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Iron Age – Villanovan Culture in Etruria; Latial culture in Latium. Outside Contacts – Phoenicians. Spotlight on Carthage. Greece – Around 800 BCE, contacts between Greece and Italy begin to increase. Settlements. Spotlight on Pithecusae (775), Cumae (750), and Neapolis. Civilization and Urbanization in Central Italy. Under stimulus of contact with Greece and Phoenicia the city-state develops. Orientalizing period: 725-580 and Archaic Period: 580-480. From the sixth C., the city-states enter into a period of wider conflict. In Etruria, beginning in the late eighth century, a number of communities begin to develop rapidly into city states. Precise nature of Etruscans and Non-Etruscans’ relationship is hard to define. Influence is either direct – they direct the affairs of their neighbors; or indirect – they provide models for them. Writing: alphabet borrowed from Greeks and modified. The earliest writing on the archaeological from Etruria beginning of 7th C. Appearance of Elite. Aristocratic ethos. Tomb burials important evidence for élite self-display. from beginning of 7th C. élite families begin to construct monumental structures and public spaces – signs of their ability to marshal great resources and manpower. Temple both for religious and other public uses (e.g. delivering speeches to people, performance of public duties). Defenses – fossa and agger. Elites control many dependents and much land. Elites and dependents; patrons and clients. Gens. Ultimately, every member of the community would belong to one. Debt a chief source of conflict. Warfare – impacts social and political organization of communities, power and influence of aristocracy, physical layouts. Warriors as followers of an aristocratic leader who organizes raids. Gradual transition to a communal mode of warfare. Factors that lead to communal, phalanx warfare? Ch. 2: Etruscans and Greeks in Pre-Roman Italy WHY Phoenician and Greek traders bring peoples of Italy into contact with cultures and economies of eastern Mediterraneanstimulates growth of complex societies in Italy, particularly the growth of towns and cities in Etruria. Etruscans – most knowledge from archaeology, esp. tombs; there are many (more than 10,000!) Etruscan inscriptions. Written accounts ‘all written by Greek and Roman enemies’.
Origins- Hdt (1.94); Dio. Halic. (1.25-30): Asia Minor? Natives? Modern scholars – Etruscan culture is an evolution from earlier Villanovan culture: “most early Etruscan towns appear on or near earlier Villanovan sites without a radical break in the archaeological record to indicate invasion of a new people” (12). Orientalizing – 8th and 7th C. BCE. Strong States – centered around a rich and powerful city. Each state insists on its own autonomy, which prevents formation of federal union; perhaps if one had formed external attacks could have been deflected (?). Kings assisted by councils of aristocratic chiefs. Symbols of his power are lictors, fasces, and double-bitted axes. By 6th or 5th C. aristocratic councils. Family and Women – Two or three names, like Romans. Etruscan women are freer than those in Greece – can dine with husbands, appear in public with them, attend public games. [this was shocking to the Greeks.] Arts and Music – they were renowned in Rome and throughout Greece as flutists, trumpeters, and lyre players; dancing also an element of their culture [Etruscan ballet dancers brought in 364, according to Livy: this was the beginning of the Roman theatrical tradition.] Economy – fertility of soil and mineral resources exploited. Trade kept Etruscan Italy in contact with advanced urban cultures of Mediterranean (13). Greeks – earliest settlements are trading posts: Pithecusae (Aenaria, Ischia), Cumae. Chalcidians (and Eretrians?) found Pithecusae (750 BCE), Cumae, then ultimately Neapolis. Significance: alphabet from Greeks (via Cumae or Etruscans mediate between Romans and Greeks). Other influences: Greek gods, Sibyl at Cumae. Achaeans – Sybaris and Croton. Spartans – Tarentum. Magna Graecia. Tarentum calls in King Pyrrhus against Romans – an event which leads to Roman control of Magna Graecia. Sicily. Phoenicians in West, Greeks most of rest. Corinth – Syracuse (730). Roman intervention in dispute over Messana between Carthage and Syracuse leads to 1st Punic War. Chapter 3: Early Rome Development from farming villages to city with military and a complex political organization. Kicks out its ‘tyrants’ at about the same time other Etruscan cities do.
“Monarchy/Regal Period” ends ca. 500 BCE (right around when democracy starts in Athens). M. Terentius Varro calculates April 21 753 BCE as date for Rome’s founding. Sources (23). Data on which poets, antiquarians and historians base their accounts: wax images of ancestors, and the songs and stories told about them and passed from generation to generation. Hereditary priests who pass on their knowledge of lore and ritual. Monuments. Customs and oral (and written) traditions from Etruscan and Greek cities. These poets, antiquarians, etc. have to make sense of the oral and written tradition, monuments etc. “They produced the basic outline that was further enhanced, embellished, and modified by the writers of the late 1st BCE and early empire. Basic outline: starts with Trojan hero Aeneas, etc. Greek settlers connect their area with the epic tradition of their native land (why?) E.g. Latinus son of Circe and Odysseus (king of ‘Tyrrhenians’). One Greek legend claims that Rome founded by Rhomus, son of Od. and Circ. Greeks associate Etruscans with Aeneas. Etruscans adopt Aeneas as their own. He is found on some Etruscan ceramic ware (26). Etruscans may have added the story about the she-wolf and the twins: there is a relief sculpture dating from 600 BC. The Alban King list fills in the gap between the fall of Troy and the date for the founding of Rome. Pastoral origins – peoples of Latium lives simple lives as herders and farmers. This simple past is reflected in terms like egegius, pecunia. Parilia and Fordicidia. Rome would have needed access to summer pasturage in Apennines. Perhaps the early wars and treaties were for access to this pasturage (27). Via Salaria – because Etruscans control the western route along Tiber to salt beds, and Fidenae, Rome becomes an important point along the (changed) route to the salt beds. Population increase in late ninth early 8th C; many communities urbanize between 750-625 BCE. Organization and development of infrastructure at this period implies the existence of an organized, monarchic state, which is basically the picture the sources present. Archaeological evidence points to monarchy at Rome in 6th C. (30)
Archaeological evidence for Tarquins. Tullius. Not unlike the kings of the Near East. concern for stability and continuity of oikos in the laws of Solon). freed slaves. State is the heads of households (familiae) who govern the res publica with the interests of the familiae in mind (cf. operating under self-given rules. and law-giver. Chapter 4: Early Roman Society. Values Principle of hierarchy is especially important – there is always someone higher up to whom obedience is owed and from whom in turn benefits are expected. declared war. Rome is a diverse community – Greeks. Senate – a body of advisors whom the king would do well not to ignore Comitia Curiata – the citizen body mustered by curia and in attendance to listen to King as he for instance announced peace treaties. Mos Maiorum – the traditions passed down by one’s ancestors Familia – includes one’s cognates. Luceres each subdivided into then curiae. he had the power to choose . Religion. Patriapotestas Paterfamilias: because he had to ensure that the household had a reliable source of labor in its children. military leader. Perhaps Tarquinius Priscus. Ramnes. free from interference by the state. The “Etruscan period” at Rome should not be attributed to domination of Rome by Etruscans. Army – hoplite warfare introduced by Greeks in 7th C. Discussion of organization at 33-34. BCE.Linguistic evidence – in later times period of no elected leadership – interregnum. A state unto itself. The three tribes: Tities. Perhaps an Etruscan did rise to power at Rome. Phoenicians live there. also property. etc. Etruscans. S. and Superbus – like tyrants of Archaic Greece – take control at Rome and reduce power of king. Replaced by the Comitia Centuriata pretty early on. and clients. Early Roman Kingship – combines the functions of priest. In attendance at appointment of new king. plus slaves. but participation by Rome in a culture that was shared by other city-states of the time.
