Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory

Basic science and technological innovation in the sugarcane/ ethanol cycle
Communication Department - CNPEM - Campinas, Sao Paulo - 2011 Editor: Luiz Paulo Juttel / Design: William Barbosa / Printed by: Gráfica E-Color Photos: Gustavo Tílio, Luiz Paulo Juttel, Pablo Levinsky and William Barbosa



R,D&I to Increase the Competitiveness of Ethanol Research Programs: performance in the entire production cycle of bioethanol
Agricultural Program Industrial Program Basic Research Program Technology Assessment Program Sustainability Program

9 11
12 13 15 16 17

Research Infrastructure: Laboratories and Pilot Plant
Laboratories of Physics and Chemistry for the Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Material Laboratories of Functional and Structural Biology Laboratories of Biotechnology for Hydrolysis and Alcoholic Fermentation

20 21 23

Pilot Plant for Process Development (PPDP)
PPDP 1 and PPDP 2 PPDP 3 and PPDP 4 PPDP 5 PPDP 6 and Biosafety Level 2 Lab

26 27 29 30

Relationship with the Industry
CNPEM: Science, Technology and Innovation in the Frontier of Knowledge

34 5

CTBE’s facilities: 9.000 m2 of built area located in Campinas, Brazil for research in the sugarcane/ ethanol cycle

CTBE’s professionals see the sugarcane as a carbon source that can be efficiently transformed into fuels and others products.


In the current global context, discussions on energy security and climate change have placed biofuels in evidence, especially ethanol.This scenario configures a good opportunity for Brazil. Due to the virtuous history of sugarcane and its products in the country, we envision a prosperous future in the area of bioenergy for the country. From 1975 (beginning of Proálcool Program) to 2008, the Brazilian ethanol production for each hectare of sugarcane has grown 125% and production costs dropped 70%.This was only possible due to research and development (R&D) across the supply chain. Against this backdrop, the Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE) comes back to Brazil’s energy future. Our professionals see the sugarcane as a carbon source that can be efficiently transformed into fuels and others products for the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries and consolidating plants in biorefineries. This publication covers the objectives of CTBE, its infrastructure of science and technological development and research programs. Through scientific improvement throughout the production cycle of sugarcane ethanol, we hope to collaborate in the construction of a global scientific agenda connected to national technological interests.


Laboratory of Fungi Hydrolases Biosynthesis: prospection and production of enzymes for second generation ethanol technology


R,D&I to Increase the Competitiveness of Ethanol

The Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE) is a multidisciplinary R, D & I institution in the ethanol from sugarcane area committed to the Brazilian future in biofuels and opened to external users. Inaugurated in January 2010, the CTBE’s mission is to contribute to consolidate the leadership of Brazil in bioethanol production, seeking answers to scientific and technological challenges in the entire production cycle. The creation of CTBE was inspired by an exploratory study commissioned in 2005 for the Center for Strategic Studies and Management Science, Technology and Innovation (CGEE), at the request of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT). This research analyzed the feasibility of Brazil to replace 10% of the gasoline used in the world for ethanol of sugarcane by 2025. Named as Ethanol Project, this study was conducted in an agreement between the Interdisciplinary Center of Energy Planning – (NIPE/Unicamp) and the CGEE/MCT. In its final report, the Ethanol Project discovers that the country may become a major global supplier of biofuel without significantly increasing the sugarcane planted area, as soon as overcomes

important agricultural, industrial and logistic bottlenecks. It was concluded that the answer to this challenge pass by investing heavily in R,D&I, now materialized in the constitution of a National Laboratory of basic and applied research directed exclusively to that purpose. CTBE’s Mission To contribute for the Brazilian leadership in the renewable energy sources and chemical industry raw material production sectors, mainly by improving the sugarcane bioethanol production chain, through state-of-the-art of research, development and innovation.


Culm of sugarcane

The Research Programs of the Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE) includes the agricultural, industrial, technology assessment, sustainability and basic research areas. The scientific communities, business and foreign experts evaluated each of these Programs.


