REPÚBLICA POPULAR DE BANGLADESH Democracia parlamentaria INTRODUCCIÓN: Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh in the

16th century; ev entually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India. In 1947, W est Pakistan and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated f rom India (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955, but the awkward arrangement of a twopart country with its territorial units separated by 1,600 km lef t the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisf ied. East Pakistan seceded f rom its union with W est Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed Bangladesh. A military-backed, emergency caretaker regime suspended parliamentary elections planned f or January 2007 in an eff ort to ref orm the political system and root out corruption. In contrast to the strikes and violent street rallies that had marked Bangladeshi politics in previous years, the parliamentary elections finally held in late December 2008 were mostly peacef ul and Sheikh HASINA W ajed was elected prime minister. About a third of this extremely poor country f loods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic dev elopment. GRUPOS ÉTNICOS: Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims) RELIGIONES: Muslim 89.5%, Hindu 9.6%, other 0.9% INDEPENDENCIA: 16 December 1971 (f rom W est Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence f rom W est Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh ECONOMÍA: The economy has grown 5-6% per year since 1996 despite political instability, poor inf rastructure, corruption, insuff icient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic ref orms. Bangladesh remains a poor, ov erpopulated, and inefficientlygov erned nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the serv ice sector, 45% of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Bangladesh's growth was resilient during the 2008-09 global f inancial crisis and recession. Garment exports, totaling $12.3 billion in FY09 and remittances f rom ov erseas Bangladeshis, totaling $11 billion in FY10, accounted f or almost 25% of GDP. INDUSTRIA:
c ott on t e xt iles, j ut e, g ar m en ts, t ea pr oc ess ing, p ap er n ews pr int, c em ent, c h em ic al f ert ilizer, lig ht en g in e er ing, s u g ar

C. REPUBLICA DE INDIA: República Federal The Indus Valley civilization. their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. a joint Bangladesh-India boundary commission agreed to f ully demarcate the Bangladesh-India boundary in the DhubriKruigram sector. Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29.C. By the 19th century.which reached its zenith under ASHOKA united much of South Asia.. one of the world's oldest. Islam spread across the subcontinent ov er a period of 700 years. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B. flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B. The two countries hav e f ought three wars since independence. which resulted in the creation of two separate states. Turks and Af ghans inv aded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. .D. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A. Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. attacks against v essel s increased in 2010 f or the second consecutiv e year. crews were robbed and stores or cargoes stolen. the last of which in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Communal violence led to the subcontinent's bloody partition. Bangladesh protests India's f encing and wallingoff high-traffic sections of the porous boundary. discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary. terrorists allegedly originating f rom Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai. Despite pressing problems such as . Nonv iolent resistance to British rule. living as ref ugees in Cox's Bazar. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both W orld W ars. In the early 16th century. 23 commercial vessel s were attacked both at anchor and while underway. allocate divided villages. violence. and culture.) saw a flowering of Indian science. and stop illegal cross-border trade.C. art. India's nuclear weapons test s in 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU. ev entually brought about independence in 1947. In the 10th and 11th centuries. exchange territory f or 51 small Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 small Indian exclav es in Bangladesh. and extended into northwest ern India.000 Rohingya. European explorers began establishing f ootholds in India during the 16th century. the Emperor BABUR established t he Mughal Dynasty which ruled India f or more than three centuries. migration. the Naf river on the border with Burma serv es as a smuggling and illegal transit route. In November 2008. Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire f ence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions f rom the military build-up along border. Aryan tribes f rom the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B. and transit of terrorists through the porous border. RELACIONES INTERNACIONALES: Bangladesh ref erred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea. Burmese Muslim minority f rom Arakan State. India's financial capital. India and Pakistan.TRANSPORTE: the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Bangladesh remain a high risk f or armed robbery against ships.

yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. rapid economic dev elopment is f ueling India's rise on the world stage.1% INDEPENDENCIA: 15 August 1947 (f rom the UK) ECONOMÍA: India is dev eloping into an open-market economy. accounting f or more than half of India's output. the Indian economy rebounded robustly from the global f inancial crisis . and accommodating ruralto-urban migration. but has gradually decreased to single digits f ollowing a series of central bank interest rate hikes. limited non-agricultural employment opportunities. DISPUTAS INTERNACONALES: . which account f or about 15% of GDP.3%. handicraf ts. sold a small percentage of its shares in some state-owned enterprises and auctioned off rights to radio bandwidth f or 3G telecommunications in part to lower the gov ernment's def icit. inadequate physical and social inf rastructure. Merchandise export s. and a multitude of serv ices. In 2010 New Delhi reduced subsidies f or f uel and f ertilizers. Christian 2. and reduced control s on f oreign trade and inv estment. Muslim 13. India's div erse economy encompasses traditional village f arming. insuff icient access to quality basic and higher education.and growth exceeded 8% year-onyear in real terms. and widespread corruption. modern agriculture.5%.8% in the previous f iscal year. f ueled inflation which peaked at about 11% in the first half of 2010. including industrial deregulation. Drav idian 25%.significant ov erpopulation. unspecified 0.in large part because of strong domestic demand . with only one-third of its labor f orce. which has av eraged more than 7% per year since 1997. Sikh 1. extensiv e pov erty. In 2010.9%. began in the early 1990s and has serv ed to accelerate the country's growth. Economic liberalization. returned to pre-f inancial crisis lev els. GRUPOS ÉTNICOS: Indo-Aryan 72%. India assumed a nonpermanent seat in the UN Security Council f or the 2011-12 term. India's long term challenges include widespread pov erty.4%. resulting f rom the combined eff ects of the weak 2009 monsoon and ineff iciencies in the gov ernment's f ood distribution system. The Indian Gov ernment seeks to hold its budget def icit to 5. Mongoloid and other 3% RELIGIONES: Hindu 80.8%. An indust rial expansion and high f ood prices. In January 2011. down f rom 6. other 1. Slightly more than half of the work f orce is in agriculture.5% of GDP in FY 2010-11. but services are the major source of economic growth. a wide range of modern industries. environmental degradation. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of inf ormation technology serv ices and sof tware workers. priv atization of state-owned enterpri ses.

and transit of terrorists through the porous border. violence.since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005. transportation equipment. but an undetermined quantity of opium is div erted to illicit international drug markets. Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State. India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgent s and control illegal cross-border activities f rom Nepal DROGAS: world's largest producer of licit opium f or the pharmaceutical trade. steel. illicit producer of methaqualone. including the 400 square kilometer dispute ov er the source of the Kalapani River. a joint Bangladesh-India boundary commission agreed to f ully demarcate the Bangladesh-India boundary in the Dhubri-Kruigram sector. mining. India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964. transit point f or illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia. Kashmir nev ertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de f acto administration of China (Aksai Chin). machinery. Bangladesh ref erred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea. migration. and other matters continue. India and Pakistan hav e maintained the 2004 cease f ire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on def using the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region. militarized boundary. v ulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system. particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region. India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea. petroleum. Bangladesh protest s India's f encing and walling-off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary. consolidated discussions related to the dispute ov er most of their rugged. Pakistan protest s India's f encing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab Riv er in Jammu and Kashmir. to def use tensions and prepare f or discussions on a maritime boundary. to exchange territory f or 51 Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 Indian exclav es in Bangladesh. f encing along the India-Burma international border at Manipur's Moreh town is in progress to check illegal drug trafficking and movement of militants. pharmaceuticals . licit ketamine and precursor production INDUSTRIA: textiles. Bhutan cooperates with India to expel Indian Nagaland separatist s. Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections. v arious talks and conf idence-building measures hav e cautiously begun to def use tensions ov er Kashmir. which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus Riv er and its tributaries. and to stop illegal cross-border trade. f ood processing. to allocate divided villages. India (Jammu and Kashmir). UN Military Observ er Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949. discussions with Bangladesh remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary. regional nuclear prolif eration. and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas). chemicals. cement. sof tware. Indian claims that China transf erred missiles to Pakistan.

