# Ch.

1 General Principles
Physical science concerned with the state of rest or motion of bodies that are subject to forces

Equilibrium of Bodies

Mechanics of Materials

At rest or moving with constant velocity

Dr. Ali Keshavarz

Strength of Materials - Lec. 1 - Ch. 1-3

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Fundamental Concepts
Basic Quantities
LENGTH
Position, geometry

Some Idealizations
Particle
Has a mass Size neglected

TIME
Succession of events

MASS
Property of matter Amount of matter

Rigid-Body
Not deforming

Concentrated Force
Acting at a point

FORCE
Push or pull effect

Dr. Ali Keshavarz

Strength of Materials - Lec. 1 - Ch. 1-3

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Newton’s Laws of Motion
First Law. A particle originally at rest or moving in a straight line with constant velocity, will remain in this state provided that the particle is not subjected to an unbalanced force. Second Law. A particle acted upon by an unbalanced force F experiences an acceleration, a that has the same direction as the force and a magnitude that is proportional to the force.

F = ma

Third Law. The mutual forces of action and reaction between two particles are equal, opposite, and collinear.

Dr. Ali Keshavarz

Strength of Materials - Lec. 1 - Ch. 1-3

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1 .Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .73 × 10 − 12 m 3 / kg ⋅ s 2 Dr.Newton’s Law of Gravitational Attraction m1 m 2 F =G r2 F : Force of gravitation between two particles m1 and m 2 : Mass of each particle r : Distance between two particles G : Universal constant of gravitation G = 66.Lec. 1-3 4 .

Concept of Weight Force of gravitation between the earth and a particle with a mass = Weight. 1-3 5 .81 m/s 2 g= Dr.Ch. 1 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Lec.39 × 10 6 m (Radius of the earth at sea level with 45 lattitude ) STANDARD LOCATION W = mg GM e (Gravitational acceleration) r2 g = 9. mM e W =G 2 r W : Force of gravitation M e : Mass of the earth ( = 6 × 10 24 kg) m : M ass of the particle r : Distance between the earth's center and the particle r = 6.

Units of Measurement SI Units LENGTH meter (m) TIME second (s) MASS kilogram (kg) FORCE Newton (N) US Customary Units LENGTH foot (ft) TIME second (s) FORCE pound (lb) MASS slug (slug) kg ⋅ m N= s2 lb ⋅ s 2 slug = ft g = 32. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 .81 m/s 2 Dr.Lec.Ch.2 ft/s 2 6 g = 9. 1-3 .

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .4482 N 14.Lec.Ch. 1-3 7 .5938 kg 0.Conversion of Units Quantity FORCE MASS LENGTH US Customary 1 lb 1 slug 1 ft = = = SI System 4.3048 m Dr. 1 .

Useful Information on Units Some Conversions 1 ft = 12 in.141592…= 3. (inch) 5280 ft = 1 mi (mile) 1000 lb = 1 kip (kilo-pound) 2000 lb = 1 ton Prefixes MULTIPLE 109 giga (G) 106 mega (M) 103 kilo (k) Time Conversions 1 min.Lec.Ch. 1 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .14 Conversion for Angles 180° = π rad Dr. 1-3 8 . = 60 s 1 h = 3600 s 1 s = 1000 ms 1 s = 1000000 μs SUBMULTIPLE 10-3 milli (m) 10-6 micro (μ) 10-9 nano (n) π = 3.

Ch. 1-3 9 .More on Prefixes of SI Units Gm 1 Gm = 10+9 m … … GN 1 GN = 10+9 N Gg 1 Gg = 10+6 kg Mm 1 Mm = 10+6 m h 1 h = 3600 s MN 1 MN = 10+6 N Mg 1 Mg = 10+3 kg km 1 km = 10+3 m min 1 min = 60 s kN 1 kN = 10+3 N kg 1 kg = 1 kg m 1m=1m s 1s=1s N 1N=1N g 1 g = 10-3 kg mm 1 mm = 10-3 m ms 1 ms = 10-3 s mN 1 mN = 10-3 N mg 1 mg = 10-6 kg μm 1 μm = 10-6 m μs 1 μs = 10-6 s μN 1 μN = 10-6 N μg 1 μg = 10-9 kg nm 1 nm = 10-9 m ns 1 ns = 10-9 s nN 1 nN = 10-9 N ng 1 nm = 10-9 kg Dr.Lec. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 .