Research Programs: performance in the entire production cycle of bioethanol



Methodology and Assessment


CTBE’s Controlled Traffic Structure (ETC): 3D image

Agricultural Program

Processes related to agriculture account for around 70% of the ethanol production cost.This fact motivated CTBE to focus the Agricultural Program on productivity increase and cost reduction of sugarcane production through the implementation of the no-till farming system. This system was well succeeded for the production of grains, as a way to reduce costs, preserve soil nutrients and use water resources more rationally. A less aggressive mechanization approach is required to make no-till farming feasible in sugarcane fields. This need led CTBE to develop a Controlled Traffic Structure (ETC) capable to execute all the

mechanized operations of the agronomic cycle of sugarcane. Among other benefits, this machine should reduce traffic on the planted area and fuel consumption as well as soil compaction and erosion. This program has the support of FUNTEC/ BNDES (R$ 16 million for 4 years). The partner company is Máquinas Agrícolas Jacto S.A. and the agronomic studies are coordinated by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), The Agricultural Program is also exploring the potential of Precision Agriculture to increase productivity, reduce fertilizing costs and environmental impacts.


Industrial Program

The Industrial Program focuses on developing the technology of cellulosic bioethanol production. The Pilot Plant for Process Development (PPDP) will provide this; the pilot plant will enable the development of parametric studies, to assess the technical-economic and environmental performance of the processes. Advanced industrial plant models will be considered in these cases within the technological concept of biorefinery. The pilot plant building area is 2,500m2 which will be used by researchers from anywhere around the world in developing and scheduling techniques for the production of cellulosic ethanol and other strategic products from sugarcane bagasse and trash. Flexible, multipurpose, the PPDP will be useful to development researches related to the cycle sugarcane/ethanol in semi-industrial scale. Other institutions may use the pilot plant facilities to scaling up your researching processes. On the other hand, scaling down could be development to improve technologies. The CTBE Pilot Plant will be used even optimization of first ethanol generation processes - produced from sugarcane juice – and the development of new products related to ethanol industry.

Reactor used to enzymatic hydrolysis bioethanol processes researching from sugar cane bagasse and straw

Efficient Pretreatment

Best Enzymes for Hydrolysis

Optimized Fermentation

Economically Viable Technology for Cellulosic Ethanol


Tridimensional structure of a cellulase

Comparison of cell walls of sugarcane from different cells under (A) Atomic Force and (B) Electron with electon-diffaction microscopies. Both walls present amorphous materials that possibly correspond to hemicelluloses and pectins present in the wall. A B


Sugarcane cell wall: a challenge for second generation ethanol

Basic Research Program

The Program focus on the scientific development needed to solve the bottlenecks pointed out by other programs of CTBE, in addition to its own agenda. This agenda is centered on studies that favors the advancement of scientific knowledge on basic phenomena related to the production of cellulosic ethanol such as photosynthesis, carbohydrates and proteins molecular structure, polysaccharides synthesis and degradation, plant metabolism, nanotechnology related to plant material, green chemistry, conversion of chemical energy in mechanical energy, combustion

of ethanol among others. In addition, CTBE’s laboratory facilities will be available to researchers from academic and industrial areas. The research developed at CTBE should be fully integrated with other national and international groups in their respective areas. It is expected that the Laboratory is recognized as an institution that generates new ideas in the various sectors of science.This should occur through scientific publications, reports, articles and especially through the link between the produced knowledge and technological applications.


Technology Assessment Program

The Technological Assessment Program develops a Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery (BVC), computational simulation platform that will analyze the impact of new technologies on the economical, social and environmental sustainability impacts of ethanol production. The BVC, for example, will evaluate the economic and technological feasibility of joining the production of cellulosic ethanol to the first generation, coupled with the production of bioelectricity and high-value adjoined compounds for the chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries among others. The data generated by BVC can help companies, governments and research and funding institutions to set study priorities or technological development, to evaluate the success of projects and to plan the investment in new technologies.

