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CASE STUDY

Category: ICTs,ClimateChangeandDisasterManagement

Climate Change, Innovation & ICTs Project


Centre for Development Informatics (CDI), University of Manchester, UK With the support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC)

Pakreport: Crowdsourcing for Multipurpose and Multicategory Climaterelated Disaster Reporting


Authors: Faisal Chohan, Vaughn Hester, and Robert Munro

Initiative Overview
Fiercemonsoonrainsin2010causedtheworstfloodinginPakistanin80years(AonBenfield2010). ApproximatelyonefifthofPakistan'stotalareawasunderwaterattheheightoffloods.Thefloods displacedandaffected20millionpeople,mostlyviadestructionofproperty,livelihoodand infrastructure.Closeto2,000peoplediedasaresult.Althoughthespecificlinktoclimatechangeis unclear,itisgenerallyagreedthatclimatechangeisalreadyincreasingtheriskoffloodingandthat thisriskwillgrowinfuture(IPCC2007).Inparticular,Pakistanstandsamongthegroupof developingcountrieswhichareextremelyvulnerabletotheadverseimpactsofclimatechange. (PlanningCommission2010:13).Inrecentyears,climatechangeinPakistanisevidencedbyan increaseintemperatureinsummerandtimingchangesofthemonsoonseason(Dell'Amore2010). Thesechangesareaffectingagriculturalpatterns,buttheyalsothreatenagreaterincidenceand intensityofnaturaldisasters,includingfloods. Duringsuchdisasters,informationisatapremium:thereisanurgentneedtoknowwhichareasare affectedhowtheyareaffectedwhatthepriorityproblemsareandsoforth.Thistypicallycoincides withthedisruptionoftraditionallinesofcommunication.Theadventofmobilephoneshasprovideda newdigitaldevelopmentinfrastructure,whichmaybeofsignificantvaluetodisasterresponse. Pakistanhasseenparticularlystronggrowthinmobiles,withroughly110msubscriptionsinmid2011 wellinexcessoftheadultpopulation(PTA2011). ThiscasestudyfocusesonPakreport,anICTinitiativebetweencrisismappingorganisations, engineers,reliefagenciesandcrowdsourcingcompaniesthatbeganinJuly2010asaresponsetothe floods. WewillreviewemergencycommunicationusingICTtoolsandvolunteersusingcrowdsourcing platformstoperformverification,categorisation,translation,andmappingoftheinformationinreal time.ThisinitiativedemonstratesICTs'impactonclimatechangeinthedomainsofbothadaptation (disastermanagement)andmonitoring(Heeks2009). Thiscasestudywillextendpreviousresearch oncrowdsourcedworkflowsforcrisisreliefinKenyaandHaiti.

Application Description
1 Pakreport is a customisation of Ushahidi software in Pakistan which employs two forms of crowdsourcing. First, the use of a distributed group of people to provide data reports from the ground.Second,theuseofa(verydifferent)distributedgrouptotranslate,categoriseandgeolocate 2 theincomingmessages this beingundertaken viaaCrowdFlower microtask . Oncetheinformation was processed, it wasinput and displayed on the Pakreport.org platformmost visibly via an online map:seeFigure1.

1 2

Ushahidiisanopensourceapplicationwhichallowsuserstocollectcrisisinformationfromlargenumbersofpeople. CrowdFlowerisacompanythatcrowdsourcesprojectsbybreakingthemintomicrotasks:amicrotaskisanothernamefora short,onlineformthatcanbecompletedbyamemberofthecrowdperformingasmallanalyticaltask.

