1.industrial visited,2.detail about,3.row cotton mill,4.blow room,5.carding,6.winding,7.ring frame,8.packing,9.

waste yorn,10.bio diversity & effect and industrial object,11.effect of air and noice pollution on the human health. yeh sb points hain.

A cotton mill is a factory that houses spinning and weaving machinery. Typically built between 1775 and 1930, mills spun cotton which was an important product during the Industrial Revolution. Cotton mills, and the mechanisation of the spinning process, were instrumental in the growth of the machine tool industry, enabling the construction of larger cotton mills.

Cotton mill and water
The earliest cotton mills were driven by water, so needed to be situated on fast flowing streams. The labour force, in the main had carding, spinning and weaving skills acquired by working with wool. The earliest mills were adjacent to streams flowing off the open west facing moors where the rainfall was the highest. As capacity grew, navigable waterways were needed to bring in the raw materials and take away the finished yarn or cloth. Rivers were canalised and a network of canals was dug to penetrate further into the hills to service the mills. From about 1820, the stationary steam engine became the normal form of power for a cotton mill, water was still needed to produce the steam and to condense it, to maintain the humidity, for many of the finishing processes and for firefighting. The water was extracted from rivers and canals, then later mills requiring ever more water, built and maintained their own reservoirs. Mills were built away from the hills, and clustered around watercourses, developing into mill towns. Mills were also used for wet finishing processes such as bleaching, dyeing andprinting- these were very water intensive. [edit]Construction Mills were very prone to fires. The original floor structure was one of wooden beams, supporting a double layer wooden floor, the underside being protected with lath and plaster. When a fire started the laths provided kindling, the void enabled the fire to spread rapidly, and the flooring provided the fuel. The British endeavoured to build a fireproof mill, and the Americans experimented with slow burn techniques, essentially using more massive timbers.[33] In a fireproof mill the wooden frame was encased in brick or the wooden floor beams replaced with cast iron. An early fireproof mill is Strutt'sNorth Mill, Belper. Between the cast iron beams one, two, or three layer brick vaults were constructed. These were smoothed off at the top with an infill of rubble to form the floor. Like everything in the cotton industry, each innovation was covered by patents and each architectural practice had its own unique system. As the floor increased in weight, the supporting walls must become stronger. The cast iron beams were supported at each end by the walls, but need more support mid-span, and this was provided by cast iron columns. An alternative was to use iron beams, and span between them using cast concrete, then the next technological advance was the use of rolled steel beams that had greater strength and flexibility and were usable for longer spans.[34] The floor must support its own weight and the weight of the machines placed on it. In time the size and weight of the machines increased but not necessarily the weight per unit area. When a mill was upgraded from spinning mules to ring frames, the floor had to be strengthened. The early mills in Europe and America were driven by water, and needed a location adjacent to a flowing stream. Streams were normally in narrow valleys where land was scarce, consequently mills (For

example Masson Mill) were built with many storeys and a small footprint. Later, when mills were powered by steam, proximity to coal and transport routes became important. In America where land was relatively plentiful, single storey mills became common, while in Lancashire land was still scarce within the towns, and the multi-storey mill remained the norm. (For example Murray Mills, Ancoats.) Weaving sheds were built away from the large towns and were usually single storey.[35] [edit]Power

Boulton and Watt, 1784

Further information: Stationary steam engine and Water wheel In the 18th century mills were powered by the use of a Water wheel, but the need for a constant source of water meant that mills were generally built only alongside rivers and streams. To supply a constant speed, mill machinery required a reliable source of power. Traditionally, speed was governed by using a heavy fly wheel with a governor.[citation needed]

An animation of a Newcomen engine

In 1712 Thomas Newcomen built an atmospheric engine while trying to pump water from Cornish tin mines. The engine worked by filling with steam a cylinder which contained a piston, then spraying in cold water so that the steam condensed, creating a partial vacuum. Atmospheric pressure pushed the piston down, providing power, which could be used to operate machinery. Such engines were used for pumping out mines,[36] or pumping water back to above a waterwheel. In 1781 James Watt of Birminghammarketed his rotary-motion steam engine. The earlier steam engine's vertical movement was ideal for operating water pumps but the new engine could be adapted to drive all sorts of machinery, Richard Arkwright was to later pioneer its use in his cotton mills. Possibly the first engine to be used in a Cotton Mill, was 'of old construction' - evidently a 'common' (or Newcomen) engine - which was used at Shudehill mill in 1783 to raise water from one artificial storage pond to another so it could drive a water wheel and thus the mill. Other mills followed. Joshua Wrigly made his engines self acting by using the motion of the water wheel to open and close the steam cocks. By 1795 most of common engines around Manchester had been replaced by the Watt's separate condenser models manufactured by Boulton and Wattor Bateman and Sherratt.[37] Shudehill Mill bought a 6h.p. model in 1790. By the mid 1790s there were in excess of 500 Boulton & Watt steam engines in British factories and mines.[38]

Single cylinder horizontal engine withslide valves, with a rope drum.

In 1843 James Joule had measured and shown that 838 ft lbs of work was needed to raise the temperature of water by 1 degree F, and from this, it was deduced that heat and mechanical energy are mutually convertible. Watt measured the heat entering and leaving an engine and showed the heat loss was equivalent to work the engine was doing.[39] As knowledge ofthermodynamics increased, engines were improved by raising the temperature and operating pressure. At 60 psi (0.41 MPa), exhaust from such a cylinder was still at sufficient temperature to work a second cylinder. This was a compound engine. Ultimately four cylinder, quadruple compounds were produced. Slide valves became impractical and were replaced by drop valves, and later the Corliss valve. Electricity was introduced into mills in 1877. At first a small steam engine would drive a generator and the electricity was used to provide electric lighting. By the 1890s this was common.[40]Electricity started to be used to drive the mills machinery around 1906. It was generated in the engine house, and one groupdrive electric motor was placed on each floor to drive the shafts. They were placed exterior to the mill as it was thought that they were a fire risk. Examples of this type would be the Welkin Ring Mill (Ark Mill) Bredbury, and the Kearsley Mill, Kearsley. Mains driven mills (Brunswick Mill) started about 1907, but they were restricted by the lack of mains. They used group drives. Later mills used individual electric motors to power the machines.

used a vertical shaft to take the power from the flywheel.[edit]Transmission methods A weaving shed.8 m3).[41] [edit]Other factors Cotton is sensitive to both temperature and humidity. To heat the mill a heating system is provided. water tanks and heating system defined the structure and shape of the mill. which played an air jet against a jet of water in the room and the type that injects a stream/air mixture into the room. American mills rejected this approach and used thick leather bands instead of shafts. and the header tank at least 15 feet (4.093 m2)of heating surface was needed to heat 100 cubic feet (2. Many methods were used to drive a sprinkler system throughout the mill. As heat was applied the humidity dropped. A new approach was to use thick cotton ropes. On each floor horizontal shafts engaged with the main shaft using bevel gearing. Rules of thumb suggest that 1 square foot (0.1 m) and carry steam under pressure. showing how all the looms were powered from overhead shafts The early mills. There were two types of atomisers.[42] The other service that is required in a mill is a fire fighting system. in later mills the roof would be flat and waterproofed to form a shallow tank. There was a lot of friction and power wasted. The water pressure needed to be above 7 psi. The profile was such to give maximum adherence. In summer the system was barely used but in winter the boilers would be fired up two hours before the shift started so the mill would have time to warm up. so a system of humidifiers were employed. . wrought iron pipes are suspended at a height of 7 feet (2. Other later mills used the top of each stair tower as a location for enclosed tanks and supplemented the supply with water from the town mains. A rope drum was attached to the flywheel with a channel cut for each rope.[43] The provision of light.6 m) above the highest sprinkler. heating to100 °F (38 °C). Water for the sprinklers had to be protected from freezing and evaporation.

Moreover Since the tuft size of cotton becomes smaller and smaller. • . the required intensities of processing necessitates different machine configuration.BLOWROOM • Basic operations in the blowroom: opening cleaning mixing or blending microdust removal uniform feed to the carding machine Recycling the waste • Blow room installations consists of a sequence of different machines to carry out the above said operations.