Biorefineries technological routes evaluated by BVC: • First generation ethanol, sugar and electricity • Second generation bioethanol (hydrolysis) • Liquid fuels from biomass (gasification) • Alcohol chemistry • Sucrochemistry • Lignin route • Other routes

Institutions Net Mathematical Models

Process Data

Sugarcane Virtual Biorefinery

Sustainability Impacts Economic Environmental Social

Sugarcane Ethanol Production/ others Ethanol Usage / others


Sustainability Program

CTBE’s Sustainability Program has an international reach and aims at the production of data to address the sustainability theme in a scientific way. Its main focus is on studies of impacts of new technologies on the sustainability of the sugarcane/ bioethanol production cycle. Due to the wide concept of sustainability, priority aspects were defined by CTBE taking into account both the national and the international agenda. CTBE’s activities on sustainability of bioethanol from sugarcane are organized in research projects that will be conducted simultaneously: • energy and GHG emission balances; • soil carbon stock changes and emissions of N2O and CH4; • direct and indirect impacts of land use change (LUC and ILUC); • socio-economic impacts; • impacts on availability and quality of water resources; • impacts on biodiversity. Institutional Agreements The Sustainability Program activities occur in partnership with renowned research institutions such as Imperial College London, England, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), United States. In Brazil, the Center for Strategic Studies and Management Science, Technology and Innovation (CGEE), the Institute for International Trade Negotiations (ICONE) and the Delta CO2 collaborates with CTBE in this theme. Other partnerships are in progress.


High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): quantifying of sugars, organic alcohols and alcohols in the CTBE’s Instrumental Lab


Research Infrastructure: Laboratories and Pilot Plant

The CTBE´s main building has 6.000m2 divided into two floors that have placed the following facilities: • Laboratories of Physics and Chemistry for the Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Material • Laboratories of Functional and Structural Biology • Laboratories of Biotechnology for Hydrolysis and Alcohol Fermentation The Pilot Plant for Process Development (PPDP) has a built area of 2.500m2 and operates, initially, with six multipurpose units: PPDP 1: Physical Treatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Straw. PPDP 2: Physical Chemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Material PPDP 3: Fungi,Yeast and Bacteria Production PPDP 4: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Biomass PPDP 5: Separation and Purification PPDP 6: Alcoholic Fermentation

In the Laboratory of Agricultural Prototypes, with 250m2, will be developed the Controlled Traffic Structure (ETC), farm machinery that will contribute to the implementation of the direct planting system in the sugarcane´s culture.


Laboratories of Physics and Chemistry for the Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Material
The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and straw aims to decrease the resistance of the lignocellulosic material to further action of enzymes that will break the cellulose chains in order to release the sugars that are converted to ethanol through fermentation. The raw material is washed and can be fractionated and milled before going through the pre-physical and chemical treatments as steam explosion, organosolv, acid or alkaline hydrolysis and plasma, among others.The goal of these studies is to identify a combination of variables (reaction time, pH, temperature etc.) able to optimize the process of cellulose’s enzymatic conversion. Physical and chemical characterizations of the lignocellulosic material are also realized to determine the composition and the structure of the biomass raw and pre-treated. These processes allow determining the levels of sugars, lignin and elemental constituents, the size distribution of particles and their porosity.

Equipments Cutting mill Impact and shear mill PARR reactors 2.0L and 7.5L Tubular reactor Microwave digester Nutsche filter Ion Chromatograph Elemental Analyzer CHNOS UV-Visible Spectrophotometer FTIR/NIR Spectrophotometer Surface Area and Porosity Analyzer Particle Size Analyzer Differential Scanning Calorimeter Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer Thermogravimetric Sorption Analyzer Oscilloscopes (2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz) Mass Spectrometer (up to 500 a.m.u.)


Laboratories of Functional and Structural Biology

Research physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of plants and microorganisms. Chemical, physical, structural and ultrastructural characterization of biomass (plant tissue, bagasse and straw). Studies on conversion of biomass such as the impact of pretreatment and hydrolysis using hightroughput techniques. Pentose fermentation pathways in yeast. Data aquisition processing and visualization using eScience approach.

