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Proceedings o the American Control Conference f Arlington, VA June 25-27, 2001

Rem Kazemi and Khosro Jafhri Zaviyeh Vehicle Dynamic Dept., Irankhodro Co. R&D Center Km. 14 Karaj Road, Tehran, Iran I<azeini~~eykaii.coin - kh.iafari@,ikc
AbstracG-In this paper a new Anti-lock Brake System for passenger cars which called servo ABS is presented. Servo ABS hydraulic modulator is equipped with servo valves for
" "

improving speed, precision and controllability of the system. A developed model for Servo ABS is introduced in this study which contains all of the conventional brake system elements and the ABS hydraulic modulator. Due to the nonlinearities and uncertainties inherent in this system "Dynamic Surface Control method" (DSC) has been employed to control the longitudinal wheels slip. This control method formalizes the concept of multiple surface sliding mode control and the use of synthetic inputs and filters. Several standard maneuvers have been simulated for evaluating Servo ABS performance under different conditions. From the results of simulations under some standard maneuvers, it is confirmed that the performance of the proposed Servo ABS is improved in comparison with conventional ABS. A seven DOF vehicle model and Pacejka tire model are employed to simulate the vehicle motion on the road surface.

only two specified open or close positions. Control logic of hydraulic directional valves is on off and use of the continuous control input for them is impossible. Since these type of valves have not any middle positions, when valves are closed or opened, large pressure variations are occurred in wheel cylinders 'that this phenomena has undesirable effects on braking torque and wheel slip.

I. Introduction
From the beginning of the A B S production up to now, many





Fig.1.ConventionalA B S system hydraulic circuit

activities and researches have been conducted to improvement of Anti-lock Brake Systems performance. Some of these investigations are related to ABS control development [11, [3], [8][12] and some others are about ABS hydraulic development [2], PI,[619 and [A* Conventional Anti-lock Braking Systems have some limitations in control and performance. One of the most significant disadvantages of these systems is their disability in slip control and tracking of a specified desired slip in an acceptable range. System limitation for applying continuous control laws and use of modem control methods is another problem of conventional ABS systems. With respect to limitations of conventional ABS systems some targets can be planned for development of them as follows: Improvement of system control ability. Improvement of vehicle handling and stability under difficult conditions. Optimum use of adhesion forces between tires and road surface and decreasing stopping distance. Control development and use of modem control method. ABS system development for achieving of considered targets could be divided into two parts. The first is development of the hydraulic pressure modulator and use of hydraulic elements with more precision and capability, and the second is the control development and use of modem control methods.

For resolving of such problems and increasing of system controllability in this study, replacement of 2 2 directional control valves with servo valves is proposed. In the hydraulic servo valves, valve opening is a continuous hnction of valve control input command. Therefore by using servo hydraulic technology in Anti-Lock braking Systems, some of their problems are solved and possibilitiesof using modem control methods are also provided.





Fig.2. Servo ABS s s e hydraulic circuit ytm

11. Hydraulic pressure modulator development

In the conventional AJ3S systems two U2 directional control valves regulate fluid hydraulic pressure of each wheel cylinder as

illustrated in Fig.1. .These types of hydraulic control valves have

Developed Anti-lock Brake System with servo hydraulic valves is called Servo ABS in this paper. Servo ABS hydraulic circuit is illustrated in Fig. 2. In the Servo ABS a servo valve controls pressure in each wheel cylinder.

0-7803-6495-3/01/$10.00 0 2001 AACC


III. Dynamic modeling

A. Servo ABS dynamic modeling In this section whole of the developed Servo ABS system from
master cylinder to braking mechanism on each wheel as shown in Fig.2 is modeled and its governing dynamic equations are presented. Driver input pedal force after amplifying with vacuum booster is applied to primary piston in tandem master cylinder and then a part of it is transferred to secondary piston by an intermediate spring between them. Applied forces to the primary and the secondary pistons generate pressure in the master cylinder chambers.

