MUSIC And

PSYCHOLOGICAL
HEALTH

Parsa Pahlevan Zadeh

First edition published in India in 2011 By Ruth art printers 6-1-1066/5/2, India - Hyd 500004 Tel: 0091- 9963776600

Book name: Music and Psychological Health Author: Parsa Pahlevan Zadeh (Ehsan) Email: parsapahlevanzadeh@yahoo.com Editor: Tahereh Yadegari

Volume: 1000 Price: Rs 150.00 ISBN: 978-81-8465-930-6

All rights reserved by the author only.

Acknowledgement
I present my infinite thanks to my God, Ahura Mazda. Then I take this opportunity to express my deep appreciation for my father who has always been my source of inspiration. I am also very thankful to my dear friends, Tahereh Yadegari who edited this book and Reena Roy who helped me in writing and processing this book. I sincerely hope this book is useful to all my respected readers.
April 2011- India

Contents in Brief

Chapter1
The Effect of Music on Concentration and Work Productivity

Chapter2
The Effect of Music on the Brain

Chapter3
The Effect of Music on Schizophrenia

Chapter4
Music Therapy

Chapter5
Music and its Influence on Behavior

Chapter6
The Effect of Music on Water, Plants and Beasts

Chapter7
Why should we learn music? What is the process of learning music?

Introduction

I have always liked visiting charities and welfare offices to understand the reason why people suffer from mental and spiritual diseases. A few such visits inspired me very deeply to write this book. At that time, I was a student of civil engineering, not too keen or interested in this subject. In the same vein, I was very keen on knowing more and more about various nervous disorders such as MS (Multiple Sclerosis) and Schizophrenia. I knew a few people who were affected by schizophrenia and I suddenly found myself thirsty and curious to understand their problems at a deeper level. We had a rehabilitation centre close to the place where I lived, where nervous and mentally retarded patients were kept. After visiting the centre, I made a decision to perform for the patients, since I knew how to play the guitar, the piano and the electronic keyboard. Along with my education, I was also engaged in teaching musical instruments. I began to play for a couple

of hours every week at this centre. After a while, I observed the extraordinary effects of music on them. I was amazed to see such a vast difference. For instance, the girls in the centre looked depressed; their behavior pattern depicted complete lack of interest in looking good as they did not care much about their appearances. When I spoke to the staff there, they disclosed that the girls were not willing to take care of basic hygiene to such an extent that they had to force it onto the girls when things got too far. After playing for a couple of weeks in the centre, I found that the girls started paying attention to their appearance. Despite their religious constraints, one of them had gone to the extent of dyeing her hair in a flashy burgundy color and painting her nails blue. She came to me and said that her feelings were undergoing a strange transformation after my musical sessions. A nine-year old girl told me that at the end of that week, her mother was scheduled to come and take her home, but she had refused because she didn‘t want to miss my music performance. The lady who was responsible for this centre, admitted that she had

not seen this girl talking to others before this. The change that she saw was miraculous. The excitement was obvious. What can music not do to the mind and body? In the ward of the mentally retarded, the patients moved to the rhythm of music and the children who had earlier projected aggressive and hostile behavior became much calmer. I did have the knowledge of coddling and its effect on children, but I did not know the extent music could calm them down. I had asked the head of the centre to buy a few musical instruments such as the flute and the xylophone. I was willing to teach those patients who were interested in learning music. It was amazing to know that 50 to 60 patients were ready to learn music. But I had to select a few from amongst them due to lack of sufficient instruments along with the knowledge of their inability to hold an instrument in their hands as they were after all suffering from MS. The most important and determining factor which I used to choose the core learning group, was that they all had common sense and were otherwise normal but had a pronounced obsession for feelings like love, hatred, jealousy and obstinacy.

The picture of the author in the rehabilitation centre with MS patients - 2008

I continued to do this till the time I was asked to join the army. In my country, it is mandatory that we serve the army for a span of two full years. During those two years, I visited the centre only twice. Unfortunately, one among them had died but fortunately, the others who had learnt music, seemed much happier than the others. After finishing my military service, I continued working in the centre and later, since I was very interested in this field, I decided to pursue further studies in psychology. This brought me to India. It‘s particularly interesting

that when an individual has a physical problem, it is easy to diagnose it visually and he can go to a clinic to fix his problem and thus achieve the desired level of physical equilibrium. But diagnosing the causes of a mental disorder are not as easy as compared to a physical problem and in most cases, the symptoms are not visible in the early stages. No wonder some cases go completely undiagnosed which leads to a slow and steady deterioration to a point from where there is no looking back. I hope this book helps you to deal with individuals suffering from mental and spiritual disorders effectively and more importantly, to bring awareness about the magic of music in treating mental problems along with the stress that pervades our everyday life, in equal vein. Parsa Pahlevan Zadeh

Music gives Soul to the universe, Wings to the mind, Flight to imagination, Charm to sadness, Gaiety and Life to everything. Plato

Chapter 1
The Effect of Music on Concentration and Work Productivity
“Music expresses that which cannot be said and on which it is impossible to be silent.” - Victor Hugo

12 Various levels of research have been conducted on the human brain. The scientific study of the brain has become an essential endeavor in understanding human life. Music has the most positive and effective influence on the brain. Renowned psychologists and scientists have established linkages between the different moods, music and concentration levels. Based on experiments practically conducted in American universities, the effects of music on the brain were obvious. In this chapter, we will observe the impact of different genres of music on levels of concentration and work productivity through interesting experiments. It is worthy to mention that after a brief reading comprehension test conducted on a few selected students, it was concluded that listening to a certain genre of music (Rock, Rap, Classical, Instrumental, Techno, and No music) gave them a good foundation to start with. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between the music and the mind. They hypothesized that light music such as classical music, had a greater impact on the landscape of the mind and its concentration

13 abilities when compared to wild and loud music. Another conclusion of this study suggests that when a particularly meticulous act, for example, a surgery is under process, classical music has its own effect on the mind of the participant in terms of concentration. It is unimaginable to listen to rock music while studying or performing a surgery! It is good to understand the real relationship between the mind and the level of concentration, with the presence of music and its result can be used as an important tool in a human being‘s daily life. Experimenters could also sense some amount of pressure and stress in their study; which made them want to explore and provide a method to decrease their anxiety. They made an attempt to find answers and conclude a successful experiment. In view of many, this became an interesting subject to a majority of college students, who showed great joy in listening to music and desired to incorporate music in their studies. They also sought ways to build up their grades and achieve success in their tests. Music is significantly very powerful. It has the potential to evoke strong emotions and

14 because of its profound effect on the human race, it has become a common language across different cultures and traditions all over the world for centuries. Music not only provides entertainment with beautiful sounds, but also has an amazing effect on one‘s memory and learning capacity. It has been found that people who study music have a better GPA1 and are in the category of high achievers when compared to those who are not involved in music at all. It is well known that Hungary, Japan and Netherlands are the three academic countries in the world, which strongly emphasize the importance of music education. Based on this fact, the other developed countries should also promote education in music amongst their students and stress the importance of learning music from an early age, when the children are curious and adventurous. Recent scientific studies depict a great understanding of music and its effects on psychology.

1-GPA (Grade Point Average): A measure of a student's academic achievement at a college or university; calculated by taking the number of grade points a student earned in a given period of time divided by the total number of credits taken.

15 A vast number of studies have been done to find out the complex correlation between the complicated human brain and music. In the study, the experimenters played music in a gym and determined the moods by testing the participants using scientific methods. The result was there for everybody to see and appreciate. In another fruitful experiment, they collected some volunteers and encouraged them to help in a charity show. They observed two different groups: one who listened to annoying music and the other, who listened to an uplifting one. The consequences showed that the soothing music erased the stress from the mind and made the participants very supportive toward the cause, while the people who listened to the annoying music were short-tempered and unhelpful. Another famous study reveals how Mozart‘s masterpieces help concentration and memorization. According to an article of the book ―The Mozart Effect‖ written by Weinberger Norman, the mathematical rhythms in Mozart‘s musical pieces enhance mental clarity, induce a short-term improvement on the

16 performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as “spatial-temporal reasoning” and raise intelligence levels. Popularized versions of the theory suggest that "listening to Mozart makes you smarter," or that early childhood exposure to classical music has a beneficial effect on mental development. Surely, the transformational powers of music in health, education and wellbeing cannot be overlooked. A set of research results indicates that music has a special effect on work performances. A book written by the famous music therapist, Teresa Lesiuk, highlights that when music is in the air, the quality of work produced is far better and the time taken to complete the task at hand is far lesser in comparison to a ―silent and no music‖ work environment with no musical waves filling the air with their fragrance. Good mood increases the quality of work. Our minds are complex and extraordinary structured. Different types of music play a profound effect on our moods and stress levels. Listening to melodious music has a positive outcome and has a profound effect on the level of concentration of the listener.

