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NORTH MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON

SYLLABUS FOR

T.Y.B.Sc. BOTANY
(With effect from June 2009)

NORTH MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON CLASS - T.Y.B.Sc. SUBJECT- BOTANY PROPOSED OUT LINE OF SYLLABUS W.E.F. JUNE-2009 SEMESTER I
Bot. 311 Paper I : Cryptogames I Bot. 312 Paper II : Angiosperm Taxonomy Bot. 313 Paper III : Genetics and Plant Breeding Bot. 314 Paper IV : Molecular Biology Bot. 315 Paper V : Plant Ecology & Phytogeography Bot. 316 Paper VI : OPTIONAL (Any One) Bot. 316.1 : Gardening Bot. 316.2 : Botanical techniques Bot.316.3 : Plant Biotechnology SEMESTER II Bot. 321 Paper I : Cryptogames II Bot. 322 Paper II : Gymnosperms & Paleobotany Bot. 323 Paper III : Plant Physiology Bot. 324 Paper IV : Anatomy, Embryology & Palynology Bot. 325 Paper V : Plant protection Bot. 326 Paper VI : OPTIONAL (Any One) Bot. 326.1 : Ethnobotany Bot. 326.2 : Pharmacognosy & Medicobotany Bot. 326.3 : Seed Technology & Seed Pathology PRACTICALS Bot. 301 Practical Paper I : (Based on Paper I & III) i. e. BOT-311, BOT-321, BOT-313, BOT-323. Bot. 302 Practical Paper II : (Based on Paper II & IV) i. e. BOT-312, BOT-322, BOT-314, BOT-324. Bot. 303 Practical Paper III : ( Based on Paper V & VI) i. e. BOT-315, BOT-325 AND BOT-316.1, BOT-316.2,BOT 316.3 BOT-326.1, BOT-326.2, BOT-326.3.

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON


Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany BOT. 301: PRACTICAL-I
BASED ON THEORY PAPERS- I & III (BOT-311, BOT-321, BOT-313, BOT-323)

(LOWER CRYPTOGAMS AND HIGHER CRYPTOGAMS, GENETICS PLANT BREEDING AND PLANT PHYSIOLOGY)

LOWER CRYPTOGAMS Practicals


1. Study of life cycles of Chara. 2. Study of life cycle of Ectocarpus. 3. Study of life cycle of Batrachospermum. 4 & 5. Study of range of thallus structure in algae with the help of material or permanent slides: a) Unicellular thallus-Chlamydomonas, Chlorella. b) Colonial thallus Pandorina, Eudorina, Volvox. Hydrodictyon c) Filamentous thallus - Pithophora, Chaetophora, Coleochaetae, Stigeoclonium, Drapanaldia, Drapanaldiopsis, Fritscheilla, Oedogonium, Spirogyra, Zygnema d) Siphonaceous thallus -Vaucheria. Caulerpa e) Pseudoparenchymatous (Uniaxial/Multiaxial) thallus Batrachospermum, Polysiphonia. f) Parenchymatous thallus -Ulva, Enteromorpha 6. Study of life cycle of Achlya. 7. Study of life cycle of Penicillium sp. a) Mycelial structure b) Conidial phase c) Cleistothecium (P.S.) 8. Study of life cycle of Puccinia graminis-tritici. 9. Study of Myxomycetes-(Stemonitis) Deuteromycetes -Cercospora/ Alternaria and Lichens (any one form)

HIGHER CRYPTOGAMS
10. Study of life cycle of Marchantia. 11. Study of life cycle of Anthoceros. 12 .Study of life cycle of Polytrichum. 13 .Study of life cycle of Psilotum (P.S. and Specimens) 14 .Study of life cycle of Equisetum. 15 .Study of life cycle of Marsilea. 16.Study of stellar evolution in pteridophyta with the help of material or permanent slides. Note : Study tour is compulsory. Students are expected to submit at least five specimens of each group. (Algae, Fungi, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta) along with tour report.

GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING


17 & 18. Examples of monohybrid & dihybrid cross epistasis 19. Demonstration of plant hybridization technique.

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
20. Qualitative assessment of the microelements in the plant ash (P, K,Mg, Mn, Ca, Na,) 21. Separation of amino acids from germinating seeds by paper chromatography. 22. Study of lipase activity in germinating seeds. 23. Effect of Hormone on germinating seeds..

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany


BOT. 302: PRACTICAL-II
BASED ON THEORY PAPERS - II & IV (BOT-312, BOT-322, BOT-314, BOT-324) (ANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY AND GYMNOSPERMS & PALEOBOTANY , MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ANATOMY, EMBRYOLOGY & PALYNOLOGY)

ANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY Practicals


1-5. To study any 10 families as per theory syllabus with reference to vegetative and floral features, floral diagrams and formulae (covering major groups sensu Bentham & Hookers system). 6 to 7. Identification of plants with the help of following any suitable flora. a) The Flora of The Presidency of Bombay Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun b) The Flora of Gujarath Vol-I&II - G.L.Shah (1978) S.P.University, Vallabh Vidyanagar c) Flora of Nasik District - P. Laxminarsimhan and- B.D.Sharma (1991) B.S.I. Calcutta d) Flora of Dhule and Nandurbar Districts -D.A.Patil (2003) Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. e) Flora of Akola District - S.Y.Kamble, S.G.Pradhan (1988) B.S.I. Calcutta f) Flora of Marathwada Vol.I-II - Naik V.N. (1998) Amrut Prakashan, Aurangabad (M.S.) g) Flora of Maharashtra State, Dicotyledons. Vol. I and II - Singh, N.P. and S.Karthikeyn (2000) B.S.I. Calcutta. h) Flora of Maharashtra State, Monocotyledons -Sharma B.D.. Karthikeyan. S. and N P.Shingh (1996) B.S.I., Calcutta i) Flora of Jalgaon district, S. R. Kshirsagar and D.A.Patil(2008) Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. 8. Preparation of artificial indented/bracketed keys based on vegetative and floral characters. 9. Study of morphological peculiarities of the following. T. Cooke (1958) Bishen Singh,

a) Inflorescence in Compositae b) Pollinia in Asclepiadaceae


C)

Cuscuta - Haustoria (P S or Specimen)

d) Stem axis in Casuarina e) Orchid Velamen tissue (P.S. or Specimen) f) Flower of -:Canna g) Florets in Graminae

GYMNOSPERMS
10-12. Study of Pinus with the help of permanent slides and plant material. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) External morphology T. S. of stem( Temporary double stained preparation) T. S. of needle( Temporary double stained preparation) Morphology of male cone T. S. & L. S. Permanent slide Morphology of female cone T. S. & L. S. Permanent slide Mounting of pollen grains. V. S. of mature ovule(Permanent slide) External morphology T. S. of stem(permanent slide) T. S. of leaf (permanent slide) Secondary growth in the stem of G. ula (permanent slide) Morphology of male cone T. S. & L. S. Permanent slide Morphology of female cone T. S. & L. S. Permanent slide V. S. of mature ovule(Permanent slide)

13. Study of Gnetum with the help of permanent slides and plant material.

PALEOBOTANY
14-15. a) Study of different types of fossils (Any three as per syllabus) b) Study of the following with the help of slides and/ or specimens. i) Rhynia iv) Calamites vii) Cycadeoidea ii) Lepidodendron v) Annularia viii) Sahnipushpam iii) Lepidostrobus vi) Lyginopteris

ANATOMY
16. Study of epidermal tissue system as per theory syllabus based on locally available material a) Stomatal types leaf. 18. Study of normal secondary growth in stem and root of woody dicots (double stained preparation) i) i) ii) iii) iv) xylem . Stem Sunflower/ Neem Salvadora Raphanus/ Daucus Nyctanthes Boerrhavia ii) Root- Cicer 19. Study of anomalous secondary growth of the following (double stained preparation) b) Types of trichomes 17. Study of mechanical tissue system with at least one example each from root stem and

20. Maceration of vascular tissue of any suitable material and observation of elements of

EMBRYOLOGY
21. Study of the following with the help of permanent slides: a) T. S. of Microsporangium. b) Types of ovules c) Capsella/ Saggitaria embryo. (Dicot & Monocot embryos)

PALYNOLOGY
22. Study of different types of pollen grains with the help of acetolysis method (Any four locally available materials).

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
23. Study of Mitosis by preparing squash of onion root tips 24. .Study of Meiosis by smear preparation. Submission: i) Double stained preparation (2 slides) ii) Maceration (2 slides) iii) Palynology (2 slides).

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany BOT. 303: PRACTICALS -III
BASED ON THEORY PAPERS V & VI BOT-315, BOT-325 & BOT-316.1,BOT-316.2, BOT-316.3, BOT-326.1, BOT-326.2,BOT-326.3

PLANT ECOLOGY & PHYTOGEOGRAPHY , GARDENING, PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY , BOTANICAL TECHNIQUES, PLANT PROTECTION, ETHNOBOTANY, PHARMACOGNOSY & MEDICOBOTANY, SEED TECHNOLOGY & SEED PATHOLOGY ) Bot-315 (Plant Ecology & Phytogeography)

1. To determine the minimum size of the quadrate by species area curve method. 2. To study the vegetation by list count quadrate method. Calculate the frequency classes & plot a graph. 3. Study of soil with reference to soil texture, water holding capacity, pH, and test for carbonate, nitrate, & sulphate. 4. Demonstration, working and uses of any three of the following ecological instruments: i) Rain gauze ii) Cup anemometer iii) Hair hygrometer iv) Soil thermometer v) Minimum and maximum thermometer vi) Dry and wet bulb thermometer 5&6. Measurement of water .quality based on hardness. Dissolved oxygen, free CO2, Chloride, total alkanity. Bot. 316.1: (GARDENING) 7. Techniques of pot culture. 8. Observation, listing and uses of various garden tools, manures & fertilizers. 9. Preparation and aftercare of a Bonsai. 10. Study of different indoor plants and preparation of hanging basket.

11. Study of different ornamental plants such as annuals, shrubs, trees, climbers, cacti & succulents( two examples of each) with respect to Botanical name, ornamental value & place of choice. 12. Visit to suitable garden to study various salient features such as layout, components, list of plants and special features (if any). Note: Students should submit the following at the time of examination. a) Report of visit to garden. b) Well maintained specimens from the following. i) Hanging basket ii) Bonsai iii) Potted-indoor plant Bot. 316.2: (BOTANICAL TECHNIQUES) 13 17 18 Study of botatnical instruments (Any four) as per theory. Maceration of vascular tissues. Calibration of microscope & measurement of spore. Bot.316.3 :( PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY ) Principle, Working and uses of following equipments: a) Autoclave b) Laminar air flow c) pH meter Principle, Working and uses of following equipments: a) Centrifuge b) Spectrophotometer c) Hot air oven Preperation of M.S. medium Embryo Culture of Maize Citric acid Fermentation and Bioassay Observation ,study & importance of following. i) Spirulina ii) Rhizobium iii) Azatobacter iv) Jatropha 14,15,16 . Microtomy of any suitable material.

19

20

21 22 23 24

Bot. 325 : (PLANT PROTECTION ) 25-29. Study of the following plant diseases with reference to the causal organism, symptoms, nature of damage and control measures (any three)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 30.

Tobacco mosaic virus Yellow vein mosaic of papaya Citrus canker. Powdery mildew. Whip smut of sugarcane Tikka disease of groundnut Red rot of sugarcane Root knot of vegetables.