easier sine manu. then one might be subject to arbitrary abuse if not for a patronus. Openness to Outsiders: Romans remarkably willing to incorporate outsiders into their communities as citizens. difficult in manu. daughters are numbered. Pompey For adoption. they would become clients. the sisters of P. with more privileges. If one did not have the protection of a paterfamilias. Or names alternate. Clodius: Clodia Prima. usus. This served as a force checking the ‘centrifugal’ one of pursuit of family interests. these are not always spelled out in a treaty. patronus. Ramnes. coemptio. and prestige=patrician gentes. Traditions illustrate openness: Rome an asylum under Romulus. Patrician and Non-Patrician Gentes Some gentes become distinguished from others. Cicero. Causes: failure to pay off debts. does not accept a piece as defeated.whether his children might live or die. Secunda. use the name of Gaius Plinius Secundus Family more important than the individual: so fathers and sons often bore the same praenomen for generations. and Tertia. (what about Luceres. Slavery and Freedmen. War captives. So the number of praenomina in Rome are limited. and within family. Gens – larger. This also governs Roman foreign relationships: Rome always extends peace. fides. Patrons and Clients.’ But wealth doesn’t distinguish the patrician and nonpatrician families. . identified by possessive form of husband’s praenomen: Terentia Marci. Women take the female form of the gentilicium – since women count even less as individuals than men. cliens.g. divorce. ostensibly genealogical group. Marriage Ceremony: confarreatio. Non-patrician come to be identified as ‘plebiean. As freedmen/women. After first. “Cursed be the patron who has done his client wrong” – 12T. Authoritarian and hierarchical nature of family fosters obedience to superiors and willingness to do one’s duty. Mutual obligations. Tities?) Caesar. After marriage. Tollere. Perhaps the band gives its name to the region. Slaves probably not numerous in early Rome. E. Worked side by side with masters. Origin in warrior bands? Story of Attus Clausus and his dependents getting citizenship en bloc would seem to support.
Compitalia (thanksgiving festival celebrated at end of season’s work). Ambarvalia (lustration of farm and property at end of May – to secure divine favor for growing and ripening crops). Altar to him set up in Forum Boarium. “Prayer expresses the desire of the worshiper as to the direction in which that power was to exert itself” Carefully worded – used exact and careful language so that there’s no ambiguity about the desire: formulae. Festivals: Fordicidia. Juno and Minerva. and has an existence separate from them. or acts. Hercules. 45-46. Hercules – patron god of Greek and Roman traveling salesmen. Spirits of the house: Janus – represents insecure relation of home to outside world. Etruscan Tinia and Italic Jupiter take on features of Zeus. too. God of agriculture and becomes god of war. Magna Mater (?) (check Livy index). Cults and festivals of house and field oldest and most vital. Lares. Divination – .Incorporated inhabitants of new territory as new tribes. Synonym for home. spirit of law and justice. and lessen alienation of those who have been incorporated. which means bigger armies. Contact with the Greeks – leads to rise of anthropomorphic deities among the Romans. rituals.=nefas. Consultation of Sibylline Books leads to importation of new gods. Jupiter – tribal deity of Latins and guardian of many Latin towns. things. At Rome=greatest of all gods. Lapis Manalis. Mars. Examples? Asclepius. Other transfers: pp. Romans take over cults and deities of those newly incorporated – these. E. Originally spirits of the fields. Numen (power-life-will) – is the life force inherent in all things.g. Fordicidia. Roman expansion under monarchs means incorporation of more citizens. regarded as dangerous to individuals or comm. Lupercalia. Magic – attempt to influence world around one through spells. symbol of Roman state. Janus begins and Vesta ends the roll of deities invoked in family’s prayer. etc. The numen inspires religio – a fear or anxiety before the spirit. E. Taboo: prohibition against persons. Much of Roman religion devoted to ensuring their cooperation and good will. Penates – “a collection of nameless spirits”: the guard the food that Vesta cooks. and boundary stones (Termini). Sacrifice restores the store of vital force consumed by the spirit. and a desire to establish right relations through prayer. Vesta – spirit of the fireplace.g. such as consecration through sacrifice of a boundary stone. Janus – spirit of door. enter the community – the divine community: give Romans confidence of divine favor. From Greeks also come temples and statues – fit homes for these anthropomorphic Gods. Association with agriculture lost. Some spirits though were malignant. giver of victory. etc. Sacrifice could also endow a thing with numen. Religion Spirits and gods occupy pinnacle in hierarchical layering. Vesta (fireplace). which means more expansion. Jupiter and Mars. sacrifice.
but not individual heroism of Achilles. What is our source of information for the pontifex’ yearly boards? Why did . This heroism only a virtue when used in service of the state. and last that of one’s self. next that of one’s parents. Constantia under even the most trying circumstances. So Romans didn’t get rid of obsolete institutions. and constrained by a set of laws. and other sacred signs. violation of it offense against gods and community” Gravitas “absolute self-control – a dignified. respect. Examples in moral education of young men drawn from history not something like Iliad. new things. Examples of these in action. Lucilius quote. Pietas Fides “the foundation of religious. customs sanctioned by the gods could not be changed for fear of angering the gods. esteem. auctoritas – prestige. to do what seemed necessary until success is won. maybe pietas . Cicero De Re Publica 25-37 on the Roman republican constitution. can be augmented. “The worship of both fostered the sense of belonging to one great national family. public. Aristocrats govern.” Heroism in war. serious. They kept them. Roman ideal of true man and useful member of society. These in turn sanction continued leadership. --Good: Polybius Book 6. with some attention paid to the lower classes.” Beloved by Romans were Mars and Jupiter. common affairs (lit. Rome – conservatism and change. --Consular Fasti and the genesis of the Annales Maximi (51). Janus and Vesta both find their way into state religion. Chapter 5: Rise of Roman Republic Republic: 500-27 BCE. Those who exhibit these four acquire dignitas . Religion of the State. These are scalar. honor. and unperturbed attitude toward both good and bad fortune. Forces that made Romans a conservative people: mos maiorum. Values enshrined in mos maiorum and consciously fostered by men and women through education and example. Gates of Janus –at NE of Forum open except during times of peace. some of which prevent arbitrary exercise of power. Virtusvir.Romans believed the will and intentions of the gods were revealed by omens. and private life. “to place first one’s country’s good.reputation for worth. Res Publica – common property. ‘public thing’) as opposed to private property and private affairs. rituals etc.obedience to superiors might discourage res novas.
Constitution.these stop being done in 130 BCE? --Capitoline Fasti – relying on the pontifical records. summon meetings of comitia centuriata. no entry earlier than 483 BCE. --Brutus. --Servian Reforms (compare the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BCE): each century composed of men from each geographic tribe: therefore no one century owes allegiance to any one aristocratic leader. The tribes are redrawn along new boundaries (52).-->system created that makes it difficult to acquire too much power at the expense of the rest. backed by people and merchants. ending monarchic rule. Augustus has a list made of the chief yearly magistrates from 509 to 18 BCE. and magister populi is the name of the military (infantry) leader in monarchic Rome. Rome. Each can veto the other (cf. E. Each command a legion. which backs kings. As legionary commanders. Probably aristocracy. Bibulus’ later attempt to veto the land bill in 58 BCE). may have followed the same trend. So each can check the other militarily and legally – prevents any one from gaining too much power. economic and political characteristics with Greek city states. coss. Dictator – appointed by consul in times of crisis (or an interrex). and all military triumphs since Romulus (symbolic!). Evidence – Macstrna. This is probably a way to break the power of the aristocrats. popular tyrants. the name used to designate Servius Tullius (who seizes control after Tarquin the elder) is the Etruscan equivalent for magister. we’ll probably never no the answer. vs. Curule magistrates. [Francois tomb near Vulci attests to existence of Tarquins] The same thing is happening at this time throughout the Greek world. Poplicola: WHY’s explanation. --archaeological evidence seems to point to replacement of popular tyranny with conservative republican constitution in and around 500 BCE. --One theory: Tyrants assume control of Rome in mid 6th C.g. . list half complete. they hold earlier kings’ right of imperium – power to command military. or copies of these. Judges. Collatinus. place legislative proposals before it Purple hem distinguishes their daily clothes. tenure lasts for 6 mos. only. --How did Rome go from Monarchy to Republic: debated question. are subordinate to him. which shares many social. Powerful groups vying for control of Rome. They are backed by loyal armies. Two consuls right from the start as the Fasti indicate. Each attended by 12 lictors with fasces. Cos.