17 These examples help us in recognizing the importance of music on our levels of concentration and work productivity. They provide us the platform to understand how music affects our mind and helps in healing the body temple. Soothing sounds capes can take us deep within our being to find and make the mind, body, spirit connection a permanent part of our life. The earliest stages of learning for young children are the most important. The fundamentals of learning are instilled into a child at a very young age and how much importance is placed on these fundamentals can have dramatic affects on the future of the child's learning. Music, when applied in a constructive way, can have positive effects on a child's learning and help them in many ways. One way that music can make learning easier for a young child is by implementing music lessons into a child's normal activities. A small study was done two years ago involving ten three-year-olds who were tested on their ability to put together a puzzle and the speed at which they could do it.

18 After the initial test was taken, five of the children were given singing lessons for 30 minutes a day and the other five were given the piano lessons for 15 minutes a week. The lessons were conducted over a six-month period of time, and after the six months, all of the kids showed substantial improvement in the speed at which they could put together the puzzle. The researchers understand this skill in putting pieces of a puzzle together as the same reasoning that engineers, chess players and highlevel mathematicians use. In this study of innercity kids, their initial scores were below the national average, but afterwards their scores nearly doubled. An eight month study was conducted by Frances H. Rauscher of the University of California at Irvine, in which 19 preschoolers, ranging in age from three to five, received weekly keyboard and daily singing lessons while another 15 preschoolers received no musical training at all. At the start, middle and end of the study, the subjects were tested on five spatial reasoning tasks. After only 4 months, scores on the test to assemble a puzzle to form a picture

19 improved dramatically for the group with the musical training, while the control group didn't, even though both groups started out with the same scores. 
 It can be understood that this kind of improvement may not be substantial enough to alter the way people are fundamentally taught, but its results cannot be ignored. Rauscher explains, "Music instruction can improve a child's spatial intelligence for a long time, perhaps permanently". 
 Implementing such changes and improvements into a young child's learning could have great effects on them in the future when dealing with spatial reasoning skills. With its resulting improvements in spatial reasoning, music can also be a very helpful tool when actually implementing it into the classroom and involving it with learning basic curriculum. In New York City, a program called Learning through an Expanded Arts Program, or LEAP, has been going on for a while now in which music and the arts is implemented into the school curriculum to improve scholastic scores of children at all levels. One way in which music

20 is implemented is with math. They call it "musical math," in which the teacher incorporates rhythm with counting and gaining a grasp on the fundamentals of math. 
 With the rhythm, they are able to learn basic elements of math like fraction and multiplication. Christine Bard, the LEAP consultant explains, "Music helps teach the precognitive skills. It gives the students the capacity to trust themselves by providing internal discipline through a highly repetitive structure". On the whole, the students' feelings of self-confidence and accomplishment are greatly enhanced due to better academic performance and most importantly, the students' aptitude towards math and willingness towards learning in general is increased dramatically. Sweeney unfolds another interesting aspect in his book. According to his study based on a fashion store for women, he claims that the kind of music being played at the store affects the costumer‘s perceptions regarding the service quality of the store. Music can have an overwhelmingly strong hold on the human mind, dramatically swaying our emotions and evoking

21 memories. The power of music may come from its influence on regions of the brain responsible for language, feelings, movement and other unrelated systems. It could also be an important vehicle for emotional communication and connection from which societies emerge. According to some more studies, it is evident that music can never take a neutral stand. It is positive or negative; beneficial or harmful. It manipulates the mind and the physiological aspects. A few researchers conducted a study in which people of different ages and sex were given an article to read within a stipulated time while listening to different types of music. As expected, the experiment showed that the time taken for comprehending the article was much lesser and the ability to focus was far greater for those who were listening to classical music in comparison to those who were listening to other genres of music. They were attuned to the slightest distraction around them, which takes a step further to explain how classical music sharpens our intellect and perceptive abilities. Rock music scored the least as the level of concentration was extremely low for that particular group of

22 people. A recent study looked into the connection between music, mood and mental clarity. The researchers sought to test the different effects that diverse genres of music had on subjects through psychological questioning and profiling. They tested four genres of music from various corners of the music world: Grunge Rock, New Age, Classical and Designer. The results were conclusive in revealing that grunge rock evoked hostility and reduced mental clarity and motivation immensely. When I was still a student, I used to love listening to my favorite music. The rhythms, chords, beats and techniques used to hold my attention. I had a passion for reading and used to love studying too. However, I had to avoid listening to music because I couldn‘t focus on academics as well as music at the same time. I asked my fellow musicians and friends if they experienced the same kind of distraction while listening to music as well. To my dismay, some of them claimed that listening to music while reading made no difference to their concentration. Eventually, I listened to the music

23 by Mozart and acknowledged the vivid difference it made to my level of concentration. I could focus my attention on what I was doing while enjoying music in the same breath. I started using music as a strategy to reduce learning time, increasing the rate of retention and consequently earning better grades than my other classmates. Music activates the whole brain and makes you feel more energetic. I say this so emphatically because I have experienced it all my life.

Chapter 2
The Effect of Music on the Brain
“Music is the medicine of the

mind.” John A. Logan

25 It is a well-known fact that a lullaby puts a child to sleep in a way nothing else can. It has long been obvious that music affects people profoundly. What is new, though, is that research is being conducted to determine the effects of music on the brain. Through this research, a lot of information has been gathered about the effects of music on the functions of the brain. It has been shown over and over again that one of the strongest effects of music on the brain is in the area of memory. Based on the stories we come across randomly in newspapers, magazines and the internet, the scientists in California University have conducted a few experiments on a varied set of people. They have found that while listening to music, one part of the brain is occupied with memories from the past. It is this section which interlinks music with sentiments. This finding assisted the scientists to explain why Alzheimer‘s patients benefit mentally from listening to music. Listening to music triggers certain memories to be recalled that might have been otherwise forgotten. Parkinson‘s patients also benefit from the effects of music on the brain. Motor skills improve as some patients are

26 able to walk when music is played. An individual also connects the music he‘s listening to, to the places, people and memories associated with it. Before beginning the topic of music and its effects on the brain, I would like to ask you a question. Have you ever realized the effect that music has on you when you are happy, excited, sad or angry? These are things one usually reads about or randomly come across in psychological articles and magazines related to health issues. Music gives wings to our deepest desires, shows us the true meaning of ‗exhilaration from within‘, and is the harbinger of peace and contentment in our lives. It makes the human spirit soar higher than an eagle. It has intense therapeutic value for treating patients. In ancient times, Aristotle and Plato used to treat patients through music. The researches done by the neurologists have shown that conducting music classes in schools empowers the students to grasp better. They discovered that music reinforces the neuron mechanism in the brain when learning any new language. This investigation demonstrated that listening to and learning music can emendate the performance of

27 the brain and enhance its proficiency. Ever wondered why songs get inextricably stuck in our heads? Experts say that the culprits are earworms - or ―ohrwurms,‖ as they are called in Germany. No, they are not parasites that crawl into your ear and lay musical eggs in your brains, but they are parasites in the sense that they get lodged in your head and cause a sort of ―cognitive itch‖ or ―brain itch‖ – a need for the brain to fill in the gaps in a song‘s rhythm. When we listen to a song, it triggers a part of the brain called the auditory cortex. Researchers at Dartmouth University found that the participants‘ auditory cortex automatically filled in the rest. In other words their brains kept singing long after the song had ended. The only way to scratch the brain itch is to repeat the song over and over in your mind. James Kellaris, a marketing professor at the University of Cincinnati College of Business Administration, has done extensive work in this area. His findings reveal that as many as 99 percent of us have fallen prey to these ‗earworms‘ at one time or another. Women, musicians and people who are neurotic, tired or stressed are most prone to earworm attacks.

28 Neurologists acknowledge that musicians have a higher degree of brain activity. They can receive and process sensory information from the eyes and ears in a much better fashion. Music encompasses complex concepts, fundamental set of rules and numerous patterns. Only a person who can imbibe these principles has an improved ability to perform better at reading, writing or daily understanding. By the help of Electroencephalograph1, psychologists have demonstrated the way in which the brains of musicians respond to the stimulant in comparison to those who are not familiar with music. They have found that people who can appreciate the harmonies of music, have a higher grasping power. It is largely understood that people can do one particular thing at one time in day-to-day life. This essentially means a large percent of people are unable to do two or more different things at the same time. For a better understanding, try moving your right hand in the right-left direction and at __________________________________
1- Electroencephalograph: EEG is the instrument for safely recording the electrical activity in the brain.