Preparation of Bordeaux mixture/Burgundys mixture and application on diseased plant and observation of its effects. Bot. 326.1: (ETHNOBOTANY)

31 to 36 Study of the following plants with reference to their vernacular names, botanical names, family, plant parts used, uses, mode of preparation and administration from local area with the help of plants or their parts or specimens. A) Food Plants: i. Tubers. b) Dioscorea bulbifera (Kadu Kand) c) Pueraria tuberosa (Bhui kohala) ii. Leaves . b) Chenopodium murale (Chil) c) Amaranthus spinosa (Kateri Matla) d) Amaranthus viridis (Matla) e) Rivea hypocrateriformis (Phangola) iii. Fruits : a) Diospyros melanoxylon (Tembrun) b) iv Seeds: a) Indigofera glandulosa (Zhunja) b) Sterculia urens (Kadai) c) Holoptelea integrifolia (Papada) B) Beverages. Flowers: Madhuca longifoia (Mahu) C) Oil yielding : Seeds : Morinda pubescens (Al, Ali) c) Meyna laxiflora (Aliv)

Madhuca longifoia (Mahu, Tolambi) D) Fiber yielding :Stem : Helicteris isora (Murud Sheng) E) Bidi Wraper : Leaves: a) Diospyros melanoxylon (Tendu) b) Bauhinia malabaricum (Kustya) F) Tooth Brush Stem: a) Pongamia pinnata (Karanj) b) Cassia auriculata (Avali ) c) Acacia nilotica (Babul) d) Azadirachta indica (Neem) G) Gum yielding: a) Anogeiossus latifolia (Dhawada) b) Sterculia urens (Kadai) H) Fish Poison: Stem Bark: a) Holoptelea integrifolia (Papada) b) Lannea coromandelica (Modhal) I) Cloth washing: J) Ethnomedicine i. Anti-dysentery a) Fruit - Helicteris isora (Murud Sheng) b) Fruit - Cassia fistula (Bahava) c) Stem Bark - Holarrhena pubescens (Kuda) ii. Skin diseases a) Seed oil - Psoralea corylifolia (Bavachi) b) Fruit - Pongamia pinnata (Karanj) c) Stem Bark -Azadirachta indica (Neem) iii. Bronchitis and Asthma: a) Leaves - Achyranthus aspera (Aghada) b) Fruit - Solanum virginianum (Bhuiringni) c) Fruit - Terminalia bellerica (Behada) iv. Rheumatism a) Leaves Vitex negundo (Nirgudi) Fruits : a) Balanites aegyptiaca (Hingenbet)

b) Leaves - Cassia auriculata (Awali) c) Stem Bark -Azadirachta indica (Neem) v. Tonic in Anaemic condition : a)Stem - Tinospora cordifolia (Gulvel) b)Root tuber - Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musali) c) Root tuber - Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) vi. Miscellaneous: Household utensils: a) Fruit - Lagenaria siceraria (Dhudhi) K) Musical Instruments:a) Stem - Bambusa arundinacea (Bamboo) or Bambusa vulgaris (Kath-Bamboo) Bot 326.2 PHARMACOGNOSY 37. Microscopic and Macroscopic characters for recognizing Botanical source, Character. T.S. of Leaf. Types of stomatal index based on plants as per theory syllabus. 38,39 Distribution, Characteristics of powder constituents and use of drugs of i. Root - Asparagus- recemosus (Shatavari) ii. Rhizome - Zingiber officinale (Adrak) iii. Fruit - Terminalia bellerica (Behada) iv. Stem - Santalum album (Chandan) v. Leaf Aloe vera (Korpad) vi. Stem bark - Holarrhena pubescens (Dudhi) Bot. 326.2: MEDICOBOTANY 40,41,42 : (A) Preparation of following drugs (Any two) i. Triphala Churna ii. Kumari Asav iii. Gooti (B) Preparation of perfumes (Any two) ii. Rosha/Lemon grass iii. Pudina iv. Jasmine (C) Study of common house-hold medicine as per syllabus: i. Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi) ii. Cyperus rotundus (Nagarmotha) iii. Allium sativum (Garlic) iv. Trachyspermum ammi (Ajwan) N.B. : Study tour in tribal area is compulsory. Students has to submit at least five specimens of ethnobotanical importance.

43 44 45 46 47 48

Bot. 326.3 : SEED TECHNOLOGY &SEED PATHOLOGY Physical purity test Germination test (Maize & Ground nut) Seed moisture test. Seed viability test. (Tetrazolium test&ferric chloride for legume seeds ) Detection of seed microflora. Seed processing,grading, packing.

NOTE : Students should submit at least five diseased specimens along with the report of field trip at the time of practical examination.

REFFERENCE BOOKS FOR PRACTICAL- I, II, III


(Bot. 301- Practical Paper I, Bot. 302- Practical Paper -II, Bot. 303- Practical Paper III.) 1. Bendre Ashok, Kumar Ashok-A Text book of Botany II. (Taxonomy, Economic Botany, Embryology, Anatomy, Ecology, Physiology, Cytology & Genetics) Rastogi Publication, (1990-91) Meerut (U.P.) India. 2. Kumar V. M. Practicals in Botany, Seth Publishers Private Ltd (1989) Bombay. Bot. 301- Practical Plant physiology 3. Amar Singh- Practical plant physiology, Kalyani publisher, New Delhi (1977) 4. Meyer B. S. Anderson D. B, Swanson C. A. Laboratorary plant physiology, D. Van Norstrand Company Inc. Princeton, New Jersy. Affiliated East-West Press Ltd., New Delhi, India(1963) 5. Witham Francis H, Blaydes David F, Devlin Robert M, Experiments in plant physiology D Van Norstrand Company New York 10001(1971) Bot. 303-Botanical techniques 1. Dhopte A. M. (2003) Principles & techniques for plant scientist. 2. Dwivedi J. N. & R. B. Singh (1990) Essentials of plant techniques. 3. Modi H. A. Elementary microbiology. 4. Sharma V. K. Techniques in microscopy and cell Biology, Tata McGraw-Hill Pub Co. Ltd New Delhi. India(1991) 5. Prasad and Prasad- Out lines of microtechniques, Emkay Publication New Delhi. (1975) 6. Patki L. R., Bhalchandra B. L., Jeevaji I. H. An introduction to microtechniques(1983) 2. Aneja K. R. Experiments in microbiology, plant pathology and biotechnology 4th edition. New age international publishers New Delhi (2004)

Bot .303Bikaner India (1995).

Biotechnology

1) Purohit S.S.A Laboratory manual of plant biotechnology , Agro Botanical Publishers 2). Aneja K. R. Experiments in microbiology, plant pathology and biotechnology 4thedition. New age international publishers New Delhi (2004) 3) Philopose P.M. Experimental biotechnology,Dominamt Publishers & Distributors.(2005) 4) Kalyan Kumar De Plant Tissue culture- An Introduction To Plant Tissue culture. New Central Book Agency Culcutta.(1992). 5) Kumar U. Methods in Plant Tissue culture Agrobias, Jodhpur.India.(2005).

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany

BOT. 311: PAPER-I CRYPTOGAMS- I SEMESTER - I


AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

(Total periods 52)

1) To study salient features of cryptogamic plants. 2) To make students aware of the status of cryptogams as a group in plant kingdom. 3) To study the life cycles of selected genera. 4) To study economic importance of cryptogamic plants.

ALGAE
Chapter 1. A. Introduction to Algae: 1. General characters of algae.

(Periods 26)

03

2. Classification of algae up to classes as per G. M. Smith (1955). 3. Contribution of Indian Phycologists: i) Prof. M. O. P. Iyengar ii) Prof. T. V. Desikachary B. Economic importance of algae: 1. Role of algae in relation to : a) Agriculture b) Food c) Fodder d) Industry (Viz. Agar, Alginates, Carrageenin) e) Sewage disposal f) Origin of Petroleum and gas. 2. Recent trends in algal biotechnology in relation to S.C.P. 01 04

Chapter 2. Life cycle of Chara with respect to: 1. Systematic position. 2. Occurrence 3. Structure of thallus 4. Reproduction a) Vegetative reproduction b) Sexual reproduction 5. Structure & development of sex organs a) Nucule b) Globule 6. Fertilization & germination of zygote. 7. Schematic representation of life cycle of Chara. Chapter 3. Life cycle of Ectocarpus with respect to: 1. Systematic position 2. Occurrence 3. Structure of thallus 4. Reproduction. a) Asexual reproduction b) Sexual reproduction in Ectocarpus siliculosus. 5. Schematic representation of life cycle of Ectocarpus . Chapteer 4. Life cycle of Batrachospermum with respect to: 1. Systematic position, 2. Occurrence. 3. Structure of thallus, 4. Reproduction. a) Asexual reproduction b) Sexual reproduction 5. Structure of sex organs 6. Fertilization 7. Post-fertilization changes 8. Germination of oospore

05

04

05

9. Schematic representation of life cycle of Batrachospermum.

Chapter 5. Range of Thallus structure in Algae: 1. Unicellular thallus 2. Colonial thallus 3. Filamentous thallus 4. Siphonaceous thallus 5. Pseudoparenchymatous a)Uni-axial thallus b) Multi-axial thallus 6. Parenchymatous thallus

04

FUNGI
Chapter 6. A. An introduction to the fungi. 1. General characters of fungi.

(Periods 26) 04

2. Classification of fungi up to classes giving reasons as per Ainsworth (1973). 3. Contribution of following Mycologists. i) Prof. E. J. Buttler ii) Prof. C. V. Subramanian. B. Economic importance of Fungi: 1. Role of fungi in relation to: a) Medicine b) Food & fodder. c) Soil fertility d) Plant pathology e) Mycoses f) Biodeterioration g) Fermentation Industry 2. Recent trends in fungal biotechnology Chapter 7. Study of Myxomycetes with respect to: 1. Thallus structure 2. Types of plasmodia 01 03 03

3. Nutrition 4. Reproduction a) Vegetative and Asexual b) Sexual 5. Schematic representation of life cycle of Stemonitis. Chapter 8. Life cycle of Achlya with respect to: 1. Systematic position with reasons 2. Habit and Habitat 3. Structure of mycelium. 4. Reproduction a) Asexual b) Sexual 5. Schematic representation of life cycle of Achlya. Chapter 9. Life cycle of Penicillium with respect to: 1. Systematic position with reasons. 2. Habit and Habitat 3. Structure of mycelium, 4. Reproduction a) Asexual b) Sexual 5. Schematic representation of life cycle of Penicillium 6. Economic importance of Penicillium. Chapter 10. Life cycle of Puccinia graminis-tritici with respect to: 1. Systematic position with reasons. 2. Five spore stages: Spermatia, Aeciospores, Uredinospores, Teliospores and Basidiospores 3. Schematic representation of life cycle of Puccinia graminis-tritici 4. Control and forecasting measures 5. Wheat rust problem in India. 04 04 03

Chapter 11. Study of Deuteromycetes with respect to: 1. Salient features 2. Reproduction and fruiting bodies 3. Parasexuality and its significance.
Chapter 12. Study of Lichens: 1. General characters, 2. Types 3. Importance.

03

01

REFERENCE BOOKS ALGAE


1. Bold, H.C. and M.J.M.Wynne (1978) Introduction to the Algae - Structure and Reproduction. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd New Delhi. 2. Chapman, V.J. and D.J. Chapman (1979) The Algae, English Language Book Soc & Mac Millons, London. 3. Ganguli, H.C. and Kar, A.K. (2001) College Botany Vol.II, Books and Allied Press Ltd Kolkata, India 4. Kumar H.D. (1988) Introductory Phycology. Affiliated East-West Press Ltd., New Delhi, India 5. Kumar H.D. and H.N.Singh (1976) A Text Book of Algae. Affiliated EastWest Press Ltd., New Delhi, India 6. Lee. R. E. Cambridge. 7. Morris I. (1968) An Introduction to the Algae. Hutchinson and Com. London. 8. Pandey, B.P. (1994) A Text Book of Botany - Algae. S.Chand and Com. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 9. Pandey, S.N. Trivedi, PS. and S P.Misra (1995) A Text Book of Algae, Vikas Pub. House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India. 10. Prescott, G.W. (1969) The Algae : A Review. Thomas Nelson and Press, London, U.K. 11. Round, F.E. (1965) The Biology of the Algae. Edward Arnold Pub, London, U.K. (1989) Phycology Cambridge University Press,

12. Sharma, O.P (1990) Text Book of Algae. Tata MacGraw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd, New Delhi, India. 13. Smith G.M (1955) Cryptogamic Botany Vol. I : Algae and Fungi. McGraw-Hill Book Co New York, U.S.A. 14. Vashishta, B.R. (1995) Botany for Degree Students-Algae S. Chand and Co Ltd., New Delhi, India

FUNGI
1. Ahmadjian, V. and M.E. Hale (1973) The Lichens, Academic-Press, New York, U.S.A. 2. Alexopoulos, C.J. and C.W. Mims (1979) Introductory Mycology, John Wiley, New York, U.S.A. 3. Alexopoulos, C.J, Mims, C.W. and M.Blackwell (1996) Introductory Mycology (4th Ed.) John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, U.S.A. 4. Dube, H.C. (1990) .An Introduction to Fungi Vikas Pub. House Ltd. New Delhi, India. 5. Hale, M.E. (1983) The Biology of Lichens, Edward Arnold Publ. New Delhi, India. 6. Joshi, K .R. (1995) Opprtunistic Mycoses. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India. 7. Mehrotra, R.S. and C.R Aneja (1990) An Introduction to Mycology. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, India. 8. Pandey, B.P. (1994) A Text Book of Botany-Fungi. S. Chand and Co, Ltd. New Delhi, India 9. Sharma P. D. (1998) The Fungi. Rastogi Pub. Meerut India 10. Sharma O. P. ( 1990) Text Book of Fungi. Ltd New Delhi. India 11. B. R. Chand and Comp Ud New Delhi. 12. Vaidya J. G. (1995) Pune, India. 13. Webster J. (1980) Introduction to Fungi Press, Cambridge
xxxx

Tata McGraw-Hill Pub Co.

