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**Chap 7 Resistance and Powering of Ship
**

Objectives

• Prediction of Ship’s Power - Ship’s driving system and concept of power - Resistance of ship and its components · frictional resistance · wave-making resistance · others - Froude expansion - Effective horse power calculation • Propeller Theory - Propeller components and definitions - Propeller theory - Cavitation

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**Ship Drive Train and Power
**

Ship Drive Train System

EHP Engine

Reduction Gear

Strut Screw Bearing Seals

**THP BHP SHP DHP
**

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**Ship Drive Train and Power
**

Horse Power in Drive Train Brake Horse Power (BHP) - Power output at the shaft coming out of the engine before the reduction gears Shaft Horse Power (SHP) - Power output after the reduction gears - SHP=BHP - losses in reduction gear

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shaft bearings and seals Thrust Horse Power (THP) .DHP=SHP – losses in shafting.THP=DHP – Propeller losses E/G BHP R/G SHP Shaft Bearing DHP Prop. THP Hull EHP Relative Magnitudes BHP>SHP>DHP>THP>EHP 5 .Power created by the screw/propeller .Power delivered to the propeller .Ship Drive Train and Power Delivered Horse Power (DHP) .

Towing Tank Measured EHP V Towing carriage 6 .Effective Horse Power (EHP) • EHP : The power required to move the ship hull at a given speed in the absence of propeller action (EHP is not related with Power Train System) • EHP can be determined from the towing tank experiments at the various speeds of the model ship. • EHP of the model ship is converted into EHP of the full scale ship by Froude’s Law.

EHP (HP) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Ship Speed.Effective Horse Power (EHP) POWER CURVE YARD PATROL CRAFT Effective Horsepower. Vs (Knots) Typical EHP Curve of YP 7 .

.Poorly-designed ship : η H p 1 Well-designed .Effective Horse Power (EHP) Efficiencies • Hull Efficiency EHP ηH = THP . .Flow is not smooth.High THP is needed 8 to get designed speed.THP is reduced.Hull efficiency changes due to hull-propeller interactions. Poorly-designed . .Well-designed ship : η H f 1 .

Effective Horse Power (EHP) Efficiencies (cont’d) EHP • Propeller Efficiency Screw η propeller THP = DHP SHP DHP THP • Propulsive Coefficients (PC) EHP ηp = SHP η p ≈ 0.6 for well designed propeller 9 .

• EHP Calculation ⎛ ft ⎞ RT (lb) ⋅ VS ⎜ ⎟ ⎝s⎠ EHP(H P ) = ⎛ ft lb ⎞ 550⎜ ⎟ ⎜sH ⎟ P ⎠ ⎝ RT = total hull resistance VS = speed of ship ⎛ ft ⎞ lb ⋅ ft J RT ⋅V S ⇒ (lb ) ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = = = Watts : Power s s ⎝ s ⎠ 1 Watts = 1 / 550 H P 10 .Total Hull Resistance • Total Hull Resistance (RT) The force that the ship experiences opposite to the motion of the ship as it moves.

dimension CT = 2 2 2 ⎛ lb ⋅ s ⎞⎛ ft ⎞ 2 0.Non-dimensional value of total resistance RT lb ⇒ ⇐ non .Total Hull Resistance (cont) • Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance .5ρ Vs S ⎜ 4 ⎟⎜ ⎟ ft ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ft ⎠⎝ s ⎠ CT = Coefficient of total hull resistance in calm water RT = Total hull resistance ρ = Fluid density VS = Speed of ship S = wetted surface area on the submerged hull 11 .

5ρSVS ⋅ CT 2 CT : determined by the model test ρ : available from water property table S : obtained from Curves of form VS : Full scale ship speed 12 .Total Hull Resistance (cont) • Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance (cont’d) -Total Resistance of full scale ship can be determined using CT . S and VS RT (lb) = 0. ρ .

Vs (knots) RT ≈ CT ⋅ VS ∝ VS n 2 EHP ≈ RTVS ≈ CT ⋅ VS ⋅ VS 2 ∝ VS n n = from 2 at low speed to 5 at high speed n = from 3 at low speed to 6 at high speed 13 .Total Hull Resistance (cont) • Relation of Total Resistance Coefficient and Speed TOTAL RESISTANCE CURVE YARD PATROL CRAFT 20000 Total Resistance. Rt (lb) 15000 10000 5000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Ship Speed.