Rounding Off Numbers Rule: Use of 3 significant digits is usually enough in final answers. In this kind of situations. This is done to specify more accuracy. i. 1-3 10 . Then.Lec.Significant Figures Accuracy of a number is specified by the number of significant figures it contains.893 (Both numbers have 5 significant digits) When numbers begin or end with zeros. Dr. Only 1 Significant digit. Consider 400. 1 .00546 can be written as 5. 0.Ch. 2500 for example can be written as 2. including a zero.5x103 with 2 significant digits or can be written as 2.4x103. 400 = 0. it gets little confusing.e.5 has only one significant digit. In intermediate calculations keep a higher number of significant digits. provided it is not used to specify the location of the decimal point for the number.. Example 57 098 and 44.46x10-3 with 3 significant digits. express the number in engineering notation (exponent is used in multiples of 3).50x103 with 3 significant digits. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . A significant figure is any digit. 0.

1 .Ch.Lec.Improper Application of Statics Dr. 1-3 11 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .

Think of alternative/creative solutions and choose the best one. Execute Carry out your steps (symbolically as much as possible). 1-3 12 . make assumptions and indicate them. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . Dr. if not clear. 1 . Reflect on/revise your work.Problem Solving Strategy Interpret Read carefully and determine what is given and what is to be found/delivered. Avoid simple calculation mistakes. If necessary.Ch. Plan Think about major steps (or a road map) that you will take to solve a given problem. Estimate your answers. Ask.Lec. Use appropriate diagrams and equations.

CW from an axis. volume. i..Ch 2. force When specifying direction: Always know your reference. A quantity that has A magnitude (how big is your vector’s length compared to a given reference) A direction (on a line you can have 2 direction choices) A line of action Examples: Position.e. length.Lec. Force Vectors Scalar. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Ch. 1 . 1-3 13 . velocity. Dr. A quantity characterized by a positive or negative number such as mass. Vector.

Vector Math Multiplication and division of a vector with a scalar Changes the magnitude only (aA or A/a or -A) Vector addition (Commutative Law: A + B = B + A) Parallelogram law or triangular construction Vector subtraction: (A – B = A + (-B)) Same as addition concept Just multiply the vector being subtracted and add two Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Lec.Ch. 1 . 1-3 14 .

Ch.Vector Resolution Resolution of a vector Resolve into 2 components on 2 known line of actions 2 known line of actions are not necessarily perpendicular WHY? We may need to resolve due to geometry Dr.Lec. 1 . 1-3 15 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .

1-3 16 .Resolution due to Geometry Dr.Ch. 1 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Lec.

1 .Trigonometric Laws and Force Notation Sine Law and Cosine Law Trigonometric relations Geometric relations Force Notation F = 500 N and F or F Scalar and Vector Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Ch. 1-3 17 → .Lec.

Ch. 1-3 18 . Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Lec. This can get involved and can be error prone in terms of geometry and trigonometry. 1 .Vector Addition of 3 or More Forces Application of successive parallelogram law will lead to the result.

Scalar Notation We can find components of a vector (force) along specified axes.Lec. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 19 . Then we can add components on the same axis algebraically (scalar).Ch. We have to be careful with signs (directions) F = Fx + F y ′ F ′ = Fx′ + F y Dr. 1 .Addition of A System of Coplanar Forces Using a rectangular coordinate system is the common method such as x-y axes.

Adding Coplanar Forces: Cartesian Vector Notation F = Fx i + F y j i .Lec. 1 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Ch. 1-3 20 .sign Dr. j : unit vectors magnitude = 1 (unity) direction: +/.

1 .Lec.Resultant of Coplanar Forces F1 = F1 x i + F1 y j F2 = − F2 x i + F2 y j F3 = F3 x i − F3 y j Dr.Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 21 .