Biology

of

the

Fungi

Satyajeet Prakashan,

Cambridge University

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON


Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany

BOT. 312: PAPER-II ANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY SEMESTER - I


(Total periods 52)

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To study origin of Angiosperms with respect to Age & Probable ancestors. To study Pre-Darwinian and Post- Darwinian systems of Classification. To study various Angiospermic Families emphasizing their Morphology, Biology, Phylogeny and interrelationship. To study functions and Botanical features of Botanical gardens. To know role of Anatomy, Embryology and Palynology in Taxonomy.

ANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY
Chapter 1. Origin of Angiosperms: 1. Age of Angiosperms 2. Probable Ancestors of Angiosperms a) Pteridospermales b) Bennettitales . c) Gnetales Chapter 2. Systems of Plant Classifications 2. Pre-Darwinian systems Linnaeus System.

(Periods :52 )
06

08

1. Concept of Pre-Darwinian and Post- Darwinian systems of Classification 3. Post-Darwinian systems - Assumptions, outline, merits and demerits of the following: a)Engler and Prantls system b) Hutchinson's system. 4. Comparison between Engler and Prantls & Hutchinson's System

Chapter 3. Study of Angiospermic Families. A. (Sensu Bentham and Hookers system of classification)

30

Study of families with respect to geographical distribution, vegetative and floral morphological features, distinguishing features, floral formula, and economic importance of the following:

1. Magnoliaceae 2. Papaveraceae 3. Cruciferae 4. Capparidaceae 5. Zygophyllaceae 6. Combretaceae 7. Cucurbitaceae 8. Compositae (Asteraceae) 9. Asclepiadaceae
B. Features of biological interest1. Asclepiadaceae 1. Magnoliaceae 3. Casuarinaceae 2. Orchidaceae

10. Convolvulaceae 11. Bignoniaceae 12. Verbenaceae 13. Amaranthaceae 14. Casuarinaceae 15. Orchidaceae 16. Scitaminae 17. Palmae (Arecaceae)
18 Gramineae (Poaceae)

C. Phylogeny & interrelationships of the following families: 2. Compositae (Asteraceae) 4. Orchidaceae

5. Gramineae (Poaceae) Chapter 4. Botanical Gardens: l. Definition and functions of Botanical gardens 2. Botanical features of the following: a) National Botanical garden Lucknow. b) Indian Botanical garden Kolkata. c) Royal Botanical garden Chapter 5 Modern Trends in Taxonomy: Role of following a) Anatomy b) Embryology c) Palynology Kew ( England) 05 03

REFERENCE BOOKS ANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY


1. Heywood, V.H. and Moore, DM. (Eds.) (1984) Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy, Academic
Press, London, U.K.

2. Jeffrey, C.E. (1982) An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy, Cambridge University Press,


Cambridge, London, U.K.

3. Lawrence, G.H.M. (1951) Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. McMillan, New York, U.S.A. 4. Naik, V.N. (1985) Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw-Hill Publ. Co.Ltd., New Delhi,
India.

5. Sharma, O.P. (1993) Plant Taxonomy, .Tata McGtaw Hill. Publ.Co.Ltd. New Delhi, India. 6. Singh, V. (1993) Taxonomy of Angiosperms Rastogi Publication, Meerut (U.P.) India. 7. Singh, V., Pande, P.C. and D.K.Jain (1994). A Text Book of Botany : Angiosperms. Rastogi
Publications, Meerut (U.P.), India.

8. Singh, M.P., Nayar, M.P. and R.P.Roy (1994). Text Book of Forest Taxonomy, Anmol Publ. P.
(Ltd.) New Delhi, India.

9. Subramanayam, N.S. (1997) Modern Plant Taxonomy, Vikas Publ. House, New Delhi, India. 10. Sivarajan V. V. (1984) Introduction to Principles of Plant Taxonomy. Oxford & I. B. H.
Publishing co. New Delhi, India.

---------------XXX---------------

NORTHMAHARSHTRAUNIVERSITY,JALGAON
SyllabusforT.Y.B.Sc.Botany

BOT. 313: PAPER- IIIGENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING

SEMESTER - I (Totalperiods52)
AIMS & OBJECTIVES:

1. To introduce the students with science of heredity. 2. To study the role of genes in evolution of species. 3. To study how genes are linked, segregates and mutates during evolution. 4. To introduce students with branch of genetics & plant breeding, this survived human population from starvation.

GENETICS
Chapter 1: Mendelian Genetics: 1) Historical background. 2) Mendels work -Monohybrid & Dihybrid Ratio 3) Mendels Lawsa) Law of dominance b) Law of segregation. c) Law of independent assortment. 4) Deviation from Mendels laws (Neo-Mendelism): a) Complementary gene interaction - 9:7 ratio. b) Epistasis - 13:3 ratio. Chapter 2. Multiple Alleles: 1) Concept, characters and Examples. 2) Multiple alleles in blood group in human being. 3) Sterility genes in Nicotiana.

(Periods 26) 05

03

Chapter 3. Linkage and Crossing over: 1) Concept & history of linkage. 2) Detection of linkage from F2 data. 3) Process of crossing over. 4) Types of crossing over single, double & multiple 5) Chromosome mapping by three point test cross. Chapter 4. Population Genetics: 1) Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equillibrium. 2) Factors affecting the equillibrium in populationi) Migration ii) Mutation, iii) Genetic drift, 3) P T C inheritance ( tasters vs non-tasters). 4) Industrial melanism-pepper moth Chapter 5. Chromosomal aberrations and mutations: 1) Structural changes in chromosomes Addition, deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation 2) Numerical changes in chromosomes Euploidy, aneuploidy. 3) Gene mutations- concept, examples.

06

06

06

PLANT BREEDING
Chapter 6. Principles of plant breeding, scope, objectives and importance. Chapter 7. Plant introduction & acclimatization 1) Centers of origin of crop plants (N. I. Vavilovs concept).

(Periods 26)

02 04

2) Definition, Objectives, Advantages & disadvantages of introduction, concept of quarantine. 3) Germ plasm collection. 4) Plant introduction agenciesi) N B P G R ii) I B P G R

Chapter 8. Selection Definition, Procedure, Merits & demirits of following 1) Pure line selection. 2) Mass selection. 3) Clonal selection. Chapter 9. Hybridisation. 1) Definition, Procedure, Merits & demirits. 2) Methods of hybridization. a) Single cross Method b) Double cross method c) Pedigree method Chapter 10. Heterosis & Hybrid vigour: 1) Introduction. 2) Heterosis 3) Dominance and over dominance hypothesis 4) Application of Heterosis Chapter 11. Male sterility 1) Genetic male sterility. 2) Cytoplasmic male sterility. 3) Use of male sterility in hybrid development. Chapter 12. Polyploidy: Role of polyploidy in plant breeding Wheat, Raphanobassika, Nicotiana

04

05

03

02

02

Chapter 13. Mutation Breeding: 1) Definition & procedure 2) Mutagenic agents 3) Gamma gardens 4) Achievements.

04

REFFERENCE BOOKS GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING


1. Gardner, Simmons and Snustad. Principles of Genetics. 8th edition. Wiley- India, 2005. 2. Strickberger, M.W Genetics, 3rd edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. New York, US A 3. A.V.S.S Sambamurty Genetics, 2nd edition. Narosa Publishers 2005. 4. S. Sunder Rajan. Cytogenetics. Anmol Publications ( 2004) 5. P. S. Verma, V. K. Agrawal. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular biology, Evolution and Ecology. S. Chand and co. 6. Gupta. P. K. (2005). Genetics, Mumbai, India 8. Gupta, P. K. (1998) Genetics, Plant, Breeding and Evolution. Rastogi Publications, Meerut, India. 9. Dnyansagar, V.R (1996). Cytogenetks (TMH India), New Delhi, India. 10. Gupta, P.K. (1995) Cytogenetics, Rastogi Publications,Meerut, India. 11. Sarin, C. (1995). Genetics (TMH India), New Delhi, India 12. Siingh, B.D. (1996) Plant Breeding, Kalyani Publishers. 13. Sinha U. and Sinha Sunita (1995) Cytogenetics, Plant breeding and Evolution. 14. Agrawal R. L.(1998) Fundamentals of Plant Breeding and hybrid seed production. . Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi, India. 15. Chaudhary, H.K. (2001). Plant breeding, Theory and Practise , Oxford IBH (P.) Ltd, New Delhi, India 16. V. L. Chopra. Plant breeding 2nd edition Oxford IBH (P.) Ltd, New Delhi, India 17. L. D. Xijendro Das (1998) Plant breeding, New age International publishers ---------------XXX--------------Rastogi Publications, Meerut, India.. 7. Powar, C.B. (1999). Genetics Vol. I and II. Himalaya Publications,

MAHARSHTRAUNIVERSITY,JALGAON
SyllabusforT.Y.B.Sc.Botany

BOT. 314: PAPER IV

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
(Total periods 52)

SEMESTER - I

AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the scope and importance of molecular biology. 2. To study the biochemical nature of nucleic acids, their role in living systems, experimental evidences to prove DNA as a genetic material. 3. To understand the process of synthesis of proteins, how genetic code plays role in polypeptide formation 4. To trace the historical path of concept of gene; its classical nature;compared with modern approach; cistrons and exons. 5. To understand how nucleic acids organized in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; study of nucleosome as a unit of chromosome organisation. 6. To expose the students to modern techniques in molecular biology

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Chapter 1. Introduction to molecular biology. 1. Historical background. 2. Scope and importance. Chapter 2. A. Structural organisation of Cell 1. Cell wall 2. Plasma membrane- Fluid mosaic model, 3. Cytoplasm 4. Ribosomes Types 5. Golgi Complex 6. Mitochondria 7. Lysosomes 8. Chloroplast Ultrastructure & Photosynthetic pigments 9. Endoplasmic reticulum 10. Nucleus, (Pro & Eukaryotic) B. Concept of Cell cycle 1. Mitosis 2. Meiosis

(Periods :52 ) 02

15

03

Chapter 3. Chromosome: 05 1. Molecular organization of Prokaryotic ( Bacterial chromosome). 2. Structure & molecular organization of Eukaryotic chromosome Chromatids, Chromomeres, Arms, Nucleosome, Primary constriction (Centromere), Secondary constriction, Telomeres, Satellite, Solenoid, loop and Scafold. 3. Types of chromosomes as per position of centromeres. Chapter 4. Nucleic Acids : 12 1. Evidences for DNA as a genetic material - Griffiths & Averys experiments (Transformation). 2. Molecular Model of DNA Structure (Watson & Cricks Model) 3. Forms of DNA : A-DNA, B-DNA, Z-DNA 4. Types of DNA replication-: Conservative, Dispersive & Semiconservative with Meselsons & Stahls experiment. 5. Mechanism of DNA replication- Initiation of replication, Replication fork, RNA primer, semi-discontinuous replication, Okazaki fragment, enzymes involved in replication. 6. Types of RNA, Molecular model of tRNA Clover Leaf model. Chapter 5. Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis: 1. Concept of genetic code. 2. Properties of genetic code. 3. Components involved in protein synthesis. 4. Central dogma of molecular biology. 5. Mechanism of protein synthesis. a) Transcription b)Translation Chapter 6. Modern concept of gene: 1. Introduction. - Exons, Introns, Splicing of transcripts. 2. Concept of cistron, recon, muton & replicon. 3. Current concept of gene, pseudogene. Chapter 7. Gene regulation in prokaryotes1. Operon concept 2. Inducible system- Lac operon 3. Repressible system-Tryptophan operon. 08