Pmq, =
P,, =


- Fp)I 1 Knug(xp- x,) "atc

- ~ m ) -Kmcsxs /


(KDIL~(x~ -xs)+PmcpAmc

Where Pq and P,,, are fluid pressures in the primary and the secondary master cylinder chambers, xp and x, are primary and secondary pistons displacement, KncP and K , are primary and , secondary springs stifhess, FM and Fd are preload on primary and secondary springs, F w is booster output force and A is , cross section of master cylinder. f ( x ) = ( x - u ) " is a singular function, which is defined as follows: Where P, is wheel cylinder pressure, Po is discharge line pressure, U and y are flow coefficients for charge and discharge lines, a, is servo valve opening value, a is pmsure reducing valve , opening value in the rear wheels charge line, ac is check valve opening value and j ,j , rf and rr subscripts represent front le& 7 ? front right, rear left and rear right wheels of vehicle respectively. Wheel cylinder pressure Pwi is a function of entered fluid volume into the wheel cylinder.

Pwi = P,.(5)

i = 1.....4

(1 1)

If Qpand represent fluid flow rates on primary and secondary master cylinder outlets respectively then x and x, are: , Servo valve opening value ad i a finction ofvalve control input s command.

Entered fluid volume into the wheel cylinder equal to the integration of its input flow rate:

A, (s) = G,(s)

x U, (s)

i = 1...., 4


With respect to this assumption that primary outlet of master cylinder feeds braking mechanism on front left and rear right wheels and secondary outlet feeds braking mechanism on ftont right and rear left wheels of vehicle, fluid flow rates in m s e atr cylinder outlets are:

Where Ad is valve opening in ftequency domain, C* is valve transfer function and U, control-input command. is

Q, = Qg + Q,


Where Qp, Qfi Qd and Q, represent input fluid flow rates to braking mechanism on eont left, front right, rear left and rear right wheels of vehicle respectively. Pressure difference between master cylinder chambers and wheel cylinders generate fluid flow rate between them. According to Bernoulli's equation, fluid flow rate between master cylinder and wheel cylinder is a function of pressure difference, fluid viscosity, pipeline pressure losses and valves opening in the fluid path.


Fig.3. Atypical servo valve bode diagram


In this study for servo valve modeling a second order transfer hnction is considered for it as follows:
A , (s) =
O n

s2+ 24w,s

+w n


i = l ,..., 4


Where w, and C represent natural frequency and damping ratio respectively that they can be obtained from valve frequency response curves. Dynamic equation of valve opening value in the time domain is given by:
a, = v, - v r
ay = vv

(22) (23)

For bypassing of servo valves and pressure reducing valves in the fluid retum line to master cylinder, a check valve is considered as parallel to each of those valves. Check valves are closed when fluid flows from master cylinder to wheel cylinders.

+ V',

Where v, and vu are longitudinal and lateral velocity of CG, a, and a,, are longitudinal and lateral acceleration, r is yaw rate, 6 is steering angle, Lf and L, are CG distance from front and rear axle, T, is vehicle track width, F, and Fy are tire longitudinaland lateral friction force components, and subscriptsj ,fi, rl represent front 7 left, front right, rear left and rear right wheels respectively.

In the vehicle braking system for pressure limiting in the rear wheels, pressure-reducing valves are used in the charge line of the rear wheels braking system. Pressure-reducing valves have some different types that in this study its pressure sensitive type is considered. This type of valves, when pressure in wheel cylinder (upstream) is increased form a preset value, valve opening is decreased. Valve opening value is a function of pressure difference in the valve outlet and its preset value as:

C. Wheel modeling
With respect to wheel free body diagram at braking Fig.4, i* wheel dynamic equation in braking is represented by equation


Where up, is valve-opening value, a,, is maximum valve opening, P- is pressure in the i&rear wheel cylinder, Pet is preset pressure and C is a negative constant. Fluid entrance into the wheel cylinder pushes brake pads to druddisk. Generated braking torque due to push brake pads to disWdrum depends on fluid pressure in wheel cylinder.