29 the same time, move your left hand in the updown direction. It looks difficult but is not impossible; it can be achieved with practice easily. You see, the brain cannot command two different organs to perform two different actions at the same time. For example, consider a situation wherein two people are trying to talk to each other in a crowded and noisy place. They would ordinarily find it difficult to listen and answer when it‘s noisy around them. But it has been proven that musicians can do it easily, because they are trained to distinguish notes in melodies and different harmonies. Visualize a pianist, playing the piano while reading the music piece. Both hands have to be used simultaneously; the right hand and the left hand playing two different sets of chords and melody. For example if a musician reads a notation of the second line which is for the right hand as note ‗G‘, one should read the note of the second line for the left hand as note ‗B‘. In fact each note for the left hand is situated one line below that of the right hand. There are three pedals for changing the sound in different ways. He can sing along while playing; therefore piano performers are highly skilled and portray a

30 picture of infinite concentration while playing music. A musician synchronizes his mind and limbs meticulously. The practice sessions of music continuously improve the ability to hear and speak. Scientists are conducting many experiments on a continuous basis to understand the process in which the brain changes while practicing music. Dr. Aniruddh Patel, a neurologist in the Neuroscience Institute in California, says that there is a particular link between music and language. He emphasizes that music is instrumental in addressing speech related issues. By learning a musical instrument, the sensitivity to sound increases and helps the child in learning how to speak better. Being exposed to music helps in the process of brain evolution and is useful for all children especially those who suffer from hallucinations and learning disabilities. In another experiment, researchers in North West University have discovered the link between music and the nervous system. Playing a musical instrument has its own particular impact on the brain stem. It is present in the involuntary part of the brain and is responsible for breathing, heart beat and reaction

31 to sounds. People who play musical instruments can recognize the sound of their instrument and identify different rhythms and harmonies effortlessly. A spokesperson of National Institute of Illusionism in America claims that many children who are afflicted with Autism, respond to music very well. He feels music can help people communicate and express their feelings and emotions in a calm manner. American researchers have conducted many tests and concluded that learning music in childhood retains the youthfulness of the brain in adulthood. Neurologists deeply believe that when a person spends his childhood in learning a musical instrument, it helps him to retain the functions of his brain when he grows old. Some enthusiastic researchers conducted a survey in which they selected 70 adults between the age group of 60 - 83 years. They compared people with musical knowledge to people with no such knowledge at all. The experiment showed that people who were familiar with music had an edge over others in cognitive tests. The smaller subset among them consisting of people who had learnt music since their childhood days and

32 those who had a career in music spanning at least 10 years, scored even better.

Influence of Learning Music from Childhood

They concluded that these people are more creative minded and could adopt themselves to any new environment and information. Music is an experience which has a direct link to the brain. It can be used for people who are suffering from Aphasia1 and Dyslexia2.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1- Aphasia: Derived from the Greek word means speechless. It is known as language disorder. People with this disorder have difficulty in producing or comprehending spoken or written language in which when they want to speak for each and every word, they need to think; so there will be usually long gaps between their speaking. 2- Dyslexia: It is defined as learning disability and impairs person‘s fluency in reading and understanding the alphabets. Dyslexia is separate from reading problems resulting from other causes.

33 People with these disorders have problem in speaking and in reading. It is a language disorder. In human brain, the hub is located in the medial prefrontal cortex region-right behind the forehead. The cerebellum section of the brain creates the emotional reaction people have to music. It also reacts to slight changes to the normal tempo of a song or piece of music. That is why there is a close link between learning a language, controlling and expressing of emotions. Music can slow down and equalize ‗brain waves‘. When we experience emotions that are strong, the result is the fast ‗brain wave‘. Slower ‗brain wave‘ results in bringing calmness and heightened awareness. The effect of music on the brain after it has stopped playing is also visible. With these ‗brain waves‘, the other organs of the body will also get affected. The music affects the heart beat, pulse rate and blood pressure. Music can regulate stress related hormones. The level of stress hormones in the blood declines significantly in those listening to relaxing, ambient music. As a result it is concluded that music prevents severe stress disorders and does all kinds of wonderful things to us. That is why it is wildly used for treatment

34 of depression and anxiety and the results are proving most advantageous to individuals. Many researches are done to improve and illustrate their connection between music and the brain.

Dr. Frank Wilson reports that instrumental practice enhances coordination, concentration and improves memory. It is interesting to know that it also improves eye sight and helps in better hearing aid. Music improves brain development. Dr. Wilson believes that people, who listen to music while they are working, become increasingly alert. It boosts self-confidence to individuals in their society. It develops motor skills of the brain. UCLA–Brain Scanresearches show that music has a definite affect on the brain functions. These significant results are so important and lead to a universal understanding, that music is necessary for the development of brain in an individual. The studies show that the gray cells and the span of hearing are higher in the brain of musicians than people who do not know music. The brain consists of two regions; the right and left hemispheres. Each one of these two hemispheres

35 has special tasks to perform. Left hemisphere is greatly responsible for reasoning and a center hub for learning, but right hemisphere sorts the feelings, imaginations and creativity power. By utilizing the whole part of the brain, both hemispheres have a good coordination. Based on the research done in Harvard University some parts in the brain which are responsible for mobility and hearing in musicians, especially pianists, are completely interconnected. By stimulating one part, the other part automatically gets stimulated. Based on this reason, the fingers of musicians involuntarily move when listening to melodies. Result in music rehearsals is a preventive measures taken, from destroying the nerve cells in adulthood. Listening to the music depends on the genre of music; it affects on body metabolism and the blood pressure. Investigation shows that light music or music with slow tempo helps the person to be tranquilized. Listening to this kind of music for thirty minutes is equal to taking one tranquilizer like valium pill. According to a German musician, music impact s on the

36

Musicians Playing in an Orchestra

intelligence of the child along with various positive effects; so in future they are well equipped to manage their life in a better and proper way and it can be well understood that the effects of music on the brain, during childhood are of paramount importance; that a special attention and awareness should be brought about, to developing countries.

Chapter 3
The Effect of Music on Schizophrenia

“Music washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life” Berthold Auerbach

38 Before getting started on the topic of music and schizophrenia, I would like to explain about schizophrenia and its symptoms. Schizophrenia, also sometimes colloquially referred to as ‗a split personality disorder‘, is a chronic, debilitating mental illness that affects about 1% of the masses. It is a psychotic mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by poor emotional responsiveness. It most commonly manifests itself as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, disorganized speech and thinking and it is accompanied by significant social or occupational dysfunction. The thought problems associated with schizophrenia are described as psychosis - a condition in which the affected person‘s thinking is completely out of touch with reality and he is unable to separate the real from the experiences he has never had! For example, the sufferer may hear voices or see things that don‘t exist, believe that he is a celebrity of sorts or an important/famous person such as Jesus Christ or the King of his country, speak in strange or confusing ways, believe that others are trying to harm him or feel that he is

39 being constantly snooped upon! An individual with this disorder may also have disorganized speech and disorganized behavior. The former may range from loss of train of thought, to sentences only loosely connected in meaning, to incoherence known as word salad in severe cases. Social withdrawal, sloppiness of dress and hygiene and loss of motivation and judgment are all common in schizophrenia. The affected individuals are physically rigid and constantly tormented by delusions, which are ideas about themselves or others that have no connection with the real world (for example, the individual might experience paranoia, and think others are plotting against him/her even when they are not!). This was the case in the office of welfare where I worked. A patient suffering from schizophrenia believed that a group of sinners used to come to his ward every night when everyone was sleeping and indulge in mischief. He was sure one of them had cut off one of his ears. He seriously imagined he did not have an ear and hence could not hear properly. On the contrary, according to the medical reports, his ears were in perfect state and there was no noticeable impairment in his hearing!

40 As is true for virtually every mental health diagnosis, there is no one test that definitively indicates that someone has schizophrenia. Therefore, health-care practitioners diagnose this disorder by gathering comprehensive medical, family history and mental health information. Most cases of schizophrenia appear in the late teens or early adulthood. Vagabondism, suicidal and aggressive moods are the main characteristics of schizophrenic patients. I will determine the chemical substances present in the brain and prove how music brings stability to these chemical substances, leading to decreased stress and anxiety. The exact cause of schizophrenia is unknown, though genetics and environmental factors may play a role. For example, altered brain structures, such as having less gray matter than average, may contribute to the onset of the disorder. Altered brain chemistry, specifically due to the neurotransmitter Dopamine1 may be a ______________________________________
1-Dopamine: is one of the neurotransmitters; a chemical released by the nerves to communicate with other nerves or muscles. Dopamine is present in those areas of the brain, which control emotional responses, movement, cognition, motivation and pleasure.

41 factor. The brain regions known as thalamus and striatum are affected by dopaminergic activity. Thalamus plays a role as a filter for receiving the information and controls the flow of all information to the cortex. When the amount of dopamine is less in the thalamus region, the filter becomes weak. As a result, transferring of information to the cortex becomes easier. This is the reason schizophrenic patients hallucinate. In Sweden, researchers have shown that people afflicted with schizophrenia and the creative people have the same dopamine system in their brain. In other words, these people are predisposed to some unusual and wired thoughts and behaviors. For creative people, this means they can come up with solutions and ideas that other people may not. With schizophrenics, it may result in abnormal thought processes, flat or blunted affect and emotion, poverty of speech (alogia), inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia), lack of desire to form relationships (asociality), and lack of motivation (avolition). According to new investigations, music therapy can reduce some of the schizophrenic

42 symptoms. In such study in London, 81 schizophrenic patients were randomly selected to receive music therapy. The researchers measured the symptoms of schizophrenia and found that improvements were greater amongst those people receiving music therapy than amongst those receiving standard-care alone. There was a considerable reduction in the intensity of general symptoms such as depression and anxiety. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as emotional withdrawal and functional disability were also arrested with music therapy to a great extent. Dr. Mike Crawford, London College believes that some psychological treatments coupled with music therapy open up new avenues for working with patients with severe and acute schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients find it very difficult to express the goings-on in their emotional world, however music provides a new way for them to express their sentiments and feelings. Without a doubt then, music therapy reduces depression, anxiety and isolationism to a great extent. As we discussed earlier, the reduced level of dopamine in schizophrenics increases

43 the symptoms to a large extent. Since music releases dopamine, it ultimately reduces the negative symptoms in the patients. Everyone enjoys music depending on their moods. Your favorite piece of music can make your brain release the pleasure chemical dopamine, whether it is Beethoven, Chopin, Mozart or an old folkloric song. It is just like having sex, eating good food or using drugs. The level of Dopamine rises when we listen to music that we enjoy as it sends pleasure signals to the rest of the body. A recent study on music therapy reveals that music therapy miraculously improves the mental condition and social functioning of a schizophrenic.