Ali Keshavarz FR = FRx + FRy 2 −1 2 θ = tan FRy FRx 22 Strength of Materials . 1 .Lec. 1-3 .The Resultant FRx = F1 x − F2 x + F3 x FRy = F1 y + F2 y − F3 y FRx = ΣFx FRy = ΣFy FR = F1 + F2 + F3 FR = FRx i + FRy j Dr.Ch.

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 23 . 1 .Angle Specification for the Resultant Vector R R θ θ R θ θ θ θ R Dr.Ch.Lec.

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Lec.Ch. 1-3 24 . altitude) Out between fingers +x Toward arm +y In 2D space.Cartesian Vectors in 3D Using Cartesian vector notation greatly simplifies solving problems in 3 dimensional space. 1 . +z in always outward and perpendicular to the page. height. Dr. Right-handed coordinate system Thumb +z (Zenith direction.

1-3 25 . Ali Keshavarz A or A = Au A uA = A A≠0 Strength of Materials .Rectangular 3D Components of A Vector Unit Vector is used to specify direction A = Ax + Ay + Az A = Ax i + A y j + Az k Dr. 1 .Ch.Lec.

Magnitude and Direction Ax cos α = A Ay cos β = A Az cos γ = A A = Ax + Ay + Az 2 2 Dr. Ali Keshavarz 2 Coordinate direction angles (direction cosines) are measured between tail of A and + x. 1 .Lec. z axes 26 Strength of Materials . 1-3 . y.Ch.

1-3 27 .Lec. 1 .Revisit the Unit Vector Ay A Ax Az uA = = i+ j+ k A A A A u A = cos α i + cos β j + cos γ k A uA = or A = Au A cos 2 α + cos 2 β + cos 2 γ = 1 A A = Au A A≠0 = A cos α i + A cos β j + A cos γ k = Ax i + Ay j + Az k Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Ch.

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Ch.Lec. 1 .Addition and Subtraction of Cartesian Vectors A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k B = Bx i + By j + Bz k R = A+B = ( Ax + Bx )i + ( Ay + By ) j + ( Az + Bx )k Concurrent Force Systems: FR = ΣF = ΣFx i + ΣFy j + ΣFz k Dr. 1-3 28 .

Lec.Ch. 1-3 29 . 1 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .3D Force Vector Example Dr.

Lec.Ch. 1-3 30 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 .Position Vectors r = xi + yj + zk Dr.

Position Vectors Generalized rA = x Ai + y A j + z Ak rB = xB i + yB j + z B k rA + r = rB → r = rB − rA rAB = rAB r = rAB = ( xB − x A )i + ( yB − y A ) j + ( z B − z A )k rAB = ( xB − x A ) + ( yB − y A ) + ( z B − z A ) 2 2 −1 2 u AB ⎛ ( xB − x A ) ⎞ −1 ⎛ ( y B − y A ) ⎞ −1 ⎛ ( z B − z A ) ⎞ α = cos ⎜ ⎟ β = cos ⎜ ⎟ γ = cos ⎜ ⎟ rAB ⎠ rAB rAB ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ Dr. 1-3 31 .Ch. 1 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Lec.

1-3 32 .Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Force Vector Directed Along A Line ⎛r⎞ F = Fu = F ⎜ ⎟ ⎝r⎠ ⎛ rAB ⎞ = F⎜ ⎟ ⎝ rAB ⎠ F = Fu AB Dr. 1 .Lec.

Ch.Real Applications Dr. 1-3 33 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Lec. 1 .

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Ch. 1-3 .Lec.Dot Product How do we find angle between two lines? Dot Product = Scalar Product (result is scalar) Commutative Law: A·B = B·A A ⋅ B = AB cos θ (0 ≤ θ ≤ 180 ) i ⋅ i = j⋅ j = k ⋅k = 1 i ⋅ j = i ⋅k = k ⋅ j = 0 Multiply by a Scalar: a(A·B) = (aA)·B = A·(aB) =(A·B)a A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k B = Bx i + By j + Bz k Distributive Law: A·(B+D) = (A·B) + (A·D) A ⋅ B = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz 34 Dr. 1 .

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Ch.Lec. 1-3 35 . 1 .Applications of Dot Product The angle formed between 2 vectors ⎛ A⋅B ⎞ θ = cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ AB ⎠ −1 0 ≤ θ ≤ 180 Components of a vector parallel/perpendicular to a line A|| = A cos θ A|| = A cos θ u = ( A ⋅ u)u Dr.