CASE STUDY
Category: ICTs,ClimateChangeandDisasterManagement

Figure1:ThePakreport.orgOperationalFlowandStakeholders ThePakreportplatform th wasdeployedon8 August2010,andcould acceptdatainputin manydifferentforms:via radiochannels,viasocial mediasitessuchas twitter,anddirectly onlineviathewebsite itself.However,the primarysourceofinitial informationwasasetof villagelevelassessments directfromtherelief agencieswhichdetailed thesituationanddamage ontheground.These reportswerecategorised andmappedvia Pakreportstaff. Theteamalsowanteda simplewayforordinary peoplecaughtupinthe disastertoreporttheir situation.SMSwasseen asthemosteffective meansforthis,andthe teamatPakreportsetup ashortcode3441 thatwasavailableon fourofthefivemobile companiesinPakistan. Itwasasharedshort code,sotheFLtag neededtobeappended beforethemessage. Detailsoftheshortcodewiththemessagewhatyouseeaboutfloodswasspreadviathemass mediainparticularviaapartnershipwiththeBBCWorldServiceandviareliefagencyworkers. Thisledtoasubstantialincreaseinthevolumeofdatabeingreceived,withtheSMSchanneltaking overastheprimaryinformationsource.Thiscreatedaneedtocategorisetheincomingmessages dependingonwhatwasbeingreported,andthen(iflocationaldetailswereavailablewiththeSMS) geolocatethemessagesothatitcouldbemapped. MessagesmightalsoneedtobetranslatedfromPashtoorUrdutoEnglish.Itwasdecidedto crowdsourcethesemicrotasksviapartnerCrowdFlower.Volunteersfromaroundtheworld participatedincompletionofthemicrotasks(seeFigure2).Becauseaccuracywascriticaltothese efforts,CrowdFloweraddedalevelofredundancyforimprovedqualitycontrol(ascomparedto previousdisasterreliefworkflows),meaningthatmultiplevolunteersevaluatedeachSMSmessage. Thisresultedinthecollectionofmultiplepointsonamap,whichtheCrowdFlowerplatformthenused tocalculatethecentroidofthepoints.Thisincreasedtheaccuracyofthefinalresultsbeingplaced ontotheonlinemap.

CASE STUDY
Category: ICTs,ClimateChangeandDisasterManagement

Figure2:CrowdFlowerDisasterMessageAnalysisMicrotaskForms

Becausemapsofanddetailsaboutcertainlocations(especiallyruralvillagesandsmalltownsin remoteareasofPunjabandSindhprovinces)werenotwelldevelopedorreadilyavailable,the Pakreportteamcreateddetailedonlinedocumentation(http://groups.google.com/group/PakReport volunteers/web/mappinglinks)tosupplementthesegaps.Theteamalsoprovidedtrainingthrough Skypetomanage40volunteerswhoassistedwiththispartoftheprocess. Themapwithdetails,labelsandannotationsfromthemessagesandotherincomingdataflows wasmadeavailabletoreliefagenciesinPakistan,providingrealtimereportingforthem.Itwas integratedwithvariousICTimplementationsnationallyintheUNandNGOsector(e.g. http://www.pakresponse.info)andtheNationalDisasterManagementAuthority(NDMA)and provinciallyintheProvincialDisasterManagementAuthorities(PDMAs).Themapenhancedthe responseeffortsbyimprovingprioritisationandcoordinationofthedisasterresponse.

Formal Drivers and Objectives/Purpose for ICT Usage


Climatechangeisincreasingthedangersofnaturaldisastersfordevelopingcountries,suchas flooding.Althoughthespecificlinktoclimatechangeisuncertain,theimpetusforPakreportwasthe massivefloodingof2010inparticular,thesenseofisolationfeltbythoseaffected,andthelimitson qualityinformationforthoseresponding.Theobjectivesofthisinitiativewerethereforea)tocreate anSMSbasedlineofreportingforthefloodaffectedpeopletocommunicatewiththeouterworld abouttheirsituationonthegroundandb)toconnectthisinformationwiththeappropriatedisaster responsestakeholderstoenableimproveddecisionmakingandreliefefforts.

CASE STUDY
Category: ICTs,ClimateChangeandDisasterManagement

Stakeholders
AsillustratedinFigure1,thisprojectbroughttogetheraverywiderangeofstakeholders.Themain stakeholderswerethelocalcommunitiesandfloodaffectedpeoplewhousedmobilephonesto communicatetheiremergencysituation.Reliefagenciesandthegeneralpublicwhosought informationaboutthecrisissituationandwhocouldrespondtohelprequestsweretheend stakeholderswhoreceivedtheinformation.Betweentheseweremanyothers: Mediaentities(e.g.BBCWorldServiceradio,Internews)whohelpedspreadthewordabout Pakreport ThecorePakreportteam Variousvolunteergroups(CrisisCommons,CrisisMappers,HumanityRoad)whoparticipatedvia CrowdFlowerindataanalysisorwhogavedirectassistancetoPakreport Individualvolunteers(fromFletcherUniversity)whohadworkedonsimilarexercisesinthepast Technologypartners(Pakistanicellphoneproviders,andCrowdFlower)