Equipments . Confocal microscopy . Fentoseconds laser . Optical tweezers + microdissection . Imaging and spectroscopy . Liquid chromatograph with mass spectrometer (LC-MS) Greenhouse: . Conviron chambers (cells, seed and plantlets: plants from buds) . Scholander chambers and leaf area meters . Open top chambers . Photosynthesis measurements (IRGA and fluorometer) . Weather stations and sensors


Colony picker prepares samples of cloned bacteria for DNA sequencing

SDS-PAGE Electrophoresis: analysis of expression, quantifying and purity level of recombinant proteins for cellulosic ethanol production


Laboratories of Biotechnology for Hydrolysis and Alcoholic Fermentation
In the CTBE´s Laboratories of Molecular Biology are conducted researches in bioprospecting, metagenomics and genetic improvement of microorganisms for the production of enzyme cocktails and engineering strategies to increase the efficiency of cellulases. Studies conducted in Bioprocess Laboratories seeks the development, optimization and scale up of enzyme production processes, of biomass hydrolysis and of alcoholic fermentation. These studies includes bioreactors engineering and biomolecules separation and purification processes. The research goals is to contribute to supplant the main bottlenecks of the second generation ethanol production: the high cost of enzymes that convert cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and alcoholic fermentation of hydrolysates rich in pentoses and hexoses.

Equipments . 10 Bioreactors - 3L . 4 Bioreactors - 20L . Chromatography systems (AKTA Purifier e AKTA FPLC) . Liquid and ion chromatography systems (HPLC IR/UV and Dionex) . Colony picker . Crossflow filtration system . Automated pipetting system . On-line biomass sensor . Fluorescence spectrophotometer . Ultra centrifuge . Image analysis system . Scintillator . Optical microscopy with image analysis software


Flexible, multipurpose, the PPDP will be useful to development researches related to the cycle sugar cane/ ethanol in semi-industrial scale.


Setor Plant for Process Pilot de Inovação Development (PPDP)

The Pilot Plant for Process Development (PPDP) is constituted for six independents modules where each one represents a step of cellulosic bioethanol production including raw material pretreatment, byproducts fermentation, recovery, purification, concentration and fermentation. There are new concepts modules related to sugar, ethanol and lignin chemistry, and thermal

conversion processes. The remaining area is for the future demand on scaling up processes.The flowchart above presents the general process since receipt bagasse until ethanol product.


PPDP 1: Unit for Physical Treatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Straw

Objective: Promote the efficiency of processes by washing, separation, milling and fractionation of the lignocellulosic biomass. Raw Materials: sugarcane bagasse and straw. Products: bagasse and straw separated, ground, fractionated and characterized physically. Main Process Receipt, handling and storage: the raw material from the mills is transported in big bags and storaged in external area of the Pilot Plant until the time of its processing. Washing and physical-mechanical treatment: the raw material is washed with water in a rotating

sieve to removal mineral and organic impurities. Then the material is sent to the systems depithed and the solid-liquid separation or sent to the classificatory sieves. The solid fraction is dried in kilns and storaged in refrigeration chambers. Grinding: solid fractions (dried or not) are reduced and homogenized in grinding process. Main Equipments Washing and screening system Primary depithed system Set of mills Refrigeration chamber Pneumatic sorter

PPDP 2: Unit for Physical Chemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Material

Objective: Develop technology to degradate the lignocellulosic matrix to improve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into fermentable sugars. Raw material: integral bagasse, medulla, fiber, fractionated and classified fiber and sugarcane straw. Products: bagasse pulp suspension, bagasse pulp and pretreatment liquor. Main Process Steam Explosion: the lignocellulosic material is deaerated with direct injection of steam, heating by oil heat and pressurized. After short period pressurized and heated, the product is discharged abruptly; the sudden expansion promotes the disintegration of

the fiber, release lignin and hemicellulose hydrolysis. Pre-hydrolysis system: the process is based on the use of solvents, acid or alkali to catalyze the reaction of delignification and pre-hydrolysis of biomass. After separation, the lignocellulosic material (solid fraction) goes to PPDP 4 and pretreatment liquor goes to PPDP 5. Main Equipments Stainless steel steam explosion reactor Alloy pre-hydrolysis reactor Stainless steel solid-liquid mixer Alloy pressure filter Nutsche Alloy basket centrifuge


