GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat

) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earth's surface.

Erupting volcanoes SCHEME:

atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electricity. Two nuclear reactors in Burke County. In nuclear fusion. Georgia. . This is how the sun produces energy. But first the energy must be released. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. It can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. releasing energy.NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. In nuclear fission. energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom.

The potential energy stored in a body of water held at a given height is converted to kinetic energy (movement energy) which is used to turn a turbine and create electricity. without consuming more water than is produced by nature.HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY HydrOelectric energy is a clean. Itaipu Dam on the Brazil-Paraguay border located on the Paraná River SCHEME: Ice Harbor Dam . renewable and reliable energy source which converts kinetic energy from falling water into electricity.

If an organism is listed here. They may become very abundant during red tides. Bacteria Common in seawater and in the guts of organisms. or they may be heterotrophic (eat other organisms). Dinoflagellates (single-celled phytoplankton) If you see luminous sparkles in the wake of a boat. but cause "foxfire" when certain species grow on wood. and are thought to use their light as a burglar alarm to attract predators to animals that are grazing on them. Also used in the lure of Anglerfish and in the ventral counterillumination of the bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) Fungi Marine species not known to be luminous. it is probably coming from dinoflagellates. These single-celled protists can be photosynthetic.Partial List of Bioluminescent Organisms This list is intended to give an idea of the diversity of bioluminescent creatures. or some combination of the two. The list is not meant to be comprehensive. it means that at least one species in that group is luminescent. and there may be other luminous creatures that are not included here. or in splashing waves on the beach. .

Cnidaria Bioluminescence is widespread in all major Cnidarian groups except for the Cubozoa. they use calcium-activated photoproteins much like hydromedusae. Different species employ photoproteins or a variety of luciferases to trigger luminescence from coelenterazine. with the exception of the sea-gooseberry. Surprisingly. Ctenophores Comb Jellies are almost all bioluminescent. they use photoproteins with coelenterazine to make light. Some species secrete luminous material into the water when disturbed. siphonophores. these single-celled organisms are like amoebe living in glass houses. The luminous groups include Scyphozoa ("true" jellyfish). and Anthozoa (sea pens and sea pansies). and some benthic species. Hydrozoa (hydroids. Pleurobrachia. .Radiolarians (single-celled marine protists) Common in shallow oceanic gyres and in deep oceans. Like hydrozoa. and hydromedusae).

On land. some oligochaetes (earthworms) are even able to produce luminous secretions. and some squids may have three or more types of luminous organs. and Tomopteris. Squid Pelagic octopod Annelid Worms Within the segmented worms. both benthic and pelagic. produce light. many types of marine polychaetes. luminescence has evolved several times in this phylum alone. Some interesting examples include the "fireworms" which use luminescence as part of their mating display. which makes yellow light.Nemertean Worms One species of interstitial ribbon worm is known to have luminous symbionts. Mollusca An impressive variety of molluscs are able to make light. Polychaete . The cephalopods have the most advanced luminescence systems. From the only freshwater limpet (1 type) to a few types of nudibranchs and clams. Even a few pelagic octopods have gotten into the game.

These include copepods. Hemichordate Worms They too are luminous. Echinoderms Within the echinoderms. dinoflagellate-type luciferin. luminescence is prominent among brittle-stars (Ophiuroids) and sea cucumbers (Holothuroids). because it . The most commonly found is the enteropneust tornaria (larva) of a hemichordate worm. Urochordates Luminescence have probably arisen at least three times in the urochordates. it also uses coelenterazine to make its light.Pycnogonids (Sea Spiders) Crustaceans Most pelagic crustacean groups (with the exception of isopods) have luminous members. three of the major marine luciferins are used in various crustaceans (ostracod-type luciferin. Crustaceans are also the most likely source for coelenterazine in the sea. decapod shrimp and euphausiids (krill). but there are even some sea stars (Asteroidea) which can make light. Interestingly. Chaetognaths At least one species of deep-sea arrow-worms has been shown to be bioluminescent. ostracods. coelenterazine). as there is evidence that they can produce it. amphipods. Amazingly.

" Larvacean (without its house) Chordates Many kinds of fish are covered in photophores. they absorb blue light. and Railroad worms. In addition. long-lasting light which can be stimulated by flashes of light. light has been filtered to blue-green wavelengths. reptiles. luminescence appears in a variety of terrestrial arthropods. and finding food. have luminous organs (left). Some even have evolved a combination of intrinsic and bacterial light organs. Collembola (spring-tails).takes different forms in the different groups. defense. birds. such as the cookie-cutter shark. which your dinner is emitting. Fungus gnats. A few sharks. and most larvaceans embed luminous particles into their mucus "houses. • Having a red stomach means that you are absorbing any blue light. amphibians or mammals. and Insects such as click Beetles. They use them for counterillumination. They are suspected to use bacteria to glow. One benthic tunicate is luminous.] Why Red? Many deep-sea animals appear to have conspicuous red coloration. Myctophid lanternfish Hatchetfish Terrestrial Arthropods In addition to the familiar fireflies. Specifically. . nearly all bioluminescence has the same wavelength as the downwelling light. especially surrounding their stomachs. [NOTE: There are no known luminous "flowering" plants. It is largely a marine phenomenon. and the enigmatic "Megamouth" (right) is said to have photophores on the inside of its mouth. Pyrosomes produce very bright. These include Centipedes and Millipedes. Why do they do this. • Things look red because they absorb everything except red light. and how do they get away with appearing so conspicuous without being devoured by predators? • By the time it reaches the deep-sea.

