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Alkylation Refining process for converting light, gaseous olefins into high-octane gasoline components (reverse of cracking). Aromatics Class of hydrocarbons that have at least one benzene ring as part of their structure. Generally describes benzene and benzene derivatives. Associated Gas Natural gas associated with oil accumulations, either dissolved in oil or found as a cap of free gas above oil in reservoir.
Benzene An aromatic hydrocarbon present to a minor degree in most crude oils. (Products manufactured from benzene include styrene, phenol, nylon and synthetic detergents.) Butane (C4H10) Either of two saturated hydrocarbons, or alkanes, with chemical formula. In both compounds carbon atoms are joined in an open chain. Carbon Atomic number is 6; element is in group 14 (or IVa) of periodic table. Carbon content of a hydrocarbon determines, to a degree, hydrocarbon's burning characteristics and qualities. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Colourless, odourless, and slightly acid-tasting gas, sometimes-called carbonic acid gas, molecule of which consists of one atom of carbon joined to two atoms of oxygen. Carbon dioxide in atmosphere tends to prevent escape of outgoing long-wave radiation from Earth to outer space; as more heat is produced and less escapes, temperature of Earth increases. Most important man-made greenhouse gas in UK accounting for 81% of direct global warming potential from national greenhouse emissions in 1990. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Chemical compound of carbon and oxygen. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Synthetic chemical that is odourless, non-toxic, nonflammable, and chemically inert. Released into atmosphere, chlorine-containing chemicals rise and are broken down by
sunlight, whereupon chlorine reacts with and destroys ozone molecules. Coal During Carboniferous period much of world was covered with vegetation growing in swamps. This vegetation died and became submerged under water. As decomposition took place, vegetable matter lost oxygen and hydrogen atoms, leaving a peat deposit with a high percentage of carbon. As time passed, layers of sand and mud settled from water over some of peat deposits. Pressure of these overlying layers, as well as movements of earth's crust and sometimes volcanic heat, acted to compress and harden deposits, thus producing coal. Condensate Liquid mixture of pentane and higher hydrocarbons.
Esters Compounds formed by combination of acids and alcohols. Water Based Mud (WBM). flushing rock cuttings from bottom of well bore to surface. Ethanol Chemical formed by fermentation or synthesis. Drilling Mud Nomenclature Oil Based Mud (OBM). Pseudo Oil Based Mud (POBM). . Dry gas Or Lean gas is natural gas composed mainly of methane. Drilling mud provides circulation.Drilling Mud / Fluid Mixture of base substance and additives used to lubricate drill bit and to counter act natural pressure in formation.
Ethene Or Ethylene simplest member of class of aliphatic organic compounds called alkenes. Gasoline Mixture of lighter liquid hydrocarbons used chiefly as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. or by polymerisation of hydrocarbons of lower molecular weight. slightly sweet-smelling gas of formula H2C=CH2. by thermal or catalytic decomposition of petroleum or its fractions. by condensation or adsorption from natural gas. Produced by fractional distillation of petroleum. which contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Ethylene is a colourless. . It is slightly soluble in water and is produced in commercial amounts by cracking and fractional distillation of petroleum and from natural gas. by hydrogenation of producer gas or coal.
CFCs. halons and ozone). methane.Greenhouse Gases Gases that alter thermal properties of atmosphere (for example. Halons Halogenated carbon compounds used in fire extinguishing equipment and contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion. nitrous oxide. water vapour. Hydrocarbons . Being phased out under Montreal Protocol. Hexane Petroleum liquid found in small amounts in condensates. carbon dioxide. Heavy oil Long chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms.
colourless. liquid and solid hydrocarbons. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) . Lightest of all gases. usually in presence of a catalyst. odourless.Family of organic compounds. crude oil and natural gas). Element is usually classed in group 1 (or Ia) of periodic table. coal. and tasteless gaseous element with atomic number of 1. Light oil Shorter chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Hydrogen (H) Reactive. Hydrogenation Reacting coal with hydrogen at high pressures. composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen (for example. hydrogen combines with carbon to form a variety of gaseous.
liquefied under pressure and low temperature. and mixtures of these gases. . Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Issued by manufacturer of chemical substances that sets out hazards likely to be encountered by those who come into contact with substance. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Pressure or refrigeration liquefies lighter hydrocarbons. Added to natural gas for safety reasons. pentane. Mercaptans Strong-smelling compounds of carbon. butane. mainly methane.Gas. such as propane. hydrogen and sulphur found in oil and gas.
first member of paraffin or alkane series of hydrocarbons. Natural Gas Gas. often found in association with oil. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) . occurring naturally. Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Liquid hydrocarbons found in association with natural gas. Oil and gas production accounted for 2% of national emissions in 1990. gas composed of carbon and hydrogen.Methane (CH4) Also marsh gas. Methane contributed 12% (counting both direct and indirect global warming effects) of UK national greenhouse gas emissions in 1990.