Where I, is wheel inertia, w is wheel angular velocity, F, longitudinal friction force component between tire and road surface, R is reduce of wheel, T, is wheel input braking torque , and TRrepresents wheel rolling resistance.

Thi= K ( , ,P


i = 1.....4


Where Kbi denotes brake gain or brake effectiveness and Pm:is minimum pressure to start braking in the i* wheel. The brake effectiveness is, of course, composite of several factors such as frictional coefficient, effective radius at which the force acts, wheel cylinder cross section and etc.

Fig.4. Wheel free body diagram in braking.

Now i* wheel slip in deceleration is considered as:

B. Vehicle body motion equations

In this study vehicle body has three motions as: longitudinal displacement, lateral displacement and rotation around the Yaw axis. With respect to the applied forces to the vehicle body from road, the governing equations for considered motions are as follows:

i = 1,....4
Where A, and v,. are slip and longitudinal velocity of the i" wheel respectively. With differentiating from (20) respect to time and substitutionof ri, from (19), slip dynamic equation is obtained as follows:

Where ad is i* wheel longitudinalacceleration.


IV. Wheels slip control

For wheels slip control, state equations of the brake system, which have been developed in the modeling section, are considered as follows for each wheel.

sli = ali -ad

s21 = a2i

(3 7) (38)

- a2di

Where aai obtains fiom:

7a2a2d a,, +

= adi - kalsli


Finally i* servo valve control input command for tracking of desired valve opening is: Wherefi, b,, b2, A and b3 can be derived from system dynamic equations that have been presented in modeling section. Due to the nonlinearities inherent in the brake system model, Dynamic Surface Control method (DSC) [11 & [3] is employed to control of wheel slip. For DCS controller designing, the first sliding surface is defmed as the slip tracking error.

Where h, and k;12 are constant positive gains and raz is time constant of the first order filter. Therefore with respect to the down process for calculating of valve control input command, with applying uis fiom equation ( 5 to relative servo valves pressure in 3) the wheel cylinder, braking torque and slip of each wheels can be controlled respectively.

Eifor desired slip tracking in the equation (22) is obtained as:

Where dd is desired .slip for i" wheel. The first synthetic input

V Simulation results .
Three standard maneuvers are simulated for evaluating of the developed Anti-lock Brake System (ServoABS) and comparing it with the conventional system at various conditions. From the results of the simulations, Servo ABS performance and its ability for improving slip control, increasing vehicle stability and handling and reducing of stopping distance are examined at hard braking maneuvers.

Where kl is positive gain. To overcome the problem of finding derivatives, P d i is used instead of Pwi that Pd, is obtained from

Fwl passing through a first order filter. ?pPwdi+ Pwdi = Pwi


A. Straight line braking on a road with lowfiiction coeflcient

In this maneuver capability of the Servo ABS for regulating wheels slip and reducing stopping distance are assessed at hard braking on slippery roads. In the presence simulation vehicle initial velocity and road friction coefficient are 28dsec and 0.3 respectively. With respect to employed tire model [4] for providing maximum Ection force between tire and road surface, desired slip is considered as k-0.125at braking (Fig.5).

Where rP is the filter time constant and P d is desired wheel pressure. With illustration of Pw* from (7. spi = (Pwi - Pwd) is 2) considered as the second sliding surface. In the dynamic system (23), for tracking of desired pressure P h the second synthetic input ad is obtained similarly as follows:

Where k,, and r, are positive gain and filter time constant respectively, and a& is desired servo valve opening value. For servo valve opening control and tracking of its desired value, valve dynamic equation (24) is rewritten as two first order equations:


= a2i

(5. 3.
Fig.5. Longitudinal friction force as a function of slip at braking [4].

Sliding surfaces sfiand szi for valve are considered as:

Simulated vehicle parameters are denoted in the table 1.


