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(Mem. No. :- ST 398118-0 (Ref. EEA/39/ST3981180)


I certify that the project work done by me is original and has not been submitted to any other institution for fulfillment of the requirement of a course of study.





Synopsis FINAL PROJECT REPORT 1. Title of project 2. Objective of study 3. Methodology of the study 4. Statement of problem 5. Discription Unit 1. ISDN in India Unit 2. Administrative system Unit 3. History Unit 4. ISDN Features and functions Unit 5. ISDN technical fundamentals 5.5.1. Basic ISDN Installation requirment 5.5.2. ISDN reference points 5.5.3. B,D,and H channels 5.5.4. BRI and PRI services 5.5.5. ISDN frames 5.5.6. ISDN Protocol (Layer) Unit 6. Services provided by BSNL on ISDN Unit 7. Commercial aspect of interface with customers Unit 8. ISDN service enhancements Unit 9. ISDN competitor technologies 6. Final results 7. Conclusion 8. Scope of future study 9. References 10.Appendix A

Sheet No. 1 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 9 11 13 14 16 18 19 23 25 29 31 35 35 35 36 37

1. TITLE OF PROJECT:Mobile Communication using GSM Technology; BSNL - A Case Study. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:To have complete familiarisation with the concepts of rapidly developing field of mobile communication using GSM technology, which in the past 10 years not only have increased 40 fold but also changed the life style of people & the way businesses were done, thus resulting in complete telecom revolution. 3. RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY:(a) Over the years Phone on the move (mobile), has become an absolute necessity than a mere luxury. (b) It has become an economically viable option for most section of the society. (c) Have resulted in high density of users who remain connected anytime anywhere. (d) Innovative value added services made it the most popular communication system. (e) Being a user friendly system, more and more people are getting attracted towards it day by day. So this study project is undertaken in order to contribute as much as possible towards the telecom revolution and be a part of the growth story of boosting economy. 4. DETAILED METHODOLOGY USED FOR CARRYING OUT THE STUDY:(a) Visit to BTS (Base Transceiver Station) at BRS Nagar, Ludhiana to see the antenna structure and the equipments with facilities of uninterrupted power supply. (b) Visit to BSC (Base Station Controller) at BN Chowk, Ludhiana to get a first hand experience on the basics of

radio related functions and manuals available on site.





(c) Visit the XCDR (Transcoder) system at BN Chowk, Ludhiana to understand its operation and maintenance. (d) Visit to MSC (Mobile service switching centre) at Sec-34 Chandigarh to get a first hand account of functioning of different essential systems. E.g. HLR (Home Location Register), AuC (Authentication Register), VLR (Visitor Location register), EIR (Equipment Identification Register). Study the manuals available on site. 5. THE EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION FROM THE STUDY:a) Dissemination through IE(I) centers practical and technical realities described in the project will help the students of communication engineering branches. b) This can be used as handy guide book for BSNL employees/ perspective BSNL employees and engineers aspiring to pursue a career in the field of mobile communications. 6. LIST OF ACTIVITIES TO BE CARRIED OUT TO COMPLETE THE PROJECT ( WITH THE HELP OF A BAR CHART SHOWING THE TIME SCHEDULE ) :-


( a ) BSNL BTS at BRS Nagar, Ludhiana ( b ) BSNL BSC at Bharat Nagar Chowk, Ludhiana ( c ) BSNL MSC at Sec-34, Chandigarh. 8. PROBLEMS ENVISAGED IN CARRYING OUT THE PROJECT, IF ANY:NIL



1. TITLE OF PROJECT:Mobile Communication using GSM Technology; BSNL - A Case Study. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:To have complete familiarisation with the concepts of rapidly developing field of mobile communication using GSM technology, which in the past 10 years not only have increased 40 fold but also changed the life style of people & the way businesses were done, thus resulting in complete telecom revolution. 3. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY :-


Visit to BTS (Base Transceiver Station) at BRS Nagar, Ludhiana to see the antenna structure and the equipments with facilities of uninterrupted power supply.

(B) Visit to BSC (Base Station Controller) at BN Chowk, Ludhiana to get a first hand experience on the basics of radio related functions and MS handover. Study the manuals available on site. (C) Visit the XCDR (Transcoder) system at BN Chowk, Ludhiana to understand its operation and maintenance. (D)Visit to MSC (Mobile service switching centre) at Sec-34 Chandigarh to get a first hand account of functioning of different essential systems. E.g. HLR (Home Location Register), AuC (Authentication Register), VLR (Visitor Location register), EIR (Equipment Identification Register). Study the manuals available on site.


To have comprehensive technical information about various GSM services of BSNL to Indian customers.


S-6 (Unit-1)





HERE GM-General Manager DGM-Depty GM DE-Divisional Engineer SDE-Sub Divisional Engineer JTO-Junior Telecom Officer TTA-Telecom Technical Assistant SFs -SUPPORTING STAFF(Telephone Mechanics,Telecom Office assistant,Telecom Operator,Clerks etc

S-7 (Unit-2)


History of Mobile Communication

Wireless communication was a magic to our ancestors but Marconi could initiate it with his wireless telegraph in 1895.Wireless Communication can be classified into three eras.

Pioneer Era (Till 1920) Pre Cellular Era(1920-1970) Cellular Era (beyond 1970)

History - Pioneer Era (Till 1920) :-

In 1946 first commercial mobile telephone system was launched by BELL in St. Louis, USA. Few lucky customers were getting the services .Early mobile systems were using single high power transmitters with analog Frequency Modulation techniques to give coverage up to about 50 miles. Few customers only could get the service due to severe constraints of bandwidth.


To overcome the constraints of bandwidth scarcity and to give coverage to larger sections, BELL lab introduced the principle of Cellular concept. By frequency reuse technique this method provides for better coverage, better utility of available frequency spectrum and reduced transmitter power. But the established calls are to be handed over Between base stations while the phones are on move Even though US based BELL lab introduced cellular principle, the Nordic countries were the first to introduce cellular services for commercial use with the introduction of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) in 1981.


History - First Generation Systems

All these systems were analog systems, using FDMA. They are also known as FirstGeneration(1G)systems Different systems came into use based on cellular principle. They are listed below.

Year 1981 1982 1985 1986

Mobile System Nordic Mobile Telephone(NMT)450 American Mobile Phone System(AMPS) Total Access Communication System(TACS) Nordic Mobile Telephony(NMT)900

History of Mobile Communication To overcome the difficulties of 1G, digital technology was chosen by most of the countries and a new era started.


Improved Spectral Utilization achieved by using advanced Modulation Techniques. Lower bit rate voice coding enabled more users getting the services simultaneously. Reduction of overhead in signaling paved way for capacity enhancement. Good source and channel coding techniques make the signal more robust to Interference. New services like SMS are included. Improved efficiency of access and hand-off control is achieved.