Music being performed for a Schizophrenic Patient

44 Now, I want to identify what causes the change in the nervous system of the schizophrenic or schizoaffective1 patients when music invades their life. Our nervous system consists of the spinal cord, two hemispheres and nerves - sympathetic and parasympathetic. When our nervous system is strongly stimulated externally, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves lose their equilibrium. The more the imbalance, the more the stress experienced by the nervous system. Music brings the balanced state back by releasing chemical substances. Our brain consists of many nerve cells and each one is interlinked with the other. This link is established in many ways. One such way is through chemical substances. The major chemical substances present in the brain are known as Serotonin, Glutamate, Dopamine and Nor-epinephrine. Everyone is aware of the role
__________________________________________________ 1-Schizoaffective disorder: describes a mental disorder characterized by recurring episodes of elevated or depressed mood, or of simultaneously elevated and depressed mood, that alternate with, or occur together with, distortions in perception.

45 Insulin plays in the body. In case there is a cause which disturbs insulin levels, the symptoms are immediately visible, but what can be said about serotonin? Serotonin contributes to feelings of well-being and happiness. People with a less amount of serotonin in their brain tend to eat more, resulting in weight gain. On the other hand, people with a high level of serotonin are prone to anxiety and stress. Caffeine, Alcohol and Nicotine are a few well-known causes that create serotonin disturbance and are thus advised to be consumed in restricted quantities. Everybody likes some or the other type of music, be it classical music with its magical rhythms and beautiful melodies which bring instant elevation to the mood, or lively, peppy music. Music helps regulate serotonin in the brain; suddenly the person begins to feel cheerful and joyous. In fact when the brain produces enough serotonin, the body feels extraordinarily happy. But when it is not producing enough serotonin, depression sets in. Therefore, music brings balance in the levels of serotonin.

46 It is worth mentioning that serotonin is also produced when the brain is exposed to a pleasant surprise. For example, when someone sees a beautiful painting, indulges in sexual intercourse, smells aromatic fragrances or listens to a fascinating song, something stirs him up from inside. That is the correction of equations inside his body, which he cannot see with the naked eye. With a fairly good understanding of schizophrenic patients and their weaknesses, it is now possible to help them regain their equilibrium and normal condition by removing all unnecessary and disturbing thoughts from their minds on a daily basis. Moreover, with the

Performing music along with a child suffering from emotional and mental disorder

47 discovery of new medical procedures, it is possible to teach the schizophrenic patients how to play a musical instrument that they like. This will surely help them to keep their minds calm and occupied constructively. Even in the third world countries, the melodies used when praying prove how music acts like a mediator between God and human beings. Music is also used extensively during Exorcism1. Various mental illnesses are treated by chanting special prayers from different sacred and holy books in specific musical tunes so that ‗the possessed‘ individual reaches a calm and relaxed state of mind. Music is everywhere - in our heartbeats, in each and every cell of our body, in the chirp of free birds, in the tinkle of a doorbell, in the ringing of cell phones, in the smile of children when they are hugged with love, in the grace of fishes swimming gently in streams, in the spring
___________________________________________________ 1-Exorcism: is the religious practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person or place, which they are believed to have possessed.

48 water that touches the pebbles gently making its way to the river. Consciously or unconsciously, we are always attuned to the music in the air. Music acts as an antidote for many kinds of physical and mental illnesses; it is a sure cure from the time of conception in a mother‘s womb all the way to the tomb. As Osho truly propagates: ―Man without music is a man without any song in his heart, without any poetry in his being, without any celebration. His spring has not arrived yet, his flowers are still waiting, he has not yet bloomed, his fragrance is not released. He is just like a seed: encapsulated within himself – unaware, completely unaware of what he can be, of what he is. And he goes on living an ordinary life with no joy, with no bliss, with no dance. He drags life like a burden; he somehow manages to carry it. In fact death looks like a relief that sooner or later everything will be finished and he will be able to rest in the grave.‖

49 So move in this world with a light foot and with laughter in your heart. And then suddenly your whole existence will turn into a divine experience. The mundane will become sacred, the ordinary will become extraordinary and you will be free.

Chapter 4 Music Therapy

“When words leave off, Music begins.” Heinrich Heine

51 If we believe in music as a human language, it would be easier to understand how music works and affects our spirit, mind, sentiments and engulfs our total life affairs. It is music that completely immerses us in the unknown world of our dreams. No one knows why we get goose pimples or why the hair on hands suddenly feels so erect when we listen to a particular type of music but everyone feels that their soul has been fondled with a thousand feathers. It is a lovely and melodious song of life, decorating our lives with the soulful tunes of a sweet-sounding nightingale. No matter which race, group, caste, creed, or family one belongs to, music has its own impact on human beings. It has been found that this impact is felt by healthy people as well as patients living with some or the other disorder in their body, alike. Therefore a type of treatment entitled ―Music Therapy‖ has been showing many positive results so far. Unlike what people think about Music Therapy, it is not just for patients with special problems such as mental disorders, retardation or psychotic patients. It works wonders for the so-called perfectly

52 healthy people by taking them to a different level of equilibrium; makes them more calm. There is no specific document which traces the origin of music therapy. It would not be an exaggeration to claim that music therapy is as old as Plato and Aristotle. Human beings have used various instruments to accompany the music in their hearts, made of different indigenous materials down the ages. Rhythm and melody are the basis of music. It was openly evident when we go back and study the first human tribe that existed on the face of this earth. During the years when silent movies were produced, it was music, which gave expression to all their sentiments like sadness, happiness or tension on the screen. The Great Farabi known as Alpharabiuss is one of the paramount philosophers of his era (c. 872 - c. 950). His name shines through Iran‘s music history along with other fields such as medicine, military science and astrology. He composed many pieces of music and was a noted musician as well. The books written by his students say that Alpharabiuss was able to make

53 people laugh or cry through his music. Alpharabiuss has mentioned the impact of music on the soul and spirit of humans in his famous book, Alkabir.

The Great Farabi, Iranian philosopher and musician (c. 872 - c. 950)

Another well-known Iranian scientist is Pour Sina (c. 980 - 1037), who was one of the greatest and most famous philosophers and doctors of his time. He also mentioned the wonderful effects of music on the spirit of human beings and removing physical diseases in

54 his famous work called Al-Qanun. He used music for treating his patients – as a therapeutic medicine for all their trauma.

Iranian Scientist, Pour Sina (c. 980 - 1037)

Every tribe has its own sentimental connections and cultural characteristics. Their folk music also has a very particular and unique flavor. Sometimes this is a useful way to treat some patients - viewing their lives and finding their ways of communicating with music and finally applying the same music as they used to

55 follow or like as before. For instance for treating a rural patient who is living in an Asian country, application of traditional music of that place is better than introducing Chopin music to him because as I mentioned earlier, music makes the listener travel through the spaces of time, recalling people and events of the past. Music therapy is not just listening to music, although listening is a very important element of music therapy. Singing songs and playing musical instruments enables individuals to accomplish good results. If we take a sneak peek at the exact history of professional music therapy, it refers to the time towards the end of the first and second world wars in the twentieth century when musicians of different communities - from amateur to professional - went to American hospitals to play music for soldiers who had suffered mental and physical injury. Immense improvement in the sentimental and physical condition of all the seriously injured soldiers provided the ground on the basis of which doctors later demanded employment of musicians in hospitals. For the first time,

56 Michigan University offered a course in music therapy to its students in 1994. According to scientists, the euphonies of music based on rhythm have vibrations, which stimulate the nerve cells and sentiments. They motivate and transform an individual into a person he was himself unaware of. Investigators in New York believe that music genres like jazz and classic can actually enhance the capacity to tolerate pain and reduce anxiety levels tremendously. Dr. Ronald Hass, the professor of Mozart University in Salzburg, claims that music can effectively energize and enrich the immunity of the body against diseases, reduce pain considerably and protect people against bad events. He believes that we should encompass all genres of music in music therapy. Based on his research, he has concluded that some old melodies of eastern countries are mainly useful for treating headaches. Around 800BC, eastern countries used to treat patients by applying this method. At this stage, I would like to mention some effects of music therapy on individuals and the diseases in which it has been allocated a certain position among other types of therapy.