( due to friction of the water against the surface of the ship) .Viscosity. ship’s velocity.Components of Total Resistance • Total Resistance RT = RV + RW + RA R V : Viscous Resistance R W : Wave Making Resistance R A : Air Resistance • Viscous Resistance . wetted surface area of ship generally affect the viscous resistance.Resistance due to the viscous stresses that the fluid exerts on the hull. 14 .

Froude number (ship length & speed) • Air Resistance . displacement. wind velocity and direction .Wave-making resistance is affected by beam to length ratio. shape of the ship above the water line.Components of Total Resistance • Wave-Making Resistance .Resistance caused by waves generated by the motion of the ship .Air resistance is affected by projected area. shape of hull.Resistance caused by the flow of air over the ship with no wind present .Typically 4 ~ 8 % of the total resistance 15 .

.Higher speed : Wave-making R 16 .Low speed : Viscous R .Components of Total Hull Resistance • Total Resistance and Relative Magnitude of Components Resistance (lb) Air Resistance Hollow Hump Wave-making Viscous Speed (kts) .Hump (Hollow) : location is function of ship length and speed.

Why is a Golf Ball Dimpled? • Let’s look at a Baseball (because that’s what I have numbers for) – At the velocities of 50 to 130 mph dominant in baseball the air passes over a smooth ball in a highly resistant flow. – Turbulent flow does not occur until nearly 200 mph for a smooth ball – A rough ball (say one with raised stitches like a baseball) induces turbulent flow – A baseball batted 400 feet would only travel 300 feet if it was smooth. – A non-dimpled golf ball would really hamper Tiger Woods’ long 17 game .

18 .Coefficient of Viscous Resistance • Viscous Flow around a ship Real ship : Turbulent flow exists near the bow. Model ship : Studs or sand strips are attached at the bow to create the turbulent flow.

It consists of tangential and normal components.Non-dimensional quantity of viscous resistance . 19 . Skin Friction . CV = Ctangential + Cnormal = CF + KCF al or m n flow bow ia ent g tan l ship stern • Tangential Component : CF .Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont) • Coefficients of Viscous Resistance .It is assumed CF can be obtained from the experimental data of flat plate.Tangential stress is parallel to ship’s hull and causes a net force opposing the motion .

2260 × 10-5 ft 2 /s for fresh water = 1.Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont) Tangential Component of CV = C F 0.075 CF = (log10 Rn − 2) 2 Rn = LVS Semi-empirical equation ν Rn = Reynolds Number L = L pp (ft) VS = Ship Speed(ft/s) ν = Kinematic Viscosity (ft 2 /s) = 1.2791 × 10 ft /s for salt water -5 2 20 .

Relation between viscous flow and Reynolds number · Laminar flow : In laminar flow. the flow is chaotic and mixed transversely. The layers do not mix transversely but slide over one another.Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont) • Tangential Component (cont’d) . Flow over flat plate Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow 5 5 R n > about 5 × 1021 R n < about 5 × 10 . the fluid flows in layers in an orderly fashion. · Turbulent flow : In turbulent flow.

.Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont) • Normal Component .A high pressure is formed in the forward direction opposing the motion and a lower pressure is formed aft.Normal component generates the eddy behind the hull. . large eddy Full ship Slender ship small eddy 22 .Normal component causes a pressure distribution along the underwater hull form of ship . Fuller shape ship has larger normal component than slender ship.It is affected by hull shape.

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont) • Normal Component (cont’d) . K = Form Factor ⎛ B( ft ) ⎞ ∇(ft ) K = 19 ⎜ ⎜ L( ft ) B( ft )T ( ft ) L( ft ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 23 . Normal Component of Cv = K CF CF = Skin Friction Coeff.It is calculated by the product of Skin Friction with Form Factor.