History of Mobile Communication

Name of the systems North American Digital CellularNADC GSM-Global System for Mobile communication JDC - Japanese Digital Cellular Cordless Telephone2 Digital European Cordless Telephone(DECT)

Country North America European Countries and International applications Japan UK European countries


History - Milestones of GSM

1982-Confederation of European Post and Telegraph (CEPT) establishes Group Special mobile 1985-Adoption of list of recommendation to be generated by the group. 1986-Different field tests for radio technique for the common air interface. 1987-TDMA chosen as Access Standard. MoU signed between 12 operators. 1988-Validation of system. 1989- Responsibility taken up ETSI 1990-First GSM specification released 1991-First commercial GSM system launched .
History - Frequency Range of GSM GSM works on 4 different frequency ranges with FDMA-TDMA and FDD.They are as follows


P-GSM (Primary)

E-GSM GSM (Extended)


GSM 1900

Freq Uplink





Freq Downlink







INTRODUCTION Mobile communications have made phones to move, breaking the convention that phones are attached to places but not the persons.It provides all facilities like voice and data.


Any time Anywhere Mobility & Roaming High capacity & subscriber. density Efficient use of radio spectrum Seamless Network Architecture Low cost Innovative Services Standard Interfaces

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE:The transmission and reception of information using ElectroMagnetic(EM) waves is known as Radio or Wireless communication. An EM wave, consists of an Electrical component and a Magnetic component.The directions of the Electric component, the Magnetic component and Propagation are mutually perpendicular to each other.

POLARIZATION:The direction of the Electrical component is known as the Polarization of an EM wave.In Plane polarization, the direction of the 'E' component does NOT change whereas in Circular polarization, the direction of the 'E' component changes. Plane polarization is generally used in terrestrial radio systems and Circular in Satellite communications.Nowadays, dual polarized antennae are a common sight.Polarization helps in discrimination and augmenting the capacity of a radio system as well.

Horizontal Polarisation:-

In a Horizontally polarised EM wave, the direction of Electric field is parallel to the ground surface

Vertical Polarisation:-

In a Vertically polarised EM wave, the direction of Electric field is perpendicular to the ground surface.


ElectroMagnetic Spectrum:-

Antennas transform wirepropagated waves into space-propagated waves. They receive electromagnetic waves and pass them onto a receiver or they transmit electromagnetic waves, which have been produced by a transmitter.All the features of passive antennas can be applied for reception and transmission alike (reciprocality). On one side RF cable is connected and the other side it is the environment, therefore the surroundings of the antenna have a strong influence on the antenna's electrical features.


The Principle of an antenna:-

a) A transmitter sends a high frequency wave into a coaxial cable. A pulsing electrical field is created between the wires, longer which and cannot are free itself from to the the cable wires. b) The end of the cable is bent open. The field lines become orthogonal c) The cable is bent open at right angles. The field lines have now reached a length, which allows the wave to free itself from the cable. The apparatus radiates an electromagnetic wave, whereby the length of the two bent pieces of wire corresponds to half of the wavelength. This is the basic principle of /2-dipole antenna.

The Principle of an antenna continued:-

An electrical field (E) is created due to the voltage potential (V) but also a magnetic field (H) which is based on the current (I) The amplitude distribution of both fields corresponds to the voltage and current distribution on the dipole.


Field distribution on a Dipole The free propagation of the wave from the dipole is achieved by the permanent transformation from electrical into magnetic energy and vice versa. Thereby the resulting electrical and magnetic fields are at right angles to the direction of propagation

Half-Power-Beam-Width This term defines the aperture of the antenna. The HPBW is defined by the points in

the horizontal and vertical diagram, which show where the radiated power has reached half the amplitude of the main radiation direction. These points are also called 3 dB points. Normally only the major lobe is considered for this.


Gain An antenna without gain radiates energy in every direction. An antenna with gain concentrates the energy in a defined angle segment of 3-dimensional space. The l/2-dipole is used as a reference for defining gain. At higher frequencies the gain is often defined with reference to the isotropic radiator. The isotropic radiator is a non-existent ideal antenna, which has also an omni directional radiation characteristic in the E-plane and H-plane. Impedance The impedance of the antenna is simply equal to the voltage applied to its input terminals divided by the current flow. The frequency dependent impedance of a dipole or antenna is often adjusted via a symmetry or transformation circuit to meet the 50-Ohm criterion. Adjustment across a wider frequency range is achieved using compensation circuits.

VSWR of 1.5 is standard within mobile communications. In this case the real component of the complex impedance may vary between the following values: Maximum Value: 50 Ohms x 1.5 = 75 Ohms Minimum Value: 50 Ohms / 1.5 = 33 Ohms The term return loss attenuation is being used more often in recent times. The reason for this is that the voltage ratio of the return to the forward-wave V r / V i can be measured via a directional coupler. This factor is defined as the co-efficient of reflection. Figure shows the relationship between the coefficients of reflection; return loss attenuation, VSWR and reflected power.


Omni directional Antennas:

The classical omni directional lamda/2 antennas are of two types 1. Ground Plane 2. /4-skirt Antenna


The names indicate how the antenna is decoupled from the mast.In both cases the horizontal radiation pattern covers 360 and vertical half power beamwidth is 78 .Hence there will be lot of waste of energy both upwards and downwards in the desired horizontal plane.

Ground Plane Omni Directional Antenna In this case, a conductive plane is achieved via 3 counterweighted poles. The ground plane antenna can cover the complete frequency range because it is a wideband antenna.


lamda/4-skirt Antenna In this case , the decoupling is achieved by using a /4-skirt but this antenna works for limited range of frequency.

Directional Antennas Directional antennas are provided with reflectors behind the radiating element. This focuses the energy in a desired direction avoiding transmission in the rear side of the antenna. The directional antennas are classified into the following types: 1.Grid Parabolic Reflector antennas

2. Parabolic Reflector antennas. 3.Cassegrain antennas. 4. Array antennas

The first two types of antennas are mainly used in fixed point-to-point radio links and the grid types are employed up to 2GHz whereas the solid parabolic reflector antennas are used for higher frequencies. The connectivity between the antennas to the equipments is by coaxial cable up to 2GHz and for higher frequencies it is by hollow copper tube called wave-guide.


The beam width of these antennas depends on the diameter of the antenna and frequency of operation. They produce very narrow beams

Directional Antennas

Cassegrain antennas are associated with Satellite communication are comparatively larger which makes them to be fixed on the ground or roof tops and orient themselves towards the satellite by operating gear arrangement either manually or using motors.



Duplexing and Multiple access Technique:-

In Telecom network conventionally each user is connected to the Telephone exchange individually.This dedicated pair starts from MDF,where it is connected to the appropriate Equipment point and ends at the customer premises Telephone.(with flexibility at cabinet/pillar/ distribution points DPs)


Duple Xing is the technique by which the send and receive paths are separated over the medium. There are two types of duplexing.

Frequency Division Duplexing FDD Time Division Duplexing TDD

Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)

Different Frequencies are used for send and receive paths and hence there will be a forward band and reverse band Duplexer is needed if simultaneous transmission(send) and reception methodology is adopted Frequency separation between forward band and reverse band is constant

Time Division Duplexing (TDD)

TDD uses different time slots for transmission and reception paths Single radio frequency can be used in both the directions instead of two as in FDD.