57 * Music helps in reducing the danger and probable risk of Alzheimer‘s disease. Investigations in America show that studying and playing games such as chess reduces the danger of being diagnosed with Alzheimer‘s. But the most important point is playing a musical instrument. In fact, playing a musical instrument is like doing a special exercise for the brain which aids the brain to remain young for a long time, longer than anyone can imagine.

Music Therapy on Alzheimer Patients

58 * For children suffering from Embolism1 and Thalassemia, performing music takes the attention away from the pain towards listening to great music. It alleviates the suffering and gives their lives a new meaning and perspective. * Songs with the same beats as our heart beat provide relaxed conditions to an individual. One Japanese researcher has found out that listening to those songs which have been composed based on heartbeats create peaceful waves in our nervous system, effectuate more relaxation and reduce tension and stress through the veins in the body. This experiment had been done on twenty-two applicants. Half of these applicants answered the questions in a silent place and the others answered them in a musical area. The questionnaire was based on measuring the stress, anxiety and feeling of fatigue in applicants. Those who had listened to their heart music had been more relaxed and comfortable when compared to the other applicants.

1-Embolism: the process of blocking vessels by foreign substance through the blood stream. These substances can cause Embolism including an air bubble, a globule of fat, or a clump of bacteria.

59 * Music improves the power of learning. This experiment was carried out in Hong Kong and it showed how music affects the learning process in children. In this study, they compared students who had started playing musical instrument from their childhood and children who did not know music at all. Apart from a better GPA, they saw that these students were able to memorize more words, exhibited better vocabulary and grammar skills and were able to learn foreign languages like French and Spanish quicker than their non-musical counterparts. * Music enhances the intelligence level and gives a new dimension to the inner spiritual universe of an individual. It improves the attention span and reasoning capabilities of human beings. In other words, it brings in its wake, a special sensitivity to sounds and surrounding stimulants of an individual. It results in quicker identification of even the slightest sound. This attention is not limited to just hearing but goes beyond that and the individual begins to take special care of most of the happenings around him. For instance, when he is walking along a new street, he observes many things in that street which others would

60 easily miss out on. In addition to this fact, music also results in spiritual calm and helps individuals to communicate with others in a more effective way. * Music is an efficient way for rehabilitation of speech among patients who suffer from stroke. Scientists believe that people who are suffering from stroke and who cannot talk properly, are able to improve their speech through singing. Neurologists express that music is a tool that creates linkages between the different parts of the brain. Dr. Gottfried Schlaug - Director of Music in Israel, Medical centre and Harvard Medical School - discusses about patients suffering from stroke and severe speech problems. In these patients, the left hemisphere of the brain is not functioning in the appropriate manner resulting in their disability to converse through words; however they can communicate with others through singing. He declares that music is the magical bridge, which connects different parts of the brain to each other. Dr. Gottfried Schlaug plays a video about a patient who is unable to

61 make sounds that make any sense at all, but he expresses ―I am thirsty‖ through a song. Another patient also says ―Happy Birthday to you‖ in a musical way. In music therapy, there are two major ways for treating patients: Inactive Method and Active Method. The Inactive method consists of listening to music passively in such a way that the very act of listening is the treatment itself. In this method, listening to music arouses the core set of emotions and sentiments in patients. But in the Active method, the patient makes his own contribution towards his treatment by singing and doing rhythmical movements with his body. In this method thus, the five senses are stimulated as music affects movement and motor skills. Music and song have been an integral part of human development since thousands of years, much before we learnt to talk. Music is alive and hidden in every part of nature and it has its own unique euphonies. Who then, can deny the reality that music impacts the soul and spirit in an inexplicable sort of way? You get excited

62 when you listen to a happy song and on the contrary, you feel sad and blue when you listen to music that has sad tunes. In a nutshell, music affects every single cell of the body – it stirs up the inner universe and creates magical recovery symptoms, which have to be seen to be believed.

Chapter 5
Music and its Influence on Behavior

“When the music of a state changes, the constitution will change too.” Daimon

64 Have you ever wondered why your behavior is different in different situations? Ever pondered over the times when you have responded well to external stimuli and the other times when you have been rather nasty and reacted explosively? It is better to start this discussion by presenting the definition of behavior. Behavior is a response to external stimuli or a kind of action or reaction represented by a living entity shown in a particular condition. Behavior refers to the actions and mannerisms made by organisms or artificial entities in conjunction with its environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. In sociology, behavior is considered as having no meaning, being not directed at other people and thus is the most basic human action, although it can play a part in diagnosis of disorders such as the autism spectrum disorders. Humans evaluate the acceptability of behavior using social norms and

65 Regulate behavior by means of social control. In humans, behavior is controlled primarily by the endocrine system and the nervous system. It is most commonly believed that complexity in the behavior of an organism is correlated to the complexity of its nervous system. Generally, organisms with more complex nervous systems have a greater capacity to learn new responses and thus adjust their behavior. Behavior can be regarded as any action of an organism that changes its relationship to its environment. Behavior provides outputs from the organism to the environment. A vast number of subjective processes in human beings are in fact the cause and reason for the complexity in human behavior. Study of human behavior has various applications in psychology and is used in evaluating mental diseases. Various trials are conducted to monitor human behavior with the aid of scientific methods. Behaviorism has actually provided a great influence on psychology. John B. Watson was the founder of

66 the school with the belief that each phenomenon begins with particular stimuli and comes to an end with a response. We represent different behaviors in different times. Sometimes we feel ecstatic and joyous, at others we are anxious and depressed. In some cases, we prefer to spend time with others and in other cases we opt for being alone; thus behavior generally is a collection of all our actions and their influence on our social environment. According to age, our behavior undergoes change. A child cries for every single wish that has not been fulfilled during childhood because his understanding is limited and he has not learnt other reactive behaviors that are accepted by the society. Every community has its own special rules, which must be obeyed by the residents. We are encouraged for displaying good behavior; therefore we consider it the best thing to do. This might be another major reason why a child learns family behavior patterns and imitates them to the extent he can. We must understand that behavior deteriorates due to nervous pressures on the brain; therefore the brain is the most paramount

67 part of the human body and supremely responsible for human behavior. We can say that any behavior is understandable as well as controllable. In chapter 2, I completely discussed the effects of music on the brain. But I will discuss further and make you more familiar with the effects of music on behavior in this chapter. Music activates and stimulates emotional reactions in the listener. The same type of stimulation occurs in the music performer, who is busy composing or playing his piece of music as well. It creates a connection between the body and mind. I have witnessed a deep influence of music on the spirit of a human being. Often we find ourselves moving between kaleidoscopic moods – sometimes feeling gloomy and stressed out or bright and cheerful. But the strum of a guitar or a particular chord of the piano can suddenly change everything. No wonder we find stories about sudden transformations and small miracles – all associated with music and its effects. We observe that learning music right from childhood days, makes the children develop a keen sense of observation, good hygiene and

68 organizational skills. When they undertake music lessons in groups, they imbibe concepts related to cooperation, tolerance and regularity of practice in groups among others. These skills go a long way and help them in their future engagements and interactions. Music thus, has a huge role to play in impacting the behavior of children and nurturing them into happy, carefree and fun-loving souls. Music sculpts the self-confidence in children and provides the impetus required to enhance it on a regular basis. If the child has the ability to play a musical instrument, he receives encouragement from others and this factor prepares the ground for deep and everlasting contentment. It boosts his confidence levels, gives him fresh energy to play better, reach higher. Gradually, the continuous association with music assumes a coherent form and shapes the child‘s personality. At times, he gets so influenced by a particular genre of music and its stars that he begins to style his walk, talk, clothes, hair, shoes and accessories in the same fashion as his favorite idols. However this fan behavior happens in extreme cases and is not particularly propagated.

69 Continuous experiments conducted by researchers around the world prove that fans who enjoy ‗Jazz‘ style, tend to indulge in sexual relationships more when compared to fans following the ‗Pop‘ style of music. Followers of the ‗Classical‘ style have the least degree of inclination towards intercourse with their partners. Another experiment shows a crabbed and reluctant attitude in children who keep listening to ‗Heavy Metal‘. Any reaction to a specific genre of music might be the consequence of our general mood and experiments or events in the past. If a sad event has taken place while listening to a song, then playing the song again at a future point in time would definitely bring back the memories of that event wherever and whenever he/she listens to it. It could make the individual cry as his heart breaks into pieces yet again. In a diametrically opposite scenario, the same song might invoke ecstasy beyond words as something special might have transpired between two individuals when that music was being played. Each and every person‘s reaction to different voices and sounds is very personal. For instance, teenagers who follow the Rock or

70 Rap genres of music, demonstrate extremely aggressive behavior. Statistical surveys provide sufficient proof that their behavior contains unbridled violence, aggression and tendencies of meaningless destruction. On the other hand, music has the great power of healing. It has the fabulous gift of bringing calm and peace to individuals. It has the special power of creating an astonishingly serene and romantic atmosphere. It affects the state of mind, making it very peaceful. Classical songs are viewed as a good source for preparing the ground so that the young can talk about their own emotions, sentiments and feelings of love without any inhibitions. It has been proved that when individuals listen to songs with fast beats, they get excited and demonstrate their inner happiness by means of physical movement like dancing and jumping with joy. They imitate the moves of the guitarist or the drummer – whoever fascinates them more. Generally if one starts looking at music as a phenomenon, he will unarguably comprehend the remarkable healing properties of this wonderful thing we call music and its

71 importance in communities and societies. A vast number of observations have proved beyond doubt, that music has particular effects on the state of body in different situations. It is an excellent de-stress tonic and brings instant quiet and comfort to the harassed mind. In the event of complicated surgeries like Angiographies1, music plays an important role in the preparation of tranquilizers for patients, especially if doctors select the songs to be played. A detailed clinical research in Cardiology has led scientists to publish their experiential report based on two hundred patients for whom music had been played during Angiography. In this investigation, 100 patients were able to exercise their choice between the 3 genres of music - Classic, Jazz and Pop or select no music. For the other 100 patients, the doctorin-charge selected the music. The results of the

1-Angiography: It is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside blood vessels after injecting them with Radiopaque dye that outlines them on x-ray.