03

04

REFFERENCE BOOKS
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
1. V. S. S. Sambamurty Molecular biology, Narosa publishing house New Delhi. 2. P. S. Verma, V. K. Agrawal. Cell biology, Genetics, Molecular biology, Evolution and Ecology. 3rd edition, S. Chand Publication. 2008. 3. Gardner, Simmons and Snustad. Principles of Genetics. 8th edition. Wiley- India, 2008 4. H. D. Kumar Biology and Biotechnology 1988, Vikas Publishing house. 5. Gupta, P.K. (1989) Cytology, Genetics and Evolution 5th Ed Rastogi Publ. New Delhi, India. V. N. Sharma, A. Tandon. Concepts in molecular biology, 2004. New age international. 6. Dr. B. M. Deore, Dr. Nikam. Concepts in molecular biology, Nirali Prakashan. 7. Powar, C.B. (1999). Genetics Vol. I and II. Himalaya Publications, Mumbai, India. 8. Strickberger, M.W Genetics, 3rd edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. New York, US A. 9. Gupta, P.K. (1999) A Text Book of Cell and Molecular Biology, Rastogi Publication, Meerut. 10. Prasad and Prasad (1994) Outlines of Microtechniques, Emkay Publ. New Delhi, India. 11. Shanna, A.K. and Sharma A. (1999) Plant Chromosomes : Analysis, Manipulation and Engineering, Harwood Academic Publishers, Australia. 12. Sharma, Arun and Sharma Archana (1972) Chromosome Techniques, Theory and Practice, University Park Press, Butteroworths, London, U.K. 13. Sundararajan, S.. Cell and Molecular Biology, Anruol Publ. Pvt Ltd. Delhi, 14. Rao. B.H. Harshitha. D. and Rao K.R.S. (1999). Advanced Biotechnology. Discovery Publ. House, New Delhi, India. 15. Jogdand, S.N. (2001) Advances in Biotechnology. Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, India 16. Chhatwal, G.R. (1998) Textbook of Biotechnology. Anmol Publications, New Delhi, India. ---------------XXX---------------

NORTHMAHARSHTRAUNIVERSITY,JALGAON
SyllabusforT.Y.B.Sc.Botany

BOT. 315 : PAPER- V


PLANT ECOLOGY & PHYTOGEOGRAPHY

SEMESTER - I
AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1. To know scope and importance of the discipline. 2. To study the ecological techniques. 3. To know about plant community.

(Totalperiods52)

4. To know about the conservation of Natural resources and pollution. 5. To study botanical regions of India. 6. To study the vegetational types of Maharashtra.

PLANT ECOLOGY
Chapter 1. Introduction: 1. Definition, 2. Branches 3. Scope and importance of Ecology. Chapter 2. Phytosociology: 1. Introduction-definition

(Periods: 42) 02

05

2. Qualitative characters-physiognomy, phenology, periodicity, aspection & stratification 3. Sampling techniques of population: i) Quadrat method : a) List ii) Point method. 4. Quantitative characters- : a) Frequency b) Density c) Abundance. 5. Raunkiaers law of frequency & Frequency diagram. b) List count c) Chart.

Chapter 3. Community dynamics; 1. Succession: Definition, causes & types. 2. Evolution of plant communities. 3. Process of succession-: Xerosere, hydrosere. 4. Climax concept- Monoclimax, Polyclimax, Pseudoclimax and Ecological niche. Chapter 4. Ecological adaptations: plants with respect to Peculiar characters with examples. Chapter 5. Ecosystems: 1. Concept and kinds ( Natural and man made). 2. Components of natural ecosystem. 3. Natural-pond ecosystem and man made-crop-land ecosystem. 4. Food chain, Food webs and Homeostasis. 5. Ecological pyramids and energy relations. 6. Effect of man on natural ecosystem. Chapter 6. Natural Resources & their Conservation. 1. Introduction. 2. Types of natural resources. 3. Concept & necessity of conservation. 4. Biodiversity. 5. In-situ & Ex-situ conservation. 0Chapter 7. Pollution : 1. Concept and definition. 2. Kinds & Causes of Pollution.

06

05

Adaptations to water- Hydrophytes, Xerophytes, Mesophytes and Amphibious

06

05

05

3. Study of air, water and soil pollution with reference to causes, hazards and remedial measures. 4. Green house gasses & Green house effect.

Chapter 8. Biogeochemical cycles: 1. Elements and their distribution. 2. The cycling process 3. Biogeochemical cycles 4. Characteristic features of biogeochemical cycles 5. Describing cycling process. 6. Types:a) Gaseous nutrient cycles- Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen. b) Sedimentary nutrient cycle. Chapter 9. Bioremediation 1. Introduction 2. Need & scope of bioremediation. 3. Phytoremediation. a) Recovery of heavy metals from soil

03

04

b) Reclaimation of industrial waste & municipal waste water.

PHYTOGEOGRAPHY
Chapter 10. Phytogeography: 1. Main Botanical Regions of India. 2. Detailed study of vegetational Chapter 11. Ecological Indicators: 1. Introduction types in Maharashtra.

(Periods: 10)

04

03

2. Plant as indicators - Soil pH, ground water, minerals, metals and pollution. Chapter 12. Endemism: Causes, Types. Chapter 13. Biogeography: 1. Barriers of dispersal. 2. Means of dispersal. 02 01

REFFERENCE BOOKS PLANT ECOLOGY & PHYTOGEOGRAPHY


1. Ambasta, R.S. (1988) A Text Book of Plant Ecology, Students Friends Co. Varanasi, India. 2. Ambasta, R.S. (1990) Environmental and Pollution, Students Friends and Co. Varanasi India. 3. Dash, M.C. (1993) Fundamentals of Ecology, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 4. Hill, M. K.(1997) Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University Press. 5. Kapur, P. and Govil S.R, (2000) Experimental Plant Ecology. S.K Jain for CBS Publishers and Distributors, Delhi, India. 6. Kumar, H.D. (1996) Modern Concepts of Ecology (4th Ed) Vikas Publishing House (P.) Ltd., New Delhi. 7. Kumar, H.D. (1997) General Ecology, Vikas Publishing House (P.) Ltd, New Delhi, India. 8. Odum, E.P. (1983) Basic Ecology, Saunders, Philadelphia. 9. Odum, E.P. (1996) Fundamentals of Ecology, Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun, India 10. Agrawal K.C. (1996) Environmental Biology, Agro-Botanical Publishers. Bikaner. 11. P. L. Kochhar - Plant ecology, Genetics & Evolution, S. Nagin & Co. Jallunder city. 12. P. S. Verma & V. K. Agrawal, Principles of ecology. S. Chand & Co. ( Pvt.) Ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi. 13. Mukherjee B. Environmental Biology, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 14. P. D. Sharma. Ecology and Environment , Rastogi Pub. Meerut, India. 15. S. S. Purohit & R. Ranjan. Ecology and Environmental pollution, Agro-Bios Publishers, Jodhpur, India. ---------------XXX--------------New

NORTHMAHARSHTRAUNIVERSITY,JALGAON
SyllabusforT.Y.B.Sc.Botany BOT. 316.2: PAPER- VI ( OPTIONAL-II ) BOTANICAL TECHNIQUES

SEMESTER - I

(Totalperiods52)

AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1) To study the scope and importance of Botanical techniques. 2) To know about instruments and their utility in subject Botany. 3) To know about measurement of microorganisms by studying micrometry. 4) To study the different stains and staining. 5) To study the killing, fixing and Microtomy of plant material. 6) To study various cultural techniques in Botany. 7) To understand the methods used in whole mount preparation, wood maceration and cytology. 8) To study the chromatography techniques.

BOTANICAL TECHNIQUES
Chapter 1. Introduction, Scope and importance Chapter 2. Study of Different Instruments: 1. Microtome (Rotary) 2. Camera lucida 3. Stereoscopic binocular microscope 4. Phase-contrast microscope 5. Electron microscope Chapter 3. Micrometry. 1. Introduction. 2. Stage micrometer. 3. Ocular micrometer.

(Periods: 52) 02 06

04

4. Calibration of microscope- under low power, High power & Oil emersion. 5. Measuring of spore size.

Chapter 4. Stains and staining: 1. Theory of Staining 2. Type of stains 3. Staining: (a) Bacterial (b) Fungal (c) Cytological (d) Anatomical 4. Temporary and permanent double stained preparation of free hand sections. Chapter 5. Killing and Fixing of Material. 1. Collection of material. 2. Types of Fixative 3. Techniques of fixing Chapter 6. Microtomy: 1. Washing 2. Dehydration 3. Cleaning 4. Infiltration 5. Embedding 6. Sectioning 7. Mounting of ribbon 8. Staining Chapter 7. Cultural Techniques: 1. Concept of mixed and pure culture 2. Glassware - Types 3. Sterilization Methods for glassware and media. 4. Nutritional requirements for various organisms 5. Common media used for cultivation of Algae, Fungi and Bacteria a) Allen and Arnoni medium for algae.

06

04

08

10

b) PDA medium for Fungi c) Nutrient Agar, MacConkeys Agar medium for Bacteria. 6. Source of inoculums for algae, Fungi, Bacteria 7. Enrichment and isolation method. a) Streak plate method. b) Pour plate / dilution method. c) Slide culture Chapter 8. Whole mount, Cytological method and wood maceration: 1. Permanent whole mount museum specimens. 2. Cytological methods: a) Smear. b) Squash. c) Making of smear and squash permanent 3. Wood maceration techniques. Chapter 9. Chromatography : 1. Introduction Definition & principle of chromatography 2. Types: a) Paper chromatography -Unidirectional - Ascending and descending, b) Two dimensional. c) Thin layer chromatography -Plate and column 3. Procedure for preparation of paper chromatogram and thin layer chromatogram 4. RF Value Chapter 10. Spectrophotometry 1. Introduction 2. Principle & Working of spectrophotometer 3. Application of spectrophotometer 02 05 05

REFFERENCE BOOKS BOTANICAL TECHNIQUES 1. Aneja, K,R. (1996) Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Patholc Tissue Culture and Mushroom Cultivation (IInd Ed,) Wishwa Prakasn New Delhi, India. 2. Dwivedi, J.N. and R.B.Singh (1990). Essentials of Plant Techniques ,Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India 3. Modi, H.A. (1996) India. 4. Starrier, R.Y. Ingrahaan, J.L., Whalis, M.L. and P.&Painter (1993) General Microbiology (5th Ed) The Macmillan Press Ltd, London, U.K. 5. Prasad & Prasad . Outline of microtechniques. Emkay publication Delhi ( 1975). 6. L. R. Patki, B. L. Bhalchandra, I. H. Jeevaji forwarded by Dr. (Mrs) V. M. Sapkal. An introduction to microtechniques. S. Chand & co. ltd. New Delhi. 7. V. K. Sharma.(1991) Techniques in microscopy & cell Biology, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi. ---------------XXX--------------Elementaiy Microbiology Vol.V. Ekta Prakashan, Ahmadabad,

NORTHMAHARSHTRAUNIVERSITY,JALGAON
SyllabusforT.Y.B.Sc.Botany

BOT. 316.1: PAPER V (OPTIONAL-I) GARDENING SEMESTER - I (Total periods 52)


AIMS & OBJECTIVES:

1. To know the concept of garden. 2. To study the different characters of garden. 3. To know about regular activities in gardening. 4. To study the different ornamental garden plants. 5. To study about the techniques of Pot culture, Bonsai, Topiary, Lawn, Rockery.