No duplexer is required, Only a fast switching synthesizer,RF filter path and fast antenna switch are needed.It increases the battery life of mobile phones


Multiple Access Techniques The technique of dynamically sharing the finite limited radio spectrum by multiple users is called Multiple Access Technique. By adopting multiple access techniques all users can not get the services simultaneously and some amount of blocking is introduced by the system. This is known as GOS( Grade of Service). Generally there are 3 types. They are

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Frequency Division Multiple Access

FDMA is a familiar method of allocating bandwidth,where a base station is allowed to transmit on one or more number of preassigned carrier frequencies and a mobile unit transmits on corresponding reverse channels. No other base station within range of the mobile will be transmitting on the same forward channel, and no other mobile within range of the base station should be transmitting on the same reverse channel. Both the base and the mobile usually transmit continuously during a conversation, and fully occupy their assigned forward and reverse channels. No other conversation can take place on these channels until the first conversation is completed.


Features Of Frequency Division Multiple Access(FDMA)

No Precise coordination in time domain is necessary in FDMA System. It is well suited for narrow band analog systems. Guard spacing between channels causes wastage of frequency resource.Otherwise good modulation techniques are to be employed to avoid such guard spacing. The transmission is simultaneous and continuous and hence duplexers are needed .Continuous transmission leads to shortening of battery life.

FDMA Analogy It may be easier to visualize FDMA by imagining a cocktail party where two people wish to converse with each other.Then everyone in the room must be silent except for the speaker. The speaker may talk as long as they wish, and when they finish someone else may start speaking, but again only one at a time. New speakers must wait (or find another party) for the current speaker to finish before starting. Everyone in the room can hear and understand the speaker, unless they are too far away or the speaker's voice is too soft. If the intended listener is close enough, the speaker may decide to whisper. Conversely, if the listener is too far away, the speaker may have to shout. Since no one else should be talking, this presents no problem. If someone talks out of turn, the listener will probably be confused and not be able to understand either speaker. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) TDMA is a more efficient, but more complicated way of using FDMA channels. In a TDMA system each channel is split up into time segments, and a transmitter is given exclusive use of one or more

channels only during a particular time period. A conversation, then, takes place during the time slots to which each transmitter (base and mobile) is assigned. TDMA requires a master time reference to synchronize all transmitters and receivers. TDMA was the first digital standard to be proposed, and a smooth transition took place between analog mobile systems to digital mobiles, by allowing simultaneous existence of analog and digital base stations. Features of TDMA

There can be only one carrier in the medium at any time, if a simple TDMA scheme is followed. Transmission is in bursts and hence is well suited for digital communication. Since the transmission is in bursts, Battery life is extended. Transmission rate is very high compared to analog FDMA systems . Precise synchronization is necessary. Guard time between slots is also necessary

TDMA Analogy In TDMA, everyone in the room agrees to watch a clock on the wall, and speak only during a particular time. Each person wishing to talk is given a set period of time, and each person listening must know what that time period will be. For example, everyone may agree on time slots with a duration of ten seconds. Speaker number one may talk for ten seconds starting from the top of the minute. The listener who wishes to hear this speaker must also be made aware of the schedule, and be ready to listen at the top of the minute. Speaker number two may speak only from ten seconds after the minute until twenty seconds after. As with FDMA, only one person at a time may speak, but each speaker's time is now limited and many persons may take their turn. If someone in the room cannot see the clock, they will not be able to speak and will have great difficulty understanding the speakers. CDMA is fundamentally different than TDMA and FDMA. Where FDMA and TDMA transmit a strong signal in a narrow frequency band, CDMA transmits a relatively weak signal across a wide frequency band. Using a technique called direct sequence spread spectrum, the data to be transmitted are combined with a pseudo-noise code (a predetermined binary sequence that appears random) and transmitted broadband.CDMA under Interim Standard 95 uses a bandwidth of 1.25 MHz. The pseudo-noise code (PN code) is a series of binary "chips" that are much shorter in duration than the data bits. Since the chips appear to be in a random pattern, and there are many chips per data bit (in IS-95 there are 128 chips for each data bit), the modulated result appears to normal (FDMA) receivers as background noise. A spread spectrum receiver with a different PN code will not be able to recover that signal, and if the PN codes were chosen incorrectly, will hear nothing but noise. This relative immunity to interference, whether from outside sources or other spread spectrum transmitters, gives CDMA systems the ability to pack many users into the same frequency space at the same time. It also gives a measure of security to each signal, since each user

will have a different PN code. CDMA also does not require different base station radios for each user - the same radio may serve multiple users with just a change in PN code Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) CDMA is fundamentally different than TDMA and FDMA. Where FDMA and TDMA transmit a strong signal in a narrow frequency band, CDMA transmits a relatively weak signal across a wide frequency band. Using a technique called direct sequence spread spectrum, the data to be transmitted are combined with a pseudo-noise code (a predetermined binary sequence that appears random) and transmitted broadband.CDMA under Interim Standard 95 uses a bandwidth of 1.25 MHz. The pseudo-noise code (PN code) is a series of binary "chips" that are much shorter in duration than the data bits. Since the chips appear to be in a random pattern, and there


are many chips per data bit (in IS-95 there are 128 chips for each data bit), the modulated result appears to normal (FDMA) receivers as background noise. A spread spectrum receiver with a different PN code will not be able to recover that signal, and if the PN codes were chosen incorrectly, will hear nothing but noise. This relative immunity to interference, whether from outside sources or other spread spectrum transmitters, gives CDMA systems the ability to pack many users into the same frequency space at the same time. It also gives a measure of security to each signal, since each user will have a different PN code. CDMA also does not require different base station radios for each user - the same radio may serve multiple users with just a change in PN code. CDMA Analogy In CDMA, the speaker and the listener have agreed beforehand to use a language that no one else at the party understands. Many speakers may talk at a CDMA party, each using a different language, and it is relatively easy for the listener to hear and understand the speaker as long as there aren't too many speakers talking at the same time. As more and more speakers start talking, the noise level in the room goes up and it becomes harder and harder for the listener to make out what their speaker is saying. If a speaker begins to shout, in order for their listener to hear better, it raises the noise level even more Capacity of FDMA system:-

N number of channels Bt total spectrum Bguard guard band B c channel bandwidth


Capacity of a TDMA system:-

N number of channels , m number of TDMA users per radio channel spectrum allocation channel Bw

Capacity of CDMA System


Guard Band

There is a limit to CDMA capacity, however, and it is essentially the amount of interference a CDMA receiver can tolerate. As more and more units transmit, the amount of noise a receiver sees goes up, since all signals not using the receiver's specific PN code appear as noise. At some point there is so much noise that the receiver can no longer hear the transmitter. Boosting the transmitter power won't help overall, since it increases the noise for all the other receivers, who would in turn tell their transmitters to boost power,

and the situation remains.In a nutshell, if a unit near a base station is transmitting with too much power, signals from units far from the base station will be lost in the noise




Cell is the basic geographic unit.They are base stations transmitting over that small area.Cells are usually represented on paper as hexagon.In reality the shape is not so because of the landscape and man-made structures.The base stations can be employing omni directional or directional antenna. Cell size depends on sub density and demand in that given area. To start with cell can be of maximum size 30Km radius and subsequently can be split into smaller cells. Usually in rural areas the cells are big and in urban will be smaller.

What is a cluster?

Cluster is a group of cells. No channel is reused within the cluster.Cells using the same frequencies will be in adjacent clusters. Hence the cluster size determines the reuse distance.