Table 1. Vehicle parameters


M=1208kg l , = lSlOkgm*
= 16S5 mm


"iv =1321 mm




= 280


Lr = 1014 mm


= 2. I


Wheels slip control performance for the assumed vehicle with Servo and conventional ABS facility has been shown in Fig.6. The better pressure controlling with small amplitude variations in the Servo ABS is caused to improvement in wheel slip regulating close to its desired value relative to conventional ABS. Wheel cylinders pressure variations resulted from braking simulation for developed and conventional ABS have been presented in Fig.7. Relative to produced slips between tires and road surface, friction forces are generated in their contact surfaces. Longitudinal friction forces, which are derived firom Pacejka tire model [4], have been illustrated in Fig.%. Resultant friction forces applied to tires generate deceleration and finally cause to vehicle stop. Vehicle deceleration and stopping distance for Servo and conventional ABS in the simulated hard braking maneuver have been presented in f i p r 9 and 10. ~ With respect to the derived results, stopping distance for the vehicle which is equipped with Servo ABS and or with conventional ABS facility is 105m and 130m respectively, while the same vehicle without ABS has a 147m stopping distance in hard braking on slippery road (Fig.9). In this maneuver Servo ABS has been reduced stopping distance about 25m relative to conventional ABS. This reduction value in stopping distance is due to better slip controlling and using of optimum fiction force values in Servo ABS.

I (ace)

t (W

Fig.7. Wheels cylinder pressure with conventional and Servo ABS at hard braking on a slippery road C=0.3).
Fmni L Longnudinal FrMion F o r u m
Front Right Longnudm1Fridon Foru

Fig.8. Longitudinai friction forces for conventional and Servo ABS at hard braking on a slippery road (1(=0.3).

s o


Decekrationlnhard D,Rune on .Ilppa* nud


I (ac)

Fig.6. Slip of the vehicle wheels with conventional and Servo ABS facility at hard braking on a slippery road ( ~ 0 . 3 ) .

Fig.9. Vehicle deceleration for conventional and Servo ABS during hard braking on a slippery road C=0.3).

68 1

Fig.10. Vehicle stopping distance for conventional and Servo ABS at hard braking on a slippery road @=0.3).

Fig.12. Vehicle stopping distance for conventional and Servo ABS at Fig. 12. Vehicle-stopping hard braking on a road variable condition.

B. Straight line braking on a road with variablefiiction coefficient

Hard braking maneuver on variable fiiction coefficient road is considered for evaluating speed of Servo ABS in presence of variation in road condition and comparing its performance with conventionalABS. In this maneuver vehicle initial speed is 2 8 d s e c and braking is down on a road that its condition is: (dray) U = 0.9 for x < 30 , Road condition (wet) p=0.3 for x 2 3 0 Servo and conventional ABS performance for slip control at changing of the road condition is denoted in Fig. 11.

C Combined braking and cornering on a slippery road . Combined braking and comering maneuver on slippery surface is considered for studying of slip control improvement effects on vehicle handling and stability on low friction coefficient surface. In this maneuver vehicle initial speed is 28m/sec, road kiction coefficient is 0.3 and steer angle is 10 degree. Resulted path from simulation test for vehicle without ABS, with conventional ABS and with Servo A B S facility is illustrated in figures 13, 14 and 15. With respect to resulted paths from simulation, the vehicle without ABS has been unstable under combined braking and comering maneuver while both of the vehicles with ABS facility have remained -in their paths and traveled curves relative to their input steer angle.

Fig.13. Vehicle Path without ABS at combined braking and comering on a slippery road @=0.3).

0.1' -0.15.

Vehlcle path with conventional ASSfaclllty


Fig. 11. Wheels slip for conventional and Servo ABS at hard braking on a road variable condition. Both of servo and conventional ABS have been activated for wheel slip regulating when road conditions are changed. In this test Servo A B S has reached to steady state condition in the time duration less than 1/3 required time for conventional ABS. Better performance of the Servo ABS is caused that it has a stopping distance about 16m less than conventional ABS in this simulated maneuver (Fig. 12).