GARDENING
Chapter 1. Introduction: l. Definition of garden & gardening 2. Importance of garden a) Aesthetic c) Economic 3. Types of Garden: a) Formal garden c) Botanical garden Chapter 2. Planning of gardens: l. Consideration of following in planning: b) Informal garden d) Terrace garden b) Academic

(Periods: 52) 04

06

Originality in planning, variety and surprise, Colour scheme, fragrance, privacy, comfort and flexibility. 2. Study of physical, structural and biological features of the gardens such as a) Fences c) Paths and avenues e) Water garden g) Lawns b) Hedges and borders d) Arches and pergolas f) Rockery h) Green house

Chapter 3. Soil management: l. Soil: Nature and types 2. Manures:

06

a) Bulky organic manures-Compost and composting, Vermi-compost, Green manures, Farm Yard Manure (FYM) b) Concentrated organic manures-Liquid manures 3. Fertilizers (N, P, K) 4. Agrochemicals: Insecticides, Pesticides and Fungicides 5. Irrigation techniques Chapter 4. Garden tools and Implements: l. Implements: Sickle, Trowel, Rake, Hoe, Secateurs, Prunning sheers, Grafting and budding knife. 2. Uses and maintenance of following: a) Budding and grafting knife b) Mower c) Sprayer Chapter 5. Indoor Gardening: 1. House plants for indoor gardening and characters of indoor plants. 2. Maintenance of indoor plants. 3. Hanging baskets Chapter 6. Pot culture: l. Containers 2. Selection of plants 3. Potting and repotting 4. Maintenance and importance Chapter 7. Bonsai: l. Principle 3. Selection of plants 5. Styles 2. Container 4. Techniques 6. Maintenance and importance 04 03 03 02

Chapter 8. Study of ornamental plants: choice of place with at least 2 examples each of: a) Annuals d) Trees Chapter 9. Topiary: 1. Introduction 2. Selection of plants 3. Methods / Training 4. Importance Chapter 10. Lawns: 1. Preparation of soil 2. Selection of grasses 3. Planting methods 4. Maintenance and after care 5. Importance Chapter 11. Rockery: 1. Selection of site 2. Design, construction and preparation 3. Selection of plants 4. Maintenance and care Chapter 12. Garden operations: 1. Preparation & importance of seed beds & seed pans 2. Collection & sowing of seeds 3. Seedling transplantation 4. Transplantation of large tree 5. Preparation of pits 6. Pruning and Mulching Chapter 13. General account of pests & diseases in garden plants with respect to Pathogen , host, symptoms, damage & control. b) Shrubs e) Cacti & Succulents c) Climbers

09

With reference to botanical name, cultivation practices, ornamental value and

02

04

03

04

02

REFFERENCE BOOKS GARDENING


1. I.Perey Lancaster (1997) Gardening in India. Oxford & I B H Publishing Co.Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi. 2. Alex Laurie and Ries V.C. (2003) Floriculture : Fundamentals & Practices. 3. Bose, T.K. and Mukherjee, D. (1997) (Ed.) Percy Lancaster's Gardening in India. Oxford and IBH Publ. (P.) Ltd,, New Delhi, India. 4. Day, S.C. (2003) A Art of Miniature Plant Culture. Agrobias. Jodhpur, India. 5. Dej, S.C. (2003) Complete Home Gardening. Agrobias, Jodhpur, India. 6. Dhopte, A.M. (2003) Principles and Techniques for Plant Scientists. Agrobios, Jodhpur, India. 7. Khan, M.R. (1995) Horticulture and Gardening, Nirali Prakashan, Punc. India. 8. John Brookes Weidfeld and Nicolson, Garden paradise- The History and design of the great Islamic gardens, London (1987) 9. Pramila Mehra. Gardening for every one- Hind pocket book private limited, New Dehli. 10. Ethene Reuss Clarke Collins Aura Garden Hand book, Wlliam Collins Sons & Co. ltd 1988. 11. Anne Swinton Collins Aura Garden Hand books- Bonsai, Wlliam Collins Sons & Co. ltd 1988. 12. Philip Swindells Collins Aura Garden Hand books- Water gardening, Wlliam Collins Sons & Co. ltd 1988. 13. Dr. D. G. Hessayon Century London 1987, Century Hutchinson Ltd. 14. R. N. Parkar. Fourty common Indian trees-Avishkar Publishers Distributors, Jaipur(1986). 15. R. K. Gupta. Multipurpose trees for Agroforestry & wasteland utilization, Oxford & I B H Publishing Co.Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi. ---------------XXX---------------

NORTHMAHARSHTRAUNIVERSITY,JALGAON
SyllabusforT.Y.B.Sc.Botany

BOT. 316.3: PAPER- V (OPTIONAL-III) PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

SEMESTER - I
AIMS & OBJECTIVE :

(Totalperiods52)

1. To introduce the students with current status and future of biotechnology in 2. 3. 4. 5.


6.

India. To acquaint with advance knowledge of different instruments related to Biotechnology. To acquaint with the importance of interdisciplinary approach in the study of Biotechnology. To recognize the impact of Biotechnology on socioeconomic aspects of life. To develop the knowledge of industrial application of Biotechnology. To develop the skills among the students for employment or entrepreneurship.

BIOTECHNOLOGY
(Total Periods: 52) Chapter 1. Introduction: 1. Defination, Scope and importance. 2. Biotechnology in India. \Chapter 2. 1) I P R, Patents, & Copyright. 2) Safety measures in Biotechnology. Chapter 3. Equipments: Structure, Principle, Working and Uses of the following: 06 1. Autoclave 2. Laminar Air Flow Cabinet 3. pH Meter 4. Centrifuge 5. Spectrophotometer 6. Hot air oven. 02

Chapter 4. Plant Tissue Culture: 1. Introduction. 2. Tissue culture laboratory plan and requirements 3. Media preparation M.S. Medium 4. Callus culture. 5. Micropropopogation 6. Embryo culture 7. Protoplast culture & hybridization. 8. Applications of tissue culture Chapter 5. Fermentation Technology: 1. Principles of microbial growth.- Batch culture, continuous culture, synchronous culture

06

08

2. Microbes involved, substrates, Fermentation process, optimum conditions, product recovery, flow sheet and uses of the following: a) Citric Acid b) Vinegar c) Antibiotics- Penicillin d) Vitamins (B-complex) Chapter 6. Single cell Protein (SCP): 1. Microorganisms used in SCP 2. Production of SCP, Spirulina and Yeast 3. Nutritional value of SCP 4. Advantages of SCP Chapter 7. Biological Nitrogen Fixation: 1. Introduction. 2. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation & root nodule development in leguminous plants 3. Non-Symbiotic nitrogen fixation 4. Mechanism of nitrogen fixation. 5. Nif, Nod and Hup-genes 6. Importance in Agriculture. Chapter 8. Biomass and Bioenergy: 1. 2. Biomass as a source of energy Composition of Biomass 08 06 04

3.

Biomass conversion into energy a. Non-biological methods- Pyrolysis, Gassification, Liquification. b. Biological methods- Aerobic and anaerobic digestion.

4. 5. 6.

Biogas production Biofuels Petrocrops 10

Chapter 9. Genetic Engineering: 1. History and development of genetic engineering- milestone. 2. Restriction endonucleases. Types, naming systems, mode of action. 3. Vectors for gene cloning- Types, plasmids, cosmids, Bacteriophages. 4. Agrobacterium tumefeciens vectors (Octopine & Nopalin Plasmids) 5. Gene cloning in prokaryotes- out line, procedure. 6. Isolation of gene of interest. 7. Insertion of isolated gene into the vector. 8. Transformation. 9. Selection of transformed cell

REFFERENCE BOOKS

BIOTECHNOLOGY

1. Aneja, K.R. (1996) Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology, Tissue Culture and Mushroom Cultivation, Wishwa Prakashan, New Delhi. India 2. Bhojwani S.S. and Razdan M.K. (1983). Plant Tissue Culture, Theory and Practice. Elscrir Science Pub, Amsterdam. 3. Casida, IE. (1991) Industrial microbiology, Wiley Eastern Ltd. New Delhi. India. 4. Dubey, R.C. (1995) A Text Book of Biotechnology, S. Chand and Co. Ltd New Delhi, India. 5. Evans D.A. and et.al. (1983) Handbook of Plant Cell Culture. Vol. 1-3. McMillan, New Delhi, India. 6. Gupta, P.K. (1999). Elements of Biotechnology, Rastogi Pub!. Meerut, India, 7. Jogdand, S.N. (1993) Advances in Biotechnology. Himalaya Publ. House. New Delhi, India. 8. Kumar, U. (2000). Methods in Plant Tissue Culture, Agrobios, Jodhpur. India.

9. Purohit, S.S. (2003). Agricultural Biotechnology, Agrobias, Jodhpur, India. 10. Smith, I.E. (19%). Biotechnology, Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 11. Swaminathan, M.S. (1991) India. ---------------XXX--------------Biotechnology in Agriculture, McMillan, Madras,

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany BOT. 321: PAPER- I CRYPTOGAMS-II SEMESTER - II (Total periods 52)
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

1) To study salient features of cryptogamic plants. 2) To make students aware of the status of cryptogams as a group in plant kingdom. 3) To study the life cycles of selected genera. 4) To study economic importance of cryptogamic plants.

BRYOPHYTES
Chapter 1. Introduction 1. General characters of Bryophyta

(Periods: 26) 05

2. Classification of Bryophyta up to classes giving reasons with at least two examples of each class as per G. M. Smith. 3. Alternation of generation in Bryophytes. 4. Economic importance of Bryophytes. 5. Contribution of Indian Bryologists. a) Prof. Shiv Ram Kashyap b) Prof. B. P. Pandey Chapter 2. Life History of Marchantia with respect to: 1. Systematic position, habit and habitat 2. External and internal morphology of gametophytes. 3. Reproduction-Vegetative & sexual. 4. Structure of sex organs. 5. Fertilization, 05

6. Structure and development of sporophyte, 7. Dehiscence of capsule and dispersal of spores, 8. Structure and germination of spores Chapter 3. Life History of Anthoceros with respect to : 1. Systematic position, habit and habitat 2. External and internal morphology of gametophytes. 3. Reproduction-Vegetative & sexual. 4. Structure of sex organs. 5. Fertilization, 6. Structure and development of sporophyte, 7. Dehiscence of capsule and dispersal of spores, 8. Structure and germination of spores (Affinities of Anthoceros and evolutionary features in its sporangium is to be emphasized.) Chapter 4. Life History of Polytrichum with respect to: 1. Systematic position, habit and habitat 2. External and internal morphology of gametophytes. 3. Reproduction-Vegetative & sexual 4. Position & structure of sex organs. 5. Fertilization, 6. Structure of sporophyte, 7. Dehiscence of capsule and dispersal of spores, 8. Structure and germination of spores Chapter 5. General topics 1. Evolution of Bryophytic Gametophytes according to Regressive and Progressive theories. 2. Evolution of Bryophytic sporophytes according to the Theory of sterilization and Theory of reduction. 04 06 06

PTERIDOPHYTES
Chapter 6. Introduction 1. General characters of Pteridophytes

(Periods: 26) 05

2. Classification of Pteridophytes upto classes giving reasons with at least two examples of each class according to Prof G. M. Smith. 3. Economic importance of Pteridophytes. 4. Contribution of Indian Pteridologists a) S. S. Bir b) N. S. Parihar Chapter 7. Life History of Psilotum with respect to: 1. Systematic position, 2. Habit and habitat 3. External morphology of sporophyte 4. Internal morphology of sporophyte 5. Reproduction, 6. Morphological nature of synangium. 7. Position, structure of sporangium. 8. Dehiscence of synangia 9. Structure and germination of spores, 10. Structure of mature gametophyte (Prothallus), 11. Structure of mature male and female sex organ. 12. Fertilization. 13. Development and structure of embryo. 14. Alternation of generation. Chapter 8. Life History of Equisetum with respect to: 1. Systematic position, 2. Habit and habitat 3. External morphology of sporophyte. 4. Internal morphology of sporophyte. 5. Reproduction. 6. Position & structure of strobilus. 06 05

7. Structure and germination of spores. 8. Structure of gametophyte 9. Structure of mature sex organs. 10. Fertilization. 11. Development and structure of embryo. 12. Alternation of generation. Chapter 9. Life History of Marsilea with respect to: 1. Systematic position, 2. Habit and habitat 3. External &internal morphology of sporophyte, 4. Reproduction, 5. External and internal morphology of sporocarp, 6. Morphological nature & dehiscence of the sporocarp. 7. Structure of microspore and megaspore. 8. Structure of male and female gametophytes 9. Fertilization 10. Development and structure of embryo, 11. Alternation of generation, Chapter 10. General topics: 1. Stelar Evolution in pteridophytes a)Concept, b)Types i) Protostele ii) Siphonostele iii) Solenostele c) Evolution of steles. 2. Heterospory and seed habit in pteridophyta. 04 06