Summary of Viscous Resistance Coefficient CV = Ctangential + Cnormal = CF + K CF 0.075 ⎛ ∇(ft ) B ( ft ) ⎞ CF = 2 K = 19 ⎜ ⎜ L( ft ) B ( ft )T ( ft ) L( ft ) ⎟ ⎟ (log10 Rn − 2) ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 Rn = LVS ν K= Form Factor Rn = Reynolds Number L = L pp (ft) VS = Ship Speed(ft/s) ν = Kinematic Viscosity (ft 2 /s) = 1.2260 × 10 -5 ft 2 /s for fresh water = 1.2791 × 10 -5 ft 2 /s for salt water 24 .

) 2) Reynolds No. .Summary of Viscous Resistance Coefficient • Reducing the Viscous Resistance Coeff. Rn ↑ ⇒ CF ↓ ⇒ KCF ↓ 25 . ( Slender hull form will create a smaller pressure difference between bow and stern.Method : Increase L while keeping the submerged volume constant 1) Form Factor K ↓ ⇒ Normal component KCF ↓ ∴ Slender hull is favorable.

Wave-Making Resistance Typical Wave Pattern Stern divergent wave Bow divergent wave L Transverse wave Wave Length 26 .

27 .

• When the transverse wave length approaches the ship length. • At slow speed. This is the main reason for the dramatic increase in Total Resistance as speed increases.Wave-Making Resistance Transverse wave System • It travels at approximately the same speed as the ship. several crests exist along the ship length because the wave lengths are smaller than the ship length. 28 . the length of the transverse wave increases. the wave making resistance increases very rapidly. • As the ship speeds up.

29 (Wavemaking resistance drastically increases above hull speed) Slow Speed Vs ≈ Hull Speed .Wave-Making Resistance (cont) Transverse wave System Vs < Hull Speed Wave Length High Speed Wave Length Hull Speed : speed at which the transverse wave length equals the ship length.

the crests are added up so that larger divergent wave systems are generated. 30 . • Hump : When the bow and stern waves are in phase. • Hollow : When the bow and stern waves are out of phase. • Interaction of the bow and stern waves create the Hollow or Hump on the resistance curve. the crests matches the trough so that smaller divergent wave systems are generated.Wave-Making Resistance (cont) Divergent Wave System • It consists of Bow and Stern Waves.

. • Wave-making resistance is affected by .beam to length ratio . (Because mathematical modeling of the flow around ship is very complex since there exists fluid-air boundary. wave-body interaction) • Therefore model test in the towing tank and Froude expansion 31 are needed to calculate the Cw of the real ship.Wave-Making Resistance (cont) Calculation of Wave-Making Resistance Coeff.Froude number • The calculation of the coefficient is far difficult and inaccurate from any theoretical or empirical equation.hull shape .displacement .

EX : FFG7 : ship length 408 ft Which ship requires more hull speed 27 KTS horse power at 35 KTS? CVN65 : ship length 1040 ft hull speed 43 KTS 32 . . .Therefore increment of wave-making resistance of longer ship will be small until the ship reaches to the hull speed.Hull speed will increase.Wave-Making Resistance (cont) Reducing Wave Making Resistance 1) Increasing ship length to reduce the transverse wave .

Bulbous bow generates the second bow waves . design &retrofit cost : less than $30 million life cycle fuel cost saving for all the ship : $250 mil. practically smaller bow divergent waves.Then the waves interact with the bow wave resulting in ideally no waves. .EX : DDG 51 : 7 % reduction in fuel consumption at cruise speed 3% reduction at max speed. .Wave-Making Resistance (cont) Reducing Wave Making Resistance (cont’d) 2) Attaching Bulbous Bow to reduce the bow divergent wave . Tankers & Containers : adopting the Bulbous bow 33 .

Wave-Making Resistance (cont) Bulbous Bow 34 .

• For model. empirical formulas can be used. • It is only used when a full-scale ship prediction of EHP is made from model test results. corrosion. paint roughness. 35 . • For ship. and fouling of the hull surface.Coefficient of Total Resistance Coefficient of total hull resistance CT = CV + CW + C A = C F ( 1 + K) + CW + C A C A: Correlation Allowance Correlation Allowance • It accounts for hull resistance due to surface roughness. C A = 0 Since model surface is smooth.