72 experiment obviously demonstrated that the patients who had opted for music were at a lower level of risk medically than the other set who did not listen to music at all. The fact is that music makes the heart beat in a rhythmic style and decreases the patient‘s blood pressure. Just like you can never be overdressed or overeducated, the wonders of music can never, please note, never be overemphasized.

Patient undergoing Angiography operation

Doctors believe that Classical music brings serenity and calm in the surrounding spaces and immediately affects their patients. The

73 music of waves rushing to the shore, the chirping of the birds, the rustling of leaves during autumn, the silence of the dawn, the fluttering of butterfly wings - all make for excellent hearing material and herald a hitherto unknown sense of inner peace and beauty. Store-owners and shopkeepers have more than one reason for playing soothing music in their premises. Not only does it make the environment more welcoming and warm, statistics reflect that it enhances the probability of effectuating a sale by 38% on an average. Music sorts the puzzled mind and helps the potential customers to think through the benefits of their purchase. It alleviates confusion and assists them in establishing clear preferences. Another experiment indicated an interesting consequence of playing a peppy little dance number in a restaurant. It was found that people who generally spend 56 minutes to finish their dish were able to do so in just a matter of 45 minutes. Fast-paced songs gear them up and finishing the meal sooner translates into quicker turnover of empty chairs which can be refilled at a faster rate.

74 All these experiments highlight a common conclusion – the surrounding atmosphere influences consumer behavior, the extent of which may vary depending upon various factors like the readiness of the mind to absorb the goodness in music, the current pace of activity, the kind of music being played, the shape and condition of current mental health of consumers, the volume and pitch of the song etc. If we study precisely how music influences behavior, we can use it as a tool to take control of child behavior and veer it in the required direction. It might be possible to help children in improving their behavior in two ways: firstly, by showing and teaching them what we expect them to do and secondly, by helping them to increase their levels of selfconfidence and self-esteem. Have you ever noticed that when some questions are posed in front of a shy child, he typically, though unconsciously, puts his fingers in the mouth and mumbles something incoherently? It is recommended to train the children to stand tall, look straight at the other person‘s eyes and respond with confidence. And music can help immensely.

75 In fact, singing songs is one of the best ways to enhance self-confidence. When parents choose popular songs and sing them along with their children, it can be quite a challenging task for the little ones to imitate their elders and perform to the best of their ability. When they overcome their shyness and sing with gay abandon, the doors of confidence get unlocked. So once again, music is key. Small kids are very keen to play simple percussion instruments such as shakers, clarinets, rattles and drums. We should nurture their hidden potential by playing videos and encouraging them to watch and play exactly at the same time along with the person in the particular video. This can be taken forward to a more professional level. By learning how to play a musical instrument such as a guitar or a piano, the following skills can be sculpted and improved: *Attention Focus and concentration are two very important components required for learning various concepts in the field of music. Music

76 sessions encourage the children to focus and be creative. Their attention span experiences a huge jump and they suddenly find themselves improving in everything they get involved with. They become alert to the music of every breath that passes through their body. This skill, which is hard to learn in any other way, comes easily to a child who practices music. *Social skills Learning music in small groups helps children in enhancing their communication skills. They become adept at handling group issues and learn to interact freely with the members of their group. They broaden their horizon by applying the experiences of their peers and emerging winners in otherwise difficult situations. *Self-expression Music expresses the feelings of the heart in a way nothing else can. Sentimental children have very expressive eyes and are generally good at music. They draw inspiration from the depths of the song and lend it their voice. They become imaginative and creative

77 by manipulating the tone, the pitch, the scale and the feel of the song. For them, expression of their inner world becomes as easy as baking a pie. *Energy-release Famous music item in providing happiness and change in the state of emotion impresses children to a great extent and releases their energy. A simple rhythm awakes children emotions. When a child is asked to play a piece of music, he applies his internal and objective emotions and energy to perform that piece. There are emotions and energies as tools for children, help them in organization of their behavior in future. Music plays an outlet role for children future, through which they would experiment love, sentiments, sadness, happiness, humanity etc. I bring the subject of behavior to an end by an example of music effect in religious places. There is high impression of music on our spirit and little by little on our behavior. It is obviously clear in churches that by singing religious and calm songs, Christians bring their

78 soul and spirit in peace and tranquilization. This is noticeable to mention that Zoroastrianism is the first religion, founder of religious music and introducing happiness as a paramount element in human completion within this religion.

Chapter 6
The Effect of Music on Water, Plants and Beasts

“Music has charms to soothe the savage breast, to soften rocks, or bend a knotted oak.” William Congreve

80 Ancient man believed that music dismantles the negative forces and releases positive energy in the body, which has healing properties. Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle believed that listening to music every day helps us in maintaining a very sound mental health. Pythagoras had the firm belief that if an individual loses his/her physical equilibrium, it will cause a degree of illness at some level of the being. Music, among other things, can restore the previous state of physical balance and emotional control. It is the harbinger of contentment and harmony. During the Medieval era, the kings used to enjoy listening to classical musicians in their palaces to soothe their minds after the tiring day was over. They used to shower their favorite musicians with expensive gifts, sparkling gems, gold coins and even palaces. History bears sufficient evidence of the fact that the depths of music contain secret pots of gold which elude human beings as well as other living organisms like plants, animals and water molecules. I will begin the discussion by the introduction of sound. Sound is a sequence of waves of pressure that propagates through

81 compressible media such as air or water. Sound is a kind of energy received by our ears. Sounds are of musical or non-musical nature; they are sometimes pleasant, sometimes annoying. Generally undesirable sounds are called noise. Noise is a term often used to refer to an unwanted sound. In science and engineering, noise is an undesirable component that obscures a wanted signal. Hertz (Hz) is the unit of measurement of sound. Sound is a traveling wave, which is an oscillation of pressure. Humans perceive frequency of sound waves as pitch. Each musical note corresponds to a particular frequency, which can be measured in hertz. The perception of sound in any organism is limited to a certain range of frequencies. An infant's ear is able to perceive frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz; the average adult human can hear sounds between 20 Hz and 16,000 Hz, although these limits are not definite. The upper limit generally decreases with age. Other species have a different range of hearing. For example, dogs can perceive vibrations higher than 20 kHz, but are deaf to anything below 40 Hz. As a signal perceived by one of the major senses, sound is used by many species for

82 detecting danger, navigation, predation, and communication. Many species, such as frogs, birds, marine and terrestrial mammals, have also developed special organs to produce sound. In some species, these produce song and speech. Furthermore, humans have developed culture and technology (such as music, telephone and radio) that allows them to generate, record, transmit and broadcast sound. Melodious sound waves have an intense impact on sentiments at the conscious as well as the subconscious level. Various kinds of rhythmic sounds have the capability of infusing the environment with a sense of calm and tranquility. Here, I would like to present the case of Dr. Masaru Emoto and his experiments, which celebrate the phenomenal impact of music on a molecule of water. Dr. Masaru Emoto is a Japanese author and entrepreneur, known for his claims that human consciousness has an effect on the molecular structure of water. Emoto's hypothesis has evolved over the years of his research. Initially, Dr. Emoto claimed that highquality water forms beautiful and intricate crystals, while low-quality water has difficulty forming crystals. According to Dr.Emoto, an ice crystal of distilled water exhibits a basic

83 hexagonal structure with no intricate branching. Emoto claims that positive changes to water crystals can be achieved through prayer, music or by attaching written words to a container of water. Emoto provided research documents and evidence of water molecular alterations using microscopic photography. In his continued quest to discover the mystery of water, he exposed water in glasses to different words, pictures or music, and then froze them to examine the aesthetics of the resulting crystals. He investigated how music affects water molecules. Water reacts to our sentiments and thoughts. Molecules of water undergo different form changes depending on the kind of music environment they are exposed to - be it Heavy Metal, Classical, Rock and Roll, Instrumental,

Impact of Classical music on a Water molecule

Impact of Heavy Metal on a Water molecule

84 Pop, Jazz or any other genre. These formations differ from one musical environment to another. For example, a water sample from a pristine, serene atmosphere in which soft classical music is being played, would purportedly show a regular, "geometric" design that is "beautifully" shaped when frozen. On the other hand, the water molecule sampled from a ‗Heavy Metal‘ environment will supposedly show irregularities in the form of a "definite distortion" and will be "randomly formed". A significant fraction of the human body is water. Arthur Guyton's Textbook of Medical Physiology, states that "the total amount of water in a man of average weight (70 kilograms) is approximately 40 litres, averaging 57 percent of his total body weight. Other experiments conducted by noted physiologists all around the world conclude that water consists of 61.8% of our weight. If each molecule undergoes such significant changes, can we imagine how the entire length and breadth of our body will feel when surrounded by different types of music? Our thought processes, the way we feel and

85 respond to multiple stimuli, the moments which leave us gasping for breath out of sheer anxiety and stress – everything can be brought in a state of divine balance with music.