REFFERENCE BOOKS BRYOPHYTES & PTERIDOPHYTES


1. Ganguli, H.G. and A.K.Kar (2001) College Botany Vol. 11 Books and Allied Press, Ltd. Kolkata, India 2. Pandey, B.P. (1995) A Text Book of Botany Bryophyta, S Chand and Co, Ltd. New Delhi, india 3. Parihar, N.S. (1972) An Introduction to Embryophyta, Vol.1 Bryophyta. Central Book Depot, Hydrabad, India 4. Puri, P. (1985) Bryophyta A Broad Perspective, Atma Ram and Sons, New Delhi, India. House. Pvt Ltd. New Delhi. 5. Saxena A.K. and R.M.Sarabhai (1992). Text Book of Botany-Vol. II Embryophyta. Ratan Prakashan Manair, Agra, India. 6. Sporne, K R. (1965) The Morphology of Pteridophytes The Hutchinson Univ. Lib., London, U.K 7. Sundara Rajan, S (1995). Introduction to Pteridophyta, Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi, India 8. Vashishta, P.C. (1994). Botany -Pteridophyta. India. ---------------XXX--------------S. Chand and Co.Ltd. New Delhi,

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany


BOT. 322: PAPER II-GYMNOSPERMS & PALEOBOTANY

SEMESTER - II
AIMS & OBJECTIVES:

(Total Periods: 52)

1. To study Gymnosperms with respect to distinguishing characters, comparison with Angiosperms, economic importance and classification. 2. To study the life cycles of Pinus and Gnetum. 3. To study the scope of paleobotany, types of fossils and geological time scale.
4. To study the various fossil genera representing different fossil groups

GYMNOSPERMS
Chapter 1. A) Introduction. 1. Distinguishing features of the group.

(Periods: 30) 04

2. Comparison of Gymnospermic features with Angiosperms. 3. Economic importance of Gymnosperms. B) Classification of Gymnosperms by K. R. Sporne up to orders giving reasons. Chapter 2. Life cycle of Pinus with respect to: 1. Distribution in India. 2. Systematic position. 3. External morphology. 4. Internal morphology a) Primary structure of root, stem & leaf. b) Secondary structure of stem. 5. Reproductive structures (development of male & female gametophyte is not expected) a) Male cone c) Female cone 6. Pollination b) Male gametophyte d) Female gametophyte 02 12

7. Fertilization. 8. Structure of embryo and polyembryony 9. Seed: structure & germination 10. Alternation of generation Chapter 3. Life cycle of Gnetum with respect to: 1. Distribution in India. 2. Systematic position. 3. External morphology. 4. Internal morphology a) Primary structure of root, stem and leaf. b) Anomalous Secondary growth in Gnetum ula. 5. Reproductive structure (development of male & female gametophyte is not expected) a) Male cone c) Female cone 6. Pollination 7. Fertilization. 8. Structure of embryo and polyembryony 9. Seed structure & germination 10. Alternation of generation. 11. Resemblance with Angiosperms. b) Male gametophyte d) Female gametophyte 12

PALEOBOTANY
(Periods 22) Chapter 4. Introduction Definition & scope of Paleobotany. Chapter 5. Fossils. 1. Definition 2. Fossilization process 3. Geological time scale. - Eras, Periods, Epochs and major plant groups 05 02

4. Types of fossils: Impression, Compression, Petrifaction, Cast, Coal ball, Amber Chapter 6. Gondwana flora: 03

Introduction, Classification:- Lower Gondwana and Upper Gondwana Chapter 7. Study of the following fossil groups with respect to morphology and structure. 1. Psilopsida- Rhynia 2. Lycopsida: i) Lepidodendron ii) Lepidostrobus 3. Sphenopsida: i) Calamites ii) Annularia 4. Pteridopsperm: Lyginopteris oldhamia (stem) 5. Bennettitales: Cycadeoidea ( flower) 6. Angiosperm- Sahnipushpam. 12

REFFERENCE BOOKS GYMNOSPERMS


1. Datta S. C. (1966) Introduction to Gymnosperms, Asia Pub. House, New Delhi. India 2. Datta S. C. (1998) Systematic Botany. 4th edition, New age International Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. India 3. Gangulee H. C. & A. K. Kar (1998) College botany vol. II, New central book agency (p) ltd. Kolkata. India 4. Chopra G. L. (1962) Introduction to Gymnosperms Asia Pub. House, New Delhi. India 5. Vashishta P. C. ( 1983) Botany for degree students: Gymnosperms, S. Chand & Co. New Delhi. India 6. Sporne K. R. (1967) Morphology of Gymnosperms, Hutchinson university library London, U. K. 7. Padey B. P. (1982) College botany vol. II, S. Chand & Co. New Delhi. India

PALEOBOTANY
1. Delevoryas T. (1962) Morphology & Evolution of fossil plants, Holt Reihart & Winston, New York. 2. Swarge K. R. (1966) Indian fossil Pteridophytes, CSIR New Delhi. India. 3. Stewart Wilson. N. (1983). Paleobotany and evolution of plants, Cambridge University Press. 4. Arnold, Chester, R (1972). An introduction to paleobotany McGraw-Hill Publ. Co. Ltd., New York. 5. Andrews Henry N. (1961) Studies in Paleobotany, John Wlley & Sons, USA. 6. Dick M. W. and Edwards D. (1983) Contribution to paleobotany, The white friars press ltd. Tonbridge. 7. Ashok C. Shukla & Shital P. Misra(1975) Essentials of Paleobotany. Vikas Publ. House, New Delhi, India. 8. S. V. Meyen, Chapman and Hall, Fundamentals of Paleobotany Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, U.K. 9. Norman F. Hughes 1976 Paleobotany of Angiosperms origin, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, U.K.

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany BOT. 323 PAPER-III PLANT PHYSIOLOGY (Total Periods: 52)

SEMESTER II
AIMS & OBJECTIVES

1) To learn & understand about mineral nutrition in plants. 2) To study the growth & developmental processes in plants. 3) To learn about movement in plants. 4) To study fat metabolism under primary metabolism of plants.

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Chapter 1. Mineral Nutrition and Absorption of minerals.

(Periods: 52)
12

1. General role of mineral elements in plants, Microelements and Macroelements: 2. Specific Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of the following elements: Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorous, Potassium, Magnesium, Iron, Boron. 3. Brief understanding of organic and inorganic fertilizers, hydroponics. 4. Absorption of Minerals: Active and Passive absorption. 5. Theories of mineral absorption. a) Passive theories- Ion Exchange theory, Carbonic acid exchange theory, Donnan Equilibrium. b) Active absorption theories- Lundgardhs theory, Bennet and Clarks theory, Carrier Concept. Chapter 2. Plant Growth & Development: 1. Definitions of growth, Development & Differentiation. 2. Growth process at cell, tissue, organ and organism levels, Growth points in plants (meristems), Determinent and indeterminent growth. 15

3. Growth curve, Phases of growth, germination, Seedling growth, Vegetative growth , reproductive growth (Fruit and seed setting), Senescence, Abscission, death. 4. Hormonal regulation of growth and development; a) Discovery, Chemistry, bioassay and functions of- Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene & Abscisic Acid. b) Coordination of phytohormones in plant growth and development. Chapter 3. Physiology of Flowering: 1. Photoperiodism: Discovery, Classification of Plants:- Short Day Plants, Long Day Plants, Day Neutral Plants. Photoperiodic Induction of Flowering, Inductive cycles, role of phytochrome in photoperiodism 2. Vernalization: Discovery, Perception of temperature, Cold requiring plants, Mechanism of Vernalization, hormonal replacement of Vernalization Chapter 4. Movements in Plants: 1. Nature and stimulus of plant movements. 2. Response and irritability. 3. Classification of Plant Movements. a) Autonomic Movement of locomotion & growth. b) Tactic movements. c) Tropic Movements. d) Nastic movements. e) Hygroscopic movements. Chapter 5. Seed germination and Dormancy: 1. Seed structure, Conditions necessary for seed germination, role of gibberllin and mechanism of seed germination. 2. Seed dormancy and its significance, Methods of Breaking Seed Dormancy. Chapter 6. Fat metabolism 1. Introduction 2. Glyoxylate cycle 3. -oxidation 4. relevance of fat metabolism in germination. 05 05 05 10

REFFERENCE BOOKS PLANT PHYSIOLOGY


1. Amar Singh (1977) Practical Plant Physiology. Kaiyani Publishers, New Delhi, India. 2. Bajracharya, D (1999) Experiments in Plant Physiology: A Laboratory Manual, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi India. 3. Daniel, M. (1991) Methods in Plant Chemistry and Economic Botany. Kaiyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India. 4. Daniel, M. and S.D. Sabnis (1990) A Phytochemical Approach to Economic Botany. Kaiyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India 5. Haiborne, T.C. (1981) Phytochemical Methods : A Guide To Modem Techniques of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K. 6. Hopkins, W.G (1985) Introduction to Plant Physiology; John Wiley and Sons. Incl. New York, U.S.A. 7. Jain, V.K. (1997) Fundamentals of Plant Physiology. Atrnaram & Sons, New Delhi India 8. Mukherjee, S and A.K. Ghose (1996). Plant Physiology, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, India. 9. Pandey, S.K and B.L.Sinba (.994) Plant Physiology, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, India. 10. Sarabhai, B.P. (1995), Elements of Plant Physiology, Amol Publications, New Delhi, India. 11. Verma, V. (1984) Introducuon to Plant Physiology. Emkey Publications, New Delhi, India.
xxxx

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany


BOT. 324 : PAPER- IV ANATOMY, EMBRYOLOGY & PALYNOLOGY

SEMESTER II
AIMS & OBJECTIVES:

(Total Periods: 52)

1. To know scope & importance of Anatomy, Embryology and Palynology . 2.To study various tissue systems. 3.To study normal and anomalous secondary growth in plants and their causes. 4. To give exposure to techniques in anatomy. 5. To study structure and development in microsporangium and megasporangium. 6. To study microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis. 7. To study male and female gametophytes 8. To study fertilization, endosperm and embryo formation. 9. To study structure of pollen grains with respect to aperture and exine

ANATOMY
Chapter 1. Introduction Definition, scope and importance Chapter 2. Tissue systems in plants: 1. Epidermal Tissue System: a) Definition, structure and functions.