• • TECHNOLOGICAL POINTS IN BLOWROOM Opening in blowroom means opening into small flocks. if possible in the same machine.Technological operation of opening means the volume of the flock is increased while the number of fibres remains constant. • The higher the degree of opening. i. as far as possible a lot of impurities should be eliminated at the start of the process.Opening should be followed immediately by cleaning. A very high cleaning effect is . the specific density of the material is reduced • The larger the dirt particle . the higher the degree of cleaning. the better they can be removed Since almost every blowroom machine can shatter particles.e.

If cotton is opened well in the opening process. In cleaning. cotton contains more and more impurities. the tuft size should be as small as possible and the machine stop time should be reduced to the minimum level possible • If Manual Bale openers are used. • Cleaning is made more difficult if the impurities of dirty cotton are distributed through a larger quantity of material by mxing with clean cotton.almost always purchased at the cost of a high fibre loss. Moreover it is true that the staple length of cotton can be significantly shortened . • Using Inclined spiked lattice for opening cotton in the intial stages is always a better way of opening the cotton with minimum damages. The cleaning efficiency is strongly dependent on the TRASH %. It is also affected by the size of the particle and stickyness of cotton. The latter are hurled against the grid and because of their small size. is substantially greater than that of the opened flocks due to the low air resistance of the impurities. fibres with better elastic properties and improved spinnability can be produced. Higher roller speeds give a better cleaning effect but also more stress on the fibre. the tuft size fed to the feed lattice should be as small as possible Due to machine harvesting . • There are three types of feeding apparatus in the blowroom opening machines two feed rollers( clamped) . Mechanical action on fibres causes some deterioration on yarn quality. particularly in terms of neps . pass between the grid bars into the waste box. The inertia of the impurities accelerated to a high speed. which furthermore are shattered by hard ginning. to separate fibres from trash particles by buoyancy differences rather than beating the material against a series of grid bars. while the flocks continue around the periphery of the rotating beater. • In a beating operation. The former is achieved mostly by picking of flocks. the latter is achieved by leading the flocks over a grid. Therefore cleaning efficiency can be different for different cottons with the same trash %. Traditional methods use more number of machines to open and clean natural fibres. Intensive opening in the initial machines like Bale breaker and blending machines means that shorter overall cleaning lines are adequate. Therefore cleaning is always an important basic operation. therefore cleaning is more efficient If automatic bale opener is used. the flocks are subjected to a sudden strong blow. Different cottons have different cleaning resistance. it is necessary to release the adhesion of the impurities to the fibres and to give hte particles an opportunity to separate from the stock. cleaning becomes easier because opened cotton has more surface area. • Air streams are often used in the latest machine sequence. • But one should bear in mind that if material is recyled more in the lattice. By using a much shorter machine sequence. Ofcourse the production is less with such type of machines. neps may increase. There is a new concept called CLEANING RESISTANCE.

This requires an expensive air conditioning set up.feed roller and a feed table a feed roller and pedals • Two feed roller arrangements gives the best forwarding motion. Beacause of that production and quality is affected. But this system should use water solutions which is not recommended due to various reasons. There are chemicals which can be sprayed to split up the sugar drops to achieve better distribution. and it gets aggreavated with heat and pressure. the clamping distance can be made very small. but clamping over the whole width is poor. because the roller presses only on the highest points of the web. • • . Particles stick to metal surfaces. which is very critical for an opening machine In a feed roller and table arrangement. Low temperature ( around 22 degree Celsius) and low humidity (45% RH). but unfortunately results in greatest clamping distance between the cylinders and the beating element feed roller and pedal arrangement gives secure clamping throughout the width and a small clamping distance. • Thin places in the web can be dragged out of hte web as a clump by the beaters Honeydew(sugar) or stickiness in cotton affect the process very badly. This gives intensive opening. • These deposits change the surface characteristics which directly affects the quality and running behavior. It is better to control the climate inside the department when sticky cotton is used.

General factors which affect the degree of opening . . needles.The easiest way to process sticky cotton is to mix with good cotton and to process through two blending machines with 6 and 8 doublings and to install machines which will seggregate a heavier particles by buoyancy differences. • thickness of the feed web density of the feed web fibre coherence fibre alignment size of the flocks in the feed (flock size may be same but density is different) the type of opening device speed of the opening device degree of penetration type of feed (loose or clamped) distance between feed and opening device type of opening device type of clothing point density of clothing arrangement of pins. teeth speeds of the opening devices throughput speed of material type of grid bars area of the grid surface grid settings airflow through the grid condition of pre-opening quantity of material processed. cleaning and fibre loss are.

However removal of dust is not simple.The main elimination points for adhering dust therefore. are those points in the process at which high fibre/metal friction or high fibre/fibre friction is produced. stationary combs etc.Furthermore the particles adhere quite strongly to the fibres. like by turning the material over.% ambient teperature • • Cotton contains very little dust before ginning.Higher the production.. Release of dust into the air occurs whereever the raw material is rolled.. Perforated drums.. are some instruments used to remove dust. If they are to be eliminated they are to be rubbed off.High production in carding to economise the process leads to reduction in yarn quality. New dust is being created through shattering of impurities and smashing and rubbing of fibres. stationary perforated drums. and then removing the dust-contaminated air. Dust is therefore caused by working of the material on the machine. beaten or thrown about. Dust particles are very light and therefore float with the cotton in the transport stream. CARDING INTRODUCTION "Card is the heart of the spinning mill" and "Well carded is half spun" are two proverbs of the experts.H. • Removal of finest particles of contaminants and fibre fragments can be accomplished by releasing the dust into the air. the more sensitive becomes .position of the machine in the machine sequence feeding quantity variation to the beater ambient R. Accordingly the air at such positions is sucked away. These proverbs inform the immense significance of carding in the spinning process.

as laps are heavily compressed flock feeding high performance in carding due to high degree of openness of feed web labour requirement is less due to no lap transportaion and lap change in cards flock feeding is the only solution for high prouduction cards linear density of the web fed to the card is not as good as lap installation is not felxible autoleveller is a must.10 kgs / hr. i. .The technological changes that has taken place in the process of carding is remarkable.e. the cylinder is located below and the plate is pressed against the cylinder by spring force. the fibre batt runs downwards without diversion directly into the teeth of the taker-in(licker-in) which results in gentle fibre treatment.the carding operation and the greater danger of a negative influence on quality. Owing to the direction of feed roller. which used to be 5 . as laps can be rejected autolevellers are not required. feeding material in the form of scutcher lap 2. hence investment cost and maintenance cost is more Rieter has devloped a "unidirectional feed system" where the two feed devices(feed roller and feed plate are oppositely arranged when compared with the conventional system. THE PURPOSE OF CARDING: to open the flocks into individual fibres cleaning or elimination of impurities reduction of neps elimination of dust elimination of short fibres fibre blending fibre orientation or alignment sliver formation TECHNOLOGICAL POINTS IN CARDING There are two types of feeding to the cards 1.100 kgs / hr. Latest machines achieve the production rate of 60 . upto 1970. as it should be replaced by a new lap more good fibre loss during lap change more load on the taker-in. This helps to reduce faults in the yarn. flock feed system (flocks are transported pneumatically) lap feeding linear density of the lap is very good and it is easier to maintain(uniformity) the whole installation is very flexible deviations in card output will be nil. hence investment cost and maintenace cost is less transportation of lap needs more manual efforts( more labour) lap run out is an additional source of fault.