Resistance due to sea waves which will cause the ship motions (pitching. bilge keels and struts . . yawing). propeller shaft.Resistance caused by the rudder motion. rolling. 36 . heaving. • Steering Resistance .Other Type of Resistances • Appendage Resistance .2∼24% of the total resistance in naval ship.Frictional resistance caused by the underwater appendages such as rudder.Small in warships but troublesome in sail boats •Added Resistance .

Resistance caused by shallow water effect .Other Resistances • Increased Resistance in Shallow Water . suction. increment of wetted surface area → Increases frictional resistance . : Increment of frictional resistance due to the velocities : Pressure drop. → Increases wave making resistance 37 .The waves created in shallow water take more energy from the ship than they do in deep water for the same speed.Flow velocities under the hull increases in shallow water.

Geometric and Dynamic similarity must be achieved. prototype ship ? model ship prototype Dimension Speed Force Model 38 .It is not possible to measure the resistance of the full-scale ship .Basic Theory Behind Ship Modeling • Modeling a ship .The ship needs to be scaled down to test in the tank but the scaled ship (model) must behave in exactly same way as the real ship.How do we scale the prototype ship ? . .

Scale Factor = λ λ= 2 LS (ft) LM (ft) : Length : Area : Volume S : full scale ship M : Model S S (ft 2 ) λ = S M (ft 2 ) ∇ S (ft 3 ) λ3 = ∇ M (ft 3 ) 39 .The ratio of the ship length to the model length is typically used to define the scale factor.Geometric similarity exists between model and prototype if the ratios of all characteristic dimensions in model and prototype are equal. .Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling • Geometric Similarity .

Total Resistance : Frictional Resistance+ Wave Making+Others CV = f ( Rn ). RnS = RnM .Dynamic Similarity exists between model and prototype if the ratios of all forces in model and prototype are the same. LSVS LMVM . = vS vM vM LS . VM = VS vS LM CW = f ( Fn ) FnS = FnM VS VM = gLS gLM VM = VS LM LS 40 .Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling • Dynamic Similarity . .

Ship Speed=10kts.Both Geometric and Dynamic similarity cannot be achieved at same time in the model test because making both Rn and Fn the same for the model and ship is not physically possible. Model Length=10ft Model speed to satisfy both geometric and dynamic similitude? VM = VS LM LS vM LS VM = VS vS LM 10 ft = 10( kts ) 100 ft = 1( kts ) 100 ft = 10( kts ) (assume vM = vS ) 10 ft 41 = 100( kts ) . Example Ship Length=100ft.Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling • Dynamic Similarity (cont’d) .

the following relations in forces are established. · Have Rn different ⇒ Incomplete dynamic similarity .However partial dynamic similarity can be achieved by towing the model at the “corresponding speed” . CWM = CWS CVM ≠ CVS 42 .Choice ? · Make Fn the same for the model.Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling • Dynamic Similarity (cont’d) .Due to the partial dynamic similarity.

=1. VS VM = gLS gLM VS (ft/s) VM (ft/s) = LS (ft) LM (ft) .47 kts λ 20 1 1kt. Model speed towed ? VM = VS = VS LM 1 = VS LS LS / LM 1 = 20kts = 4.Example : Ship length = 200 ft.688 ft/s 43 . Model length : 10 ft Ship speed = 20 kts.Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling • Corresponding Speeds FnS = FnM .

CFS C AM = 0 C AS ≠ 0 .5ρ S S SVs 2 ) (calculated) (due to scale factor λ . or calculated) 44 CWS = CWM (Q FnS = FnM .Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling • Modeling Summary CT = CV + CW + C A = CF (1 + K ) + CW + C A 1) CTM = CFM (1 + K M ) + CWM + C AM Froude Expansion Measured in tank CWM = CTM −CFM (1 + K ) − C AM 2) CTS = CFS (1 + K S ) + CWS + C AS RTS ⋅ VS 3) EHP ( hp ) = 550 ( RTS = CTS * 0. Calculated or given) (Q Model is smooth) (given. VS / gLS = VM / gLM ) KS = KM CFM .

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