(Periods 24) 01

07

b) Cutinization, cuticularisation, lignification, suberisation, silicification. c) Structure and types of stomata (Rananculaceous, Cruciferous, Caryophyllaceous, Rubiaceous and Graminaceous). d) Epidermal outgrowths. 2. Mechanical Tissue System: - Principles involved in inflexibility, incompressibility, inextensibility and shearing stress. 3. Secretory tissue system

- Glands-Digestive glands, Nectaries, Resin ducts, Oil ducts, Laticiferous ducts and Hydathodes. Chapter 3. Normal Secondary Growth: Definition, significance, process in stem- annual and perennial. Development and structure of periderm and bark, Tyloses, growth rings, Lenticels. Chapter 4. Anomalous Secondary Growth: 1. Definition 2. Causes of variations: Unusual origin of the cambium. Unusual behavior of the cambium. 3. Study of adaptive secondary growth in stem: Combretum, Bignonia. Root: Raphanus(Radish) , Beta vulgaris (Beet). 4. Study of non-adaptive secondary growth in stem of Boerrhavia diffusa. Chapter 5. Techniques in Anatomy: 1. Sectioning and staining techniques. (Temporary & permanent double stained procedure) 2. Maceration-(Jefferys method) Procedure, chemical used and significance. Chapter6. Role of Anatomy in taxonomy 01 02 08 05

EMBRYOLOGY
Chapter 7. Definition and Scope Chapter 8. Microsporangium:

(PERIODS 24) 01 03

Structure of tetrasporangiate anther, anther wall, tapetum, tapetum types, sporogenous tissue. Chapter 9. Microsporogenesis and Development of Male Gametophyte: 1. Microsporogenesis- Meiosis in spore mother cells, Cytokinesis (Successive and Simultaneous type), Types of pollen tetrad. 02

2. Structure & development of male gametophyte Chapter 10. Megasporangium (Ovule):

04

1. Structure &Types of Ovules- Orthotropous, Anatropous, Amphitropous, Campylotropous, Circinotropous. 2. Megasporogenesis and Development of Female Gametophyte (Embryo Sac): a. Megasporogenesis 03 b. Development of female gametophyte (Embryo sac): Structure of typical (8 nucleated) embryo sac, Types of embryo sac- monosporic (Polygonum), bisporic (Allium) and tetrasporic (Peperomia) Chapter 11. Fertilization: syngamy and triple fusion. Significance of double fertilization. Chapter 12. Endosperm 1. 2. Types- Nuclear, Cellular, Helobial. Ruminate endosperm 01 04 01 03

Discharge of pollen tube contents in embryo sac, fusion of gametes-

Chapter 13. Embryo development in dicot- Capsella bursa- pastoris and in monocotSagittaria Chapter 14. Role of embryology in taxonomy 01 01

PALYNOLOGY
Chapter 15. IntroductionDefinition, Scope & importance of Palynology Chapter 16. Study of Pollen Morphology: 1. 2. Aperture: Aperture form, their number and position

(Periods-04) 01

02

Pollen Wall Features: Exine Stratification, and Sculpturing 01

Chapter 17. Role of palynology in taxonomy

REFERENCES: BOT. 324: ANATOMY, EMBRYOLOGY & PALYNOLOGY


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Cutter, E.G. (1971) Plant Anatomy: Part I&II Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. London. Chandurkar, P.J.(1971) ) Plant Anatomy(3rd Ed. ), Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi and Bombay. Eames,A.J. & L.H. Mac Daniel (1947) An introduction to Plant anatomy ,2nd Ed. McGraw Hill Co. New York. Eassu ,K. (1965) Plant Anatomy ,2nd Ed. Jhon Wiley &Sons. New York. Eassu ,K. (1977) Anatomy of Seed Plants, 2nd Ed. Jhon Wiley &Sons. New York. Fahn, A. (1982) Plant Anatomy ,2nd Ed. Pergman Press, Oxford. Fahn, A. (1982) Plant Anatomy ,3rd Ed. Pergman Press, Oxford& New York. J.Eames, Laurence H. Mac Daniel(1947) An introduction to Plant Anatomy, 2nd Ed. McGraw Hill, New York &London. Singh, V. Panda, P.C.&D.K. Jain (1988) Anatomy of Seed Plants, Rastogi Publications ,Meerut. Pandey, B.P. (1954) Plant Anatomy, S. Chand &CO.(P)Ltd. New Delhi. Tayal M.S. (2001) Plant Anatomy , Rastogi Publications ,Meerut. Vashista,P.C. (1989) Plant Anatomy, Pradeep Publications. Jalandhar. Bhojwani, S.S. & S.P. Bhatnagar, (1974) The Embryology of Angiosperms, Vikas Publishing House (P)Ltd. New Delhi, India. Maheshwari,P. (1950) An introduction to the embryology of Angiosperms,McGraw Hill Book Co. New York, USA. Singh,V., P.C.Pande& D.K. Jain(1998) Embryology of Angiosperm , Rastogi Publications ,Meerut. Singh,V., P.C.Pande& D.K. Jain(2004) Structure ,Development and Reproduction in Angiosperm (2nd Ed.) Rastogi Publications ,Meerut. Erdman,G. (1969) Handbook of Palynology, Hafner, New York,USA. Nair, P.K.K.(1965) Pollen Grains of Western Himalayan Plants, Asia Publishing House, Bombay. Nair, P.K.K.(1970) Pollen Morphology of Angiosperm ,Vikas Publishing House (P)Ltd. ,New Delhi, India. Nair, P.K.K.(1970) Pollen Morphology of Angiosperm: A Historical and Phylogenetic Study, The Scholar Publishing House Lucknow, India. Nair, P.K.K.(1980) Glimpses in Plant Research V. Modern Trends in Plant Taxanomy. Vikas Publishers, New Delhi, India.

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany BOT. 325 : PAPER- V PLANT PROTECTION SEMESTER II
AIMS & OBJECTIVES:

(Total Periods:52 )

1) To know scope and importance of plant pathology. 2) To know the terminologies in plant pathology 3) To study the causes of plant diseases. 4) To study the control measures of plant diseases

PLANT PROTECTION
Chapter 1. Introduction:

(Periods :52 ) 04

1. Scope and importance, Historical account of plant pathology. 2. work of the following pathologists: a) Theophrastus c) De-Bary e) Mundkur, g) Robert Koch. Chapter 2. Terminology: - Define following: Disease, Pathogen, Host, Parasite, Hyperparasite, Inoculum, Penetration, Infection, Pathogenesis, Pathogenecity, Etiology, Incubation period , Disease cycle, Symptoms, Epidemology, Disease development. Chapter 3.Causes of Plant diseases: Introduction: 1. Animate causes - A brief survey of diseases caused by the following organisms with examples of eachBacteria, Viruses, Nematodes and Mycoplasma. 2. Inanimate causes - A brief survey of diseases caused by: a) Adverse climatic conditions such as high and low temperature b) Unfavourable intensity of light c) Excess water. 04 03 b) Prevost d) Butler f) K.C.Mehta

d) Deficiency & excess of minerals. e) Chemical injuries caused by atmospheric pollutants, f) Faulty applications of fungicides insecticides, and weedicides Chapter 4. Inoculum dispersal: Introduction and definition: 1. Active or Autonomous dispersal-Soil, Seeds, Plants. 2. Passive dispersala) Wind b) Water c) Insects e) Nematodes f) birds g) mammals 04

d) Fungi h) man

Chapter 5. Development of Diseases (Pathogenesis): Introduction, inoculum potential 04 1. Landing of inoculum on the host, 2. Penetration: modes of penetration of viruses, bacteria, fungi & nematodes. 3. Mechanism of penetration. a) Indirect penetration: i) Through wounds ii) through natural opening stomata, hydathodes, lenticels b) Direct penetration- purely mechanical process, partly chemical process- evidences in support of both.

Chapter 6. Study of following diseases with respect to causal organism, symptoms and control measures; 1. Animate Diseases: a) Viral diseases: TMV/PXV b) Bacterial diseases: Citrus canker c) Fungal diseases: i. Damping of seedling ii. Powdery mildew of Teak/ Sisoo /Grapes iii. Downy mildew of Bajara (Green year disease of bajara) iv. Ergot of Bajara v. Loose smut of wheat vi.Tikka disease of Groundnut vii. Red rot of sugarcane d) Mycoplasma diseases: Little leaf of Brinjal e) Nematodal diseases: Root knot of vegetables. 10

Chapter 7. General Principles of Disease Control: 1. Preventive therapy: a) Avoidance of the Pathogen b) Exclusion of inoculum c) Eradication d) Protection e) Disease resistance 2. Curative therapy 3. Mechanical controla) Choice of geographic area b) Selection of field c) Proper time of sowing d) use of disease escaping variety e) Selection of seed planting stock f) high budding. 4. Control through cultural practices: a) Crop rotation b) Mixed cropping c) Removal & destruction of diseased plants and plant organs. d) Rouging e) Destruction of alternate and collateral host. 5. Field sanitation : a) Destruction of crop residue b) Deep ploughing c) Improved soil drainage system d) Flooding & fallowing e) Depth of sowing of seeds f) Heat & uses of chemicals Chapter 8. Legal control: 1. Introduction 2. Plant Quarantine - Definition, limitations and importance 3. Plant Quarantine Organization in India.

08

02

Chapter 9. Biological Control: 1. Introduction, Definition, biocidal & biostatic control 2. Methods: a) Organic amendment of soil with organic matter b) Predaceous fungi method. 3. Mechanism: a) Exploitation b) Antibiosis c) competition Chapter 10. Chemical Control: 1. Introduction, importance, different types 2. Classification of chemicals according to their: a) Mode of action: Systematic, eradicants, protectants, chemotherapeutants. b) Nature of pathogen against which used.

02

08

3. Chemicals used in plant diseases control, mode of action and uses : a) Sulphur: i. ii. Inorganic-Sulphur powder, wettable sulphur & Lime sulphur. Organic- Dithiocarbamates b) Copper : Bordeaux mixture. Burgundy mixture, Copper oxychloride c) Mercury : i. ii. Inorganic-Mercuric choride-(HgC12), Mercurus Chloride(Hg2Cl2) Organic - Ceresan, Agrosan, Aresan ii. Glyodin ii. Tetracycline d) Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds: i. Captan. i. Streptomycin, iii. Griseofulvin e) Antibiotics: Introduction, definition, mode of action.

Chapter 11. Control Through Disease Resistance : tolerance and disease resistance. 2. Development of resistant varieties: a) Selection b) Hybridization c) Mutation

03

1. Use of resistant varieties, difference between Disease escape, Disease

REFERENCE BOOKS

PLANT PROTECTION

1. Agrios, G.N. (2006) Plant Pathology Academic Press, London, U.K. 2. Agrios, G.N. (1997) Plant Pathology Academic Press, London, U.K. 3. Bilgrami, H.S. and Dube, H.C. (1976), Modern Plant. Pathology, Vikas Publishing House, Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. 4. Buttler, E.J. (1973). Fungi aud Plant Diseases in Plants, Thacker Spink & Co. Calcutta, India. 5. Kamat M.N. (1969). Introductory Plant Pathology. Prakash Printing Press. Poona. India. 6. Mehrotia. R.K. (1994). Plant Pathology. International Pub. House New Delhi, India. 7. Mehrotia. K. S. (1980). Plant Pathology. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi, India. 8. Nene, Y.L. (1991) Fungicides In Plant Diseases Control, Oxford and IBH Pub. Com. New Delhi, India. 9. Pathak, V.N. (1972). Essentials of Plant Pathology, Prakash Pub. House, Jaipur, India. 10. Pathak, V.N., Khatri N.K. Pathak Maiush (1996), Fundamentals of Plant Pathology'. Agro Botanical Pub. Bikaner, India. 11. Rangaswami, G. (1973), Diseases of Crop Plants In India. Prentice Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 12. Robertis, Boothroyd (1972). Fundamental of Plant Pathology. Toppan Co. | Ltd. Tokyo, Japan. 13. Singh? R.S. (1996) Plant Pathology, Oxford and IBH Pub. Co. New Delhi, India.
xxxx

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany


BOT. 326.2: PAPER-VI (OPTIONAL-II) PHARMACOGNOSY AND MEDICO BOTANY

SEMESTER II
AIMS & OBJECTIVES:

(Total periods 52)

1) To know scope and importance of Pharmacognosy & Medicobotany. 2) To study classification, cultivation, collection and processing of plant drugs. 3) To study morphology, botanical and chemical characterization and Quantitative microscopy of certain drugs. 4) To study common household drugs 5) To prepare Ayurvedic recipes. 6) To understand role of botanical gardens with reference to conservation medicinal plants. 7) To study some plants used for beauty care and perfumes. 8) To make student aware about biopiracy and legislation about medicinal plants.