But the performance may vary for different materials and different waste levels. and then to deliver the fibres to the main cylinder. which results in feeding more %of individual fibres and smallest tufts compared to single lickerin. to lead them over the dirt eliminating parts like mote knives.The purpose of the taker-in is to pluck finely opened flocks out of the feed batt. between the taker-in and main cylinder . combing segment and waste plates. The other two rollers are with finer clothing and higher speeds. In high production cards the rotational speed ranges from 700-1400 The treatment for opening and cleaning imparted by Taker-in is very intensive.Remember that around 60% of the fibres fed to the main cylinder is in the form of individual fibres. This allows the maing cylinder to go high in speeds and reduce the load on cylinder and flat tops. . There by higher productivity is achieved with good quality.The first one is constructed as needle roll. The circumferential speed of Taker-in is around 13 to 15 m/sec and the draft is more than 1000. to the main cylinder. but unfortunately not very gentle. Only the degree of deterioration can be controlled by adjusting the following the thickness of the batt the degree of openness of the rawmaterial the degree of orientation of the fibres the aggressiveness of the clothing the distance between the devices the rotational velocity of the taker-in the material throughput Latest TRUTZSCHLER cards work with three licker-ins compared to one liker-in. It exerts an influence on the sliver quality and also on the improvement in fibres longitudinal orientation that occurs here. the clothings are in the doffing disposition. This results in very gentle opening and an extremely long clothing life for this roll.It clearly shows that fibre gets deteriorated at this opening point.

the number of points per unit time must also be increased. all operating elements of the card were therefore checked in regard to their influence on carding intensity.3 points/ fibre and at the main cylinder 10-15 points /fibre. If carding segemets are used. thinning out and primarily. a corresponding degree of opening at the card is needed. Hence the best way is to add carding surface (stationary flats). The opening effect is directly proportional to the number of wire points per fibre.The draft between main cylinder and taker-in should be slightly more than 2. further increase will result in design and technological problems. If carding segments are not used. To increase production in carding. they ensure further opening.If a given quality of yarn is required. It showed that the "CYLINDER-FLATS" area is by far the most effective region of the card for. Carding plates can be applied at under the liker-in between the licker-in and flats between flats and doffer Taker-in does not deliver 100% individual fibres to main cylinder.0. It delivers around 70% as small flocks to main cylinder. the load on cylinder and flats will be very high and carding action also suffers. spreading out and improved distribution of the flocks over the total surface area.The effect depends on the draft between main cylinder and taker-in. this can be achieved by more points per unit area(finer clothing) higher roller and cylinder speeds more carding surface or carding position speeds and wire population has reached the maximum.carding segments bring the following advantages improved dirt and dust elimination improved disentanglement of neps possibility of speed increase (production increase) preservation of the clothing possibility of using finer clothings on the flats and cylinder better yarn quality less damage to the clothing cleaner clothing In an indepth analysis. opening of flocks to individual fibres elimination of remaining impurities(trash particles) elimination of short fibres( neps also removed with short fibres) untangling the neps dust removal high degree of longitudinal orientation of the fibres . At the Taker-in perhaps 0.

This is the only way to obtain a condensing action and finally to form a web. Once it gets filled. It is for CARDING ACTION. the flats come into operative relationship with the cylinder clothing on the doffer side. separation to individual fibres is done between the main cylinder and the flats Only by means of this fibre separation.e. the cylinder carries the material to be cleaned into the flats. hardly any further take-up of fibres occurs.The main work of the card. then it can be opened only with difficulty. above the taker-in. A disadvantage is that leading hooks and trailing hooks are formed in the fibres . It has both advantages and disadvantages. The advantage is that additional carding action is obtained here and it differs somewhat from processing at the flats.It will be rolled between the working surfaces and usually leads to nep formation In principle. Rieter studies show clearly that the greater part of the dirt is hurled into the first flats directly above the taker-in. Part of their receiving capacity is thus lost. Instead . thereafter . because the fibres remain caught at one end of the main cylinder(leading hook) and some times on the doffer clothing(trailing hook). the flats are in a clean condition. In reverse movement. Of the remaining 40% disentaglable nep 30-33% pas on with the sliver 5-6% are removed with the flat strips 2-4%are eliminated with the waste The intensity of nep separation depends on the sharpness of the clothing the space setting between the main cylinder and the flats tooth density of the clothing speed of the main cylinder speed of the flat tops direction of flats with reference to cylinder the profile of the cylinder wire The arrangement of the clothing between the cylinder and the doffer is not meant for stripping action. and of these about 60% are in fact disentagled. The latter take up the dirt but do not transport it through the whole machine as in the forward movement system. but sufficient remains for elimination of dirt. only carding. after few seconds. since this step takes place where the material first enters the flats. the flats can be moved forwards or backwards. i.Accordingly. . in the same direction as or in opposition to the cylinder. it is possible to eliminate the fine dirt particles and dust. Kaufmann indicates that 75% of all neps can be disentagled. At this position. if a fibre bundle does not find place at the first few flats. When a flat enters the working zone. They then move towards the taker-in and fill up during this movement. it gets filled up very quickly. At this stage. the dirt is immediately removed from the machine.

The fibre must be under control from entry to exit Carding effect is taking place between cylinder and doffer because. be efficiently carded and taken from it in as little time as possible. According to an investigation by . or non-separated fibre bundles can be opened a bit in this area and can be separated during the next passage through the flats A disadvantage of web-formation at the card is the formation of hooks.There are two rules of carding The fibre must enter the carding machine. Neps can still be disentangled here. or the doffer clothing rakes thro the fibres on the main cylinder. either the main cylinder clothing rakes through the fibres caught in the doffer clothing.

spinners doubles.break But excessive tension in winding will deteriarate the above said tensile properties. long thick . Practical experience has proven that winding alters the yarn structure. etc Manufacture of cones having good drawing .morton and Yen in Manchester. This conversion process provides one with the possibility of cutting out unwanted and problematic objectionable faults. There must be even number of passages between card and comber and odd number between the card and ringframe.e high produciton level The winding process therefore has the basic function of obtaining a larger package from several small ring bobbins.off properties and with as long a length of yarn as possible paraffin waxing of the yarn during the winding process introduction into the yarn of a minimum number of knots achievement of a high machine efficiency i. it can be assumed that 50% of the fibres have trailing hooks 15% have leading hooks 15% have both ends hooked 20% without hooks Leading hooks must be presented to the comber and trailing hooks to the ring spinning frame. the following tensile properties are not affected tenacity elongation work. • .This phenomenon does not affect yarn evenness. WINDING Following are the tasks of winding process • • • • Extraction of all disturbing yarn faults such as the short. but affect the following yarn properties • • • • • • • • thick places thin places neps hairiness standard deviation of hairiness If winding tension is selected properly.long thin.to. The process of removing such objectionable faults is called as yarn ‘ clearing’ .

0 grams per kg of yarn synthetics .wax take-up of 1. Naturally. Absolute comments about coefficients of friction are not possible. dyeing process. The recommended wax pick up for different material are given below: I.wax takep-up of 2. we take 1 kg of 50s metric yarn. It is quite sufficient to apply 1 gm of wax on this length of yarn. II. i.285 friction coefficient of waxed percentage of friction yarn coefficient decrease % 0. Most of the damage occurs at the moment when the end is detached and removed from the tight assembly of yarn layers on the bobbin and dragged along the tube at very high speeds. As the original coefficients of friction of non-waxed yarns are so varied.5 gram per kg of yarn III. the bobbin unwinding behaviour is the major limiting factor for winding speed which also is the main reason for the above said changes in yarn structure. It depends on several factors. Extensive tests have shown that the coefficient of friction of waxed yarn is not constant. WAXING PROCESS: Waxing is the process which is almost exclusively used in all automatic and manual winding machines for yarns which are meant for knitting. knotters were used in winding machine to join two ends after cutting the fault and after chaning the ringframe bobbin . cotton and its blends . irectional influences are omnipresent. count. dragged across several deflection bars and eyelets.145 49 . so also are the values obtained with waxed yarns. splicing of the yarn ends has become quite popular and has gradually replaced knotting by way of its better appearance while at the same time retaining sufficient strength. High speed automatic winders have frequently been blamed for causing higher nep counts but this is not a correct statement. In earlier days. additives.5 to 1. These fibre accumulations represent a true mass defect. it is interesting to note that very small amounts of wax are already sufficient to give an optimal reduction in friction coefficient.0 to 3. Some very fine and delicate yarns will result in marginal structural changes after winding. such as type of material. or seed coat fragments. 50s combed friction coefficient of unwaxed yarn 0. the bobbin geometry and the bobbin unwinding behaviour. such defects are not produced by the winding machine. can be identified as tight fibre entanglements.wax take-up of 0. The table shows several typical examples of coefficient of friction for unwaxed and waxed yarns. The factors that affect the yarn structure during winding include the frictional properties of the yarn itself. atmospheric conditions etc. there are 50000 meters of yarn. and finally rolled up into a firm construction called package or cone. It is proved that both too little and too much wax cause increase in coefficient of friction and thus detrioration in running efficiency on the knitting machine. But this is not the result of mechancial stress like in winding but a natural reaction caused by the reversal of the yarn running direction. clumps of immature or dead cotton fibres. twist. forced into a traverse motion at speed that make it invisible. typical nep-type imperfections.Changes in the yarn surface structure due to winding cannot be avoided. yet their apperance in the yarn and in the final fabric is clearly different from that of typical fibre entanglements or seed coat fragments. dye-stuffs. However. yarn moisture content. Since the yarn is accelerated from zero speed to 1200 or 1350 meters per min in a few milli seconds while being pulled off the bobbin.0 grams per kg From the technical point of view. but depends on the amount of wax on the yarn. twist etc. wool and its blends . If for example. But now . This helps to reduce the coefficient of friction of yarns created during knitting process.e shor mass defects. to obtain optimum reduction in friction. winding speed. winding geometry as well as the number and design of the yarn / machine contact points. KIND OF YARN COUNT (METRIC) cotton . due to different raw materials and blends. they become apparent in all subsequent processing stages. The increase in nep counts after winding is related to the formation of loose fiber accumulations.0 to 2.