Impact: Cost and Benefits


CostsofPakreportincluded:setupoftheshortcodemonthlyrentalchargesfortheshortcode, hostingofthewebsiteonAmazonEC2andmanaginglogisticsoftheteamworkinginPakistan. Usually,theamountoftechnicalandmappingresourcesutilisedatPakreport.orgcancostintherange ofUS$10,00015,000,butmostoftheteammembersandpartnersvolunteeredtheirtime.Totalcost oftheprojectwasUS$7,000.Thefundingcamefromafundraisingcampaignatglobalgiving.org. WorkspaceandofficesupplieswereprovidedbyCogilentSolutions.Themicrotaskingplatformand technicalservicesforintegrationwereprovidedbyCrowdFlowerfreeofcost.Ushahidiinstance customisationandcodedevelopmentforintegrationwithCrowdFlowerwerealsoprovidedgratis. Threeindependentengineersalsodonatedservices:ChrisBlow,GeorgeChamalesandRobertMunro. Pakreportcreatedanumberofbenefits:

Collectionof1500realtimereportsfromthepeopleongroundthroughSMS. Translation,categorisationandmappingofreportsinnearrealtime.Crowdvolunteerscompleted over2500labelsorcategorisationsofreports. DetailedknowledgeandmappingresourcesorganisedbythePakreportteam(toviewthesemap resources,pleasevisitwww.pakreport.orgorrefertoFigure1.) AbaseforfuturecrowdsourcingandmobileimplementationsinPakistan.Itwouldbeeasyto repurposeorduplicatethistypeofproject.Thegrowthandsocializationofshortcodeuseand shortcodedisasterreportingisanimportantcomponentofthefutureuptakeofsimilar implementations. Awarenessofanddialogueabouttheeffectsofclimatechange.Thecollaborativereportingabout thefloodinganditsaftermathcontributedtoenvironmentalawarenessaswellasaclearchannel forreportingandmonitoringtheenvironmentalchangesthroughoutPakistan.Pakreportalso representsanimportantandinnovativetechnologicalfoundationforongoing,nationallevel reporting,monitoringand/orearlywarningefforts.

ThebreakdownofcategorisedmessagesinFigure3showsthatthemajorityofcategorieswererelated tothefloodsthemselvesandtheirimmediateeffectslikemigration,shelter,waterandsanitation. Amongthelargestcategories,however,therewasalsosecurityandprotection.Theaffected populationswereclearlyconcernedabouttheirvulnerabilitytodeliberatephysicalthreatsthatwere notdirectlyrelatedtothefloods,especiallyamongfrequentrumoursofaidgroupsbecomingthe targetsofinsurgentattacks.

CASE STUDY
Category: ICTs,ClimateChangeandDisasterManagement

Figure3:ShareofMessagesbyCategory(Source:Pakreport)

Evaluation: Failure or Success


EvaluatingPakreport Theprojectwassuccessfulinenablingrapiddatamoderationasafoundationforinformationexchange amongvariousagenciesandactors.Floodaffectedindividualsdidnotknowaboutanyplatformto connectwiththereliefprovidersbeforeorduringthefloods.ThefirstresponderswerethePakistan Armybuttheydidnothaveanymechanismtosharegroundlevelinformationwithotherrelief agencies.TheinformationwithintheUNwasmanagedthroughbutlargelyrestrictedwithinthe UNClustersystem(withacallcentretoreceivecallsfromgroundandroutethisinformationtotheUN agencies). AprimarysuccessofthePakreportplatformisthusthecreationofmappingknowledgeand informationinPakistanthatdidnotexistpreviously.Asecondsuccesswasthewidespreaduseof mobiledevicesandacrowdsourcingplatformtoconnectwithpeopleonthegroundinadisaster situation.Mobiletechnologies,crowdsourcingandopendatarepresentthreeemergingtrendsthat haveyettobeadoptedbymanynonprofitsandreliefagencies,especiallyinPakistan.Thecollection anddisseminationofthisinformationcreatedmorefocused,targetedandinformedreliefandresponse efforts.Reliefactorswerebetterabletodirecttime,resourcesandpersonnelasaresultofopen accesstorealtimereportsandrequestsforassistancefromthroughoutthecountry.Theseefforts werealsohighlyparticipatoryinthattheyincorporatedthesurvivorsofthefloodsaswellasflood affectedcommunitiesintotheresponseefforts. EvaluatingCrowdsourcingStrategies Figure 4 shows the average degrees of error between the volunteers working on the CrowdFlower platformandthefinalcoordinatespublishedinthePakreportinstance.Thetwomostcommontypes of error were omitting a category or confusing the services with requests. A typical example of the former is someone reporting "we need food and water", but only the "food needed" category is selected ("Water needed" is a separate category as water is a more timecritical need and also becausesomeresponseagencieswillfocusonlyonensuringcleandrinkingwater).Atypicalexample of the latter is someone reporting "There is a makeshift shelter treating the wounded" which is categorizedas"medicalattentionneeded"ratherthan"medicalattentionoffered".