organize calendar that fixes fasti and nefasti for that year. and appointment of public priests. unusual behavior of animals. HOW DID VOTING TAKE PLACE EXACTLY? Priesthoods and Priestly Colleges Colleges are those bodies of priests which had been appointed under kings and continued into Republic: No professional priestly class – these were men of high social status. and probably among them were former consuls who could provide advice to current one. Speeches and discussions concerning issues could take place previously to meetings in meetings called contiones (summoned by elected officials). person undertaking it. adoptions. meetings take place within a consecrated place. ratifies election of magistrates with imperium. at behest of . Hears cases of appeal. by announcing unfavorable omens (e. who ensured that meeting was in accordance with divine will. Convened by pontifex maximus (e. each one heads up a contingent of men in a legion. Remains an advisory body only. WORK UP A DIAGRAM OF ROMAN ARMY ORGANIZATION. and knowledge. of Rep. LIVY --Duoviri sacris faciundis: protect. Comitia Curiata – (declines after Servian reforms). Comitia Centuriata – assembly of armsbearing men. witnesses wills. --Fetials: dealt with issues of peace and war. or place undertaken.Cincinnatus in the war against the Aequi given dictatorship. members of all ass’ys. Bibulus tries to block land bill by declaring an unfavorable omen at an assembly).g. consult Sibylline books. Among other duties. and heavenly phenomena to determine gods if gods are favorable to action. ‘highest junior office in Roman army’. --Pontiffs: custodians and interpreters of sacred law governing both religious and legal relations of community to the gods. Hold a monopoly on jurisprudence in first two cent. All male Roman cit. Leader of century – centurion. They are consultants and interpreters of the law. They had the right to block public business. particularly at public assemblies. then returns to his plow. Only presiding magistrate could make it legal by enforcing it. those chosen by current consul. Caesar convenes this ass’y to witness Clodius’ adoption into a plebeian family). Parsing of patres et conscripti – patres probably leaders of state cult. defeats Aequi. To make sure that public actions are in accord with divine will. lots of experience.g. --Augurs – look to flight of birds. Senate can only meet at summons of consul or other official with imperium. Their advice is not legally binding. like a temple. Right to elect chief magistrates and other officers above rank of centurion. conscripti. Military Tribunes – 24 elected.
was binding on populus. the poor. artisans. since punishments are defined. very wealthy. Original concilium plebis reorganized as Concilium Plebis Tributum. trib. dividing inheritancesmaller plots for heirs. --sodalitates – societies or associations of lesser priests. pl. --494: plebs occupy sacred Mt. at the other end. farmers. and further.senate. --449: Valerio-Horatian Laws: what plebs passed in conc. Significance: “establish the principle of all men equal before the law”: arbitrary abuses of power are avoided. --nonpatricians exist as a spectrum: at one end. These latter are disenfranchised effectively since they couldn’t afford arms. 445: by this time the patricians agree to create the equivalent to . They probably experience serious economic problems. --456: Lex Icilia (plebiscita) opens up land in Aventine district for dist. oversee treasury and archives. sacrosanctitas of tribuni is now recognized by law. could impose. plebiscita. so doesn’t get at root of discontent. --471: secession to Aventine. Oversee Greek cults and rituals brought over as a result. temple-wardens of Temple of Ceres on Aventine. Constitute themselves as concilium plebis. and their representative the tribuni plebis. --Persian Wars Greek exports decline in 5th C. shopkeepers. have other functions. Comitia Tributa: ass’y of all citizens voting by tribes. of Rome. N. to needy --454: Lex Aternia-Tarpeia (comitia): limit size of fine coss. Codified existing practices. --farmers lose land in attacks by surrounding peoples. --Salii --Luperci --Arval Social and Political Conflicts --Between 50-486 a number of nonpatrician names appear in the consular lists. plebeian aediles are assistants to tribuni. --Tensions and discontented groups certainly existed in the young Republic. --harsh laws relating to debt group of discontented that it may be convenient to identify as plebs. too. comes about around this time: elects quaestors. --451-450: Decemviral commission codifies laws (Twelve Tables).
five of whom have to be plebeians. Plebeians have access to all rungs of cursus honorum.municipal administration. Alleviates debt. appointment to senate conferred lifetime membership. Ch. military tribune with consulare imperium. duoviri s. (in response to growing complexity of public business and war). nor become members of senate. After 339.consulship. probably opens up one of the coss. By last quarter of 4th C. novus homo. open to the plebs but can’t celebrate triumphs. By end of 4th C. become decem. the acquire the power of appointing and removing senators from senate if they do not meet standards of Roman moral code. voting. Organization favors domination by conservative. Promagistracies. wealthy landowners in higher classes. 444: creation of office of censor – compile census (official list of Roman citizens. taxation).. Volsci. to plebs. Roman republic essentially oligarchic and in interests of wealth patricio-plebeian landowners. even though the less well off had gained important concessions. 376 Licinio-Sextian Laws. Sort of a deputy cos. eligible for military service. curule aedileship. However. 241: number of tribes becomes fixed at 4 urban. Abolishes military tribuneship. New nobility – plebeio-patrician – replaces the old (patrician) nobility: this consists of those who had had a family member hold the office of cos. Centuries based on census class. no longer supply units to army. 339: Lex Publilia – patres must give their sanction to bills before they come to the vote 304/303: First plebeian pontifex maximus Tiberius Coruncanius announces that he is prepared to give free legal advice to anyone. Part of Ager publicus acquired from wars is distributed to needy. this office is probably created to meet the growing outside threats of the time: Aequi. Gauls.f. a junior colleague of coss. 326/313: Lex Poetilia practically ends debt slavery.. 367: office of praetor revived. 31 rural. 6 Roman Conquest of Italy and Its Impact . 300: Lex Valeria guaranteed right of appeal. provocatio. 444367: these rule instead of consuls.
Citizens become accustomed to supplementing income with plunder and booty. the Samnites are losing territory to the Romans.g.Some main ideas – Rome wants land as its population expands. Umbrians 290: Manius Curius Dentatus – defeats Samnites. …). Rome will kick out. after 338 Rome forms Latin alliances with individual Latin cities. Etruscans. From about 350-early 3rd C. nonpatricians. 321: Loss at Caudine Forks Roman army re-organized to better be able to fight mountain campaigns. they accept the status of socii. Aequi and Volsci. Etruscans. 327-304/3: Second Samnite War. who surrender and sue for peace. Gauls. alliances which create serious problems with third parties (e. 496: Battle at Lake Regillus indecisive 493: Foedus Cassianum 390: Gallic sack of Rome 338: Latins and Volsci crushed. Land hunger of wealthy also satisfied. create buffer zone – with Latin and Roman colonies to ‘contain’ enemy (e.g. 295: Sentinum (Publius Decius Mus): Rome fights against Samnites. Some principles – divide et impera (alliance with Hernici – situated between two enemies. Samnites are over. or kill the original occupants of land and settle poor Roman farmers there. with Mamertines in 1st Punic War). Rome fears powerful neighbors – this fear becomes paranoia (perhaps) after wars with Latins. strategic alliances (see previous and. In violation of treaty of 334. with Carthage and with Samnites when Greeks and Gauls are threatening). dissatisfied leverage Rome’s external wars to get what they want (e. one- .g. e. making it easier to defeat each in turn in the long run). Thurii and other Greek city-states receive and get Roman protection. second Samnite war). and Old Latin League dissolved. Romans sail into Gulf of Tarentum. enslave. 280: 275: 272: 264: Pyrrhus lands in Italy Victory over Pyrrhus Capture of Tarentum Volsinii (Orvieto) destroyed IMPACT OF GREEK CULTURE System of alliances and citizen communities Latin Allies (and Latin colonies) – All Latin allies had enjoyed ius Latii.g. Actions which upset Tarentum – presence of Latin colony Venusia at its Apulian border. Sabines. Warfare becomes a way of life – almost yearly warfare.