it is necessary to have yarn monitoring system in the last production process of the spinning mill. places which deviate to quite a considerable extent from the normal yarn corsssection. the wax melts and penetrates to the inside of the yarn body: it can then no longer work effectively. 36s natural wool. Fly liberation in Ringframe department is one of the major reasons for short faults in the yarn because of the fly gets spun into the yarn. As physical principle for electronic yarn clearing the capacitive and the optical principle have established. the results in knitting can still be adversely affected.cotton. Each yarn contains.21 53 53 52 50 Even with efficient waxing . Therefore one should not condition waxed packages.33 0. These faults are relatively frequent in all spun yarns. they must remain on the surface of the yarn. When the yarn is subjected to heat however. so that it can return to its normal condition before winding. When choosing the wax. the machiery set up.155 0.32 0. the temperature in the production area. The conditioning causes an increase in friction coefficient. if the waxed particles are to carry out their function.30 0.155 0. they represent a potential disturbance in the appearance of the fabric or can negatively influnece subsequent processing of the yarn. Depending upon the rawmaterial. Eventhough such events seldom occur. A typical example is conditioning of waxed packages. Stickiness of cotton can contribute to the formation of thick and thin places.14 0.36s dyed polyester 40s white 0. These faults are monitored by classimat or clearer installation on winding. An increase in moisture content causes an increase in friction coefficient. Therefore the yarn processing industry demands a fault free yarn. etc. here and there. or any other treatment involving the application of heat to a waxed package.42 0. A further problem can arise during steaming. poor waxing results. long thick places or even spinners doubles. production and process parameters. If too-damp bobbins are creeled at the winding machine. but have a cross-sectional size approx. and thus a deterioration in running properties. it is essential to consider the type of yarn and fibre. This means that the yarn exhibits a yarn fault every 1 to 5 km.. The yarn faults which go into the woven or knitted fabric can be removed at very high costs or can not be removed at all. twice that of the yarn. These faults are thick and thin faults. To an extent they are the result . if the package of waxed yarn is subsequently handled. Low yarn tension will affect the wax pickup Dimensions and form of wax rollers will affect the wax uniformity As it is clear and is important that. long thin places . foregin fibres and diry places in the yarn. 40 bleachd cbd wool. because yarns with high moisture content take up hardly any wax. the yarn should be allowed to stand for atleast 24 hours. These can be short thick places. Both principles have their advantages in specific applications. Short thick places are those faults which are not longer than approximately 8 cms. The difference between frequent yarn faults and seldom occuring yarn faults are mainly given by the mass or diameter deviation and size. Hence it is not possible to have fault free yarn from ringspinning. there are about 20 to 100 faults over a length of 100 km yarn which do not correspond to the deisred appearance of the yarn. If bobbins have to be conditioned or steamed. and the characteristics indicated by the wax manufacturer YARN FAULTS AND CLEARING: It is still not possible to produce a yarn without faults for various reasons.

To a much larger extent. In some cases.COARSE COUNTS CCM-FINE COUNTS The classes and their limits are set out according to the following: • Short thick place faults: 16 classes with the limits. and 8cm for the lengths and +100%. The most important aspect is certainly the determination of the fault dimensions of cross-sectional size and length. +150%. they can produce quite fatal results in the finished product. but much more frequently-occuring in long staple yarns. Once they reach a certain size( crosssection and length) . and have a length approx. non-seprated fibres.1 cm. to quite a large extent. The quite extensive application of electronic yarn clearing has set new quality standards with respect to the number of faults in spun yarns. and in each case accoridng to the type of yarn and its application.C4. their length can even reach many meters. FIG: YARN CLEARING CONCEPT OF USTER QUANTUM CLEARER N .NEPS S. Their frequency is dependent on the rawmaterial and the setting of the drafting element. 4cm. B4. Long thin places have lengths of approx. for a selection of the various types of faults. lower limit with respect to the mean yarn fault cross-section is measure in %. FIG: CLASSIMAT FAULTS: • The cross-sectional deviations are given +% or -% values. respectively . + 40% to +100% and more with respect of the mean cross-section of the yarn. +250%. can be extremely serious. The yarn faults are classified according to their length and cross-sectional size. Their effect in the finished product however. with the naked eye. i. 0. Long thick places are much more seldom-occuring than the short thick places and usually have a length longer than 40cms. Faults like spinners doubles are difficult to determine in the yarn.e theupper limit. The classes A4. On the other hand. They are relatively seldom-occuring in short staple yarns. With such a cross-section and length classification and by means of the correct choice of the class limits. whose cross-sectional size oversteps +400%.D4. The fault length is measured in cms. these faults are produced in the spinning section of the mill and are the result of spun in fly.SHORT FAULTS L-LONG FAULTS CCP . according to their length. It is therefore necessary to evolve a method of yarn fault classification before clearing the faults in winding. Long thin faults are difficult to determine in the yarn by means of the naked eye. In many cases.. the characteristic dimensions of the various fault types can be taken into consideration. or knitted fabric. • spinners doubles: This refers to a class (with the indication E) for faults whose length oversteps 8cms and whose cross-sectional size oversteps +100 ( open to the right and upwards) . A spinners double in the warp or in yarn for circular knitting can downgrade hundreds of meters of woven .D4 contain all those faults.of the rawmaterial ( vegetable matter.. The classes are indicated A1. Thin places occur in two length groups.30 to 70%. then a classification system will result which is suitable primarily for satisfying the requirements of yarn clearing and yet allows. short thick place fults can considerably affect the appearance of the finished product. they cause disturbances in subsequent processing. and this in 23 classes. Short thick places are easily determinable in the yarn. 40cms and longer and a cross-sectional decrease with respect to the mean yarn cross-section of approx. Short thin places are known as imperfections. etc). three times the mean staple length of the fibre. Their cross sectional size approx. They are too frequent in the yarn to be extracted by means of the electronic yarn clearing. and +400% for the cross-sectional sizes are provided. Long thick places will affect the fabric apperance. 2cm.