CASE STUDY
Category: ICTs,ClimateChangeandDisasterManagement

Figure4:WorkerErrorRatesvs.NumberofTasksCompleted(byWorkerGroup) (Source:Pakreport)

Thefirstlineshown,perworkererror,issimplytheaveragedegreesdifferenceperworkerafterthey rd havecompleted1task,2tasks,3tasks,etc.Itshowsimprovementfromthe3 tothe10thtask, indicatingthevolunteersbecamebetteratthetaskoncetheybecamemorefamiliarwithit,butnot immediatelyso.Thesecondline,filteredworkers,excludesworkerswhoaveragedmorethan1 degreeoferror.Predictably,afterafewtasksfiltrationisaconsistentlymoreaccuratestrategy.The finalgraph,centroid,showsthemethodactuallyusedinthedeployment:thecentroidofthelocations identifiedbydifferentworkers(itistheaverageoveralltasks,asthenumberoftasksisnotas meaningful).Itclearlyshowsthatthiswasmoreaccuratethantakinganysingleworkerslocations, evenifthatworkerwassubstantiallyexperienced. Toourbestknowledge,nohumanitarianorganizationhaspreviouslyattemptedtoincreasethe accuracyofencodingbygivingrealtimeworktomultipleworkers(crowdsourcedvolunteersor otherwise)sowehopethatouranalysesofdifferentfiltering/aggregationtechniquescanpositively influencethedecisionsofhumanitarianorganizationsthatareconsideringpossibleinformation processingstrategies.WedidnotfilterworkersduringPakReport.Rather,wesimplytookthesuper setofallcategoriestheyselectedandtheweightedaverageacrosslocations.Weexploredthe potentialforfilteringworkersinposthocanalysisofthedata,simplybecausefilteringhigherror workersisstandardpracticeincommercialmicrotaskingplatforms.

Enablers/Critical Success Factors


Crowdsourcingwascriticaltothesuccessofthisdisasterresponsesystem.Itwasintegraltothe datainputmodel,whichwouldotherwisehavereliedonmuchmorelimitedinputsfromindividual reliefagencyworkers.Itwasnotintegraltothedataanalysismodel,butitsusegreatlyreducedthe costsofanalysisandmapping,andincreasedthetimelinessandaccuracyofthoseprocesses. AlthoughtherewasaneedforinnovationtofittheparticularrequirementsofthePakistanfloods,in largepartPakreportusedexistingtechnologies.Thebulkofitsdigitalinfrastructurewasprovided bythecountry'smobilephonesystem,whichremainedsufficientlyoperationalsotherewasno requirementfornewinfrastructuralinvestments.Datainputreliedonatechnologymobilethat hadalreadydiffusedtoalmostallpartsofthecountry,andwhichwasalreadyfamiliarto,andinuse by,themajorityofthepopulation.

