Glossary of Grammatical Terms

Active/Passive - the police caught the thief (act)/the thief was caught by the police (passive) Adjective - describes a noun: the cat is very happy Adverb - describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb: the cat is very hungry /the cat moved stealthily Articles - the (definite) a/an (indefinite) Conditional - if this then that see here Conjunction - joins clauses/parts of sentence: and/or/ but etc. Demonstrative - this, that, these, those Direct/Indirect object - I gave the present to him {direct} I gave him the present (indirect) Gender - masculine or feminine noun (there is no formal rule in English. A ship, for example, is feminine by tradition: all who sail in her Gerund - a noun formed from a verb: I like swimming Irregular verb - does not follow typical paint/painted pattern. See here Infinitive - base form of the verb: to drink / to sleep Lexeme - smallest unit of language: I have been = three lexemes Main clause/Subordinate clause - I’ll feed the dog [main clause] when he barks [subordinate clause]

Modal: auxiliary verb used with another verb to express a certain mood or intention: I couldn’t/shouldn’t etc. Mood (advanced) - form a verb can take. a) Indicative: used with statements/facts b) Imperative: instructions/directions c) Subjunctive: expresses doubt/possibility Noun - naming word: giraffe/telephone Past/Present/Future tense - when something happens/happened Phrasal Verb - changes meaning with preposition: turn on/get out (see here) Possessive - Indicates possession: mine/ yours/his Preposition: places in time, location or direction: on, at, between Pronoun - word that replaces a noun: he/she/it Personal pronoun - I /you/he/she/we/you/they Reflexive pronoun - Myself / yourself / himself Reflexive verb - I hurt myself Singular/Plural - a spoon {singular} two knives {plural} Subject - The person/thing/animal carrying out the action: the monkey eats bananas Verb - an action/doing word: paint, go, be etc Verbal - verb form that functions as a noun (see here)


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