adopt Greek cognomina. : knowing Greek lit. sent to protect Latin coast. Urban population approaching 100K ppl. and to keep Samnites and Gauls in check GET MAP Socii Appius Claudius the Blind Reasons for success (78) From 338-264 Ager Romanus increases from 2K to 95K sq.on-one. cens. --Victory over Carthage in Punic Wars lead ultimately to Rome’s . new temples built resemble Hellenistic victory cults --Lit. and philos. Roman Republic at its height.. Municipia: have control over their own affairs.g. story of sack of Volsinii). “but always under the supervision of a watchful prefect from Rome” --civitas optimo iure --civitas sine suffragio Roman Colonies – 338-288. 7: First Punic War 264-133 BCE. a mark of distinction --Lucius Livius Andronicus Ch. Hellenization – they expropriate Greek works of art (e. mi. importation of Greek culture an attempt by aristocracy to appropriate Greek art and literature. 312: Via Appia and Aqueduct Coinage --289 BCE triumviri monetales Art and Literature --impact of classical Greek art becoming more and more evident by 300 BCE (scene from tale of Argonauts on Ficoroni cista) --by 272 BCE. in 264 From 350-300 Urban Population doubles Treaty with Carthage in 348 and again in 306 presupposes trade abroad for perhaps grain Archaeological evidence supports burgeoning maritime trade --Ostia founded 380-350 --Portus and Forum Boarium undergo expansion --first levels of temple of Portunus date to this time Monumental construction --Appius Claudius.
ivory. --History of Carthage and Geography.coins SOURCE FOR COINS --inscriptions more numerous --Both Carthage and Rome rapidly rising in a Hellenistic Rome. Libya and elsewhere. senate. ass’y. Medit. tin from Cornwall. elephants from Africa. --government: supreme court. as did Romans. --access to mineral wealth in W. Among Sources – for the first time there are contemporary works of lit.. Rostra 258: Victory near Sardinia 255: Regulus captured in Battle at Bagradas 247: Carthage has the upper hand sends young Hamilcar Barca to Sicily. Extent of Empire. Spain. but does not include them in Carthages’ military and civic institutions. trade --Roman fear --aristocratic desire for glory --people want booty Carthage --doesn’t want to appear weak. Internal politics at Carthage mean that more emphasis placed on African conquest.becoming one of the major powers in the Mediterranean world. slaves. Ass’y votes for generals and suffetes (2) from a group of wealthy who comprised powerful oligarchy. . SPEECH OF APPIUS CLAUDIUS CAUDEX Causes --Carthage threatens stranglehold on southern Italian Gk. corvus. --acceleration of integration of Roman culture and Hellenistic Greek civilization --conquests have an impact on the nature of the Republic itself. -. -Army composed of non-Carthaginians – from Sardinia. 260: Victory at Mylae. esp. when justice seems to be on their side --doesn’t want to risk losing Sicily 262: Roman victory at Agrigentum 261: Rome begins building fleet of quinqueremes mostly. 244: entire Carthaginian navy laid up and demobilized. --Forces subjects to become tribute-paying.
at least some of the lower-classes need to vote for a majority to be reached: upper classes make up only 88 of the unitvotes (18+70 of the first class). Hamiclar Barca recovers Carthaginian possessions in Spain. New citizens added to this or that tribe regardless of place of residence. economic. In particular: Those who had given loans to Rome during first Punic are repaid in land. Praetor would publish an edict – basically regulations/laws that he intended to follow in his year of office. Farmers of smaller plots had been conscripted and been away from farm. Perhaps the family takes out a loan to live in the interim. This will create problems corruption. flees to court of K Phillip Vth. legates. Power is nearly absolute. Sets a precedent for later reforms like T and G Gracchus. Purely administrative. purpose to prevent further pirate attacks. In this new reform. 236: Boii make an abortive attack on Rimini 229-228: Illyrian War. ended for all time. then.. later. Massilia stands to lose from Carthaginian expansion (how do you become a friend of Roman ppl?).241: Peace treaty – indemnity levied. and his personal retinue. Another cause of grievance – lack of land suitable for redistribution./Cors. supervised a staff included quaestors. circumvents senate in passing a law which makes land south of Rimini available for distribution to poor. Farmers of smaller plots have difficulty repaying these loans. DIAGRAM NEEDED After peace treaty. then revolts. 241: Peace treaty. Carthage has to cede Sicily. Demetrius of Pharos sides with Romans. the lower classes control the rest of the unit votes – proletarii 5. legal. Nevertheless starting in 237. 227: Comitia votes for two additional praetors – one as gov. not geographical. Carthage tied up with mutiny of mercenaries. constitutional. Chapter 8: Between wars After 1st Punic. Sicilian grain imports drive down the overall cost of grain. Rome takes advantage of revolt in Sardinia to ‘steal’ it and Corsica away from Carthage. Rome becomes major naval power and becomes an important player in international scene. time of reform – social. administration of justice. Her naval power in western Medit. two new tribes added to bring total of rural to 35. one of Sard. Centuriata Reform. Praetor in command of army. a tribune in 232. and the near-royal . and the rest (second to fourth classes). New Carthage – naval and army base. A certain Gaius Flaminius. of Sic.
219: Hannibal besieges Saguntum 218: Lex Claudia – “makes it illegal for a senator or his son to own or operate ships large enough for overseas trade”: prevent conflict if interest (?). Saguntum – So. 218: Trebia. also gain support of nonsenatorial classes who don’t want to compete with rich senators. Hamilcar Barca – Son in Law: Hasdrubal. eldest son of Barca. Pat. Half of Roman army of Scipio and Sempronius Longus destroyed. 219: Siege of Saguntum – falls not long after. Romans apply lex Hieronica in Sicily. Hannibal begins march on Italy: Plan. trading partner of Massilia. Flaminius (cos) victory over Insubrian Gauls – Gauls with few exceptions submit by 220. One cos. 204: Sext.3 on second Punic Wars. A ius gentium begins to replace a narrower Roman civil code. also the basis of international law. 223: G. of Ebro.power provincial governors enjoy abroad makes it difficult to reintegrate into equal sharing of power culture back at Rome. POLYBIAN AND LIVIAN ACCOUNT OF HANNIBAL. weakening hold of Rome on Italy. Italian/Sicilian Theatre 218: War declared on Carthage. International law: urban praetor and praetor peregrinus. Chapter IX: Second Punic War – makes Rome the strongest power in Mediterranean world and sets it up to conquer Hellenistic kingdoms of Greek East. publishes his commentaries on the 12T. To prevent Roman expansion by decimating population. 225: Sardinia and Corsica – organized as second Roman provinces. who brings almost all of Spain south of Ebro under Carthaginian control. as Rome expands throughout Mediterranean. Sempronius Longus to Sicily. – Publius Cornelius Scipio to Spain Another Cos – T. 226: Ebro Treaty 225: Victory over invading Gauls.) arranges for construction of Flaminian way. Ael. Ticinus near Pavia. This ius gentium would be the basis for the code of Justinian and the Napoleonic code. Flaminius (cens. 220: G. – tithe that ultimately goes back to Egypt and Near East. Hannibal. and probably ally of Rome after 226. From CAH ch. In Turin by mid Oct. . Skirmish at R.
Siege of Capua by Roman cos. 203: Mago defeated in N. enormous booty. Max. Syracuse defects. Romans don’t confront. Italy (most part they don’t fight. regain a number of towns. L. 2) put a vastly increased no. 215: L. control. In Spain: immediate aim to prevent reinforcements from being sent to Hannibal. he and Hannibal order to cross over to face Scipio in Africa. Postumius Albinus and T. Instead. 208: Hannibal obtains possession of Marcellus’ signets. M. Rome holds position and even regains some towns in Campania and Samnium. 214: Romans recapture some towns (Fab. w/in 10 years suspended during course of war. 218: Gn. And Q. 206: Lucania returns to Roman control 205: Scipio recovers Locri. 216: coss.217: Battle of Trasimene. Italy every winter. Cannae: Only 14. Scipio brings area N.) 212: Hannibal captures Tarentum followed by defection of three others. of Ebro and hinterland under R. . W/one exception. defection includes Capua. Gracchus. 204: Coss. Gaius Flaminius killed with 15k of his troops! After this point. Claud. Result Carthaginians driven out of Spain. Claudius Nero Face Hann. Claudius Marcellus captures Syracuse (under siege since 213).5k escape death or captivity out of an 80k army. 207: C. M. Rome generally adopts a policy of avoiding full-scale battles with Hannibal. 1) concentrate on winning back defected towns and areas. 211: Capua falls. who’s coming in from N. (signets in Curc. Massacre of Hasdrubal’s forces at river Metaurus. unbroken successes. Livius Salinator: face Hasdrubal. but their resources aren’t available to Rome).!) Raises siege on Locri. 210: Romans recapture some defected towns 209: This is Fabius Maximus’ 5th cos. Fulvius Flaccus’ 4th. Consequences: defection to Hannibal of large part of So. harsh treatment of city. Hannibal will retreat to So. Aemilius Paullus and C. of troops on the field 3) Force Hannibal to get separated from his troops or be unable to help allies 4) maritime domination Cost: --enormous demands on Roman and Italian manpower --enormous financial sacrifice --accept that Hannibal can ravage large parts of countryside Lex Genucia – forbidding iteration of cos. Hannibal occupies Cannae. Terentius Varro. Semp. M. Marc. From 212/11 on.
debtors and slaves enrolled. No attack outside territory w/o Roman permission. surrender all elephants and fleet save 10 ships. Devastation of large parts of Italy. [emergency measure after Cannae – criminals. Cornelius Scipio (Privatus cum imperio) arrives (son of deceased) and in 209: Carthago Nova Captured. Italian Allies. 205: Scipio stands for cos. 202: Zama. 216: Gnaeus and P. Indemnity of 10k talents in 50 annual instalments. and Gn. Scipio killed. Continued absence of farmers. Consolidates Roman position in Spain. Important: Capture of huge amount of booty.217: Naval victory at mouth of Ebro. 210 Rich compelled to give slaves to state as rowers and provide pay as well. 211: P. . Factors in Roman Victory --reserves of manpower in citizenry. 201: Peace Treaty Terms – prisoners and fugitives handed over. Remain w/in bounds as they were before the war. Many allies stay loyal (percentage?) How does Rome deal with defectors? Results --Negative effect on agriculture. --Tributum – heavy and levied throughout war --Reform of R. In 214. 210: P. Defeat of Carthage. of Hasdrubal at Guadalquivir 206: Gades surrenders to Romans. 212: those under normal military age enrolled] --Finances --voluntary contributions from all sectors --contractors told Rome would pay when Spanish mines became available. --System of alliances – in return for support allies received security and a share of profit of conquest. 216. Defeats combined forces of Hasdrubal and Syphax – tribal king. Africa 204: Scipio arrives at and besieges Utica. 208: Def. Scipio prevent Hasdrubal’s army from meeting Hannibal in Italy. 214: Romans extend control deep into territory under Carthaginian domination. and Latins. monetary system. Carthage on the other hand is over-dependent on mercenaries. material and human. --fear of foreign invasion --resistance to change vis-à-vis allies.
instead allies with the little powers of Greece.g.Chapter 10: War and Imperialism in the Hellenistic East Roman Relations in E. 202: Phillip strengthens hand against Rome by acquiring some territory in Illyria. 198: Flaminius promises Greeks freedom and self determination. Flaminius authorized to present ultimatum. and in 197 P. W/ a large alliance Rome defeats at Thermopylae. 196: Antiochus III “Great” expanding his power. 180-178. Rome preserves Macedonian state. 215-205). 273 on: Egypt enjoys an amicitia with Rome. Attalus I and Rhodians send an embassy to Rome. cos. He’s in competition with Ptolemies for influence and dominance in Aegean isles. 215: Phillip V of Macedon allies with Hannibal. Sparta defeated. and pays indemnity. Rome allies offensively with Phillip against the Aetolian league and other city states – anti-Macedon coalition. Aetolians. They invite and receive help from Antiochus. Ant. Expanding market for Greek slaves. and Phillip’s leadership. Scipio Africanus’ younger brother – C. 200: War declared. . 201: By this time Phillip has acquired a fleet and attacks Egyptian possessions in Aegean. after him. e. He maneuvers Phillip out of nearly all of Greece. unable to help Hannibal. Phillip has taken control of trade route to Black Sea). Why? Commercial interests. Revenge. Supporting war lucrative. Galba had captured slaves in 1st Macedonian war and profited from their sale. of Spain. An ensuing Greek war keeps Phillip occupied in Greece. 196: Proclamation of Greek freedom. Tries to seize Roman protectorates and naval bases in Illyria – Rome thwarts. King of Pergamum – alarmed – appeals to Rome. plundered. Hannibal advises Antiochus to ally with enemies. Phillip sues for peace. Fear. Scipio Africanus’ son in law. 206: Aetolians make separate peace with Phillip 205: Peace of Phoenice – Rome makes peace with Phillip – too caught up with Carthage to deal (end of first Macedonian war. Bolster glory of Galba and coss. 197: Cynoscephalae. Will open up trade in E. Decisive battle. including free Greek city states. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. is confined to Thessaly. Terms (111). Booty/indemnity. Athenians and Aetolians back Galba. Alliance through marriage with Ptolemy V. Cornelius Scipio. this year. good gov. 200-196: Second Macedonian War.
--secure personal glory. L. Why Was Rome Successful? --Greek city-states and kingdoms divided --Rome – divide et impera --Greece fails to adopt military improvements CH. Hellenistic East weakened through Rome’s policies and goes into a long period of decline. 15k talents of indemnity. finally defeated at Magnesia. in Greece now has separate relations with Rome. 150k sold into slavery. because Rhodes wished to mediate between Rome and Perses. 161 BCE – Romans recognize newly formed Jewish temple state as ally. financial gain. From Epirus. incl. Aemilius Paullus – philhellenist. Polybius. too. 1000 deported from Achaea. but Roman army defeats pretender. 11: Roman Imperialism in the West . After this all Romans cease to be subject to direct taxes. Why did Rome turn East? --Repair reputation among the Greeks (?) --Revenge on Phillip V for 215 --prevent Hellenistic successors from expanding in W. his unorthodox career and his aggressive military policy. Macedon divided into four separate republics – goes against nature of Macedonian state – “more a nation than any other state in the ancient world”. political advancement. 168 coss. Macedon organized as a province. Antiochus defeated in naval battle. 149-148: Fourth Macedonian War: Kingdom reunited. Cato defends Rhodians when Praetor urges Rome to declare war. 188: Apamea – Peace Treaty. 171-167: Third Macedonian War. 146: Lucius Mummius arrives in Corinth to punish it and Achaean league for rebellion against Rome. terms to heavy for him to accept. By 146: Greece and Macedon are wholly subject to Rome. appoints legate Africanus. each c.s. confiscation of Perseus’ treasury and yearly tribute imposed on Macedon. Surrender navy. Cato the Elder – diagrees with Africanus. Greek leagues dissolve.190: Lucius Cornelius Scipio cos. Rome weakens Rhodes economically. 182. Cede a large amount of territory in Asia Minor. large parts of Asia Minor.
wholesale massacres. ambition. Why? Rome frustrated that others won’t submit to Roman conceptions of peace and order. Another case where Rome had shamelessly broken an earlier treaty. Increase in brutality as Rome expands – mass enslavements. 134: Numantia starved into submission. greed. Italy territorial acquisition only way to keep territory out of enemy hands. 151-141: Viriathic War 149: War declared. 196: Mediolanum 181: Aquileia 172: Subdue Italian and French Rivieras up to Massilia “In a short time N. rebounds economically. In little less than 70 years Rome has obtained control over much of the Mediterranean. War breaks out b/c of extortion/tyranny of praetors. Rome wants to use Spanish wealth and resources to recoup after second Punic. Third Punic War . Guerilla warfare in Spain makes conquest difficult. total destruction. Cato’s survey of wealth Carthage leads to his demand that delendam esse. Italy had become an integral part of Italy” (119). to terms of treaty can’t even start defensive war without Rome’s say-so). 133: King of Pergamum bequeaths his kingdom (Attalus). Carthage continues to control trade between Africa and Hellenistic world.In W. The Penninsula not fully subdued until Augustus. Massinissa starts to seize Carthaginian coastal territory. and regular tax – defray costs of provincial administration. Siege lasts three years. and N. 197: Nearer and Farther Spain organized. Carthage appeals (acc. Stipendium – tribute. but Roman commission either decides in favor of Massinissa or leaves the dispute unsettled. 197-175: Rome begins founding colonies on both sides of the Po. Rome begins subduing tribes in Cispadana. reorganizes province. efforts halted by Second Macedonian. one boundary commission headed by Cato the elder. 195: Cato Elder cos in Spain.
p. Rome’s wars put much power into the hands of ambitious military leaders. Medit. and Sulla marches on Rome with part of his army – this marks the first time in its history that Rome is rent by civil strife. Mithridates has established a naval base at Piraeus. M. Marius starves Rome. Gets a senatorial decree passed naming Marius among others as enemies of the state. With Sulla gone. rule in E. Romans hated for their exploitation by residents of Asia Minor As Rome recovers from the Social War. Marius’ veterans will supply the votes to pass the bill as a whole (168). Cinna wants to restore Sulpicius’ laws. Chapter 16: Marius and Sulla Political competition between aristocracy intensifies. Sets homes on fire at Rome to prevent further resistance. Cinna then wins support of army at Nola and brings Marius back. P. Use of the organs of government and the military to further personal ends. 205. besides also gaining the upper hand in Asia Minor. Then heads off East. Cinna and Octavius are colleagues in cos. dies. whom Cicero had praised as the best orator he’d ever heard. taken over Southern Greece. Marius’ military Reforms – Marius name associated with popular policies “Beginning in 88 BCE Republic rocked by a series of civil wars that ultimately destroyed it” Mithridates VI Eupator goal to overthrow R. Effects reactionary reforms. but Octavius has him exiled. The Bill passes. Sulpicius Rufus. After assuming his seventh cos.What will cause fall? Separate control of civilian government and military (which Caesar. puts forth an omnibus bill at the concilium plebis: evidently there was a deal with Marius: if Sulpicius gets Marius the command. then massacres enemies in the city. Sulla’s friends in the senate procure for him the coveted command against Mithridates. and create empire of his own ad Alexander the Great. Rescinds Sulpicius’ laws. . and Augustus solve).
property confiscated have reason to hate oligarchs in power who had benefited from Sulla. Quaestors now automatically enter after their term (and number raised from 10-20): keep rolls up. His supporters: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. enslavement by being declared dictator just prior to his arrival in Rome. and holds from 86-84. But Sulla disregards this and continues successful campaign in E. This resistance comes in the form of those who were supporters of Marius. --Sulla sets a dangerous precedent: why would a subsequent ambitious provincial leader refrain from using his army for personal gain/ends? If he marches on Rome. --competition for political office stiffer: the funnel at the bottom grows.legacy of hatred and bitterness: exiles. Re-enacts Lex Villia Annalis of 180. First 18 and most wealthy centuries.Cinna takes up cos. exiles. Sullan Reforms to the Constitution. Quaestiones raised to seven: ‘greatest and most permanent of Sulla’s reforms’. Gnaeus Pompeius. Sulla kicks Mithridates out of Greece and forces him to come to peace terms in 85. confiscations. Reforms to limit war-making potential of provincial commanders (173). Resistance to Sulla quickly melts away. the best the senate can do is put . Sulla returns in 83. but particularly bad for Asia Minor. Abroad. An return characterized by atrocity after atrocity. Sulla’s epitaph: he had helped his friends and hurt his enemies – a code as old as Homer and one which would “fuel feuds and factionalism” Consequences of Sulla and his reforms: -. He had obtained a legal basis for his proscriptions. Restores Sulpicius’ laws. Includes members of the equestrian class. Mutinous soldiers kill Cinna in 84.. Those who hold tribuneship can’t hold any higher office. those whose land is expropriated. Expands senate from 300-600. which have the effect of stripping Sulla of his power. but is still as narrow at the top. Adds a 10th province – Cisalpine Gaul. reduce influence of censor. These are bad for M. Equestrians excluded from extortion-court jury would also have reason to dislike oligarchs: corrupt governors made it difficult for them to do business abroad. which prescribed a regular order of holding office. The Samnites rise up against Sulla at the Battle of the Colline Gate which ends in defeat for them (82 BCE). Marcus Licinius Crassus. Juries manned only by senators. limits tribune’s powers. Support shifts to Sulla.
revive censorship. Pompey wants to be touted as hero/savior of republic. Sertorius finally defeated 71. Aurelius Cotta gets law passed permitting tribunes to hold office. get themselves elected consul. stirs up mutiny. In order to win votes. Domestic and Foreign crises – lead to vast clientage. Law passed to have jurors drawn in equal numbers from senate. Clodius Pulcher. Coss. Both march on Rome and. But P. After Bithynia becomes a Roman province. to all those who fought under Lepidus and Sertorius. and military power in certain individuals that senate unable to stop them. among these G. Mithridates takes initiative and undoes what L. Pompey’s peace is generous and Spanish remember him for it long after. ‘historic consulship’. Pompey ambitious. propose and carry a law to restore all his powers to tribune. tribuni aerarii. M. Sets about securing political success by acquiring wealth and expanding client-base. defeats.another army with commander in front of him (no less prone to oppose senate)… Chapter 17 Discontent and hatreds bred by Sullan regime find leaders. and causes M. with legions encamped outside. Lucius Licinius Lucullus gets the command. Willing to use vast personal resources (family owns lots of land in Picenum) and flout laws to obtain this goal: demands command against Sertorius though he hasn’t held a magistracy in the cursus honorum. Julius Caesar returns (nephew of Marius). and provokes war in 74 BCE. Given command against Spartacus. Aemilius Lepidus supported by Pompey for cos. Pompey an opportunist – he suppresses Lepidus’ rebellion north of Rome. and . in 78 against Sulla’s objections. Promotes return of exiles. Lucullus’ brother-in-law. Tribunes now pass law to restore cit. Slave revolt 73-71 BCE. had done. wealth. M. Mithridates occupies it before Roman soldiers can come. to withdraw to Armenia. 73: Monthly grain dole instituted (apparently Sulla had forbidden magistrates to institute such a dole) 70: P. Licinius Crassus. Pompey gets himself the command in 67. but Pompey claims credit for mop-up in Etruria. and C. 75: G. they promote populist policies: resoration of full powers to the tribune of the plebs and placing non-senators on juries.