PPDP 3: Unit for Fungi, Yeast and Bacteria Production

Objective: The purpose is to develop microorganisms and enzymes production processes that will be used in other stages of the process. Raw Materials: sugar cane syrup, pretreatment liquor, hydrolysis liquor, cellulosic material, other carbon and nitrogen sources, mineral salts and other micronutrients used in culture medium. Products: microorganisms used in alcoholic fermentation and biomolecules, especially enzymes. Main Process Yeast production for the alcoholic fermentation step (PPDP 6). Enzymes production, mainly cellulases. These

enzymes can be produced using filamentous fungi or bacteria in batch processes or fed batch process. According to the type of microorganism, enzyme can be extracellular or intracellular. Production of different kind of substances, such as proteins, amino acids, vitamins. Main Equipments Stainless steel 125L fermentor Stainless steel 300L fermentor Stainless steel 150L/h continuous sterilizer Fermentor (Semisolid Fermentation)

PPDP 4: Unit for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Biomass

Objective: Development of the enzymatic hydrolysis process of pretreated sugarcane bagasse using hydrolases, achieving high yields and best conditions of operation. Raw material: preatreated sugarcane bagasse, enzymes complex and yeast. Products: hydrolysis liquor rich in hexoses and ethanol, in the case of hydrolysis and fermentation simultaneously. Main Process Hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and other lignocellulosic materials using complex or enzymatic preparations obtained from fungal or enzymatic

preparations which obtained from more than one organism, e.g. recombinant bacteria, recombinant yeast or co-cultivation of filamentous fungi. Hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and other lignocellulosic materials with consecutive or simultaneous fermentation. This process is catalyzed by complexes or enzymatic preparations and monosaccharides produced is converted to ethanol by yeasts that are also in the bioreactor. Main Equipments Stainless steel saccharifier bioreactor


Facilities Objective: Supply high pressure and low pressure steam, thermal fluid, compressed air, hot water, cooling water and cold water to CTBE’s laboratories and PPDP (Pilot Plant). Main Equipments 3 LPG boilers Thermal fluid heater Air compressors Water heater 2 Cooling towers Chiller

Intern view of PPDP’s fermentor used to produce enzymes for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material


PPDP 5: Unit for Separation and Purification

Objective: The purpose is to develop processes used for separation, detoxification and concentration of pretreatment and hydrolysis liquors, and for separation and purification of hydrolases produced from different kinds of fermentative processes. Raw Material: pretreatment liquor, hydrolysis liquor and fermentation broth. Products: detoxified pretreatment and hydrolysis liquors and purified proteins. Main Process Liquors treatment: pretreatment liquor and hydrolysis liquor produced in PPDP 2 and PPDP 4, respectively, contain solid materials not reacted, mineral salts, lignin and secondary products such as alcoholic fermentation inhibitors. Filter press and microfiltration are used to remove solid materials. After this, inhibitors are removed using precipitation, solvent extraction, activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resins or distillation. The detoxified liquor is concentrated using an evaporator and goes to the alcoholic fermentation step (PPDP 6). Enzymatic complex recuperation: during this step, the proteins (enzymes) produced by fermentation in PPDP 3 are recovered. In the case of intracellular enzymes, the fermentation broth is sent to the cellular rupture homogenizer to liberate the produced enzymes. Then, the liquid portion, rich in enzymes, is separated by centrifugation or microfiltration. In the case of extracellular enzyme, the fermentation broth is centrifuged or filtered to remove the solid part (cells) to obtain the supernatant rich in enzymes. This liquid fraction

is sent to the protein precipitation tank, further, proteins are separated by microfiltration. In this case, ultrafiltration can be used to improve the purification and to increase the enzyme concentration. In the last case, semisolid fermentation, the product (mixture of microorganisms, solid substrate and enzymes) goes to a milling process to reduce the particles size. The intention is to facilitate the enzyme extraction before going to the centrifugation. After cellular separation, protein precipitation is made and finally the product goes to microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes. This process line (semisolid fermentation) will be developed in the future. The product obtained (concentrated enzyme) is used during the enzymatic hydrolysis in PPDP 4. Main Equipments 56 L filter press 4,36 m2 filtration area Stainless steel microfiltration system, 250 L precipitation tank 250 L liquid-liquid extractor 100 L/h adsorption columns 100 L/h distillation column 100 L/h scraped surface evaporator 120 L/h cells homogenizer Disc centrifuge In the future, other systems will be provided for: deflegmation, rectification, reactive distillation, dehydration using azeotropic distillation, pre-evaporation, absorption, liofilization, and milling.