The following are some of them a.. an electrical signal is produced which is proportional to the change in mass per unit length of the yarn. U% / CV%. Besides the above basic difference in measuring principle. respetively. -45% and -75% and whose lengths are longer than 32 cms.I2. Yarn Clearer Settings The yarn clearer has to be provided with certain basic information in order to obtain the expected results in terms of clearing objectionable faults. The classes are designated H1. Since most of the other textile measurements like. the cutting device of the yarn clearer cuts the yarn. -45% and -75% for the cross-sectional sizes. The classes I1 and I2 are open to the right.e they contain all those thin places having a size between -30 and -45%. in various departments take into account mass as the reference parameter.. This signal is amplified and fed to the evaluation channels of the yarn clearing installation. The classification of the shorter thin places is of no advantage in the analysis of the seldom-occuring faults. Functioning Principle The yarn is measured in a measuring field constituted by a set of parallely placed capacitor plates. Clearing Limit: . the functioning of the capacitive clearer is explained in some detail in the following sections. and -30% .. The number and type of evaluation channels available are dependent on the sophistication and features of the model of the clearer in use. thick and thin places etc. FIG: A DIAGRAM FROM LOEPFE YARN CLEARER MANUAL Types of Electronic Yarn Clearers Electronic Yarn Clearers available in the market are principally of two types –capacitive and optical. the basis of functioning of both the types of clearers are similar if not exactly same. When the mass per unit length of the yarn exceeds the threshold limit set for the channel. i. When the yarn passes through this measuring field (between the capacitor plates). Both have their merits and demerits and are equally popular in the textile industry.• Long thick place faults and thick ends: The long thin place faults are contained in 4 classes with the limits 8 cms and 32 cms for the lengths.. Clearers working on the capacitive principle have ‘ mass’as the reference for performing its functions while optical clearers function with ‘ diameter’ as the reference.. Each of the channels reacts to the signals for the corresponding type of yarn fault.

instead of the machine speed. acrylonitrile 8.This determines the activating limit for the fault cross sectional size.5) = 4. Setting a higher speed than the actual is likely to result in higher number of cuts. Neps . Winding Speed: The setting of the winding speed is also very critical for accurate removal of faults. material number and speeds are monitored and automatically corrected during actual running of the yarn. Table :material number 7.33 * 7. the material number is formed from the sum of the percentage components of the blend. For a yarn fault to be cut. Fault Channels: The various fault channels available in a latest generation yarn clearer are as follows: 1. In most of the modern day clearers. Long Thick Places 3. For blended yarns. Here. beyond which the cutter is activated to remove the yarn fault.Sensitivity and Reference Length.5) + (0. c. The material number values for different materials are provided in Table. the Material Number is changed by 1 for a 15% change in Relative Humidity. it is worth mentioning that the ‘ reference length’ may be lower or higher than the actual ‘ fault length’. Both the above parameters can be set within a wide range of limits depending on specific yarn clearing requirements.5 6 5.5 3. when a 67/33 Polyester / Cotton blend is run at an RH of 65%.5 cotton.5 2. Yarn Count : The setting of the yarn count provides a clearer with the basic information on the mean value of the material being processed to which the clearer compares the instantaneous yarn signals for identifying the seriousness of a fault. wool. b. Sensitivity . For instance. These factors are taken into consideration in the ‘ Material Number’ . ii. A reduction in material number results in a more sensitive setting causing higher fault removal. Short Thick places 2.) and environmental conditions like relative humidity.5 very dry material(50% RH) 7 very damp material 5 very dry material 50 to 80% RH polyamide 50 to 80% RH polypropylene.The clearing limit defines the threshold level for the yarn faults.67 * 3. Material Number: Besides the yarn count there are certain other factors which influence the capacitance signal from the measuring field like type of fibre (Polyester / Cotton / Viscose etc. poly ethylene50 to 80% RH polyester polyvinyl chloride 50 to 80%RH 50 to 80% RH From the values given in the table it could be seen that. the Material umber should be set at (0. the delivery speed be set by actual calculation after running the yarn for 2-3 minutes and checking the length of yarn delivered. i. d. Similarly a lower speed setting relative to the actual causes less cuts with some faults escaping without being cut. Reference Length – This defines the length of the yarn over which the fault cross – section is to be measured.8. The clearing limit consists of two setting parameters . the mean value of the yarn fault cross-section has to overstep the set sensitivity for the set reference length. viscost natural silk acetate.5 very damp material (80%Rh) 6. It is recommended that. for water absorbent fibres like cotton. Long Thin Places 4.5 4. the count.

This is mostly used while clearing cotton yarn. Latest methods of splicing process consist of two operations. Splice The availability of one or more of the above channels is dependent on the type of the yarn clearer. SPLICING: A high degree of yarn quality is impossible through knot. highly twisted and fine yarns could not be joined satisfactorily with such method. Other methods have inherent drawbacks like limited fields of application. Splicing is a technique of joining two yarn ends by intermingling the constituent fibres so that the joint is not significantly different in appearance and mechanical properties with respect to the parent yarn. No extraneous material is used and hence the dye affinity is unchanged at the joint. This is in spite of the fact that the tensile strength of the yarn with knot is superior to that of yarn with splice. Count 6. Splicing proceeds in two stages with two different air blasts of different intensity. no great mass variation. improper structure and properties of yarn produced. with latest clearers. no mechanical obstruction. Pneumatic Splicing The first generation of splicing systems operated with just one stage without proceeding to trimming. During the first stage.. i. pneumatic splicing is the most popular. The first air blast untwists and causes opening of the free ends. maintenance and operations. Most of the modern clearers have the above channels. In addition. visibly unobjectionable. The untwisted fibres are then intermingled and twisted in the same direction as that of parent yarn by another air blast Structure of Splice . high cost of manufacturing. the fibres intermingled and later twisted in the same direction as that of the parent yarn. Contamination Clearing: Detection of contamination in normal yarn has become a requirement in recent times due to the demands by yarn buyers abroad. as the knot itself is objectionable due to its physical dimension. Short fibres. it is also possible to detect concentration of faults in a specific length of yarn by means of alarms(cluster faults). first the yarn is opened. some of the optical yarn clearers have an additional channel to detect the contamination in yarn. In a second operation the prepared ends are laid and twisted together. Splicing satisfies the demand for knot free yarn joining: no thickening of the thread or only slight increase in its normal diameter. high breaking strength close to that of the basic yarn under both static and dynamic loading. It is universally acceptable and functionally reliable. the ends are untwisted. almost equal elasticity in the joint and basic yarn. The knots are responsible for 30 to 60% of stoppages in weaving. The yarn ends were fed into the splicing chamber and pieced together in one operation. The effectiveness of splicing is primarily dependent on the tensile strength and physical appearance.5. Therefore. splicing enables a higher degree of yarn clearing to be obtained on the electronic yarn clearer. Many techniques for splicing have been developed such as Electrostatic splicing.e. Mechanical splicing and Pneumatic splicing. The various facilities available in the yarn clearers nowadays enable precise setting and removal of all objectionable faults while at the same time ensure a reasonably high level of productivity. Splicing technology has grown so rapidly in the recent past that automatic knotters on modern high speed winding machine are a thing of the past. appearance and problems during downstream processes. Principle of Pneumatic Splicing The splicing consists of untwisting and later re-twisting two yarn ends using air blast. Splicing is the ultimate method to eliminate yarn faults and problems of knots and piecing. to achieve a near parallel arrangement of fibres. Among them. Besides detection of the various types of faults.

polyester and wool report that coarser yarns have higher breaking strength but a moderate extension. The lower torsional rigidity and higher breaking twist angle permit better fibre intermingling. Effect of Yarn Fineness Several studies on cotton. The fibres of the twisting yarn embrace the body of the yarn and thus acts as a belt. Thus. each yarn strand twists on the body of the yarn on either side of the middle of the splice. The coarse yarn cross section contains more fibres and provides better fibre intermingling during preopening. Breaking elongation is mainly affected by intermingling. The absence of fibre migration gives lower breaking elongation to splice. Wrapping : The tail end of each yarn strand is tapered and terminates with few fibres. The studies on quantitative contribution of splice elements showed that intermingling/tucking contributes the most to the strength of splice (52%). these properties of fibre contribute to better retention of splice strength. Effect of Yarn Twist . Spliced yarn has a lower breaking elongation than normal yarn. The fibres from each yarn end intermingle in this splice zone just by tucking.Analysis of the longitudinal and transverse studies revealed that the structure of the splice comprises of three distinct regions/elements brought by wrapping. Wrapping and twisting provides mainly transverse forces. The tail end makes a good wrapping of several turns and thus prevents fraying of the splice. usually the addition of polyester to other fibre blend like P/W. twisting and tucking / intermingling. The lower strength of the splice is attributed to the lower packing coefficient of the splice zone. Tucking / Intermingling The middle portion of the splice is a region (2-5 mm) with no distinct order. breaking twist angle and coefficient of friction affect splice strength and appearance. Higher coefficient of friction of fibres generates more inter-fibre friction to give a more cohesive yarn. The cross-section of this region distinctly shows the fibres of the two yarn strands separately without any intermingling of the fibres. In blended yarn. This in turn gives appearance to the splice. Effect of Fibre Properties and Blend Fibre properties such as torsional rigidity. P/C both for ring and rotor spun yarn increases splice strength. Twisting The two yarn ends comprising the splice are twisted around the body of the yarn. Effect of Variables on the Properties of the Spliced yarn Several studies have been conducted on the effect of various variables on the properties of the spliced yarn. followed by twisting (33%) and wrapping (about 15%). hence the splice is stronger than that of finer yarns.