Cluster Size Cluster size is usually denoted by N or K(no.of cells in that cluster).A cluster must be more or less symmetrical and similar North/South and East/West dimensions. We cannot select cluster size arbitrarily. Cluster sizes must satisfy the following: N (K)= i2+ij+j2 where i and j are nonnegative integers. Thus N = 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12.. Cellular Concepts Different types of cells

Macro cells Micro cells Selective cells Umbrella cells

The macrocells are large cells for remote and sparsely populated areas.

These cells are used for densely populated areas. By splitting the existing areas into smaller cells, the number of channels available is increased as well as the capacity of the cells. The power level of the transmitters used in these cells is then decreased, reducing the possibility of interference between neighboring cells.

Selective Cells
It is not always useful to define a cell with a full coverage of 360 degrees. In some cases, cells with a particular shape and coverage are needed. These cells are called selective cells. A typical example of selective cells is the cells that may be located at the entrances of tunnels where a coverage of 360 degrees is not needed. In this case, a selective cell with a coverage of 120 degrees is used.

Umbrella cells
A freeway crossing very small cells produces an important number of handovers among the different small neighboring cells. In order to solve this problem, the concept of

umbrella cells is introduced. An umbrella cell covers several microcells. The power level inside an umbrella cell is increased comparing to the power levels used in the microcells that form the umbrella cell. When the speed of the mobile is too high, the mobile is handed off to the umbrella cell. The mobile will then stay longer in the same cell (in this case the umbrella cell). This will reduce the number of handovers and the work of the network. Cellular Concepts - Cluster size and interference The cells in the adjacent clusters using the same set of frequencies are called cochannel cells. The interference depends on the reuse distance between them.



The figure represents a GSM reference model for a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network).

The GSM network is divided into four major systems

Switching system (SS) Base station system (BSS) Mobile station (MS) Operation and maintenance centre(OMC)

The switching system (SS) also called as Network and Switching System(NSS) is responsible for performing call processing and Subscriber-related functions. The switching system includes the following functional units

Mobile Switching Centre Home Location Register Visitor Location Register Equipment Identity Register


GSM Architecture - Mobile Switching Centre MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) MSC performs all switching functions for all mobile stations, located in the geographic area controlled by its assigned BSSs.Also it interfaces with PSTN, with other MSCs, and other system entities. GSM Architecture - The Functions Of MSC

Call handling that copes with the mobile nature of subscribers considering Location Registration,. Authentication of subscribers and equipment, Handover and Prepaid service. Management of required logical radio link channel during calls Management of MSC-BSS signaling protocol Handling location registration and ensuring interworking between mobile station and VLR. Controls inter BSS and inter MSC hand overs. Acting as a gateway MSC to interrogate HLR. The MSC which is connected to the PSTN/ISDN network is called as GMSC.This is the only MSC in the network connected to the HLR. Standard functions of a switch like charging GSM Architecture - Home Location Register (HLR)

Home location register contains

The identity of mobile subscriber called IMSI (International Mobile Sub Identity) ISDN directory number of mobile station. Subscription information on services. Service restrictions. Location Information for call routing

One HLR per GSM network is recommended and it may be a distributed database. Permanent data in HLR changed by man-machine interface. Temporary data like location information changes dynamically

GSM Architecture - Visitor Location Register (VLR)

The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC would request data about the mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time. VLR contains information like

Identity of mobile sub Any temporary mobile sub identity ISDN directory number of the mobile A directory number to route the call to the roaming station. Part of the data of HLR for the mobiles that are currently located in MSC service area.

GSM Architecture - Equipment Identity Register Equipment Identity Register consists of identity of mobile station equipment called IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity), which may be valid, suspect and prohibited. When a mobile station accesses the system the equipment validation procedure is evoked before giving the services. The information is available in the form of three lists.

White list-The terminal is allowed to connect to the Network. Grey List-The terminal is under observation from the network for the possible problems. Black List-The terminals reported as stolen are not type approved They are not allowed to connect to the network EIR informs the VLR that in which list the particular IMEI is.

GSM Architecture - Authentication Centre

It is Associated with a HLR. It stores an Identity key called Authentication key (Ki) for each Mobile subscriber. This key is used to generate The authentication triplets

RAND (Random Number) SRES (Signed Response) -To authenticate IMSI Kc (Cipher Key) - To cipher communication over the radio path between the MS and the network.


GSM Architecture - Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC)

It is the functional entity through which the network operator can monitor and control the system by performing following functions

Software installation Traffic Management Performance data analysis Tracing of subscribers and equipment. Configuration management Subscriber administration. Management of mobile equipment. Management of charging and billing.

GSM Architecture - Base Station System(BSS) BSS It is composed of connects the MS and the NSS.

1.Base Transceiver Station (BTS) also called Base Station. 2.Base Station Controller (BSC).

BTS and BSC communicate across the standardized Abis interface. BTS is controlled by BSC and one BSC can have many BTS under its control

GSM Architecture - Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

BTS houses the radio transceivers and handles the radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station.Each BTS comprises of radio transmission and reception devices including antenna, signal processors etc. Each BTS can support 1 to 16 RF carriers The parameters differentiating the BTSs are Power level, antenna height, antenna type and number of carriers.


Functions of BTS:-

It is responsible for Time and Frequency synchronization The process of channel coding, Encryption, Multiplexing and modulation for Trans direction and reverse for reception are to be carried out. It has to arrange for transmission in advance from the mobiles depending upon their distance from BTS. (Timing Advance) It has to detect Random access requests from mobiles, measure and monitor the radio channels for power control and handover

Base Station Controller:

BSC manages the radio resources for one or a group of BTSs It Handles radio-channel setup, frequency hopping, handovers, and control of the RF power levels.BSC provides the time and frequency synchronization reference signals broadcast by its BTSs.It establishes connection between the mobile station and the MSC.BSC is connected via interfaces to MSC,BTS and OMC

GSM Architecture - Mobile Station

It refers to the terminal equipment used by the wireless subscriber. It consists of

SIM -Subscriber Identity Module Mobile Equipment.

SIM is removable and with appropriate SIM, the network can be accessed using various mobile equipments. The equipment identity is not linked to the subscriber. The equipment is validated separately with IMEI and EIR. The SIM contains an integrated circuit chip with a microprocessor, random access memory (RAM)and read only memory (ROM).


SIM should be valid and authenticate the validity of MS while accessing the network. SIM also stores subscriber related information like IMSI ,cell location identity etc.

Functions of Mobile Station:-

Radio transmission and reception. Radio channel management. Speech encoding/decoding. Radio link error protection. Flow control of data. Rate adaptation of user data to the radio link. Mobility management.