Effect of Hate and Disgust

Effect of Love and Appreciation

The influence of music on growth of plants Do plants listen to music? How can a plant possibly respond to music? Well, plants breathe through their many mouths, which are also known as stomata. And it has been discovered that plant stomata respond to music! Scientists have discovered that certain sounds and some kinds of music can influence plant growth in different ways. A lot of ancestral stories testify the intense role of music on plants. One theory is that certain sound frequencies

86 could possibly activate the genes in plant cells and hence influence the growth and expression of the cells. A second theory suggests that sound frequencies resonate with objects. For every object, a resonant sound frequency can be found and calculated so that the object resonates when that sound is played. Resonant mechanisms can have profound consequences like glasses that break; some of these mechanisms are associated with plants as well. So the stomata can vibrate and stimulate their opening and the air exchange, accelerate the rate of exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the plants and their environment. It is through resonance with the stomata cavities that foliar nutrient and water absorption can be enhanced very effectively. This technique helps plants grow in a very effective and musical way. Scientific research states that the frequency of sound of song birds whose melodious tunes fill the morning air in springtime, significantly stimulates plant growth, photosynthesis and seed germination. The fullest understanding of these beautiful, natural sounds which resound around us every spring combines

87 the insights of science, poetry and above all, music! The role of music as a form of communication between people and other living organisms, specifically with plants, can never be overemphasized. Ancestral traditions frequently indicate the role of sound for the health of men, plants and animals. This reminds me of a village near a famous city in Iran. The villagers and gardeners residing in that village used to get very upset when the production of hazelnut trees was not up to the desired level and say that ―this tree has not given enough number of fruits, so it must be cut down.‖ This story sounded peculiar as well as funny to me but scientists have successfully proved that trees have a complete understanding of their surroundings and are capable of weaving emotional relationships between themselves and other creatures including man. If that is the case, how can they remain aloof to soulful sound waves? Research took a new avenue when in 1968 a college student, Dorthy Retallack, started researching the effects of music on plants. She

88

Performing music for plants

took her focus off of studying the beat and put it on studying the different sounds of music. Retallack tested the effects of music on plant growth by using music styles including classical, jazz, pop, rock, acid rock, East Indian, and country. She found that the plants grew well for almost every type of music except rock and acid rock. Jazz, classical, and Ravi Shankar turned out to be the most helpful to the plants. However, the plants tested with the rock music

89 withered and died. The acid rock music also had negative effects on the plant growth. Living systems show sensitivity to specific radiant energies – be it acoustical, magnetic or electro-magnetic. Researchers from Canada and the former Soviet Union have found that wheat will grow faster when exposed to special ultrasonic and musical sounds. The impact of music can be easily gauged on the growth of plants by performing certain experiments. With all specific environmental conditions being the same, one set of plants was exposed to fresh and natural classical music, which was created almost on the spot and rendered instantly on the spur of the moment. The other set of plants was allowed to grow without the luxury of grooving to the tunes of any kind of music. After a week, it was concluded that the plants exposed to a set frequency of sound tend to germinate more quickly, grow taller, build greater resistance to pests and weigh more than those kept in silence. The incredible power of the music we play compels the plants to flourish. Even when the

90 sun leaves them, melodies will always be there to cheer our green friends up!

The influence of music on Beasts and Creatures The cultures of antiquity believed that music could bring about a renewal of the divine balance that ideally characterizes human life; that it could restore the harmony of the human psyche in times of disquiet and distress. Indeed, the ancients regarded all forms of sickness – mental or physical – as being ultimately musical problems. Whales have songs, and so do birds, of course. But does music lift the spirits of a swallow? Do humpbacks hum to make themselves mellow? Although bird songs and many other animal vocalizations have been the subject of intense scientific study, the effect of music on the moods of creatures other than humans has been delved into deeply, more so, in the recent times. A provocative new study, spawned by an

91 unusual partnership between a cellist with the National Symphony Orchestra and a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin at Madison has provided some of the first evidence that humans are not the only species whose heartstrings are pulled by music. One study, done by physicist Harvey Bird and neurobiologist Gervasia Schreckenberg, exposed groups of mice to the sound of traditional voodoo drumming, Strauss waltzes and silence. Upon exposing the mice to these sounds, the scientists tested their ability to navigate a maze. Mice that listened to Strauss navigated the maze more quickly than mice that were exposed to silence. A study done by the University of Belfast's psychology department in 1997 produced results indicating that dogs exposed to classical music were more relaxed and rested for longer periods than dogs exposed to no music or heavy metal music. Animals do indeed appreciate music. When a Caruso record was played, it was noted that one of the orangutans "...came dashing out

92 with a delighted expression with the first note, caught hold of his swing, and began swinging around his cage in time to the music, and as long as it was kept up he continued in this metrical swinging." When the same piece of music was played for camels, they were apparently delighted. They stretched out their long necks towards the source of the music and all seemed to group together. Animals such as wolves and coyotes experienced negative effects towards classical music and seemed frightened. Decades ago, zoo animals had little to do but pace and eat, resulting in a host of physical and behavioral problems, including weight disorders, unpredictable aggression, antisocial behavior, poor parenting skills, and even sterility. Kept in barred cages, wolves, lions, bears and apes became listless and troubled. Today, zoos know better. They create not only interesting habitats and activities for their animals but they also provide them with the natural sounds of their native environments. These additions excite and give purpose. Animals respond to beautiful music and their souls are touched and uplifted by the same music

93 that touches and uplifts the souls of human beings. A wide range of common physical disorders in animals as well as many mental and emotional disturbances brought on by grief, loneliness, abandonment, abuse, trauma and negative thought forms can be eased and often eliminated by playing beautiful music to an animal. In addition, the tendency of many companion animals to absorb the emotions and illnesses of the humans with whom they live can be greatly relieved with beautiful music. Many veterinarians are trying to treat the beasts and even training them through the application of music power. Alianna Boone, a musician, has practically applied music for the treatment of animals. Boone believes that the sound of the ―Harp‖ is very similar to that of the human voice. That is why the wildest and the most violent beasts calm down when they listen to healing harp music and its beautiful soothing voice. Dogs may be as discerning as humans when it comes to music. Scientists have found that dogs bark less and are more relaxed when they listen to classical music as opposed to their violent counterparts who listen to no music at all. Those dogs with injuries

94 such as multiple fractures, problems of indigestion and swallowing, recover at a faster rate. Doctor David Anderson - veterinarian in ST Petersburg College in Russia, works on the issue of depressed animals. Apart from medication, he uses music therapy as well. Dogs are extremely intelligent animals, which are often diagnosed for depression or mental disorders, as they might have possibly been subjected to bad behavior for a long period of time. He suggests playing soft music for them in the night at the time they are about to sleep. This act allows even the most restless breed to sleep peacefully.

Performing music for animals

95 The most famous and well-known experiment of Ivan Pavlov, a Russian scientist, is that he conditioned dogs to initiate a salivary response to the sound of a bell. He began by measuring the amount of salivation in response to only food. As the experiments continued, he rang a bell as he presented the food. Again, he noted a salivary response. Finally, by only ringing the bell, Pavlov observed the same response as having presented food to the dogs salivation. These experiments defined what has been a "conditioned response". The keen sense of hearing among dogs works to their advantage as they can respond to the stimulus, which in this case is music, with great accuracy. Here‘s a scenario, which portrays a diametrically opposite situation in the study of animal behavior. Some beasts run away when they hear music. In Russian villages, farmers play folk songs to scare the wolves away. Rhythm and beat can be so incredibly useful. A gorilla living in a zoo used to create trouble for the zoo staff by being rebellious and sometimes completely impossible to handle. One fine day, the Harp was played for him. They continued playing soothing music for him for days on end.

96 Now the gorilla has transformed into such a gentle creature, that he allows the staff to coddle his cheeks and give him a big hug. Every experiment yields the same result – the enigmatic tranquility embraces all and makes the animals, wild or domestic (with a few exceptions, of course) become gentle, graceful and peace-loving creatures. It is interesting to note that in some circus performances, elephants do not begin their showstopper routines unless music is played. In the same vein, lions stop jumping through fire loops as the music stops. A German zoologist has composed a song that enables hens to lay eggs much ahead of the predicted time frame. The impact of music on cats and cows is wonderful; it prevents cats from scratching other animals by toning their aggression down and enhances the ability of cows to produce milk. Dear friends, it‘s time we repay our animals for the gift of love they so freely offer to us. Cultivate a sacred energy in your home. Pray, meditate and play beautiful healing music often. You will be healthy and happy and your animal friends will be healthy and happy too.