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 .Real Applications Dr.Lec. 1-3 36 .Ch.

Ch.Ch 3. Force System Resultants Moment of a Force Moment: A measure of the tendency of the force to cause a body to rotate about a point or axis Dr. 1-3 37 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 .Lec.

Ch.Lec. 1 .Moment of a Force Scalar Formulation Magnitude: M O = Fd Direction: Right-Hand Rule Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 38 .

1 . 1-3 39 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Resultant Moment of a System of Coplanar Forces All forces are in the same plane (x-y) Resultant Moment: Algebraic sum of each moment created by each force CCW = +z CW = -z + M RO = ΣFd Dr.Ch.Lec.

Ch.Real Example Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 40 . 1 .Lec.

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Cross Product The result is a vector The order of multiplication does matter Magnitude: C = AB sin θ Direction: C = A × B = ( AB sin θ )uC Dr. 1-3 41 . 1 .Ch.Lec.

Cross Product Laws of Operation Not Commutative A×B ≠ B× A A × B = −B × A Multiplication by a scalar a( A × B) = (aA) × B = A × (aB) = ( A × B)a Distributive Law: A × (B + D) = ( A × B) + ( A × D) Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 .Lec. 1-3 42 .Ch.

Cross Product Cartesian Vector Formulation i × i = j× j = k × k = 0 i × j = k j×k = i k × i = j j× i = −k k × j = −i i × k = −j A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k B = Bx i + By j + Bz k i A × B = Ax Bx Dr. 1 .Ch. 1-3 43 .Lec. Ali Keshavarz j Ay By k Az = ( Ay Bz − Az By )i − ( Ax Bz − Az Bx ) j + ( Ax By − Ay Bx )k Bz MINUS SIGN Important! Strength of Materials .

Moment of a Force Vector Formulation The moment of force F about point O The moment of force F about the moment axis passing through O and perpendicular to the plane containing O and F MO = r × F r is the position vector from O to any point lying on the line of action of F Magnitude: Direction: Right-hand rule M O = rF sin θ = F (r sin θ ) = Fd Dr.Ch. 1-3 44 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 .Lec.

B. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . or C F is a sliding vector M O = rA × F = rB × F = rC × F Dr. 1 . 1-3 45 . Therefore.Ch. F can be applied at A.Principle of Transmissibility The force F applied at point A creates a moment about O M O = rA × F r can extend from O to any point on the line of action of force F.Lec.

Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 .Moment of a Force Cartesian Vector Formulation r = rx i + ry j + rz k F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k i M O = r × F = rx Fx ( M O )x j ry Fy k rz Fz (MO )y ( M O )z = (ry Fz − rz Fy ) i −(rx Fz − rz Fx ) j +(rx Fy − ry Fx ) k = (M O ) x i + (M O ) y j + (M O ) z k Dr. 1-3 46 .Lec.

1 .Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 47 .Lec.Resultant Moment of A System of Forces M RO = Σ(r × F ) Dr.

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 .Lec.Real Applications Dr. 1-3 48 .Ch.

1 .Lec.Principle of Moments Varignon’s Theorem: The moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of the moments of the force’s components about the point F = F1 + F2 M O = r × F1 + r × F2 = r × (F1 + F2 ) = r×F Why is this important? Easier to find moments of components Dr. 1-3 49 .Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .

Moment of a Force about a Specified Axis: Scalar Analysis The moment vector and its axis is always perpendicular to the plane that contains the force and the moment arm It is sometimes important to find the component of this moment along a specified axis that passes through this point (Moment may be given or not) If the line of action of a force F is perpendicular to any specified axis aa.Ch. then the magnitude of the moment of F about the axis can be determined from the equation M a = Fd a Direction: Right-hand rule Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 . 1-3 50 .Lec.

Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Real Example Dr.Lec. 1-3 51 . 1 .

1 .Lec.Moment of a Force about a Specified Axis: Vector Analysis rA = (0.Ch. 1-3 52 .4 j) × (−20k ) = −8i + 6 j Nm M y = MO ⋅ u A = (−8i + 6 j) ⋅ j = 6 Nm Dr.3i + 0.3i + 0.4 j) m F = −20k N M O = rA × F = (0. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .

Lec.Ch. 1 . Ali Keshavarz Resultant moment about aa’ axis of series of forces 53 Strength of Materials .Moment about Specified Axis: Generalized Vector Analysis M a = u a ⋅ (r × F ) = (r × F) ⋅ u a i M a = (uax i + ua y j + uaz k ) ⋅ rx Fx uax M a = u a ⋅ (r × F) = rx Fx ua y ry Fy j ry Fy uaz rz Fz k rz Fz M a = M a u a = [u a ⋅ (r × F)]u a M a = Σ[u a ⋅ (r × F )] = u a ⋅ Σ(r × F) Dr. 1-3 .

Couple Defined
A couple is defined as two parallel forces that have the same magnitude, have opposite directions, and are separated by a perpendicular distance d. Since the resultant force is zero, only effect of a couple is to produce a rotation (or tendency of rotation) in a specified direction

Dr. Ali Keshavarz

Strength of Materials - Lec. 1 - Ch. 1-3

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Moment of a Couple (Couple Moment)
M O = rA × (−F) + (rB × F )

MA = r×F M A = (rB − rA ) × F
r

O is any point

Free vector (can act at any point) Scalar Formulation: M = Vector Formulation:

Fd

r is crossed with the force F to which it is directed

M = r×F
Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials - Lec. 1 - Ch. 1-3 55

Equivalent Couples Resultant Couple Moment
Equivalent Couples. Two couples are said to be equivalent if they produce to same moment. Forces of equal couples lie either in the same plane on in planes that are parallel to one another Resultant Couple Moment

M R = M1 + M 2

M R = Σ(r × F )

Dr. Ali Keshavarz

Strength of Materials - Lec. 1 - Ch. 1-3

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Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 57 .Real Examples Dr.Lec. 1 .

Equivalent System: Point O is on the Line of Action of Force Simply force F can be moved from point A to point O. Principle of transmissibility External effects: Remain unchanged. 1-3 58 . 1 . i. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .e.Lec..Ch. support forces Internal effects: Higher intensity around A than O We will study in Mechanics of Materials Dr.

1 .Lec.Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 59 . the couple introduced creates a moment. Dr. Force F is now acting at point O with a couple moment created on the body. However. can act at any point of the body: P or O or A. This is a free vector. couple moment.Equivalent System: Point O is not on the Line of Action of Force Force F can be moved from point A to point O.

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 60 . 1 .Ch.Equivalent System Concepts Illustrated Dr.Lec.

FR = F1 + F2 The resultant force and M RO = M C + M1 + M 2 moment: Generalized: FR = ΣF M RO = ΣM C + ΣM O Dr.Lec. 1 .Ch. Mc can be moved to O since it is a free vector. Ali Keshavarz FRx = ΣFx FRy = ΣFy M RO = ΣM C + ΣM O 61 Strength of Materials .Resultant of a Force and Couple System When F is moved to O. moments M1 and M2 are created. 1-3 .

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Resultant Force and Couple Moment Concept Illustrated Dr.Ch.Lec. 1-3 62 . 1 .

1 .Lec.Further Reduction of a Force and Couple System: Single Resultant Force Special Case Only: FR and MRO are perpendicular to each other Dr. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1-3 63 .Ch.

Lec.Ch. 1-3 64 . there is no resultant couple moment and only resultant force that is the sum of all forces Dr.Concurrent Force Systems Since all forces intersect at the point P. 1 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .

Coplanar Force Systems: 2D FR = ΣF M RO = ΣM C + Σ(r × F ) d= M RO FR Dr.Lec.Ch. Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials . 1 . 1-3 65 .

Ch. FR = ΣF M RO = ΣM C + Σ(r × F ) d= M RO FR Dr. 1 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Parallel Force Systems Couple moments are perpendicular to the forces.Lec. 1-3 66 .

Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .Ch. 1-3 67 .Lec.Parallel Force Systems Illustrated Dr. 1 .

1 .Lec.Ch.Reduction to a Wrench Dr. 1-3 68 . Ali Keshavarz Strength of Materials .