make it difficult to untwist and the disordered structure is less ideal for splicing. long opening time deteriorates the strength. Compared to the splicing duration. 25 tex ring spun yarn shows a rise in tensile strength up to a certain opening pressure. Splicing of twisted ply yarn is more complicated than single yarn due to the yarn structure having opposing twists in the single and doubled yarns. Effect of Splicing Chamber . It has also been observed that.5 to 1. It is desirable however. but beyond this pressure. The coefficient of variation of these properties is also generally high. Effect of Different Spinning Methods Yarn produced with different spinning methods exhibit different structure and properties. the splicing length has more pronounced effect on the load-elongation properties of the spliced yarn. due to the presence of wrapper fibres. different materials require different durations of blast. Effect of Splicing Duration With a given splicing length. that splicing duration be as short as possible. Effect of Opening Pressure A study on 50/50 polyester cotton. Only very low tensile strengths and elongation values can be attained due to the inadequate opening of the yarn ends during preparation of the splicing. This could be due to better opening of the strands at higher pneumatic pressure. Twisted yarns also require a relatively longer time for complete opening of the yarn ends. even at higher pneumatic pressure. This may be due to higher packing coefficient resulting from wet splicing. these yarns show significant differences in splice quality. for maximum splice strength.8 seconds. In fact.An increase in the twist significantly increases the breaking load and elongation. showed that regardless of the splicing material. An increase in pressure up to 5 bar caused release of fibre tufts and fibre loss from the yarn ends in P/C blend which is due to intensive opening. the breaking strength of the spliced yarn and also their strength retention over the normal value of the basic yarn increases because of increased cohesive force resulting from an increased number of wrapping coils in a given length. The air-jet-spun (MJS) yarn and the cover spun yarn are virtually impossible to splice. Therefore. Elongation at break and retention of elongation of both flyer and wrap spun spliced yarns increase with the splice length. These are between 0. wet splicing is more effective for yarn made from long staple fibres and for coarse yarn. the breaking strength and extension of splice vary with fibre and yarn properties. The breaking strength percentage of ring spliced yarns to a parent yarn is 70% to 85% for cotton yarn. the breaking strength and strength retention of both yarn types increase with the splicing length because of the increased binding length of the two yarn ends. Rotor spun yarns. It can be therefore be stated that the splices made on longer lengths and for longer period of time have more uniform strength. drafting and twisting in the opposite direction may also occur. However. the highest relative tensile strength obtained at the spliced joints can be above 80%. Comparison of Dry and Wet Splicing The comparative studies on dry and wet splicing with water showed that the breaking load retention for wet spliced yarns are significantly greater than dry spliced yarns. The effects are more pronounced at higher splicing lengths. The splicing duration alone has no conclusive effect on elongation properties of splice yarn. However. The ring spun yarn lent best splicing but the potential of splicing is affected by the spinning conditions. The breaking strength retention varies from 54% to 71% and is much lower compared to the splice of ring spun yarns. In case of friction spun yarns. when the splicing is extended for a long period of time. Effect of Splicing Length Studies on splicing of flyer and wrap spun yarns spun with different materials. but a number of splicing failures occurs due to unfavourable yarn structure.

Bobbin taper: The ratio of the length of the upper taper of the cop (bobbin with yarn) to the diameter of the bobbin must be 1:2 or greater. It depends upon. CHARACTERISTICS OF BOBBIN FORMATION: • Strectch length: It is the length of the yarn deposited on the bobbin tube during each chase (one up and down movement of ringrail ) of ring rail. cluster setting which will result in red lights and others bobbin rejections. bobbin characteritics etc. • • Winding ratio:It is the ratio of the length of yarn wound during the upward movement of the ring rail and the length wound during the downward movement of the ringrail. because TPI will affect the bobbin length). % increase in diameter and evaluation of its performance in down stream process etc. around the tube. which varies with different staple fibres. clearer settings like off count channel. the appearance can be assessed either by simple visual assessment or by comparing with photograph of standard splice. web: Yarn is visible on the small or on the big side of the cone either across the side . number of repeaters setting for red lights. and with no damage whatsoever to the yarn. It is not possible to make a general comment regarding potential of the splicing chamber due to the multiplicity of factors influencing splicing. The length should be around 3. It was observed that irregular air pressure has advantages over constant pressure for better intermingling in the splicing chamber. double gaiting.(abrasion and breaks due to excessive tension) WINDING PRODUCTION: It depends upon the following factors • • • • • • winding speed time required by the machine to carry out one splicing operation bobbin length per bobbin( both bobbin weight and tpi to be considered. Assessment of Yarn Splice Quality The two important characteristics of a splice are appearance and strength. wrong gaiting. This is due to loose yarn ends that are wound on to the cone Stitch. (type of fibre. or going back in the cone . Although quality of splice can be assessed by methods like load-elongation. WINDING SPEED: It depends upon the following factors • count type of yarn. drop over. this decides the clearer cuts count the number of doffs. lower the number of doffs the time taken for each doff either by the doffer or by an operator Down time due to red light.5 to 5 meters. WINDING PACKAGE DEFECTS: Following are some of the package defects which will result in complaints • • • • • • • • • • Yarn waste in the cones. number of red lights. filament yarns. average strength and minimum strength) type and charactersitics of bobbin package taper final use of package The best winding speed is the speed which allows the highest level of production possible for a given type of yarn and type of package.. It depends upon the doff weight. it depends on weak yarn. This decides the number of bobbin changes the number of faults in the yarn and the clearer settings.The factors like method and mode of air supply and pressure along with type of prism affect the splicing quality. work of rupture. It should be shorter for coarser yarns and longer for fine yarns. Higher the doff weight. and yarns with S and Z twists.

by inserting twist to wind up the twisted strand (yarn) in a form suitable for storage. because it is misguided Without transfer tail: The desired transfer tail is missing or too short Ribbon formation: Pattern or ring formation are made by the drum when rpm are stying the same Displaced yarn layers: yarn layers are disturbed and are sliding towards the small diameter of the cone Misguided yarn : The yarn is not equally guided over the hole package Cauliflower: On the smaller side of the package. It delivers a material with optimum charactersticss. Ring formation: The yarn runs in belt formation on to the package. DRAFTING . it is simple and easy to master the know-how is well established and accessible for everyone ○    Functions of ringframe to draft the roving until the reqired fineness is achieved to impart strength to the fibre.• • • Damaged edges or broken ends on the cone: The yarn is broken on the edges or in the middle of the cone.e. the yarn shows a wrinkle effect Soft and Hard yarn layer: Some layer of yarn are pushed out on the small side of the cone Soft and Hard cones: Great difference in package density from one winder head to another • • • • • • RING FRAME The ring spinning will continue to be the most widely used form of spinning machine in the near future.any material can be spun to any required count because it exhibits significant advantages in comparison with the new spinning processes. • Following are the advantages of ring spinning frame • • • • It is universaly applicable. especially with regard to structure and strength. transportaion and further processing. i.