Chapter 7
Why should we learn music? What is the process of learning music?
“Without music life would be a mistake.” Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche

98 In the previous chapters, I have briefly described the physiological and psychological effects of music on human beings. Here, I would like to elaborate the art of communicating with music and learning it easily. Music is the language of the soul. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, often took his mental patients to the Temple of Asclepius, to make them listen to healing music. Under the aspect of learning music, people can be broadly categorized into two groups: 1- Those who love music but do not learn it. 2- Those who love music and learn it eagerly. Both the groups have an intrinsic love for learning music but the first group brings excuses such as ―learning music is difficult‖, ―I can‘t do this‖, ― I have no talent for music‖, ―I am so busy‖, ―I have important assignments at hand‖ or ―It is too late for me‖ and try to reject the learning process. Learning music is as important as learning the sciences - Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry in school. Apart from the fact that music is an art, it is a science and a language with which you can speak a thousand words in any language around the world and beyond.

99 Now I will discuss about the importance of music in one‘s surroundings. To the sage Pythagoras, good music was consonant with the rhythm of life. Learning to play a musical instrument offers a lot of benefits. I personally believe that if there's one thing you should learn in your lifetime, it's how to play an instrument. A musician can handle difficulties in life with a far greater sense of understanding than others. The past twenty years have seen a sudden change and music has been accorded the status of an industry. Music is a skill that has the ability to impress. Scientists say that those children who are exposed to music, or those who play an instrument, do better in school than those who don't. Recent research suggests exposure to music may benefit a child's reading age, IQ and the development of certain parts of the brain. Adults can benefit from learning to play an instrument too because it helps the mind to be alert and remain active eventually helping to sharpen the memory. An excellent technique for inculcating self-confidence is imagining oneself performing his first piece in front of others for

100 the first time and experiencing the atmosphere reverberate with the sound of their claps. Learning to play an instrument is like learning to speak another language and it can be challenging at times. One of the qualities musicians possess is discipline. You have to be disciplined in order to master playing your instrument. You have to set time each day to practice, practice and practice some more. It‘s like learning to ride a bicycle. The skill once learnt cannot be unlearnt. Even if one does not touch a bicycle or ride it for a long time, he will never forget the skill of riding. In the same track, it is not important how an individual plays music – professionally or otherwise, the important point to be noted here is that the individual establishes a relationship between himself and his music every time he engages his senses in it. And this bond is everlasting. It does not matter whether we play in a band or choose to play solo. Many studies have been conducted on the effects of music to the brain. Music makes us familiar with other musicians and enhances communication skills. It provides a platform through which we can enjoy

101 the company of friends and like-minded people who have similar tastes in music. Sure it can be a lot of hard work but there is no denying playing an instrument is fun. Once you get better at it, opportunities will arise for you to share your newly learned skill with your family and friends. Who knows, you may also consider playing professionally in the future! Playing a musical instrument opens up a lot of good possibilities that will surely enrich your life. Music escalates the intelligence level multiple-fold, motivates us and imparts an insatiable appetite to learn more. Reading the complex pattern of notes opens up the mind and makes the eyes and ears sharper than before. Learning music is like learning a foreign language, full of rules and structured algorithms. You should always follow the concepts of music to get better at it. It is suggested to define a particular routine for practicing music in daily life. Allow yourself a permanent fixture in the form of music time in your daily planner. The world‘s best tranquilizer is at your fingertips. Believe in its unlimited power to work miracles!

102

A student and his teacher during a piano tutorial

If you're a beginner learning to play your first piece, it can be frustrating. But once you've mastered a rather complicated piece of music, the satisfaction you will feel is priceless. Never mind if it is just a simple piece, believe me you will never forget the first piece you have mastered. You are one more step closer to achieving your goal and that is certainly something to be proud of. So in a way it imparts a strong sense of achievement. It gives life purpose. It makes you aim for precision and

103 accuracy without which the piece would sound like something it was never meant to be. Other careers related to writing, delivering lectures, painting, designing and so on, also demand the same kind of dedication that music does. Since I have pursued a career in music from my very early days, I would like to provide some insights related to playing a musical instrument successfully. The key ingredients for composing a soulful melody are: Patience: a valuable quality required to advance in the field of music. If you do not have sufficient patience during the course of the music lessons, you may not be able to befriend the instrument. Some musical instruments are quite similar, as are some languages. Learning a new one is easier, but don‘t forget to keep practicing the old one! When you start reading the notes, be sure you can produce them too, with just a little bit of patience from your end. It seems that those who do it well just ―pick it up so easily‖. What you don‘t see is the many, many hours of work they put into it to reach that stage.Commitment is way more important

104 than natural talent, which simply doesn‘t exist for getting the basics and even a pretty good idea of music. It is actually just an excuse used by those who both can‘t and don‘t really want to put the real work in. So if you don‘t get it right even the nth time, remember, the next attempt is going to be the big one. Usually when I teach a short piece to a child, he is ready to practice it time and over again if I want him to. He repeats the piece without showing any signs of exhaustion. As opposed to this, the grown-ups expect to play the piece perfectly at their very first attempt! They get demoralized if a few consecutive trials yield less than perfect results. So it usually results in a hasty ―Goodbye music, we are not meant to be together‖ move. Power of Imagination: Who can undermine the power of imagination to transform your life? You can spend most of your time doing things you don't like, but if you just go to your place of imagination for a few minutes a day, your experience will shift. "Those, who are able to lift free from the binding

105 beliefs of action, can tap into the energy of the vortex and create massively!" When you imagine yourself playing music for your friends and receiving accolades and appreciation, you immediately want to transform it into reality. This hunger takes you to the realm where everything is magical, almost surreal. Self-confidence: Although learning to play a musical instrument can be one of the most difficult undertakings you have ever attempted, it can also be one of the most rewarding. If you are a lover of music, and have the sincere desire to learn, you will get a great boost of selfconfidence and a feeling of accomplishment by learning how to play an instrument. If you have never tried to learn to play before, you may wonder what the whole point is about learning to play a musical instrument in the first place. If you aren't totally committed you may even think it isn't really a big deal to you. The truth of the matter is that by learning to play music you are also learning a universal form of communication that all people enjoy and understand.

106 If you are suffering from a lack of selfesteem or need a confidence boost, learning a musical instrument can make a difference. There are times when a student plays beautifully while practicing by himself, but starts sweating profusely, forgets the lines he had rehearsed and loses total control when he faces a large audience. These symptoms, which spell lack of self-confidence in no unclear terms, can be addressed by performing in front of the family, friends or relatives as many times as possible. When there is a huge round of applause, the satisfaction is unparalleled. It makes us feel

Children learning how to adjust themselves in a group

107 good about ourselves and that makes for one of the greatest forms of therapy. Learning Theory of Music: Music theory is the study of how music works. It examines the language and notation of music. It seeks to identify patterns and structures in composers' techniques across or within genres, styles, or historical periods. In a grand sense, music theory distills and analyzes the fundamental parameters or elements of music—rhythm, harmony (harmonic function), melody, structure, form, texture, etc. The theory of music lays down essential rules, which are akin to the formulae in mathematics or physics. They must be followed if we want to construct a memorable piece of art like Mozart or Beethoven. Some people have a very keen and developed sense towards music. They can compose and play songs by ear without any knowledge of music theory. However, those are the blessed few, and in general, it should be assumed, for all practical purposes, that music is an art which can be learnt by mastering the theory behind it and combining it with incessant

108 practice sessions. In the final moments, there is just one secret that I would like to unearth from the depths of the music universe. And that is “practice”, “practice” and ―practice”. Practice sessions make you see your shortcomings so that you can work on them and overcome the problem areas. Nowadays, people are choosing to learn music through pre-structured software programs on their computer screens. Apparently, it speaks volumes of the advancement in technology and its widespread application in the field of education. However, pause for a moment and think. Can an artificial flower compare with a real flower? Can you smell the fragrance of the rose or feel the texture of an orchid? If you cannot enjoy a simple flower, how will you appreciate music played for you on a remote medium? Musical instruments such as the Guitar or the Piano are like natural flowers - they talk to you and vibrate your inner strings; so I recommend that use software CDs if you want to, but play a musical instrument in flesh and bone.

109 I welcome you to explore the depths of the music of your soul. It can be a salvation and antidote to most psychological challenges; that‘s precisely why people sing in the shower or while driving their car and simply listen to music that‘s inspiring and uplifting. I wrap up my discussion with the beautiful words of the famous music therapist, Dr. Deforia Lane – ―Music has the power to move a person between different realities: from a broken body into a soaring spirit, from a broken heart into the connection of shared love, from death into the memory and movement of life. Music has the power to touch the heart of a child with God."

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