CASE STUDY
Category: ICTs,ClimateChangeandDisasterManagement

PakreportalsomadeuseofUshahidiawelltriedandwelltrustedtechnologyplatformratherthan seekingtodeveloptechnologyfromscratch(somethingwhich,giventhedisastertimescales,wouldin anycasehavebeenimpossible). Relatedtothis,theprojectutilisedestablishedorganisationalexpertiseinanumberofways. BecauseUshahidiwasthefoundation,thenmembersfromUshahidiHaitiandChileimplementationsof crisisreportingandmappingplatformsalongwithSiliconValleyengineersjoinedthePakreportteam inthefirstweekafterdeployment.Theteamsexpertisewassubstantial,anditincludedlessons learnedfirsthandfromtheHaitiandChileimplementations.Similarly,partneringwithCrowdFlower allowedthedataanalysismicrotaskstoberapidlyandscalablyrolledout,ratherthannecessitateda neworganisationalinfrastructuretobecreated.Andlinkingupwithradiobroadcastersmadeuseof theirexpertiseandtheirexistingtechnologiestopubliciseuseoftheSMSmessagesystem. Finally,altruismcanbeseentohaveplayedarole.Ofcourse,someofthoseprovidingtheSMS inputsweremotivatedoutoftheirpersonalneedforrelieffromthisclimatelinkeddisaster.But othersweresimplyreportingwhattheysawforthebenefitofothers.Muchofthetechnical developmentandallofthedataanalysisworkwasundertakenbyvolunteersprovidingtheirtimein theserviceofthoseaffected.Andindividualsalsotookactiononthebasisofthereportstheysaw mapped,inordertoorganisetheirowndirectreliefactivities.

Constraints/Challenges
Theprojecthadaninformationalandtechnologicalnotdisasterresponsefocusatleastinthe initialstages.Thatis,themainworkthathadtobedonewasinsettingupthesoftware,web platform,datainputandanalysisandmappingprocessesinordertoproducethemapbased information.Butthiswasseparatefromthedisasterresponseeffortsothatcoordinationwiththe disasterreliefagencieswasatfirstquitelimited.Inlargepartthiswasduetothenatureof applicationdeploymentduringthedisasterratherthanpriortothedisasterwhentherecouldhave beentimetomakereliefagenciesawareoftheapplication,andtohelpensuretheinformation producedwasbeingusedtoguidefielddecisionsandactions. Amajorchallengeofanycrowdreportingprojectisverifyingtheaccuracyandauthenticityofthe datacomingfromtheground.Ingeneralthehopeisthatthevolumeofdatawillbesuchthatgood datadrivesoutbad,butthismaynotalwaysbethecase,especiallyascrowdsourcingofclimate relateddataincreases.Thereisnoauthoritativeansweryet(andthedangersareprobablygreater duringpoliticalcrisesratherthannaturaldisasters)butsomesuggestionsincludeweightingbasedon pastdatainputs,useofadditionaldatasuchaslocationalorphotographic,directquestioningofthe source,andthepossibilitiesforusinglanguageanalysissoftware(Meier2011). UsingmobilesandSMSenablesanyclimatechangerelatedprojecttoreachaverylargeuser population.However,therearestilldigitaldivideproblems.Forexamplebyrestrictinginputsto threelanguagesandbyrequiringatextbasedmessagetobesent,Pakreportrecognisesthatitdid excludesomemembersofthepopulation,suchasilliteratemobileowners.Useofthewebasthe mainreportingtoolsimilarlymeantthatonlyacertainsubsetofthepopulationwasabletoutilisethe results. Althoughrecognisingthegreatvalueofthecomplementaritiesbroughtbyhavingsomany stakeholders,thisalsobroughtthechallengesofnegotiatingagreementsandreaching consensus.Withtelecommunicationproviders,governmentdepartments,internationalagencies,the nationalmediaandothersallinvolved,thisaddedgreatlytothetransactioncostsofthePakreport initiativesomethingparticularlychallenginggiventheeverpressingtimescaleofdisasterrelief.This requiredagreatdealoftimeandeffortnotjustwhenformalagreementswereneededbutalsoin seekingtocreatelessformalconsensusforexamplearoundtheratherradicalnotionofcollecting andthendisseminatingpotentiallyunverifiedcitizenreports.