PHARMACOGNOSY
Chapter 1. Introduction and History of Pharmacognosy: 1. Definition and scope 2. Important system of medicine

(Periods: 26) 04

3. Organized and unorganized crude drug's and drug accessories Chapter 2. Classification of Plant Drugs: 1. Taxonomical, morphological, chemical, therapeutic and alphabetical 2. Chemical nature of crude drug: 3. Concept of therapeutic active chemical constituents. Chapter 3. Cultivation, Collection and Processing of Plant Drug. 1. Methods and factors affecting the cultivation 2. Collection, harvesting, drying and storage of crude drugs. 03 06

Chapter 4. Morphology, distribution, botanical characterization of drug constituents, chemical tests and uses of the following drugs: 1. Root drug: a) Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) b) Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) 2. Rhizome: a) Zingiber officinale (Adrak) b) Curcuma domestica (Halad) 3. Stem drug: a) Holarrhena pubescens (Dudh kuda) b) Teminalia arjuna (Arjun sadada) 4. Wood drug: a) Tinospora cordifolia (Gulvel) b) Santalum album (Chandan) 5. Leaf drug: a) Adathoda zeylanica (Adulsa) b) Aloe vera (Korpad) 6. Fruit drug: a) Teminalia bellerica (Behada) b) Terminalia chebula (Hirda) 7. Entire plant: a) Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi) b) Achyranthes aspera (Aghada) Chapter 5. Quantitative microscopy of drugs, stomatal index, vein and veinlet, terminations of the following: 1. Datura innoxia / Datura metel (Datura) 2. Boerrhara diffusa (Ramrataka) 3. Tinospora cordifolia (Gulvel) 03 10

MEDICOBOTANY

(Periods: 26) 02

Chapter 6. Introduction: History of age-old medicinal and aromatic plants. 1. Allium sativum (Garlic) 2. Trachyspermutn ammi (Ajwan) 3. Curcuma domestica (Halad) 4. Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) 5. Cyperus rotundus (Nagar-motlia) 6. Helicteris isora (Murud sheng) 7. Cassia fistula (Bahava) 8. Gardenia gummifera (Dikamali) Chapter 8. Preparation of following Ayurvedic medicines with respect to Botanical source, part used, method of preparation and Therapeutic uses: 1. Triphala churna 3. Arjunarishtha (Aristha) 5. Vatti Gardens: 1. Asparagus racemosus (Shatayari) 2. Chlorophytum borvillianum (Safed Musali) 3. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Jestha-madh) 4. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) Chapter 10. Plant perfumes and cosmetic from the following: 1. Cymbopogon martinii (Rosha grass) 2. Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) 3. Mentha spicata (Pudina) 4. Jasminum malbaricum (Jasmine) Chapter 11. 1) Biopiracy of medicinal plants from India. 2. Kumari asav 4. Gooti 6. Telam

Chapter 7. Medicinal uses of common house-hold plants and Grandmaa's Pouch" 08

06

Chapter 9. Conservation of medicinal plants (In-situ and Ex-situ) and Role of Botanical 04

04

02

2) Drug legislation and patenting (Act related to quality control and patenting)

REFERENCE BOOKS PHARMACOGNOSY AND MEDICO-BOTANY


1. Bhattacharjee S. K. (1998) Handbook of Medicinal Plants. Pointer Publishers, Jaipur. India. 2. Gokhale. S.B (1979). Texi book of Pharmacognosy Jai Publishing House. Jalgaon. India 3. Kaushik Purushottam and Dhiman. A.K (2000). Medicinal Plants and Raw Drugs of India, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Dehradun. India 4. Klianna, Girija (1993) All About Herbal Remedies. Vikas Publishing House (P.) Ltd., New Delhi. India. 5. Kunan, J.C. (1999) Plants Thai Heal. Oriental Watchman Publishing House, Pune. India 6. Shah, C.B. and Quadri IS (1990) Text Book of Pharmacognosy. B.S. Singh Prakashaa Ahmedabad, India. 7. Thakur, R.S., Pun, H S. and Husain, A. (1989). Major Medicinal Plants of India. Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, CS1R. Lucknow, India. 8. Trease, G.E. and Evans, W.C. (1978). Pharmacognosy (iith Ed.) Bailliene Tindall. LondoiL U.K 9. Wallis, T.E. (1985) Textbook of Pharmacognosy (5th Ed.) CBS Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi, India.
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NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany BOT. 326.1: PAPER-VI (OPTIONAL-I) ETHNOBOTANY SEMESTER II
AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1) To know scope and importance of Ethnobotany. And its relation to economic botany 2) To expose various disciplines of ethnobotany and its development in Indian concept. 3) To study sources of ethnobotany.

(Total Periods: 52)

4) To aware the students about ethnology of certain tribes in Maharashtra. 5) To study Indian ethnomedicines used against human and veterinary diseases. 6) To study role of ethnobotany emphasizing conservation, abstract and concrete relationship in Indian concept.

ETHNOBOTANY
Chapter 1. Ethnobotany: An Organized Science: 1. Introduction, definition and scope 2. Man and plant relationship: Concrete and abstract 3. Comparison of Ethnobotany and Economic Botany 4. Landmarks of Indian Ethnobotany 5. Sub-disciplines of ethnobotany Chapter 2. Methods in Ethnobotanical Studies: 1. Ethnobotanical field work 2. Herbaria as an aid to ethnobotanical study 3. Ethnobotanical study with the help of literature 4. Archeological remains Chapter 3. Ethnology of Tribes in North Maharashtra:

(PERIODS: 52) 03

03

03

1. Pawara 4. Thakur

2. Bhil 5. Katkaris

3. Kokani

Chapter 4. Study of Ethnobotany of plants from Indian region used against:

18

1. Human Diseases: w.r.t. botanical name of plants, family, part used, mode of preparation and administration of medicine people or tribe using for the following: a) Cough, Cold, Bronchial problems b) Headache, Toothache, Arthritis and Rheumatism. c) Fever d) Stomach problems: Indigestion, Worms, Diarrhoea, and Dysentery e) Eye problems: Improving eye sight and curing diseases. f) Healing wound: Cuts, Bruises, Sprains, Fracture. g) Skin diseases: Boils, Burns, Sores, Piles, h) Kidney stone i) Diabetes j) Antifertility agents k) Contraceptives l) Antivenom Chapter 5. Veterinary Diseases: 1. Diarrhoea and Dysentery 2. Foot & Mouth disease 3. Maggots infected sores 4. Yoke galls 5. Bone fracture Chapter 6. Ethnobotany and its role in conservation of native plants as a genetic resource: (Study with characters and uses) 1. Rice 3. Finger Millets Chapter 7. Monographic Studies: Monographic studies based on Individual plant and tribe: a) Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) b) Ethnobotany of Mikirs of India. 2. Maize 4. Cucurbits 03 03 03

Chapter 8. Ethnobotany of North Maharashtra: 1. Ethnobotany of food plants and beverages 2. Plants used as Toothbrush 3. Fish stupefying. 4. Ethnology of vernacular names. 5. Fodder resources Chapter9. Abstract Relationship: w.r.t. plant/parts used, family, people/tribe concerned with themes and quotations of the following: 1. Folksongs 2. Folk proverbs 3. Plants motifs 4. Sacred plants 5. Sacred groves with special reference to Maharashtra 6. Plants used to in festivals Chapter 10. Plants and parts used citing for following purposes 1. House construction: a) Doors and Windows c) Roofs e) Furniture 2. Basketery 3. Toys 4. Musical instruments 5. Agricultural implements 6. Fencing 7. Fibers Chapter 11. Beyond inventorying: 1. Indigenous Biotechnology: a) Ranu tablet b) Leather technology in relation to reptile skin technology 2. Jaggery extraction 3. Biodiversity acts, Bioprospecting and Ethnobotany 4. Kitchen gardens b) Walls d) Thatching

04

04

04

04

REFERENCE BOOKS
India.

ETHNOBOTANY

1. Jain, S.K. (Ed.) (1981) Glimpses of Indian Ethnobotany. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi, 2. Jain, S.K. (Ed) (1995) A Manual of Ethnobotany (IInd Ed.) Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India. 3. Jain, S.K. and V.Mudgal (1999). A Hand Book of Ethnobotany. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India 4. Jain. S.K, (1991) Jodhpur, India: 5. Jain, S.K. (1989) Methods and Approaches In Ethnobotany. Society of Ethnobotanists, Lucknow, India. 6. Jain S.K. (1996) Ethnobiology In Human Welfare. Deep Publication, New Delhi, India. 7. Jain, S.K., B.K.Sinha and R.C. Gupta (1991) Notable Plants in Ethnomedicine in India, Deep Publication, New Delhi, India. 8. Joshi P. (1995) India. 9. Martin, G.J. (1995) Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual, Chapman and Hall, London, U.K. 10. Saklani, A. and S.K. Jain (1994) Cross Cultural Ethnobotany of Not East India, New Delhi, India. 11. Singh, V.and R. P.Pandey (1998) Ethnobotany of Rajasthan, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India. 12. Martin G. J. (1995) Ethnobotany : A Methods Manual , Chapman & Hall, London,U.K. 13. Sinha, Rajiv, K and S.Sinha (2001) India. 14. Maheshwari, J.K. (1996). Jodhpur, India, 15. Patil D.A. (2008) Useful plants, Navyug Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, India. 16. Patil D.A. (2008) Herbal cures traditional approach, Avishkar Publishers, Distributors, Jaipur, India, Ethnobotany In South Asia. Scientific Publishers, Ethnobiology, Sura Publications, Jaipur, Ethnobotany of Primitive Tribes hi Rajasthan Printwell, Jaipur, Contributions to Indian Ethnobotany, Scientific Publishers,

17. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S. and Subramanyam, N.S. (1989). A Text of Economic Botany, Wikes Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, India 18. Swaminathan, MS. and Kocchar, S.L. (Eds.) (1989) Publications, Ltd. London, U.K.
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Plants Society, MacMillan

NORTH MAHARSHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON Syllabus for T.Y.B.Sc. Botany


BOT. 326.3 : PAPER-VI (OPTIONAL-III) SEED TECHNOLOGY AND SEED PATHOLOGY SEMESTER II
AIMS & OBJECTIVES: (Total Periods: 52)

1) To know scope and importance of the discipline. 2) To study various techniques in seed production. 3) To study various factors related to seed production. 4) To study seed protection aspects. 5) To study commercial aspects of seed production.

SEED TECHNOLOGY
Chapter 1. Seed: 1. Definition 2. Development of seed 3. Functions of parts of seed Chapter 2. Seed Technology: 1. Definition 2. Role and goals of seed technology in crop production Chapter 3. Seed Dormancy: 1. Causes of seed dormancy. 2. Methods of breaking the seed dormancy Chapter 4. Principles of Quality Seed Production: 1. Stage of Seed Multiplication 2. Seed purity, Genetic purity. Chapter 5. Methods of certified seed production 1. Isolation 2. Seed inspection 3. Roguing

(Periods: 34)

02

02

04

04

02

Chapter 6. Types of cultivars (variety)-: Composite, synthetic, Hybrid, Role of producer, Seed production agencies. Chapter 7. Harvesting-: Drying, Processing, seed sampling, Chapter 8. Seed testing: 1. Physical purity. 2. Genetic purity 3. Seed viability and vigour test Chapter 9. Seed Law and Seed Certification: Seed certification agency - Structure, role and duties. Chapter 10. Seed Deterioration: Causes and remedial measures. Chapter 11. Seed storage, pest and diseases of seed, seed aging. Chapter 12. Marketing agencies, planning and economics of seed production. Chapter 13. Seed processing & packing.

04 02 02

03 02 01 02 04 (Periods 18) 03

SEED PATHOLOGY
Chapter 14. SEED PATHOLOGY: 1. Introduction 2. Significance of seed borne diseases.

Chapter 15. Types of micro-organism associated with seeds and diseases caused by them. Chapter 16. Location of seed borne inoculum and seed infection: 1. Factors affecting the seed infection 2. Longevity of seed borne diseases. Chapter 17. Control of seed borne pathogens. Chapter 18. Quarantine and post-entry quarantine. 03 04 04 04

REFERENCE BOOKS SEED TECHNOLOGY AND SEED PATHOLOGY


1. Agrawal R. L. (1980) Seed Technology, Oxford and IBH Publication Co. New Delhi, India. 2. L. O. Copeland, M. B. Mc Donald.(2001) . Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2nd Printing (2004). (Now part of springer science & business media. 3. Agrawal, V.K. and Sinclair, J.B. (1987) Principles of Seed Pathology, Vol. I and III CBS Pub. New Delhi, India. 4. Agrawal, P.K. & Dadlani M (1987), Techniques in Seed Science and Technology, South Asian Publishers, New Delhi, India. 5. Agrawal V.K. and Nene Y.L. (1985) Seed Bora Diseases of Field Crops and their control. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India. 6. D.Suryanarayan (1978). Seed Pathology, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Bombay, India. 7. Mukadam D.S. and Gangawane L.V. (1982) Methods In Experimental Plant Pathology. Botany Dept. Marathwada University, Aurangabad, India. 8. Neergard (1977) Seed Pathology Vol.1 MacMillan Press Ltd. London, U.K. 9. Nema, N.P. (1986). Principles of Seed Certification and Testing. Allied Publishers, New Delhi, India.
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