p h arm ac eu t ic als . h as s uff er ed fr om d ec ad es of int er n al p olit ic al d is put es an d low lev els of f or eig n in v est m ent. In r es p on s e t o In d ian n uc lear w e ap on s t est in g. G DP gr owt h in t h e 5. p ov ert y levels d ec r e as ed b y 1 0%. P ak is t an i g over n m ent an d m ilit ar y le ad ers ar e s tr u g g lin g t o c ontr ol d om est ic insur g en ts. 7 % in 2 0 0 7 t o m or e t h an 13 % in 20 1 0.Aryan p eop l es. Ar ab s (w h o br ou g h t Is lam).REPÚBLICA ISLÁMICA DE PAKISTÁN: República Islámica T h e In d us V all ey c iviliz at ion . Af gh an s. aft er t h e r es ig n at ion of f or m er Pr es id en t MU S H AR R AF .8% r an g e w as s purr ed by g ain s in t h e in dustr ial an d s er vic e s ect ors . 3 8%. but b ot h c ou ntr ie s ar e t ak in g sm all st eps t o put r el at ions b ac k on tr ack . Ot h er lon g t erm c h allen g es inc lu d e exp an d in g in ves t m en t in ed uc at ion . elect ed As if A li Z AR D AR I t o t h e pr es id en cy. p ap er pr od uc ts. A t h ir d w ar b etw e en t h es e c ou ntr ies in 1 9 7 1 . an d T urk s.but gr owt h s low ed in 2 00 8.in 1 9 4 7-4 8 an d 1 9 6 5 . Inf lat ion r em ain s t h e t op c onc er n am on g th e p u b lic. 5 7%.1 0 its curr en t ac c ou nt str en gt h en ed an d f or eig n exc h an g e r es er ves st ab ilized . an im p ov er is h ed an d un d er d ev el op ed c ou ntr y. T h e g ov er n m en t agr e ed t o an Int er n at ion al M on et ar y F u n d St an d b y Arr an g em en t in N ovem b er 2 0 0 8 in r es p ons e t o a b al an c e of p aym en ts cris is. P ak ist an h eld p ar lia m ent ar y elec t ion s an d in S ept em b er 2 0 08. 1%. D ur in g t h e s ec on d m illen n iu m B. GR U PO É T N IC O S: P unj ab i 4 4. Sc yt h ians . c ons tr uct ion m at er ials .in w h ic h In d ia c ap it aliz ed on Is lam ab ad 's m ar g in aliz at ion of B en g alis in P ak ist an i p olit ics .07. on e of th e old es t in t h e w or ld an d d at in g b ack at leas t 5. T e xt iles acc ou nt f or m ost of P ak is t an's e xp ort e ar n in gs . h e alt hc ar e. 4 2%. Ind ia-P ak ist an r elat ions h av e b een r ock y s inc e th e N ov em b er 2 00 8 M um b ai att acks . In ad d it ion . an d elec tr ic it y pr od u c tion . f ood pr oc ess ing. P as ht u n (P at h an) 1 5. r em n an ts of th is cu lt ur e fus ed w ith t h e m igr at in g In d o. an d r ec ons tr uc t ion c osts w ill str ain t h e lim it ed r es ourc es of th e g ov er n m ent. P ak ist an c on d uc t ed its ow n t ests in 1 9 9 8. D ur in g 2 0 0 4.07. clim b in g fr om 7. T h e ar ea u n d er w en t succ ess ive in v as ion s in su bs eq u en t c ent ur ies fr om t h e P ers ians . T h e M u g h al E m p ir e f lou r is h ed in t h e 16t h an d 1 7t h c ent ur ies . b ut d urin g 2 00 9.d esp it e s ever e el ectr ic it y s h ortf alls . IND U S TR IA: t ext iles an d ap p ar el.r es u lt ed in E ast P ak ist an b ec om in g t h e s ep ar at e n at ion of B an g l ad es h. f ert ilizer. S ar iak i 8. C. 2 8% RE L IG ION E S: Mus lim 95 % ( S un n i 7 5%. Gr eek s. Th e s ep ar at ion in 1 9 4 7 of Br it is h In d ia int o th e M us lim s t at e of P ak is t an (w it h W est an d E ast s ection s) an d lar g ely H in du In d ia w as n ever s at is f act or ily r es olv ed. an d r educ in g d ep en d enc e on f or eig n d on ors . an d In d ia an d P ak ist an f ou g ht t w o w ars . oth er ( inc lu d es C hr is t ian an d H in d u) 5 % ECONOMÍA: P ak ist an .over t h e d isp ut ed K as h m ir t err it or y. B et w e en 2 0 0 1. In F ebr u ar y 2 0 0 8. spr ead ov er m uc h of w h at is pr es ent ly P ak ist an .. B aloc h i 3. 