CASE STUDY
Category: ICTs,ClimateChangeandDisasterManagement

Recommendations/Lessons Learned
Thefollowinglessonswerelearnedfromthiscasestudy: 1)CrowdsourcingcanbehighlypowerfulandeffectiveforICTenabledclimatechange applications.Asseen,crowdsourcingcanbeusedinatleasttwodifferentwaysforgathering disaster/climatechangedatafromaverybroadsetofusersandlocationsandforthenanalysing thatdatasothatitcanbeeffectivelydisplayedandutilised.Althoughthisparticularapplication relatedtoaclimatelinkeddisaster,itisentirelyfeasibletousethesamemodelformonitoring climatechangee.g.byaskingpopulationstoprovideinformationonlocaldrought,rainfall, temperature,waterflow,etc.Thiswouldofitselfalsohelptoraiseawarenessaboutclimate changesomethingthatcouldbeenhancedwithafeedbackloopbywhichthoseprovidingdata wouldthemselvesalsobesentshortreportsandclimatealertsviaSMS,web,etc.Locationsat highriskofnaturaldisasterand/orclimatechangeeffectsshouldconsiderproactiveestablishment ofthistypeofsimplereportingworkflow. 2)MobileplusInternetplusserversequalsasystemwithreachandpower.Ontheirown, mobileandInternetandservertechnologieshavegreatvalue.However,thetechnologicalkeyto Pakreporthasbeenitscombinationofthethree.Mobileprovidedthereachdowntothe"bottomof thepyramid"populationswhoareonthefrontlineofdisastersandotherclimatechangerelated vulnerabilities.TheInternetprovidedthereachandpowertohelpcoordinatevolunteersacrossthe world,anddisseminateresultstoreliefagencies.Asthefoundation,serversprovidedthepowerto collect,analyse,storeanddisplaytheprocessedinformation.OtherICTbaseddisasterandclimate changeapplicationscanthereforeidentifyhowtocombinethereachandpowerofthese technologiesintoanoverallsystem. 3)Thefull"informationchain"mustbeinplace:theprovisionofinformationonclimatelinked disastersiscriticaltoeffectivedisasterresponseandbroadermanagement.Butthelatterareonly possibleifthereisafull"informationchain"(seeFigure5)thatisifthereisamechanismbywhich thatinformationisturnedintodecisionsaboutwhattodoandwhereandhowtodoitandthose decisionsarethenturnedintoactionsontheground.ICTsandclimatechangeprojectsmust thereforebedesignedaroundtheentirechain,typicallystartingthatchainbackwardsfromthe resultsthataresoughtandtheactionsnecessarytoachievethoseresults.

Figure5:TheInformationChain(Source:adaptedfromHeeks&Kanashiro2009)

CASE STUDY
Category: ICTs,ClimateChangeandDisasterManagement

Data Sources & Further Information


Unlessotherwisenoted,thedataandfigureshereincamefromtheCrowdFlowerandPakreport systems/databasesandfromtheexperiencesoftheauthors:FaisalChohanisacofounderof PakreportandaTEDFellowinPakistanVaughnHesterisaProgramManageratCrowdFlowerand helpedsetuptheCrowdFlowertaskusedtoprocessPakreportdataRobMunro,acomputational linguist,wasamemberofthePakreport.orgteam. ForFurtherInformation: FaisalChohan,Pakreport,faisal@pakreport.org VaughnHester,CrowdFlower,vaughn@crowdflower.com RobertMunro,StanfordUniversity,rmunro@stanford.edu

References
Aon Benfield (2010) Pakistan Flood Event Recap Report, Aon Benfield, Chicago, IL. http://www.aon.com/attachments/reinsurance/201008_pakistan_flood.pdf Dell'Amore,C.(2010)Russiafires,Pakistanfloodslinked?,NationalGeographic,11Aug. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/08/100812russianwildfirespakistanfloodsglobal warmingscienceenvironment Heeks,R.B.(2009)OverviewmodelofICTs,climatechangeanddevelopment,NotesonICTs, ClimateChangeandDevelopment,14Dechttp://niccd.wordpress.com/2009/12/14/overviewmodel ofictsclimatechangeanddevelopment/ IPCC(2007)WorkingGroupIIContributiontotheIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChangeFourth AssessmentReport,IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange,Geneva. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessmentreport/ar4/wg2/ar4wg2spm.pdf Meier,P.(2011)Howtoverifysocialmediacontent,iRevolution,21June. http://irevolution.net/2011/06/21/informationforensics/ PlanningCommission(2010)TaskForceonClimateChange,PlanningCommission,Islamabad http://www.planningcommission.gov.pk/usefull%20links/Taskforces/TFCC%20Final%20Report.pdf PTA(2011)TelecomIndicators,PakistanTelecommunicationsAuthority,Islamabad. http://www.pta.gov.pk/index.php?Itemid=599

EDITORS: RichardHeeks AngelicaValeriaOspina

TheClimateChange,InnovationandICTsProjectisaninitiativeledbytheCentrefor DevelopmentInformatics(CDI)oftheUniversityofManchester,UK,withfunding supportfromCanadasInternationalDevelopmentResearchCentre(IDRC). Furtherinformationabouttheprojectandrelatedresourcescanbefoundat: http://www.niccd.org