PPDP 6: Unit for Alcoholic Fermentation

Objective: Development of ethanol fermentation process for hydrolysis liquors, establishment of operational parameters (mass and energy balances, stoichiometry and yield, kinetic and productivity) for technical and economical evaluation of the developed processes. Raw Materials: pretreated liquor, hydrolysis liquor, syrup from sugarcane, yeast and nutrients. Products: alcoholic fermentation broth. Main Process Inoculum yeast from the Biotechnology laboratory or PPDP 3 is prepared in the prefermenter and then transferred to the fermenter.

The process can operated batch, fed batch or continuous.After fermentation, the final product with alcohol content is transferred to the centrifugation process for separate the yeast that can be recycled. The alcoholic broth goes to the distillation process (PPDP 5) to recovery the bioethanol. Main Equipments Stainless steel pre-fermenter Stainless steel fermenter Disc separation centrifuge

Biosafety Level 2 Laboratory: Fermentation, Separation and Purification

Objective: Develop fermentation processes to obtain products by using of microorganisms classified as biosafety level 2, as well as to separate and purify these products. Raw Materials: culture medium with different composition according to microorganism and desired product. Products: cells, enzymes, proteins, polysaccharides. Main Process Development of processes to produce enzymes, polysaccharides and other molecules derived from microorganisms, as well as classified

microorganism culture. Development of processes for products separation and purification. This laboratory uses specific protocols for processes classified as BSL2 to produce, separate, and purify products such as enzymes, polysaccharides, hormones and others biomolecules of interest. Main Equipments Stainless steel 19,5 L fermentor Stainless steel 65 L fermentor Micro/ultrafiltration system Tubular centrifuge, rotation 20.000 g


PPDP Processes Workflows








Biosafety L2 Lab


UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser, Sir John Beddington, visits the CTBE’s facilities in order to establish partnerships with Brazil in bioenergy area

CTBE´s main business goal is to provide its partners freedom to operate, crucial factor to technology transfer success.


Setor Relationship with de Inovação the Industry

One of CTBE´s challenges is making partnerships that impact meaningfully on sugarcane´s business. This sector involves ethanol and other co-products, applicable to several industry segments, such as: pharmaceutical, food, chemical, petrochemical and others. The Laboratory´s Business Management aims to ensure the quality of its scientific and technological cooperation, providing the partners trust, security and achievement of their interests. Among CTBE´s business goals is also to provide its partners freedom to operate, that includes: legal security, intellectual property, confidentiality, exclusivity, development of policies, practices, procedures and trainings, in addition to win-win negotiations that lead to long term relationships. These are crucial factors to technology transfer´s and industry innovation´s success. There several possibilities of cooperation with CTBE: joint research and development, infrastructure provisioning (Pilot Plant, laboratories and offices), technology´s and material´s transfer, commercial and non-commercial licenses, human resources exchange, co-investments in highrisk projects and creation of new companies (start-ups). Access for details and to meet our current R&D partners.


CNPEM: Science,Technology and Innovation in the Frontier of Knowledge
The Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), located in Campinas, SP, Brazil, gathers four National Laboratories: Synchrotron (LNLS), Biosciences (LNBio), Bioethanol (CTBE) and Nanotechnology (LNNano) managed by Brazilian Association for Synchrotron LightTechnology (ABTLuS) for the Ministry of Science and Technology. Since 1997 LNLS operates the only Synchrotron Light Source in Latin America and a set of scientific instrumentation for the application of UV and X-ray on studies of Advanced Materials, Nanosciences, Biological Materials, Oil Industries, Metallurgy and others. The Brazilian Bioscience National Laboratory (LNBio) is a multiuser opened laboratory, focused on research, development and innovation in biotechnology. Its facilities are dedicated to Structural Biology, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Genomics, Metabolomics and Chemical Synthesis. The challenge of the Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE) is to work on solutions for technological bottlenecks in the production chain of ethanol from sugarcane. The Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano) holds a complex set of microscopes and microfabrication equipments. The Laboratory has a team of qualified scientists that conducts research in a variety of fields.


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful