substantial reforms within a united Sri Lanka. According to a notification issued by the Union home ministry, even though the LTTE has been "decimated in Sri Lanka ,recent reports reveal that remnant LTTE cadres and leaders are regrouping in Tamil Nadu". The notification said the possibility of its remnant cadres using India and especially Tamil Nadu as a rear base for their re-grouping activities cannot be ruled out. It also said the possibility of their entering in the guise of Tamil refugees also cannot be ruled out.

Sources said LTTE sympathisers were posing a security threat by continuing to spread anti-India propaganda on the internet accusing the Indian leadership and its officialdom of being responsible for their defeat. Nonetheless despite the end of the struggle, most Tamils abroad remain profoundly committed to Tamil Eelam, the existence of a separate state in Sri Lanka. This has widened the gap between the diaspora and Tamils in Sri Lanka. Reports claiming activities of certain remnant cadres have been noticed in Tamil Nadu have come out and an extension of ban on LTTE is required. In 2010 reports came outstating that elements of the LTTE have been trying to re-consolidate the organization by raising money from the Tamil diaspora. Funding networks established by the LTTE over decades even though seriously weakened but are still in place. There is little chance, however, of the Tigers regrouping in the diaspora . Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa have also asserted that the government is vigilant against any efforts by the remnants of the LTTE to regroup after the rebel outfit's chief Velupillai Prabhakaran was killed . Also recently reports of the LTTE planning to target VVIPs during Assembly elections have come out15. Some probable targets of the LTTE, as perceived by the Central intelligence agencies, are the Prime Minister, National Security Advisor and the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister, among others, as the sources maintain. However the DGP of Sri lanka, Letika Saran. denies presence of operatives of the banned LTTE in Tamil Nadu16. Stating that the police have confirmed that there were no LTTE elements in Tamil Nadu in the wake of an alert on the threat to political leaders in the state. Despite that adequate protection would be given to political leaders in the state during the ensuing assembly elections. With its huge population of Sri Lankan Tamils, Canada fears that resentment over the defeat of the Tamil Tigers last to last year may lead to violent response by sections of the 300,00-strong community . Canadian law enforcement officials & security agencies have been concerned that, if left unchecked, LTTE activities could result in an event similar to the terrorist bombing of an Air

15

http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Chennai/article1448097.ece

16

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/

India jet in 1985 to avenge the army attack on the Golden Temple to flush out militants, which was planned and funded by Sikh separatists in Canada. Titled 'The Sri Lankan Diaspora After The LTTE', the report by Brussels-based International Crisis Group (ICG) says: "The Tigers' humiliating defeat, the enormous death toll in the final months of the war and the internment of more than a quarter million Tamils (has) left the diaspora feeling powerless, betrayed by the West, demanding justice and, in some cases, wanting revenge ."

CONCLUSION

Political developments in Sri lanka in 2009 centered primarily around the end of the protracted civil war between the state and the LTTE , with total military defeat of the LTTE. Sri lanka subsequently entered an uncertain phase of post- civil war political reconstruction. The announcement to hold early presidential elections in January 2010 added to uncertainities to Sri lankas post civil war political process. The failure of federalism to take hold in the developing world has been attributed primarily to factors related to the political intergration of ethnic minorities. The integration of diverse minorities into a nation-state has been a difficult task for many developing societies. During the last twenty years, several multi ethinic nations have desended into an intractable civil war the Sri lankan Conflict being noteworthy. The group threatened not only the domestic stability of srilanka and India but the security of the entire international system as a whole. Especially with globalization, events that effect the affairs of one state can have important implications for governments both regionally and globally. The Tigers carried out acts of terrorism. They made fatal mistakes, but they also mounted a few carefully-planned and bravely-executed missions. The Tamils of Sri Lanka, defenseless, have been led to the worst situation ever in their history, a crisis out of which no one can predict if they will ever emerge.

The failure of the LTTE leadership was because of being unreceptive to advice, brutalilty towards dissenters, had little grasp of the wider international picture. He was unable to recognise trends in time, and was unable to change policy and tactics. His final, desperate measure of forcing trapped and terrified children, women and men to act as a buffer (even when he must have realised that the government was not going to relent in its advance) does not, to put it mildly, excite admiration. Terrorism is and can never be a solution to a problem. Terrorists are always indiscriminate in their targeting; it would never be effective in combating oppression; as terrorists never participate in fair negotiations, as they merely wish to switch places with their oppressors. While the Sri Lankan government's recent military onslaught against the LTTE has been surprisingly successful, history is clear that a meaningful solution to the conflict in Sri Lanka will be found not on the battlefield but in the hearts and minds of the Sri Lankan people and the government. At present the government of Sri lanka is in the stage of implementing massive development projects to strengthen the country's economy and holding free and fair elections, the intention being to "rebuild the country in a way that nobody can divide it." The current military success against the LTTE coincides with a wave of collective Sri Lankan anguish at the country's grim predicament. For several reasons, the present represents a potential moment of critical realignment in Sri Lanka.

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