directly by affecting the end break rate and indirectly by the maximum draft possible. only few fibres remain in the strand and these exhibit a tendency to slide apart. Rubber cots with hardness less than 60 degrees shore are normally unsuitable because they can not recover from the deformation caused by the pressure on the top roller while running. This has a correspondigly favourable influence on the end break rate. little twisted and it does not require any additional guidance for better fibre control. harder rubbercots are used at the front roller because of increased wear and in the case of synthetic yarns to reduce lapups.upto 45 synthetic fibres . personnel and so on. Within the limit some studies show that increase in draft improves yarn quality. because the roving which enters the back roller is compact . enclose the fibre strand more completely and therefore provide better guidance for the fibres.However softer cots wear out significantly faster and tend to form more laps. It influences mainly evenness and strength The following points are therefore very important drafting type design of drafting system drafting settings selection of drafting elements like cots. This results in higher production rate at the roving frame and thus reducing the number roving machines required.Therefore rubbercots with hardness levels of the order 80 degrees to 85 degrees shore are mostly used at the back roller and 63 degrees and 65 degrees at the front roller.upto 35 carded blends . Three kinds of top roller weighting(loading) are presently in use spring loading pneumatic loading magnetic weighting . In the front top roller. The following draft limits have been established for practical operation: carded cotton. Overhang of the front top roller gives smooth running of the top rollers and shortens the spinning triangle. If higher drafts can be used with a drafting arrangement. space. more critical is the break draft setting The front top roller is set slightly forward by a distance of 2 to 4mm relative to the front bottom roller. then coarser roving can be used as a feeding material. Additional fibre guidance is therefore necessary.      ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Normally harder rubbercots are used for back top rollers. ○ ○    If coarse yarns and synthetic yarns are being spun.upto 40 combed cotton and blends(medium counts) .upto 40 combed cotton and blends(fine counts) . aprong. traveller etc choice of appropriate draft service and maintenance Drafting arrangement influence the economics of the machine .○    Drafting arrangement is the most important part of the machine. while the middle top roller is arranged a short distance of 2mm behind the middle bottom roller.upto 50 The break draft must be adapted to the total draft in each case since the main draft should not exceed 25 to 30. Soft rubbercots for toprollers have a greater area of contact.     ○ ○ ○ In fact increase in draft affects the yarn quality beyond certain limit. It should be noted that higher the break draft.

also affect yarn quality and of course the number of end breakage. Previously. ○ The fibre strand in the main drafting field consists of only a few remaining fibres. but with a shorter stroke. precisely adapted to the fibre volume is needed between the two aprons at the delivery. For this purpose. Moreover the rubbercots will not get deformed if the machine is stopped for a longer duration. There is hardly any friction field and fibre guidance provided by the rollers alone is inadequate. the upper apron must be pressed with controlled force against the lower apron. Double apron drafting arrangements with longer bottom aprons is the most widely used guding system in all the modern ringframes. the total pressure applied to all top rolers is obtained by simple adjustment of the pressure in the hose using pressure reducing valve. Both these disadvantages result in higher yarn tension. because very high forces are exerted on a strand consisting of fibres which have not yet been fully bound together in the spinning triangle. This helps to control the yarn tension variation with in control. but now it is usually carried out by adjusting the ring. but with lower yarn tension. Lappet guide performs the same sequence of movements as the ringrail.This deformation can lead to balloon stability. Long bottom aprons have the advantage in comparison wiht short ones. thereby higher endbreaks. Most ends down arise from breaks in the spinning triangle. higher the air drag on the yarn. ○  Spindles used today are relatively long.In order to avoid this. The spacing between the ring and the thread guide is correspondigly long. Special fibre guiding devices are therefore needed to carry out a satisfactory drafting operation. this was done by shifting the spindle relative to the ring. especially imbalance and eccentricity relative to the ring flange. this movement of the guide ensures that differences in the balloon height caused by changes in the ring rail positions do not become too large. • • RING and TRAVELLER COMBINATION: The following factors should be considered . ○ In doube apron drafting system two revolving aprons driven by the middle rollers form a fibre guiding assembly.  ○ ○ Balloon control rings therefore help to run the mahcine with long spindles(longer lift) and at high spindle speed. Hence it should be ensured that the centering of the spindles relative to the rings is as accurate as possible. ○ ○ In comparison with Tangential belt drive. Since the yarn rubs against the control ring. because the pressure on top rollers can be released to the minimum level. Since the ring and spindle form independent units and are able to shift relative to each other in operation.○ With pneumatic loading system. ○ Spindles and their drive have a great influence on power consumption and noise level in the machine The running characteristics of a spindle. Inspite of its large overall height. the 4-spindle drive has the advantages of lower noise level and energy consumption. a controlled spacing (exit opening). and tapes are easier to replace. It divides the balloon into two smaller sub-balloons.This inturn causes increased deformation of the balloon curve out of hte plane intersecting the spindle axis. Almost all yarn parameters are affected by poorly running spindles. balloon control rings are used. so that ends down rate and yarn charactersitics are under control. these two parts must be re-centered from time to time. thus giving a high balloon. In order to be able to guide the fibres. This spacing is set by "spacer" or "distance clips". it may cause roughening of the yarn. This has two negative influence A high balloon results in large bobbin diameter leading to space problems Larger the balloon diameter . that they can be easily replaced in the event of damage and there is less danger of choking with fluff. there is increase danger of collapse. the double-balloon created in this way is thoroughly stable even at relatively low yarn tension.

Antiwedge rings exhibit an enlarged flange inner side and is markedly flattened on it upper surface.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ materials of the ring traveller surface charecteristics the forms of both elements wear resistance smoothness of running running-in conditions fibre lubrication For the rings two dimensions are of primariy importance. Antiwedge rings and elliptical travellers belong together and can be used in combination. but not too high.internal diameter 2. This material arises from material abraded from the fibres. The traveller hardness should be lower (650-700 vickers). which is cheaper and easier to replace.In comparison with antiwedge ring. ○ • • • Low crown profle has the following advantage. higher than that of the traveller should have been run in as per ring manufacturers requirement long operating life correct relationship between ring and bobbin tube diameters perfectly horizontal position it should be exactly centered relative to the spindle In reality. 1. • • The ring should be tough and hard on its exterior. form and structure of lubricating film depends on ○ ○ yarn fineness yarn structure fibre raw material ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ . flange width. because lubricating film can not build up if it too smooth. • • ○ ○ ○ ○ A good ring in operation should have the following features: best quality raw material good. This type of profile permitted to use travellers with a lower centre of gravity and precisely adapted bow(elliptical travellers). the particles are partially ground to a paste of small. The low crown ring is the most widely used ring form now. Low crown ring has a flattened surface top and this gives space for the passage of the yarn so that the curvature of the traveller can also be reduced and the centre of gravity is lowered. so that wear occurs mainly on the traveller. Surface smoothness should be high. colourless. the low crown ring has the advantage that the space provided for passage of the yarn is somewhat larger and that all current traveller shapes can be applied.If fibre particles are caught between the ring and traveller. surface smoothness an even surface exact roundness good. which in turn helped to run the machine with higher spindle speeds. the traveller moves on a lubricating film which builds up itself and which consists primarily of cellulose and wax. The platelets are continually being replaced during working. transparent and extremely thin platelets. The running surface must have high and even hardeness in the range 800-850 vikcers. but not too high. then at high traveller speeds and with correspondingly high centrifugal forces. The traveller smoothes these out to form a continuous running surface. even surface hardness.The position. with the exception of the elliptical traveller.