Performance measurements upto a maximum of six surrounding BTSs and reporting to the BSS, MS can store and display short received alphanumeric messages on the liquid crystal display (LCD) that is used to show call dialing and status information. There are five different categories of mobile telephone units specified by the European GSM system: 20W, 8W, 5W, 2W, and 0.8W. These correspond to 43-dBm, 39-dBm, 37-dBm, 33-dBm, and 29-dBm power levels. The 20-W and 8-W units (peak power) are either for vehicle-mounted or portable station use. The MS power is adjustable in 2-dB steps from its nominal value down to 20mW (13 dBm). This is done automatically under remote control from the BTS GSM Architecture - Transcoders Transcoders are a network entity inserted to interface the MSC side to Mobile side .The voice coding rate on the PSTN side is 64Kbps and in GSM over the air the Voice is coded as 13Kbps.To reduce the data rate over the air Interface and to reduce the loading of the terrestrial link (4 : 1),transcoders are introduced at an appropriate place, mostly with MSC. The transcoder is the device that takes 13-Kbps speech or 3.6/6/12-Kbps data multiplexes and four of them to convert into standard 64-Kbps data. First, the 13 Kbps or the data at 3.6/6/12 Kbps are brought up to the level of 16 Kbps by inserting additional synchronizing data to make up the difference between a 13-Kbps speech or lower rate data


GSM Interfaces

Introduction The GSM network is shown in the figure with the major interfaces indicated as Um, Abis and A

The air interface is used for exchanges between a MS and a BSS. Abis This is a BSS internal interface linking the BSC and a BTS, and it has not been standardised. The Abis interface allows control of the radio equipment and radio frequency allocation in the BTS.(2M link) A


A interface is between the BSS and the MSC. The A interface manages the allocation of suitable radio resources to the MSs and mobility management. (2M link CCS7) B The B interface is between the MSC and VLR. Most MSCs are associated with a VLR, making the B interface "internal". Whenever the MSC needs access to data regarding a MS located in its area, it interrogates the VLR. C The C interface is between the HLR and a GMSC or a SMS-G. Each call originating outside of GSM (i.e., a MS terminating call from the PSTN) has to go through a Gateway to obtain the routing information required to complete the call. (2M link CCS7) D The D interface is between the VLR and HLR, to exchange the data related to the location of the MS and to the management of the subscriber. (2M link CCS7) GSM Interfaces E The E interface interconnects two MSCs. The E interface exchanges data related to handover between the anchor and relay MSCs.(2M link CCS7) F The F interface connects the MSC to the EIR, to verify the status of the IMEI that the MSC has retrieved from the MS.(2M link CCS7) G The G interface interconnects two VLRs of different MSCs to transfer subscriber information, during e.g. a location update procedure. (2M link CCS7) GSM Interfaces-H Interface The H interface is between the MSC and the SMS-G, to support the transfer of short messages. (2M link CCS7) Um Interface It is the air interface between mobile and BTS. There are uplink and downlink frequency bands. The carriers are spaced at 200KHz. Each carrier is providing 8 timeslots.


GSM Interfaces-Physical Channel and Logical Channel Physical Channel The carrier number and the repetitive time slot number determine Physical Channel (e.g.) time slot 3 on carrier number 4. The duration of timeslot in GSM is 577 micro secs (15/26 ms). The transmission is digital and is in bursts and hence in GSM, physical channel, timeslot and burst refer to the same. Logical Channel The content or message of physical channel is logical channel. One or more logical channels can be mapped to one physical channel. For example, on one of the physical channel used for traffic,traffic is sent by using TCH (traffic channel) message while a handover message is transmitted using FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel message).

Traffic channels TCH Broadcast channels BCH Common Control Channels CCCH. Dedicated Control Channels DCCH

Traffic Channels Traffic channels are used to send data or services. Once the call set up procedures are completed on the control channels, MS tunes to a traffic physical channel.It uses the Traffic Channel logical channel. Traffic channel carries speech or data traffic. Speech is encoded into 13Kbps digital stream by using a special algorithm called Regular Pulse Excited- Linear Predictive Coder with Long Predictor Loop. Basically information from previous samples which does not change very quickly is used to predict the current sample. The coefficients of linear combinations of previous samples, plus an encoded form of the residual, the difference between the predicted and actual sample represent the signal. Traffic channels are classified into two types

Full Rate TCH/F:It transmits full rate speech (13Kbps). A full rate TCH occupies one physical channel Half Rate TCH/H :It transmits half rate speech(6.5 Kbps). Two half rate TCHs can share one physical channel to double the capacity

There are enhanced full rate coders, (12.2Kbps) which improve the speech quality but still occupy one full rate TCH. Data rates supported by speech coders: A full rate traffic channel can support data rate of 9.6Kbps and a half rate channel 4.8 Kbps. Broadcast Channels BCH


Helps the MSs to orient themselves in the mobile radio network. They are Point to multi point channels ( BTS to MSs). They are defined for the down link direction only. Types of Broad Cast Channels

Broad Cast Control Channels-BCCH Frequency Correction Channel-FCCH Synchronization Channel-SCH Cell Broadcast Channel-CBCH

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Through the BCCH logical channel MS is informed about the system configuration parameters like

Local Area Identity Cell Identity Identity of BCCH carrier frequencies of Neighbor cells. Max trans power of MS to access Configuration of control channels

BCCH is also known as beacon. Each cell/sector will have one carrier frequency on which BCCH will be broadcasted. Frequency Correction Channel-FCCH The logical Channel contains no information (continuous zeros) but pure carrier is transmitted so that the mobile can tune itself and synchronise with the frequency. FCCH will be transmitted in the same beacon carrier as BCCH. Synchronisation Channel-SCH This logical channel transmits information about TDMA frame structure in a cell /sector (frame number) and Base Station Identity Code which can be decoded only if the BTS belongs to the network for which the MS has subscribed. SCH will also be transmitted in the same carrier of FCCH and BCCH. Cell Broadcast Channel- CBCH This logical channel contains messages that can be received by all mobiles. These messages are sent by using dedicated channels and come under the category of short messages. However, they are considered as common channels since all mobiles can receive them.


They operate either in up link or down link directions and are point-to-point simplex channels Types of Common Control Channels

PCH-Paging Channel AGCH-Access GrantChannel RACH- Random Access Channel

Paging Channel-PCH It is logical channel in the downlink direction and it is point-to-point type. It comprises of a paging message to indicate an incoming call or short message. The paging message consists of the identity of mobile the network wants to contact. Access Grant CHannel-AGCH It is a point-to-point logical channel in the downlink direction. It informs the mobile about the assignment of signaling channel for call set-up i.e. SDCCH. Random Access CHannel (RACH) It is a point-to-point logical channel in the uplink direction. It is sent by the mobile as a request for making a call or as a response to a paging to the mobile. It consists of the identity of the mobile and location area details as available in SIM.

GSM Frame Structure and Burst Types: GSM, one time slot duration is 0.577ms(15/26ms). One TDMA frame carries 8 timeslots and hence duration of one frame is 4.612ms. Separate multiframes are defined for traffic and control signals. A 26-frame TDMA multiframe is defined for carrying FACCH.Duration of this multiframe is 4.612x26=120ms(15/26x8x26). TCH, SACCH and

A 51-frame TDMA multiframe is defined for control multiframe for carrying BCCH, CCCH, SDCCH and its associated SACCH. The duration of such multiframe is 4.612x51=235ms.