57 %. S h ia 2 0 %). 0 00 y e ars. S ind h i 1 4. as Is lam ab ad s t e ad ily r ais ed d ev el op m en t sp en d in g . R ec or d f lo ods in J u ly-A u g ust 2 0 1 0 low er ed ag r icu lt ur al out p ut an d c on tr ib ut ed t o a j u m p in inf lat io n.lar g ely b ec au s e of low er oil pr ic es an d r ec or d r em itt anc es fr om w ork ers ab r oad . s hr im p CO N F L IC T OS IN T ER N AC IO NA L E S: .09 an d un em p loy m en t r os e. th e Br it ish c am e t o d om in at e th e r eg i on in t h e 18t h c en tur y. b ut P ak ist an 's f ailur e t o exp an d a viab le e xp ort b as e f or o th er m an u f act ur es h as left th e c ou ntr y vu ln er ab l e t o s h ifts in w or ld d em an d. M u h aj irs 7. h ow ev er. m an y of w h om ar e loc at ed in th e tr ib al ar e as adj ac ent t o t h e b or d er w ith Af g h an ist an . th e P ak ist an i r u p ee h as d ep r ec iat ed s inc e 2 00 7 as a r es u lt of p olit ic al an d ec on om ic inst ab ilit y. ot h er 6.6 8 %.

f ed er al an d pr ovinc ial aut h or it ies c ont in u e t o c on d uct an t i-p op p y cam p aig n s th at ut iliz es f orc ed er ad ic at ion . th e g over n m ent br ut ally s u p pr es s ed th e pr ot ests. In d ia d oes n ot r ec og n ize P ak ist an 's c ed in g h ist or ic K as h mir lan d s t o C h in a in 1 9 64.t h e N at ion al L e ag u e f or D em o cr acy ( N LD) . In S ept em b er 1 98 8. t h e m ilit ar y d ep os ed N E W IN an d es t ab lis h ed a n ew ru lin g j u nt a. P ak is t an h as s en t tr oop s acr oss an d b u ilt f enc es al on g s om e r em ot e tr ib al ar e as of its tr eat y-d ef in ed D ur an d L in e b or d er w it h Af gh an ist an. t en s of t h ous an d s of B ur m es e m arch ed in pr ot est. Aft er th e r u ling j u nt a in A u g us t 2 0 0 7 un e xp ec t ed ly incr eas ed f u el pr ic es. led b y pr od em oc r ac y ac t iv ists an d B u d dh ist m onks.b u ild in g m e as ur es c aut io us ly h av e b eg u n t o d ef us e t ens ions ov er K as h m ir. In lat e S ept em b er 2 0 0 7. in d ep en d enc e fr om t h e C om m o n w ealt h w as att ain ed in 1 94 8. D es p it e t h is tr ag ed y. op iu m. c orr u pt ion. an d As ia. Bur m a w as ad m in is t er ed as a pr ovin c e of In d ia unt il 1 9 3 7 w h en it b ec am e a s ep ar at e. r ep atr iat ed 2. an d P ak ist an (Azad K as h m ir an d N orth er n Ar eas ). t h e j u nt a pr oc e ed ed w it h its M ay c ons t it ut ion al r ef er en d u m. an d h as h is h. an d sm u g g lin g r em ai n pr ob lems . Af gh an . c ons id er ed f law ed b y m an y in th e int er n at ion al c om m u n ity. Ind ia (J am mu an d K as h m ir). S inc e th en .3 m illion Af g h an r ef u g ees le av in g s lig ht ly m or e t h an a m illion . B urm a in ear ly M ay 2 0 0 8 w as s tr uck b y C yc lon e N ar g is.var ious t alks an d c onf id en c e. s elf-g ov er n in g c ol on y. N E W IN d om in at ed t h e g over n m ent fr om 1 9 6 2 t o 1 9 8 8. b y 2 0 0 5. op iu m p op p y c u lt ivat ion es t im at ed t o b e 2. th e first v ot e in Bur m a s inc e 1 99 0. th e j unt a r efus ed t o h an d over p ow er. t o d ef us e t en s ions an d pr ep ar e f or d isc uss ion s on a m ar it im e b ou n d ar y. m or p h in e. UN M ilit ary O bs erv er Gr ou p in In d ia an d P ak ist an (UN M OG IP) h as m ain t ain ed a sm all gr ou p of p e ac ek eep ers s inc e 1 9 4 9. f irs t as m ilit ar y r u ler. th e G u lf St at es. Sh e w as fin ally r ele as ed in N ov em b er 2 01 0. 0 0 0 d ead an d t en s of th ou s an ds inj ur ed an d h om e less .off in t h e S iac h en g lac ier r eg ion . In d ia an d P ak ist an h ave m aint ain ed th eir 2 0 0 4 c eas e f ir e in K ash m ir an d in it iat ed d isc uss ions on d efus in g t h e ar m ed s t an d . th en as s elf. t err or is m. w as im pr is on ed in M ay 2 0 0 3 an d s ubs eq u en t ly tr ansf err ed t o h ou s e arr es t. t h e r eg im e h as c ont in u ed t o r aid h om es an d m on as t er ies an d arr est p ers ons s us p ect ed of p art ic ip at ing in t h e pr od em ocr ac y pr ot es ts.ap p oin t ed pr es id en t. k illin g at leas t 1 3 p e op l e an d arr es t in g t h ous an ds f or p art icip at in g in t h e d em on s tr at ions. P ak ist an . C oalit ion . b ut a f or m al tr ans f er of p ow er h as n ot yet t ak en p lac e) INT R OD U C C IÓ N: Br it ain c on q u er ed B ur m a ov er a p er iod of 6 2 y e ars (1 8 2 4-1 8 8 6) an d inc orp or at ed it int o its In d ian Em p ir e. w h ic h is p art of th e lar g er d is p ut e on w at er s h ar in g of t h e In d us R iver an d its tr ib ut ar ies. m an y of w h om r em ain at t h eir ow n c h oos in g. s aw th e j u nt a's U n ion S olid ar it y an d D ev el op m en t P art y g arn er in g over 7 5% of t h e . K as h m ir n ev ert h eles s r em ain s t h e s it e of th e w or ld's lar g est an d m os t m ilit ar iz ed t err it or ial d is p ut e w it h p ort ion s u nd er th e d e f act o ad m in istr at ion of C h in a (Aks ai C h in). fin es. P ak ist an pr ot es ts Ind ia's f enc in g th e h ig h ly m ilit ar ized L in e of C on tr ol an d c onstr uc t ion of t h e B ag lih ar D am on t h e Ch en ab R iv er in J am mu an d K as h m ir. w h ic h s erve as b as es f or f or eig n t err or ists an d ot h er illeg al ac tiv it ies .w inn in g a lan ds lid e vict or y. w ith U N ass ist an c e. P ar liam en t ar y el ec t ion s h eld in N ovem b er 2 0 1 0. W es t er n m ark ets. 30 0 h ec t ar es in 20 0 7 w ith 6 0 0 of th o s e h ec t ar es er ad ic at ed . p art ic u lar ly s inc e th e Oc t ob er 2 00 5 e art hq u a k e in t h e r eg ion . an d arr es ts MY A NM A R: (U N IÓN D E BU R MA) m ilit ar y r eg im e ( a n om in ally c ivilian g ov er nm en t h as b e en n am ed . an d lat er as p olit ic al k in g p in. Afr ic a. D es p it e m u lt ip art y leg islat iv e el ec t ions in 19 9 0 t h at r es u lt ed in t h e m ain op p os it ion p art y . b ou n d f or Ir an. N LD le ad er an d N ob el P eac e Pr ize r ec ip ient A UN G S AN SU U K Y I. In d ia an d P ak ist an s e ek t ec h n ic al r es olut ion of th e d is p ut ed b ou n d ar y in S ir Cr e ek est u ary at t h e m ou th of th e R an n of Kutc h in t h e Ar ab ian S e a. f in an c ial c r im es r el at ed t o dr ug tr aff ic kin g. wh ic h c laim ed over 1 38. P ak ist an i m ap s c ont in u e t o s h ow th e J u n ag ad h claim in Ind ia's Guj ar at St at e. G en. w h o w as u n d er h ou s e arr est fr om 19 8 9 t o 19 9 5 an d 2 00 0 t o 2 00 2. an d P ak ist an m ilit ar y m eet p er iod ic ally t o clar if y t h e alig n m en t of t h e b ou n d ary on t h e gr ou n d an d on m ap s DR O GA S: sign if ic an t tr ans it ar ea f or Af gh an dr ugs . inc lud in g h er oin .