famine is looming. 70: Trial of Gaius Verres. people ready to do something about pirates. Against pirates adopts more humane methods used in Spain of clemency. Settles them in Asia Minor. Pompey may have set future course of Judaism by siding over Hyrcanus (Pharisees) over rival (Sadducees). Gabinius’ law giving command to get rid of pirates puts enormous power into the hands of one person. Caesar Connections with populist Marius – his aunt is Marius’ wife. Iranian peoples – under leadership of Arsacid kings (founders of Parthian empire) have encroached on former Hellenistic kingdom in Syria. 66: While in East. Test case for the integrity of the senatorial jurors. Meanwhile at Rome 65: Caesar Aedile. death of Mithridates. potentially the fact that senate does not acquit results in power-sharing arrangements. Pompey gives M. Extends Rome’s empire from Medit. to Euphrates. 69: quaestor 67: tribuneship of G. Pompey annexes now Syria and Phoenicia as Roman province. Cicero – help out Pompey by helping his Sicilian friends. gain clientele. C. Crassus censor. His prosecution of Verries results in Verres flight to Massilia. both are helping L.equites. his own wife is Cinna’s daughter. Once upon a time pirates loyal clients of Pompey. Calpurnius Piso) the law passes. Against senatorial opposition (partic. Tullius C.’s son kingship in Bosporus. gain prominence. Pirates block grain shipping to Rome. Pompey given command against Mithridates (lex Manilia – gives Pompey supreme command of all forces in Asia Minor) 66-64: Pompey takes over from Lucullus. Gabinius – pass salutary and needed reform (182). Cornelius and Au. Makes East secure and peaceful Encourages urban life. Pre-Sullan constitution back in place. M. Sergius .
Takes all of Italy into account. in particular the ruling elite of Italian towns and cities. Lutatius Catulus (Crassus’ colleague). Access to Pompey’s war booty. Loses. occupy Egypt by force. Did Caesar or Pompey have designs on monarchy? (probably not: they were more motivated by drive to preserve dignitas. Caesar demonstrates his hostility to instrument of optimates against popular leaders. backing Catiline and C. Cicero speaks against this (pro Rabirio) and also blocks Caesar’s attempt to reinstate Sullan exiles. Sullan exiles. 63 BCE. in 63 BCE. Land law – proposed by P. 62 BCE: Caesar again speaks against the SCU in asking for life imprisonment and not death penalty for five conspirators. Crassus giving Caesar money. of Po remain grateful to Cr and Caes. and begins to plan a coup of the government. But residents N. gain gloria) . Hybrida for cos. who had taken part in murder of Saturninus.Catalina. Clodius now hates Cicero and Cato. Servilius Rullus. His program of scaling down of debts appeals to debtors. Ant. Land distribution. ruling in interests of equiv of upper and middle classes. Cicero helps bring about its defeat (portrays it to Pompey as attempting to diminish his influence) Caesar mounts attack on SCU by prosecuting old senator named Rabirius. Concordia ordinum – a sort of expanded aristocracy. perhaps people who would now have a ready source of grain). proposal shot down by Q. Along with Catulus. enroll troops. Cicero testifies and ruins Clodius attempt to cover himself with an alibi. Cicero and Hybrida returned first and second. Probably Caes. and violent behavior. Sullan veterans. ruined aristocrats. Catiline running for cos. Cicero hailed as pater patriae. and Cr. But Catiline scares populace with talk of cancellation of debt. Cato the Younger (great grandson of the Elder Cato) rebukes colleagues and they vote for death. Crassus and Caesar support proposal to enroll Italians north of the Po as citizens. Bona Dea Scandal – Cato brings Clodius to trial on a charge of sacrilege. Cicero (still a supporter of Pompey) opposes Cr’s plan to make Egypt a province (would have appealed to equestrians.
A key moment: Pompey attends senate meeting where Crassus ignores him and declares Cicero savior of Rome. as tribune. What does Caesar do in his cos? --He passes land bill in spite of heavy optimate opposition --Land bill providing the distribution of Campanian ager publicus among 20k needy citizens with at least three kids.Pompey returns from abroad and dismisses his army. make it very difficult for Pompey to get his acta passed. C. command of province and army. as pontifex. Crassus. financial resources and political support for future political battles at Forum. gets Cic. by making an unattractive province for consuls of 59 BCE. --ratification of Pompey’s acta in East. Cato thwarts Caesar’s attempt to get cos. land for his veterans and his acta. --remittance of part of the tax-collector’s contract payment to Rome --Acta Diurna – good political move. Optimates. lowered contract payment for equestrian friends. will communicate anti-populist measures of his political enemies to the people. Ch. alienating Pompey. . exiled and relegates Cato to Cyprus. he presides over Cl’s adoption by a plebeian family. and especially Cato. Caesar’s purpose in going to Gaul: gloria. Clodius. then – with this offer rejected – to come to Gaul. --lex Julia de Repetundis – makes exploitation of provinces even more difficult for governors. Cicero then goes on to speak at length of his own achievements. Finally. J. won’t repeal lex Julia: invites him to be on Land Commission. 18: Rise of Caesar Early Chronology 69: 65: 62: 61: 60: 59: Quaestor Aedile Praetor Provincial Governor in Spain Formation of 1st “Triumvirate” with Pompey and Crassus Consul First “Triumvirate” wants – Pompey. he secures the help of Publius Clodius. Caesar. tries to get Cicero on board so Cic.
and 10 friendly tribunes. 51 – one Caesar friendly cos. with connivance of Crassus. et al. Marcus Antonius. Cicero’s unsuccessful defense of Milo Law providing for five year interval between cos. incl. will resign his. led by Milo. 56: things aren’t looking good for the triumvirate: Clodius trying to undo Julian law. will not upset the Julian law or the rule of the triumvirs). Triumvirate meets at Luca. (2nd). Julia his wife (Caesar’s daughter) dies in childbirth. Pompey. Caesar offers to resign command if P. and standards taken by Parthians – Carrhae. 56-52: Caesar’s back in Gaul. Trebonius gives them their commands. for 52 52 Pompey’s Cos. Pompey marries now wife of optimate Metellus Scipio Rome in anarchy – no cos. engineers Cicero’s return (on the condition that Cic. Cicero trying to swing Pompey over to optimates. and provincial governorship Pompey though extends his own provincial governorship. Ch. tribune(s) block. at beginning of 53 or 52. Caesar now dependent on Pompey. exempts Caesar from law making it more difficult to run in absentia. 53: Crassus killed. Senate attempts to strip Caesar of command. his 7 legions destroyed. 50 –Caesar crosses Rubicon. Clodius incites riots whenever the question of Cicero’s return came up. Caesar in the meantime is no doubt kept up with political affairs at home through correspondence with Pompey. powerful appeal to loyal veterans to help .Conquest of Gaul is pretty much over in the following year – 57 BCE. Lex Trebonia passed by tribune C. Pompey elected sole cos. backed by his own followers. Pompey rebuffs Caesar’s offer to marry Pompey’s daughter. Mobs rule the streets back at Rome. curb Cicero and the gangs. – 5 year commands for all. 19: Caesar wins and is lost 55: Crassus and Pompey Cos. Pompey now looking to gain support at home. Crassus. Senate passes SCU declaring Caesar a public enemy.