A superframe is defined which consists of 51 traffic multiframes or 26 control mutiframes and duration of superframe is 6.312s.It represents smallest cycle for which the organization of all channels is repeated. A hyperframe is defined which consists of 2048 superframes. The duration of such frame is 3Hrs 28mts 53 secs and 760 msecs (2715648 frames). This represents the smallest cycle for frequency hopping and ciphering

GSM Frame Structure

Traffic Multiframe Traffic Multiframe is defined with 26 frames. The length of a 26-Multiframe is 120 ms. Of the 26 frames, 24 are used for traffic, 1 is used for the Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH), and 1 is unused in case of full rate channel deployment.In case half rate channels are used the frame 25 is used for SACCH for the second set of calls. If FACCH is to be sent then pre-emption of traffic channel is employed. Hence the logical channel combinations that are allowed can be either





GSM Bursts Burst is the content of the timeslot. The duration of timeslot is 577 micro secs. It consists of usable bits and guard period. The burst are classified into.

Normal Burst Dummy Burst Frequency Control Burst(F-Burst) Sync Burst(S-Burst) Access Burst

F-Burst is associated with FCCH, S-burst with SCH and Access Burst with RACH. All other logical channels use normal burst. Dummy Burst is used to fill the empty physical Normal Bursts It consists of 148 usable bits and guard period corresponding to 8.25 bits.(30.5 micro secs). Burst period= time slot duration- guard period= 577-30.5 =546.5 micro secs.

It consists of three tail bits each at the beginning and end, encrypted data bits 57 each as two blocks and a midamble of 26 bits as training sequence, a known pattern used for adoptive equalization at BTS and MS. The flag bits are used to indicate whether the particular block of 57 bits belong to TCH or FACCH during pre-emption

Dummy Bursts It is transmitted in Idle time slots on the BCCH Carrier,which ensures that the BCCH Carrier is always present and MS is able to find it easily and carry out the assessment of signal level.This helps in Mobile Assisted Hand Over(MAHO)


Frequency Correction Burst F-burst It is associated with FCCH and transmitted in TS0 in frames 0,10,20,30,and 40 th frames in a control multiframe. This burst also consists of three tail bits each at the beginning and end, guard period of 8.25 bits with a string of 142 zeros (3+142+3+8.25=156.25). Since the information is only zeros, after modulation pure carrier is transmitted. Sync Bursts(S-Burst) It is associated with SCH and is transmitted in TS0 of frames 1,11,21,31 and 41 th frames in a control multiframe. This burst consists of three tail bits each at the start and end, guard period of 8.25 bits with two blocks of 39 bits of information and a training sequence of 64 bits sand witched in between them. This is the first burst in the downlink direction to be processed by the MS.The longer training sequence helps the MS to effectively demodulate the signal from BTS


Different Modes of Operation The different logical channels are used to take MS from Off modeto Idle mode and then to Dedicated mode. Off Mode MS is in the Switched Off condition.It cannot receive incoming paging messages or cannot make outgoing call and No dedicated channel is associated with it. Idle Mode MS Switched On and it is attached to the network and can receive incoming paging messages, can make outgoing call, but there is no dedicated channel associated with it Dedicated Mode MS is in conversation and a dedicated channel is associated with it. Abis Interface It is connectivity between BSC to BTS and 2 Mbps link is established for this purpose. Every timeslot of 64Kbps can be sub divided into four 16 Kbps and the traffic of 13Kbps from BTS with the associated signaling information is multiplexed as 16Kbps and inserted in the timeslots. Hence each timeslot on 2Mbps Abis can accommodate four physical channels of Um. For one carrier we need two slots. Additionally we require exclusive timeslots for signaling purposes related to the transceivers of each sector (TRX) and for O andM purposes. Consider a BTS with three sectors with 4 Carriers in each sector (4/4/4), then the timeslot calculations are as follows: In each sector each TRX needs 2 slots. Hence four TRXs need 8 slots. We need one slot for TRXs signaling purposes and one for O and M purposes in that sector. Therefore total slots needed per sector= 8+1+1=10 Three sectors need 30 slots and TS0 is reserved for FAW and the total comes 31. With one spare timeslot added it tallies to 32 slots of 2Mbps link. Hence one 2Mbps link to BTS can take a maximum load until the BTS reaches a configuration 4/4/4




GSM Radio Link


BTS and MS are connected through radio link this air interface is called Um.A radio wave is subject to attenuation,reflection,Doppler shift and interference from other transmitter.These effects causes loss of signal strength and distortion which will impact the quality of voice or data. To cope with the harsh conditions,GSM make use of an efficient and protective signal processing. Proper cellular design must ensure that sufficient radio coverage is provided in the area. Types of signal strength variations The signal strength variation for mobile is due to different types of signal strength fadings. There are two types of signal strength variations

Macroscopic Variations Due to the terrain contour between BTS and MS the fading effect is caused by shadowing and diffraction(bending) of radio waves.

Microscopic variations Due to multipath, Short-term or Rayleigh fading. As the MS moves, radio waves from many different paths will be received.


Macroscopic Variations Macroscopic Variations can be modeled as the addition of two components that make up the path loss between mobile and base station.the first component is the deterministic component(L) that adds loss to the signal strength as the distance(R) increases between base and mobile.this component can be written as

where n is typically 4. The other macroscopic component is a Log normal random variable which takes into account the effects of shadow fading caused by variations in terrain and other obstructions in the radio path. Local mean value of path loss=deterministic component+log normal random variable Microscopic Variations Microscopic Variations or Rayleigh Fading occur as the mobile moves over short distances compared to the distance between mobile and base. These short term variations are caused by signal scattering in the vicinity of the mobile unit e.g. by hill,building or traffic. The result is that not one but many different paths are followed between transmitter and receiver(Multipath Propagation) The reflected wave will be altered in both phase and amplitude.The signal may effectively disappear if the reflected wave is 180 degree out of phase with the direct path signal. The partial out of phase relationships among multiple received signal produce smaller reduction in received signal strength. Effects caused by Rayleigh fading Reflection and multipath propagation can cause positive and negative effects. Coverage Extension Multipath propagation allow radio signal to reach behind hills , buildings and into tunnels. Constructive and destructive interference Signals received through multi paths may add together or destroy each other Transmitting/Receiving Processes There are two major processes involved in transmitting and receiving information over a digital radio link;coding and modulation.


Coding Coding is the information processing that involves preparing the basic data signals so that they are protected and put in a form that the radio link can handle.Generally the coding process includes the Logical Gate exclusive OR(EXOR). Coding is included in :

Speech coding or Trans coding Channel coding or Forward Error Correction coding Interleaving Encryption Multiplexing(Burst formatting)

Speech Properties Human speech can be distinguished in elementary sounds(Phonemes).Depending on the language there are 30 to 50 different phonemes.The human voice is able to produce up to 10 phonemes per second,so that about 60 bit/s are required to transfer the speech.However,all individual features and intonations would disappear.To preserve the individual features,the real amount of information to be sent is a number of times higher,but still a fraction of the 64 Kbit/s used for PCM. Based upon the phoneme production mechanism of the human organs of speech,a simple speech production model can be made. It appears that during a short time interval of 10-30 ms,the model parameters like pitch-period, voiced/unvoiced,amplification gain,and filter parameters remain about stationary(quasi stationary). The advantage of such a model is the simple determination of the parameters by means of linear prediction. Speech coding techniques Human speech is band limited between 300Hz to 3400Hz and undergoes Frequency Modulation in analog systems.In digital fixed PSTN systems band limited speech is sampled at the rate of 8KHz and each sampled is encoded into 8 bits leading to 64Kbps(PCM A-Law of encoding).Digital cellular radio cannot handle the high bit rate used for PSTN


systems.Smart techniques for signal analysis and processing have been developed for reduction of the bit rate. There are 3 classes of speech coding Techniques

Waveform coding : Speech is transmitted as good as possible in wave form coding.PCM is an example of waveform coding. Bit rate ranges from 24 to 64kbps and the quality of speech is good and the speaker can be recognise easily.