m u lt ip le off icial e xch an g e r at es t h at over v alu e t h e B urm es e ky at. p ow er g en er at ion .b or d er . Chr ist ian 4% ( B apt ist 3 %. an im ist 1%. j ad e an d g ems D IS P U TA S INT E R NA C ION A L ES: ov er h alf of B ur m a's p op u lat ion c ons is ts of d ivers e et h n ic gr ou p s w h o h av e s u bs t ant ial nu m b ers of k in in n eig h b or in g c ou ntr ies.w h o h ad pr ov id ed s ig n if ic an t fin an cial su p p ort f or t h eir f am ilies . a d ist ort ed int er es t r at e r eg im e. c op p er. T h e m ost pr od uc t ive s ec t ors w ill c ont in u e t o b e in e xtr act iv e in d us tr ies es p ec ially oil an d g as. M on 2%. c orr u pt. an d t h e p olit ic al sit u at ion ar e n eed ed t o pr om ot e s er ious f or eig n in v es t m en t. an d m in in g. T h e ec on om y s uff ers fr om s er ious m acr oec on om ic imb al an c es inc lu d in g un pr ed ict ab le inf lat ion. tin. a r es ou rc e-r ic h c ou ntr y. g ar m ents. an d t im b er . s ocio. f ert ilizer. Sh an 9%. t h e E ur op ean U n ion. is olat ed th e str u gg lin g b ank in g s ect or. U S s anct ion s . an d en d em ic c orru pt ion . D es p it e B urm a' s em er g enc e as a n at ur al g as e xp ort er. m in ing. an d r ur al p ov erty.w it h t h e latt er tw o c aus in g s ign if ic an t en vir on m en t al d egr ad at ion. T h e e xp l oit at ion of n at ur al r es ou rc es d o es n ot b en ef it t h e p op u lat ion at lar g e. oil an d n at ur al g as .lev el ap p oin t ees n am ed b y T HE IN SE IN ar e f or m er or curr ent m ilit ar y off ic ers . R om an C at h olic 1 %).slow ed or dr ied u p as j obs w er e lost an d m igr ant w ork ers r etur n e d h om e. Over 6 0% of t h e F Y 2 0 09. B an g lad es h str ug g les t o ac c om m od at e 2 9. K ar en 7 %. IND U S TR IA: ag r icu lt ur al pr oc es s in g. in r ec ent ye ars.0 9 c aus ed exp orts an d d om est ic c ons um er d em a n d t o dr op . un pr ed ict ab le tr ad e p olic ies . w h ile m ilit ar y lead ers an d t h eir b us in ess cr on ies e xp loit t h e c ou ntr y's am p le n atur al r es ourc es. T h e tr ansf er of s t at e ass ets . T h e g lob al cris is of 2 00 8.s eats. es p ec ially r eal est at e. c on s truct ion m at er ials. stru g g le in t h e f ac e of in ad eq u at e infr astr uctur e. B urm es e M us lim m in or ity fr om Ar ak an St at e. ph ar m ac eu t ic als. w ood an d w o od pr od uc ts. Th e U n it ed St at es. t our ism an d s er vic es. in eff ic ien t ec on om ic p olic ies. B ur m a's p o or in vestm en t c lim at e h a mp ers t h e inf low of f or eig n in ves t m ent. ot h er 2% EC O NO M ÍA: B urm a. A m aj or b an k ing c r is is in 2 0 0 3 c aus ed 2 0 pr iv at e b an k s t o c los e. A lth ou g h th e B urm es e g ov er nm en t h as g o od ec on om ic r el at ions w it h its n eig h b ors. suff ers fr om p er v as iv e g over n m ent c on tr ols . GR U PO S É TN IC OS: B urm an 68 %. n eg lect ed h e alt h an d ed uc at ion s ys t ems. pr oh ib it in g m ost f in an c ial tr a ns act ion s w it h B urm es e ent it ies . an d an in ab ilit y t o r ec on cile n at ion al ac c ou nts . an d b an im p orts of B ur m es e pr od uc ts. an d C an ad a h av e imp os ed f in an c ial an d ec on om ic s anc t ions on B ur m a. an d r ais ed t h e c os ts of d oin g b us in es s w ith B ur m es e c om p an i es . Ot h er ar e as . T h es e s anct ion s aff ec t ed th e c ou ntr y's f led g lin g g arm en t ind ustr y. M us lim 4%. u nr elia b le st at ist ics . T h e b usin es s c lim at e is w id ely p er c eiv ed as op aq u e. ot h er 5 % RE L IG ION E S: B ud d h ist 89 %.m os t op er at in g at a d ef ic it. pr ivat e b ank s s t ill op er at e un d er t ight r es tr ic t ions . lim it in g t h e pr ivat e s ect or's ac c ess t o c r ed it. s ign if ic ant im pr ov em ents in ec on om ic g over n anc e.ec on om ic c on d it ions h av e d et er ior at ed u n d er t h e r eg im e's m is m an ag em en t. In d ian 2 %. im p os e tr avel b an s on s en ior B urm es e m ilit ar y an d c iv ilian lea d ers an d oth ers c on n ect ed t o t h e ru lin g r eg im e. leavin g m ost of th e p u b lic in p ov ert y. f or eig n in vest ors h av e s h ied aw ay fr om n ear ly ev ery s ect or exc ep t f or n at ur al g as. c orru pt ion . R ak h in e 4 %. ir on. t h e N af r iver on t h e b o rd er w it h B an g lad es h s er ves as a smu g g lin g an d illeg al tr an s it r out e. t im b er. T h e vast m aj or ity of n at ion al. p art ic u lar ly f irms t ied t o B ur m es e r eg im e le ad ers. f isc al d ef ic its . 00 0 R oh in g ya. R em itt anc es fr om ov ers e as B urm es e w ork ers . t u n gs t en. Ch in e s e 3 %. an d h igh ly in eff icien t.1 0 bu d g et w as al loc at ed t o st at e ow n ed en t er pr is es . t h e bus in ess clim at e. liv in g as r ef ug e es in C o x's B az ar. t o cr on ies an d m ilit ar y f am ilies in 20 1 0 u nd er t h e gu is e of a pr ivat iz at ion p oli cy furt h er w id en ed th e g ap b et w een t h e ec on om ic elit e an d t h e p ub lic. B ur m es e b or d er au th or it ies ar e c on struct in g a 2 0 0 k m ( 1 2 4 m i) w ir e f e nc e d es ig n ed t o d et er illeg al c r os s. s uc h as m an u f ac t ur in g. c em ent. P ar liam en t c on ven ed in J an u ar y 20 1 1 an d s el ec t ed f or m er Pr im e M in ist er T H E IN S E IN as pr es id en t.

an d m en tr aff ic k ed f or th e p urp os e of f orc ed lab or an d c om m erc ial s exu al exp l oit at ion. B urm es e w om en an d c h ildr en ar e tr aff ic k ed t o E ast an d S ou t h eas t Asia f or c om m erc ial s e xu al e xp l oit at ion . a sm all nu m b er of f or eig n p ed op h iles oc c as ion ally exp l oit Bur m es e c h ildr en in t h e c ou ntr y tier rat ing : T ier 3 . a d ecr eas e of 2 7 %.tr ansit an d t ens ion s fr om t h e m ilit ar y b u ild. Bur m es e f orc es att em p t in g t o d ig in t o th e lar g ely aut on om ou s Sh an St at e t o r out loc al m ilit ias t ied t o t h e dr u g tr ad e. ag r ic u lt ur al est at es. s om e tr aff ic kin g vic t ims tr ans it B urm a fr om B an g lad es h t o M al ays ia an d fr om Ch in a t o Th ail an d . it h as n ot d em on str at ed s er ious an d s ust ain ed eff orts t o c lam p d ow n on m ilit ar y an d loc al aut h or it ies w h o ar e th em s elv es d er ivin g ec on om ic b en ef it fr om f orc ed lab or pr act ic es ( 2 01 1) DROGAS: w or ld's t h ird lar g est pr od u c er of illic it op iu m w it h an e stim at ed pr od uct ion in 2 0 09 of 2 5 0 m etr ic t ons. d om es t ic s er vit ud e.th e dr iving f act ors b eh in d B ur m a's s ign if ic an t tr aff ick in g pr ob l em ar e t h e r eg im e's gr oss ec on om ic m ism an ag em en t an d h um an rig hts ab us es. m aj or s ou rc e of m et h am p h et am in e an d h er oin f or r eg ion al c ons u m pt ion ( 2 01 1) .b or d er s ex tr aff ick ing. lack of g over nm en t w ill t o t ak e on m aj or n arc otr aff ick in g gr ou ps an d lac k of s er iou s c om m itm en t ag ains t m on ey lau n d er ing c on t inu es t o h ind er t h e ov er all ant idr u g eff ort. t h e B ur m es e m ilit ar y c on t in u es t o en g ag e in t h e un law f u l c onscr ipt ion of c h ild s old iers. pr od u c tion in t h e U n it ed W a St at e Arm y's a r eas of gr eat es t c ontr ol r em ain s low. 0 0 0 m ost ly K ar en r ef ug e es f leein g c ivil strif e. w om en ar e tr aff ick ed f or c om m ercial s e x u al exp l oit at ion t o M alays ia an d C h in a. an d t h e r ecr u itm en t of c h ild s old iers. B urm a's int er n al tr aff ic k in g r em ains t h e m ost s er ious c onc er n occ urr in g prim ar ily fr om villag es t o ur b an c en t ers an d ec on om ic h ubs f or lab or in in dus tr ia l z on es. c h ildr en . B an g lad es h r ef err ed its m ar it im e b ou n d ar y c laims w it h B ur m a an d In d ia t o t h e Int er n at ion al Tr ibu n al on th e L aw of t h e S e a. alt h ou g h t h e g over n m ent of B urm a h as t ak en s om e s t eps t o ad d r es s cross.up al on g b or d er w it h B an g l ad es h in 20 1 0. a 2 4 % d ecr e as e fr om 2 0 0 8. an d c ont in u es t o b e t h e m ain p er p etr at or of f orc ed lab or ins id e B urm a. f en c ing al on g th e In d ia-B ur m a int er n at ion al b or d er at M an ip u r's M or eh t ow n is in pr ogr es s t o c h ec k illeg al dru g tr aff ick in g an d m ov em en t of m ilit an ts. 5% of B urm a's p op p y c u lt ivat ion . S h an st at e is t h e s ourc e of 9 4. pr om pts loc al r es id ents t o p er iod ic ally f lee int o n eig h b or in g Y un n an Pr ovinc e in C h in a. an d c om m ercial s e xu al e xp l oit at ion . an d p op p y c u lt ivat ion in 20 0 9 t ot aled 1 7. 14 0. an d f orc ed lab or.0 0 0 h ec t ar es . p olit ic al u p h eav al a n d ec on om ic st ag n at ion in B ur m a live in r em ot e c am ps in T h ail an d n e ar th e b or d er TR Á F ICO D E P E R SO N AS: c urr e nt s it uat io n: B urm a is a s ourc e c ou ntr y f or w om en . t h e m ilit ar y's c ont in u ed w id es pr e ad us e of f orc ed an d c h ild lab or. B ur m es e c h ildr en ar e s u bj ec t ed t o c on d it ions of f orc ed lab or in T h ail an d as h awk ers an d b eg g ars .

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