Caesar visits Cicero on the way and asks for his support. 48 – Caesar’s second cos. --crosses over to Greece from Brundisium. defeat of Pompey. After organizing for the security of grain route and governance of Rome and Italy. Lex Julia Municipalis – provides for local self-government. subdues Pompeian forces there. and restoration of civil rights to victims of Sulla’s proscriptions. censor. --4 triumphs --45 Munda --45: Caesar at Rome with powers of dictator. --Caesar supports Cleopatra in her bid for throne. 47 – Caesar in Italy --Pompeian forces assembled in Africa for an eventual invasion of Italy. Cato martyr=becomes exemplar of Stoic fortitude.him avenge enemies’ affronts to his dignitas. Pompey heads to Brundisium then packs off to Greece. latter point – grants Latin rights or citizenship to many provincial cities (206) . tribune. Within 40 days of arrival in Spain. Cato had regrouped Pompey’s forces and taken them here. Ptolemy XIII orders Royal army out and Caesar under siege for months. Caesar heads for Spain. demands repayment of debt. outnumbered at Durazzo. --economic stimulus --recall of persons exiled by Pompey. 49 – Caesar in Spain. retreats to Pharsalus. Pompey flees to Egypt. Reforms: Overall effect is to to reduce the absolute dominance of the city and to integrate Rome with Italy and Italy with rest of empire: former point – expansion of Senate. --46 Arrival at Rome --public thanksgiving --Dictatorship renewable annually for 10 years. ‘of demonstrated incapacity’ -. 48-47 – Caesar in Egypt. Metellus Scipio takes command. A swift conquest of Italy.47-46 Thapsus and death of Cato Caesar annihilates Metellus’ army at Thapsus.
Former point – public works et al. 44: Antony presides. Only after civil wars does he realize that one-man rule is best for Rome and her polyglot empire. and his bloodied toga. but Antonius has spent much of it and rebuffs the youth. Others – e. 44: Caesar’s funeral. delivers a mildly critical speech. Cicero – suspicious of his motives. March 20. September 1 44 BCE. Ch. In a rebuttal – Cic. . 20 The Last Days of the Republic Rise of Antony – Cicero and Augustus (hostile to him) have created the ‘official’ version of events. in military training. go berserk. Basilica Julia. 44: Feb 14th – Caesar declared dictator perpetuus Was Caesar taking steps towards Monarchy? --month named after him --statues --coins --dictator perpetuus In all but name. Caesar makes G. Octavian – in Epirus. convinces senators to ratify Caesar’s acts. Octavius Thurinus his son. Antonius reply followed by sharper. In his will. Forum Julium (has temple of Venus genetrix in the center). Senate meeting on March 17th.Social and economic reforms: provide jobs for those off grain dole and relieve overpopulation in Rome. no fewer than 20 colonies. Secures Caesars papers from Calpurnia. Takes name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. which goes up in flames. Gold coinage – aureus Calendar: how did its regularization make it impossible for political rivals to use it against each other? Along the way Caesar creates much good will and increases reservoir of clients. demands his inheritance. proclaim amnesty for conspirators. unpublished speech Phillipics. yet this had not been his intention.g. latter point – est. and cremate his corpse in the Senate building. Antonius takes control of Caesar’s legions in Macedon. Cicero had refused to attend senate and Antony criticizes him for this. People at seeing waxen image of Caesar’s corpse. and grant Caesar a public funeral. Antonius lets Brutus and Cassius and other conspirators to leave Rome.
administering the E. 39-37: Antony in Athens. Octavian divorces Scribonia and marries Livia Drusilla.44-43: Mutina. by senate. 36: With Agrippa and Antonius’ ships. Octavian is really in control at Rome. Antony driven out. Province holders are of uncertain allegiances. He sends Octavia back in 35 – this is a blow. Lepidus. but it is a debacle. 32: Octavian declares war 31: Actium – not really much of a battle after all. He appears at Senate with armed guard. 43: Proscriptions. Lepidus arranges a conference with Octavian. wants to restore the former greatness of Ptolemaic Egypt. now with an angry Sextus Pompey cutting off grain shipments. Octavian makes it about Cleopatra. 43: Antonius wins over legions of transalpine and comata. He manipulates religious symbolism in order to consolidate rule. Octavian Italy. things looking good for Republican cause. Cleopatra ambitious. They each stand to gain from the other. He is now more reliant on Cleopatra’s wealth. Clodius and Curio) are fomenting discontent 40: Pact of Brundisium – Octavian gets Western provinces. 40: Perusine War. Cleopatra bears him twins. 41: Antonius in the East. Triumvirs make a treaty with him in 39. Octavian given propraetorian power and marches on Antony along with Pansa and Hirtius. from there. two of the Macedonian legions have gone over to him. from Decimus Brutus. Rome is in a bad way. and Antony gets Eastern. After this the empire is divided – Antonius gets the East and Gallic Provinces. Antony’s troops and . Antony prepares for invasion. Nov. Cassius and Brutus in east building up army of former Pompey clients. 37: Treaty of Tarentum renews triumvirate for five years. 42: Battle of Philippi: Brutus and Cassius establish themselves and legions at Philippi. Antony set on wresting Cis. He’s slowly dropping out of the picture. Sardinia and Corsica. Octavian refused cos. N. he had Antony’s will read – this is a huge propaganda victory for him. and returns to Italy with 22 legions. Africa. Antonius and Cleopatra in the East – Antonius in a ceremony becomes co-ruler with Cleopatra of Hellenistic Egypt. Pompey is defeated at Naulochus. Lucius and Fulvia (former wife of P. many senators flee to Antony (this after one of the senators had inveighed against him). Sicily. He goes to Epirus with Cleopatra to prepare for battle against Octavian. 27 – Lex Titia ratifies the tresviri rei publicae constituendae. Octavian has marched on Rome. not Antony – who is merely Cleopatra’s dupe. also Spain. he marches on Rome and installs himself and obscure relative as suffect consuls.
Ch. Caesar in Gaul). Land and Veterans: trend to use coloni free. Which? Italians: win franchise as a result of social war. GOOD ESSAY QUESTION: CONTRAST EARLIER TO LATER REPUBLIC. Cicero. and plague. Marriage is an important way to secure alliances and treaties. but upper class profit from. indebted peasants to farm estates in center and south (rather than slaves). Those in the employ of the wealthy fared better than the majority of free citizens. Caesar.navy suffer famine. The rest of the army surrenders. One of their gripes is that the senate is not doing enough to protect their interests. Crassus support many and gain money. 30: Octavian in Egypt. who might profit in turn from success of freedman. Freedmen might do well in business. Cicero and Tiro. 21 Social Economic and Cultural Life in Late Republic Republic a time of great crisis and creativity. Women: Upper Class Women – play an important role in intellectual and political life of Rome. Lower Class Women – female slaves. Conquests produce a flood of Slaves (Pompey in E. But difficulty of going to Rome to vote often too great. Slaves and freedwomen of aristocracy often . Were not given membership in all voting tribes – evidently only one or a few. More sexual liberty (?). Antony and Cleopatra get away. Antony. Treatment of rural slaves improve after two big slave revolts: 104-99 (Sicily) and Spartacus’ (73-71). Life for Urban and Rural Poor – collegia associations formed on a common association (common district. Desertions. then Cleopatra commit suicide. Masters might come to know and love personal and domestic slaves as their own family members. Ambivalent attitude towards – ‘upstarts’. prostitutes. often started out with financial assistance from master. obtain a fair enrollment in voting tribes. He needs money. or like guilds.. Traditional values don’t have as much pull. a trade): social club. Italian landed aristocracy demanded more of a voice in direction of affairs at Rome. due to blockade by Agrippa. a ‘group insurance’ to provide for burials… Slaves and Freedmen. influence and votes from them. Pompey.
R.had more opportunity than poorer freeborn women. (1990 repr. Ancient Rome and Modern America Taylor. L.). Bibliography Malamud. Roman Voting Assemblies . M (2009).
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