Parameter Coding : Only a very limited quantity of information is sent.A decoder built up according to the speech production model will regenerate the speech at the receiver.Only 1 to 3kbps is required for the speech transmission. The regenerated speech is intelligible but it suffers from noise and often the speaker cannot be recognised.

Hybrid Coding: Hybrid Coding is a mix of waveform coding and parameter coding.It combines the strong points of both technique and GSM uses hybrid coding technique called RPE-LTP(Regular Pulse ExcitedLong Term Prediction) resulting in 13Kbps per voice channel.

Speech Coding in GSM(Transcoding) The 64kbits/s PCM transcoded from the standard A-law quantized 8bits per sample into a linearly quantised 13bits per sample bit stream ,that correspond to a 104kbits/s bit rate. The 104kbits/s stream is fed into the RPE-LTP speech encoder which takes the 13 bits samples in a block of 160 samples (every 20ms). RPE-LTP encoder produces 260bits in every 20 ms, resulting in a bit rate of 13kbits/s.This provides a speech quality acceptable for mobile telephony and comparable with wireline PSTN phones.In GSM 13Kbps speech coding is called full rate and alternatively half rate coders(6.5Kbps) are also available to enhance the capacity. Channel Coding /Convolutional Coding Channel coding in GSM uses the 260 bits from speech coding as input to channel coding and outputs 456 encoded bits.Out of the 260 bits produced by RPE-LTP speech coder, 182 are classified as important bits and 78 as unimportant bits. Again 182 bits are divided into 50 most important bits and are block coded into 53 bits and are added with 132 bits and 4 tail bits,totaling to 189 bits before undergoing 1:2 convolutional coding,converting 189 bits into 378 bits.These 378 bits are added with 78 unimportant bits resulting in 456 bits.


Channel Coding

Interleaving - First Level The channel coder provides 456 bits for every 20ms of speech.These interleaved,forming eight blocks of 57 bits each,as shown in figure below. are

In a normal burst to blocks of 57 bits can be accommodated and if 1 such burst is lost there is a 25% BER for the entire 20ms. Interleaving - Second Level


A Second level of interleaving has been introduced to further reduce the possible BER to 12.5% . Instead of sending two blocks of 57 bits from the same 20 ms of speech within one burst,a block from one 20ms and a block from next sample of 20ms are sent together.A delay is introduced in the system when the MS must wait for the next 20ms of speech.However,the system can now afford to loose a whole burst,out of eight,as the loss is only 12.5% of the total bits from each 20ms speech frame.12.5% is the maximum loss level that channel decoder can correct.

Encryption /Ciphering The purpose of Ciphering is to encode the burst so that it may not be interpreted by any other devices than the receiver. The Ciphering algorithm in GSM is called the A5 algorithm.It does not add bits to the burst,meaning that the input and output to the Ciphering process is the same as the input:456 bits per 20ms.Details about Encryption is available under the special features of GSM. Multiplexing(Burst Formatting) Every transmission from mobile/BTS must include some extra information along with basic data. In GSM a total of 136 bits per block of 20ms are added bringing the overall total to 592 bits. A guard period of 33 bits is also added bringing 625 bits per 20ms. Modulation




Mobile To Land Call Scenario (Mobile Origination) Phases of Mobile To Land Call . The following table lists the phases of a Mobile To Land Call

Request for services;the MS requests to setup a call Authentication : the MSC/VLR requests the AUC for authentication parameters,Using these parameters the MS is authenticated. Ciphering : using the parameters, which were made available earlier during the authentication, the uplink and the downlink are ciphered Equipment Validation :the MSC/VLR requests the EIR to check the IMEI for validity Call setup :the MSC establishes a connection to the MS. Handover(s) Call release;the speech path is released

Mobile To Land Call Scenario-Phases of Mobile To Land Call The user enters the digits of the telephone with STD code incase of land line or without STD code incase of mobile and presses the "send" key after all digits have been entered

MS transmits a channel request message over the Random Access Channel(RACH) Once the BSS receives the Channel Request message,it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel(SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the MS over the access Grant Channel(AGCH).It is over the SDCCH that the MS will communicate with the BSS and MSC until a traffic channel is assigned.

The MS transmits a service request message to the BSS over the SDCCH.Included in this message is the MS TMSI and Location Area Identification(LAI).The BSS forwards the service request message to the MSC/VLR.


Mobile To Land Call Scenario-Phases of Mobile To Land Call

Equipment Validation The Mobile Equipment(ME) validation process is the means by which a specific piece of ME can be identified to prevent the use of stolen, unauthorized or malfunctioning equipment in the network. Each equipment is uniquely identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) code. IMEI which is incorporated into ME by the manufacturer,has three components,such as

Type approval code (TAC) Final Assembly Code (FAC) Serial Number (SNR) The IMEI code is secure and physically protected against unauthorized change.

The Equipment Identity Register(EIR) is responsible for storing the IMEI codes that identify the mobile-equipment deployed in the GSM system. Steps in Equipment Validation


At this point in time,the MS has been authenticated and the radio channel is being encrypted.The MSC will interrogate the MS for its equipment number and checks the equipment against information in the Equipment Identity Register(EIR)

The MSC transmits a request to the MS requesting it to respond with its IMEI The MS upon receiving this request,reads its equipment serial number and returns this value to the MSC The MSC then requests the EIR to check the IMEI for validity.The EIR will first check to see if the IMEI value is within a valid range.If so,it then checks to see if the IMEI is on a suspect or known list of invalid equipment

The EIR returns to the MSC the results of the IMEI validation.If the results are negative,the MSC might abort the call or possibly let the call continue but inform the network service provider of the event.In this scenario we will assume that the IMEI is

Land-to-Mobile Call scenario The following table lists the phases of a land -to-mobile call

Routing Analysis :the MS terminated call is routed to the visited MSC using information from HLR and VLR Paging :the MSC initiates a communication with the MS Authentication :the MSC/VLR requests the ACC for authentication parameters.Using these parameters the MS is authenticated Ciphering :using the parameters which were made available earlier during the authentication the uplink and the downlink are Ciphered Equipment Validation : the MSC/VLR requests the EIR to check the IMEI for validity. Call setup :the MSC establishes a connection to the MS Handover(s) Call release :the speech path is released.