Since traveller does not have a drive on its own but is dragged along behind by the spindle. in order to keep the centre of gravity low and thereby improve smoothness of running.○ ○ ○ • traveller mass traveller speed heigh of traveller bow Modern ring and traveller combination with good fibre lubrication enable traveller speeds upto 40m/sec. The difference in speed should correspond to length delivered at the front rollers. Length wound up on the bobbin corresponds to the difference in peripheral speeds of the spindle and traveller. the traveller sustains thermal damage and fails. welding takes place between the two. This speed restriction is felt particularly when spinning cotton yarns of relatively high strength. a drastic change in the wear behaviour of the ring and traveller ensues. Traveller imparts twist to the yarn. for every tensile load of hte fibres lessens the residual elongation in the fibres and hence in the yarn. These seizures inflict massive damage not only to the traveller but to the ring as well. there is less hairiness. SHAPE OF THE TRAVELLER: The traveller must be shaped to match exactly with the ring in the contact zone. the thermal stress limit of the traveller is exceeded. Increasing tension leads also to poorer Uster regularity and IPI values. • • If the traveller speed is raised beyond normal levels . • • When the spindle speed is increased. As a result the operating speed of the traveller is limited.Due to this unstable behaviour of the ring and traveller system the wear is atleast an order of magnitude higher than during the stable phase. Traveller and spindle together help to wind the yarn on the bobbin. the spinning triangle becomes smaller . Low mass of the traveller does not permit dissipation of the generated heat in the short time available. so that a single contact surface. The traveller temperature reaches 400 to 500 degrees celcius and the danger of the traveller annealing and failing is very great. • . • • High contact pressure (upto 35 N/square mm)is generated between the ring and the traveller during winding. On the other hand the elongation diminishes with increasing tension. • • The spinning tension is proportional to the friction coefficient between ring and traveller to the traveller mass to the square of hte traveler speed and inversely proportional ○ to the ring diameter and the angle between the connecting line from the traveller-spindle axis to the piece of yarn between the traveller and cop. the friction work between ring and traveller (hence the build up) increases as the 3rd power of the spindle rpm. The bow of the traveller should be as flat as possible. • ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • If the spinning tension is more. This pressure leads to generation of heat. As the spinning triangle gets smaller. Owing to the strongly increased adhesion forces between ring and traveller. The yarn strength is affected only little by the spinning tension. mainly due to centrifugal force. with the maximum surface area is created between ring and traveller. Consequently if the spindle speed is too high.

the ring rail is moved slowly but with increasing speed in the upward direction and quickly but with decreasing speed downwards. yarn tension will go up and will result in end breaks. the bobbin becomes too soft and the cop content will be low. If the yarn clearance opening is too small. Most of these fibres float away as dust in to the atmosphere. and these in turn determine the winding and balloon tension. traveller clearers are fixed close to the ring. This will increase the mass of traveller and will result in end break because of higher yarn tension. smoother running of the traveller and better transfer of heat out of traveller. some fibres are liberated. In the winding of a layer. "Braecker" has developed a new process in which certain finishing components diffuse into the traveller surface and are fixed in place there. Exact setting is very important. If it is unduly high. so that the accumulation is prevented. then the heavier is normally selected. The resulting layer reduces temperature rise and increases wear resistance. They should be set as close as possible to the traveller. • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • • ○ ○ ○ ○ Traveller mass determines the magnitude of frictional forces between the traveller and the ring. • When the yarn runs through the traveller. If a choice is available between two traveller weights. Mass of the traveller depends upon yarn count yarn strength spindle speed material being spun If traveller weight is too low. a high level of fibre loss as fly. . • WIRE PROFILE OF THE TRAVELLER: Wire profile influences both the behaviour of the traveller and certain yarn characteristics. but some remain caught on the traveller and they can accumulate and form a tuft. but without affecting its movement. To avoid this accumulation . since it will give greater cop weight. traveller manufacturers have made efforts to improve the running properties by surface treatment. • Specific shape of the cop is achieved by placing the layers of yarn in a conical arrangement. so that the traveller will not break as it is pushed on to the ring exhibit high wear resistance be less hard than the ring. because the traveller must wear out in use in preference to the ring In view of the above said requirements. This gives a ratio between the length of yarn in the main (up) and cross(down) windings about 2:1.• However the flat bow must still leave adequate space for passage of the yarn. they are contact surface of the ring smooth running thermal transfer yarn clearance opening roughening effect hairiness MATERIAL OF THE TRAVELLER The traveller should generate as little heat as possible quickly distribute the generated heat from the area where it develops over the whole volume of the traveller transfer this heat rapidly to the ring and the air be elastic. deterioration of yarn quality and formation of melt spots in spinning of synthetic fibre yarns. rubbing of the yarn on the ring leads to roughening of the yarn.

This gives smoother running and smaller spinning triangle. It removes fibres delivered by the drafting arrangement after an end break and thus prevents mulitple end breaks on neighbouring spindles. the fibres first have to be diverted inwards and wrapped around each other. after leaving the rollers. 40 to 50 % of the return air-flow passes back into the duct system of the airconditioning plant via the suction tubes of pneumafil suction system. In modern installations.around 1200 pascals A significant pressure difference arises between the fan and the last spindle.5 times the power needed for an air-flow of 6 cubic meter/ hour. This is called top roller overhang. approx. is about 4. • End break suction system has a variety of functions. The distances and angles together are referred to as the spinning geometry.around 800 pascals for synthetic . the longer the machine and greater the volume of air to be transported. SPINNING GEOMETRY: • From Roving bobbin to cop. They are ○ ○ ○ yarn tension number of end breaks yarn irregularity binding-in of the fibres yarn hairiness generation of fly etc. the fibre strand passes through drafting arrangement. balloon control rings and traveller. this is called as SPINNING TRIANGLE. The traverse stroke of the ring rail is ideal when it is about 15 to 18% greater than the ring diameter. ○ ○ Remember that the power needed to generate an air-flow of 10 cubic meter/ hour . There is always a triangular bundle of fibres without twist at the exit of the rollers. but it never penetrates completely to the nip because.The result is that the tensile force exerted on yarn must be much higher during winding on the bare tube than during winding on the full cop. These parts are arranged at various angles and distances relative to each other. The air flow rate is normally between 5 and 10 cubic meter/ hour. especially the region of the spinning triangle. Twist must run back as close as possible to the nip of the rollers. The length of the spinning triangle depends upon the spinning geometry and upon the twist level in the yarn. ○ ○ ○ • • The top roller is always shifted 3 to 6 mm forward compared to bottom roller. • • Continuous variation of the operating conditions arises during winding of a cop. It enables better environmental control. as the distance from the opening of the aprons to the roller nip line becomes too long resulting in poorer fibre control and increased yarn irregularity. Spinning Triangle: Twist in a yarn is generated at the traveller and travel against the direction of yarn movement to the front roller. This pressure difference will be greater .• The total length of a complete layer (main and cross windings together) should not be greater than 5m (preferably 4 m) to facilitate unwinding. The overhang must not be made too large. because of the significantly higher vacuum level developed at the fan. A relatively high vacuum must be generated to ensure suction of waste fibres ○ ○ ○ ○   ○ for cotton .has a significant influence on the spinning opeartion and the resulting yarn. because of . Most of the end breaks originate at this point. thread guide. since a large part of the return air-flow of the aircondition system is led past the drafting system.

After you find the end. the yarn tension is substantially higher than when the ring rail is at its lowermost position. 1:2 and 1:2. in order to ensure that the yarn tension oscillations do not become too great. . This can be observed easily in the balloon on any ring spinning machine. If you find yourself with many hanks to wind. It is reduced to a very small degree by the deviation of the yarn at the thread guide. Skein: Yarn wrapped in a loose twist. well. You need to wind hanks into a ball before you can use them.2. and hanks. in spinning onto the tube. An equilibrium of forces must be obtained between the yarn tension and balloon tension. Yarn tension in the balloon is the tension which finally penetrates almost to the spinning triangle and which is responsible for the greater part of the thread breaks. • Types of Yarn Packaging Yarn is packaged (or put up) in different forms: balls. you’ll quickly end up with a tangled mess. skeins (rhymes with canes). • The tube and ring diameters must have a minimum ratio. but the shape does determine how you work with them. The differences in yarn packaging shouldn't have much effect on the yarn you choose.the difference in the angle of attack of the yarn on the traveller. If you try to knit with the yarn in hank form. Your local yarn store may offer a winding service to convert hanks of yarn to balls by using a yarn (or ball) winder and a swift — two pieces of equipment that allow you to make an easy-to-use “cake” of yarn that sits flat while you knit it. Hank: Yarn wound into a large circle and then folded. you can even buy your own winder and swift! . When the ring rail is at the upper end of its stroke. wrapped into a ball shape. between approx. . • • • Ball: Yarn that's . you can cast on and go. Yarn packaged as balls and skeins come ready to knit.

If you’re lucky. If not. the yarn already will be center-pulled — the inside end will be pulled to the outside — easily identifiable and ready to go. you have to reach in and pull out a small hunk of yarn in order to find this end and then rewrap the extra. . This way. the skein or ball will remain in place as you knit and not roll around the floor.Knit or crochet with the yarn end that comes from the inside of the skein or ball.