Petroleum Geoscience EAB -7- 151

Basin, structures and traps

Dr. Julie D. Bell RPG, PhD

What is a sedimentary basin?
A sedimentary basin is a depression filled with sedimentary rocks.

Areas of basins can be 1 to 10 km plus

. • Reservoir models are made of the particular parts of basin that the company has located a play. organics and water – elements necessary to create a petroleum system are put in place – traps are formed by tectonic processes.• A sedimentary basin is – a depression filled with sedimentary rocks – formed by any tectonic process – filled with sediments.

Classification of sedimentary basins Sedimentary basins can be classified according to  structural genesis (or how they were developed)  evolutionary history (that can be linked to petroleum systems and play development) .

218 • The foundations of sedimentary basins • The mechanics of sedimentary basin formation .The foundations of sedimentary basins Read Basin Analysis Principles and Applications Philip A. Allen page 3-. Allen and John A.

basin modelling • At its most basic. a basin modelling exercise must include: – burial history – thermal history of the basin – maturity history of the source rocks. migration and trapping of hydrocarbons .Petroleum geologist . – expulsion.

 Different basin cycles can be present  pre-rift  syn-rift  Transitional  Post-rift  Same or different petroleum systems can be present due to changes in cycles . as tectonics and sedimentary patterns become more complicated.Basin evolution  Number and variety of plays increases with basin evolution.

or a basin model .How to understand evolution? • Determine history of the basin fill including – composition. – primary structures. and – internal architecture. can be synthesized into a model of stages of development.

The earth consists of different zones. .• Sedimentary basins are regions of prolonged subsidence of the Earth. The driving mechanisms of subsidence are principally driven by processes in the lithosphere.

Geometries in a basin .

Geometries in sedimentary basins  Applied study for petroleum not academic. petroleum traps  Structural geology .study of 3D distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories  Planar features ○ ○ ○ ○ bedding planes foliation planes fault planes fold axial planes  Other features ○ joints ○ Stretching  Structures are present on all scale from macro to micro .

normal bedding .Bedding planes .

Bedding planes .folded beds .

Fault planes .

Bedding and normal and fold planes .

Fold axial planes . NE Plunge – the angle that the beds are from the ground surface ie 45 strike plunge .Anticline Strike – the direction that the beds are facing ie.

Fold axial planes .Synclines .

Traps .

5 p 148-169 • Structural traps (fig 4.Traps Read Petroleum Geosciences Gluyas and Swarbrick Section 4.37 p150) • Evaporites and salt domes (fig 4.36 p149) • Stratigraphic (fig 4.47 p160) Formation of traps and timing are critical .

Structural traps Read Petroleum Geosciences Gluyas and Swarbrick Section 4.3 p 151-163 What are the 6 types? .5.

Salt dome traps What are the 8 parts? .

Wytch field is a synclinal fault basin with a stratigraphic pinchout trap .

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