Land-to-Mobile Call scenario

Optional Phases The authentication ciphering,equipment validation and handover phases are optional;the service provider may decide that some of these phases might not take place in a land-to-mobile call The following is a scenario of a mobile-terminating call.It is assumed that the MS is already registered with the system and has been allocated a Temporary Mobile Identity Number(TMSI). It is also assumed that a land subscriber dials the directory number of the mobile subscriber and the call enters the GSM network via a Gateway MSC(GMSC)

The PSTN routes the call to the GMSC of this directory number.based on the Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number(MSISDN) The GMSC not knowing whether this MS is roaming in its own service area or not s ends a message with the MSISDN in it to the HLR The HLR requests the MSC/VLR to provide routing information about this The MSC/VLR returns to the GMSC via the HLR a directory number where the MS can be reached which is referred to as the MS Roaming Number(MSRN) The call is routed from the GMSC to the visited MSC


Steps in Paging Phase

The MSC uses the location area identity,provided by the VLR to determine when BSSs should page the MS.The MSC transmits a message to each of these BSSs requesting that a page be performed.Included in the message is the TMSI of the MS.

Each of the BSSs broadcasts the TMSI of the mobile in a page message on the paging channel When a MS detects its TMSI of the Mobile in a page message on the paging channel(PCH) Once the BSS receives the Channel request message,it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel(SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the Ms over the Access Grant Channel(AGCH).It is over the SDCCH that the MS will communicate with the BSS and MSC until a traffic channel is assigned.

The MS transmits a page response message to the BSS over the SDCCH.Included in this message is the MS TMSI and Location Area Identification The BSS forwards the page response message to the MSC.The MSC informs its VLR that a particular MS is responding to a pag

Phases of Mobile To Land Call Authentication,Ciphering and Equipment Validation Phases The Authentication and Ciphering phases that might be performed here to setup a mobile-to-land call are the same as seen before in the location update scenarios.The Equipment Validation phase is done in the same way as in the mobile-to-land scenario


The call with the mobile is setup;a voice path is created between the MS and the MSC by allocating a radio traffic channel and a voice trunk

After the MSC receives a setup a voice path is created between the MS is informed that a call will be setup via a setup message The MS upon receiving upon receiving a setup message,performs comp ability checking before responding to the setup message.It is possible that the MS might be incompatible for certain types call setps.Assuming that the passes comp ability checking it acknowledges the call setup with a setup confirm message

Authentication,Ciphering and Equipment Validation Phases

In this scenario it is assumed that the mobile subscriber answers the phone.The MS in response to this action stops alerting and sends a connect message to the MSC The MSC removes audible to the PSTN and connects the PSTN trunk to the BSS trunk(terrestrial channel) and sends a connect message via the GMSC to the PSTN.The caller and called party now have a complete talk path.This event typically denotes the beginning of the call for billing purposes

The MSC sends the MS a connect acknowledgment

Steps in release phase network initiated The release triggered by the land user is done in a similar way as the release triggered by the mobile user

The MSC receives a Release message from the network to terminate the end-to-end connection This cause the sending of a disconnect message toward the MS The MS answers by a release message.The MSC release the connection to the PSTN.

Phases of mobile-to-mobile call scenario The mobile-to-mobile call is established using the same phases as seen earlier

The originating mobile part where the phases are the same as those of a mobile-to-land call except that the call setup phase is partially performed.Which means that only the call setup with Mobile is done The terminating mobile part consist of the same phases as the land-to-mobile call scenario except again that the call setup phase performs only the call setup with mobile




Mobility Management

Network Attachment

Network attachment is a process of selecting an appropriate cell(radio frequency)by the mobile station to provide the available services,and making its location known to the network The process starts when the mobile station is switched on,and ends when the mobile station enters the idle mode.In idle mode the mobile station does not have a traffic channel allocated to make or receive a call,but the Public Land Mobile Network(PLMN) is aware of the existence of the mobile station within the chosen cell.

Network Attachment Process

Cell Identification When a mobile station is switched on it attempts to make contact with a GSM PLMN by performing the following action

Measures the BCCH channels. Search for a suitable cell.

The mobile station measures the signal strength of the BCCH(Broadcast Control Channel)channels received.It stores in a list of information of about 30 of these BCCH channels,such as the signal strength and the frequency corresponding to these BCCH channels.


PLMN selection A suitable PLMN is chosen.


Network Attachment Process

Cell Selection It is a process of selecting an appropriate cell(radio frequency)by the mobile station to provide the available services

6.FINAL RESULT :(a) BSNL is Indias first which provided free incoming facility for their customer.

(b) BSNL introduces following services as per order 1. Prepaid Mobile with National roaming. 2. Post Paid Mobile with International roaming. 3. Also providing many value added services likes GPRS, Roaming,Clip,Friend &family ,SMS,MMS Etc. (B ) In keeping in view the competition from other players,BSNL is revising its tariff for benefit of users. 7. CONCLUSION :. Keeping up with technological and market changes, BSNL has been able to maintain its lead in provisioning Mobile services using GSM technology


3G Squeeze: GSM, LTE & the Future of Wideband CDMA

The much-longer-than-anticipated cycle of operator investment in 2G GSM and Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) networks combined with moves by Verizon Wireless, NTT DoCoMo, and others to bring forward the commercial timescale for 4G UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) Long Term Evolution a plain old 2G GSM phone today, rather than a 3G W-CDMA phone. Over the last 18 months, HSPA has finally started to deliver on the mobile broadband marketing promise of 3G that has been bandied about since the late 1990s. There is genuine excitement on the part of users at being able to get out their lapt(LTE) is creating something of a "3G squeeze" on Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) and its High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) releases. Continued high global investment in GSM/EDGE, combined with industry-wide disappointment in the performance of W-CDMA up until very recently, have served to contain investment in W-CDMA for either voice or data services. As a result, more than three out of four Europeans still uses ops across extensive urban and suburban areas and consistently get at least 1 Mbit/s throughput over the air. Yet just as W-CDMA is finally starting to differentiate itself from 2G and establish itself as the preferred global platform for mobile broadband services, it faces the prospect of being made redundant by an acceleration in the time to market of the 4G mobile WiMax and LTE standards. These technologies have been designed to be deployed in much larger spectrum channel widths and offer better spectral efficiency, higher throughput, and lower latency than anything WCDMA/HSPA can support. 3G Squeeze: GSM, LTE & the Future of Wideband CDMA delivers a complete analysis of the technology progression scenarios in mobile networks worldwide. Drawing on inputs from major GSM and W-CDMA/HSPA operators such as America Movil, AT&T, China Mobile, Millicom International, Orascom Telecom, and Vodafone, as well as interviews with major vendors, the report weighs the underlying technology, business, consumer, and regulatory dynamics that will determine the propensity of operators in different regions of the world to shift capex away from one technology and into another. The report assesses which market factors will have a material impact on the direction of operator capex and which won't, and forecasts global operator capex on GSM/EDGE, W-CDMA/HSPA, and LTE technology through 2012.



1. BSNL MANUALS 2. 4. BSNL BTS at BRS Nagar, Ludhiana 5. BSNL BSC at Bharat Nagar Chowk, Ludhiana 6.BSNL MSC at Sec-34, Chandigarh.

This is certified that Mr. BANARASEE LAL has completed his project work on Mobile Communication using GSM Technology; BSNL under my direct supervision and guidance. This project work done by him is original one and has not been submitted to any other institution for fulfillment of the requirement of a course of study. He completed his project work in 6 weeks from 13 Dec 08 to 24 Jan 09. I wish him best of luck and success in future.

Dr J. S. Sohal , FIE