Longitudinal Position (m)

Fig.14. Vehicle path with conventional ABS feature at combined braking and comering on a slippery road @=0.3).


VI. Conclusion

Longitudinal Pcsition (m) Fig. 15. Vehicle path with Servo ABS feature at combined braking and corneringon a slippery road (jt=0.3). With comparing paths traveled by the vehicles with two ABS facilities (Fig.l6), it is observed that the vehicle with Servo ABS has a path with smaller radius of curvature than conventional ABS. Handling improvement in Vehicle with Servo ABS is because of using larger average values of longitudinal vertical friction forces between tires and road relative to conventional ABS.

In this paper employment of servo valves in A B S modulator has provided a possibility of using modem control method for ABS. Implementation of servo hydraulic technology and Dynamic Surface Control method for desired slip tracking in the developed Anti-lock Brake System Servo ABS will improve its performance relative to conventional types of ABS. Simulation results show that Servo ABS has a satisfactory performance under braking maneuvers. Using of Servo ABS has improved wheel slip control, reduced stopping distance and increased handling and stability of vehicle at critical braking conditions in comparison to conventional ABS.

[l] Darkunov S., and Ozguner, U., "ABS control Using Optimum Search Via Sliding Mode", Proceeding of the 33d Conference on Decision and Control, Lake Buena vista, FL-Dec. 1994. [2] Fujita, T., Miyata, K., "CompactABS Modulator With Small solenoid Valves", Akbono Brake industry Co., Ltd. SAE No. 920647. [3] Gerdes, J .C., "Decoupled Design of Robust Controller for Nonlinear Systems: as Motivated by and Applied to Coordinated Throttle Brake Control for Automated Highways", Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, univenity of Califomia, Berkeley, March 1996. [4] Pacejka, H. B., and Bakker, E., "The Magic Formula Tire Model", Proceedings First International Colloquium on Tire Models for Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Sweets& ZeitIinger B. V. 1990. [SI p ek , H. B., and Bakker, E., "A New Tire Model With an cj a Application in Vehicle Dynamics Studies", SAE 890087. [6] Hasida, K., Takata, K., "Compact 4CH-ABS Hydraulic Unit", SumitomoElechic Industries, Ltd. SAE 910697. [7] Hattwig, P., "Synthesis of ABS hydraulic Systems", Volkswagen AG, SAE 930509. [8] Kawabe, T., and Nakazawa, M., "A Sliding Mode controller for Wheel Slip Ratio Control System", International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Aachen University of Technology, June 1996. [9] Kawabe, T., and Nakazawa, M., "A Sliding mode Control for Antilock Brake System: Usage of Sluggish Actuators", Proceeding of the 35& Conferenceon Decision and Control, Lake Kobe, Japan, Dec. 1996. [IO] Mauer, G., F., "A Fuay Logic Controller for an ABS Braking System", IEEE Transactionson Fuzzy systems, Vol. 3, No. 4, Nov. 1995. [ll] Swaroop D., and Gerdes J.C.. "Dynamic Surface Control of Nonlinear System", Pmceeding of the American control Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 1997. [12] Yah,E. C., and Kuo, C. Y., "Conjugateboundary method for control law design of anti-skid brake system", Int J. Vehicle Design, Vol. 11, no. 1, 1990.

Lon$tudircA Podlim(m)

Fig.16. Vehicle path with conventional and Servo ABS feature a t combined braking and cornering on a slipperyroad @=0.3).
Fmnt 1.fC Wheel Vmtical Frictlon Fora
Fmnl RLMWh.slVutkal FrtsUan Fa-

Rear LeftWheal Venlul Frldon Fora

R.uL.Rwh.elVertIcal Frlctlon Fors.

Fig.17. Vertical friction forces of the wheels for conventional and Sew0 ABS at combined braking and comering on a slippery road @=0.3).

I lsscl