buoyancy. as well as the small and transparent jellies called hydromedusae. including feeding. colonies of single-celled organisms. (Coloniality comes in when you consider the polyps as individuals. and fewer still have been known to make red light. it is easiest to consider them as a single "superorganism". a siphonophore has been discovered that does both: it uses small glowing "lures" to attract prey. which includes hydroids that grow on rocks. which grows by budding off specialized polyps and medusae (Figure 4). They are not. propulsion. So what is a siphonophore? Siphonophores are in the phylum Cnidaria. Siphonophores are within the Hydrozoa. which includes corals (Anthozoa). and reproduction. nor do they "come together" to form a colony. Recently. . For our purposes. as some might tell you. only a few are thought to use light to lure prey.Special Functions: Prey Attraction Siphonophores Of all the luminous organisms in the sea.) Each type of polyp has a special function. and the familiar "true" jellyfish (Scyphozoa).

buoyancy. Each type of polyp has a special function. . has side branches called tentilla. Siphonophores can be considered as "superorganisms". which grow by budding off specialized polyps and medusae. known as gastrozooids.Figure 4. This tentacle. in turn. The tubular capsules are the stinging cells. each gastrozooid has a tentacle that branches off of it from the base. Siphonophore Feeding Of special interest here are the feeding polyps. In the genus Erenna. which hold the stinging cells. and reproduction. propulsion. Figure 5 shows an electron micrograph of the tip of one of these tentilla. including feeding.

Figure 5. So without a web. in turn. each gastrozooid (feeding polyps) has a tentacle that branches off of it from the base. how does it catch its food? A clue is found in the arrangement and "behavior" of the tentacle side branches. Several examples of these are shown at the right of Figure 6. . which hold the stinging cells. it gets larger and the white material becomes surrounded by red fluorescent material. Most siphonophores catch prey by putting out their long tentacles and waiting for something to bump into their tentilla -. As the small lure matures. this species holds its tentacles close to its body. At the end of the transparent stalk is a red "lure" which starts out small with a white center. But not all siphs operate in this way. shown in Figure 6. this would not seem to be an efficient feeding strategy.think of a spider web. where fish and other organisms are relatively scarce. The side branches include a large battery of stinging cells attached to a central stalk. On the face of it. don't seem to follow this same passive mode of operation. especially the new species in question. In the genus Erenna. When seen from a submersible. This tentacle. What makes this species more unusual is that it is known to feed only on fish. Siphonophores like Erenna. The white material consists of bioluminescent material. and it lives more than 1600 meters deep. Using MBARI's deep-diving remotely operated vehicles. has side branches called tentilla. we found a new species in the genus Erenna. which is also laced with stingers.

But because so few fish see red light. Based on the emission and excitation spectra of this red substance. This wavelength of light is very unusual in the ocean for two reasons.Figure 6. The lures are not just capable of producing light. their eyes are extremely small and they are too fragile for many deep-sea trawling operations. If any fish were to . Cyclothone. only anglerfish and a few squid have been suspected to use luminescence as a lure in the sea. This behavior is eerily similar to the motion of many deep-sea copepods. it is not surprising that the eyes of deep-sea organisms have only rarely been found to be sensitive to red light. Because the deep sea is so vast -about 10x larger than the next-largest habitable volume -. it would almost certainly be a tempting target! For a jellyfish to have a lure is unusual enough. blue light emitted at the center of the lure would be expected to excite the fluor and produce orange-red light. there is additional resistance to the idea of a jelly using long-wavelength light in its luminous lure. If a copepod-eating fish were able to see the motion of the lure. Often they are seen to do a "hop and sink" behavior where they alternate between rapid jumps and slow sinking behavior. Because red light is rare. Tentacles of siphonophores. The most likely target species for this deep-living siphonophore are small (few centimeter long) bristlemouth fish in the family Gonostomatidae. its visual pigments have never been measured.the most common of these fish. is probably the most common vertebrate on the entire planet. One is that it doesn't penetrate very far: meters or several centimeters rather than tens of meters. but the transparent stalk also contracts rapidly to flick the lure. Despite its abundance.

Any illumination would obviously affect the visual environment. including many uncharacterized luminescence chemistries. Many fascinating questions remain to be answered. With a yellow filter in their eye. One possibility is that it is using the ability to detect prey. If more specimens can be obtained. The use of a dim red lure in the deep sea is almost impossible to observe undisturbed. there are many avenues for further study of this special function of bioluminescence. . Even if we accept that this ability might go undetected. chemical reactions that produce light have evolved independently at least three times. this still leaves the question of why a deep-sea fish would need to detect red light. Nonetheless the most conservative interpretation of the evidence seems to be that this jelly dangles red lures to attract its prey. Conclusions Bioluminescence has evolved more than 40 times. because it has happened so many times. is common in the ocean."slip through the cracks" of our scientific knowledge and have a hidden ability to see red light. a fish would see anything red as a conspicuous target over short distances. let alone document a feeding event. then Cyclothone would be a great candidate. and a low-light camera would be hard pressed to find these rare siphonophores. Fluroescence of Erenna tentilla. it must not be that difficult. and a range of ecological functions. especially derived from plant chlorophyll. On the other hand. Figure 7. Light to excite fluorescence would have to come from ambient blue light (at shallower depths) or from bioluminescence itself. bioluminescence must serve important ecological roles. Marine snow from more than 2000m deep still produces red fluorescence when illuminated with blue light. given its widespread taxononic distribution in the ocean. including the deep sea. and in some phyla such as Mollusca and Annelida. Red fluorescent material (Figure 7). As complex as it seems to make biological light. or visual pigments able to distinguish short and long wavelength light.

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