Ozone Allotropic form of oxygen having three atoms in each molecule. Examples are ethylene and propylene.Nitrous Oxide contributed 5% of direct global warming potential from UK national greenhouse gas emissions in 1990. Oil Mixture of liquid hydrocarbons of different molecular weights. Olefins Basic chemicals made from oil or natural gas liquids feed stocks. Ozone formed in atmosphere from nitrogen oxides and organic gases emitted by automobiles and industrial sources. . formula O3. commonly used to manufacture plastics and gasoline.
Pentane One of lighter hydrocarbons. Purified residue is obtained in form of a yellowish or decolourised semisolid. Petroleum Generic name for hydrocarbons. known as mineral oil. tasteless. and mixtures of these gases are liquefied and employed as fuels. NGLs. greasy substance. known as petroleum jelly in form of a clear to faintly yellow liquid. natural gas and their products. . obtained as residue from petroleum after lighter and more volatile components have been boiled off. such as propane and butane. including crude oil. Petrolatum Odourless.
heavy fuel oil. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) . and paraffin consist principally of mixtures of paraffin hydrocarbons. kerosene. It occurs in crude oil. Sour gas Natural gas containing significant quantities of hydrogen sulphide.Petroleum products Gasoline. petroleum jelly. in natural gas. lubricating oils. which range from lighter liquid members to solid members. odourless gas of alkane series of hydrocarbons. Propane (C3H8) Colourless. and as a by-product of petroleum refining.
Acts as a precursor in formation of sulphate aerosols which. unlike greenhouse gases. have a net negative radiative forcing effect and tend to cool Earth's surface. Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) Gases made from coals and other hydrocarbon-containing substances. Environmental Air Emissions . Wet Gas Natural gas having significant amounts of heavier hydrocarbons in gasoline range.
Environmental controls Put in place to meet or exceed legal requirements and to minimise impact on environment.Waste gases. including living systems therein. vapours and small particles released into air. Environmental Management Systems (EMS) . Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Part of project management concerned with identifying through a formal written technical evaluation likely impact (positive and negative) of a proposed development or activity on natural and man-made environment. Environment External surroundings and conditions in which a company or an individual operates or which may effect.
Generic Hazard Hazard which may be generally present throughout an operation or industry. Reasonably Practicable Risk reduced to levels such that further risk reduction measures would be so disproportionate to probability and consequence that it would be objectively unreasonable to implement them. physical effect.A process that examines environmental factors and activities or processes that industry uses. depending on specific site characteristics. but which may have widely different levels of risk. property or environment. . Hazard Object. or a condition with potential to harm persons.
Potential effect of each hazard. should be considered to determine effort required to make site as safe as reasonably practicable. how serve it might be and likelihood of it occurring.Risk Measure of likelihood of occurrence of an undesirable event and of potentially adverse consequences. Exploration Aero-magnetic surveys . Risk Management System that eliminates or mitigates threat from hazards. Risk Assessment Careful consideration by competent persons of hazards associated with a task.
towed by aircraft. Compressed air is released from a chamber to produce shock waves in earth.Magnetometers. Annulus Appraisal drilling Drilling to determine physical extent. Air gun Air gun array is most common technique used for seismic surveying offshore. . help to detect magnetic anomalies or to distinguish geologic features that might appear similar from seismic data alone. reserves and likely production rate of a reservoir. Appraisal well A well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling programme. together with properties of oil or gas.
together as a group.Bottom-hole assembly Components. Casing Seat . control well pressures. that make up lower end of drill-string (drill bit.lowest point at which casing is set. Casing Steel lining used to exclude unwanted fluids. drill collars. drill pipe and ancillary equipment). support sides of well bore. Capping Tightly closing a well so that hydrocarbons cannot escape. part of casing that protrudes above surface and to which control valves and flow pipes are attached. Cement .top of casing set in well. Casing head .
. Circulation Techniques for bringing cuttings from bottom of well bore to surface by continuously pumping drilling mud down through drill-string and up annulus during rotary drilling. Choke Device to restrict rate of flow during testing of an exploratory discovery. Coiled tubing Used to carry production tubing to bottom of well. Compensator Keeps drill-sting stationary while semi-submersible and derrick move.Pumped into space between casing and well bore wall in order to hold casing in place.
Derrick Elongated pyramid of latticed steel mounted over bore hole for suspending and rotating drill pipes. Deep-Water Discovery An offshore discovery located in at least 200 metres of water.Conductor Wide-diameter pipe from drilling platform to sea-bed to guide drilling and contain drilling fluid. Down hole . Discovery well An exploratory well that finds hydrocarbons.
Drill bits used for extra-hard rock are studded with thousands of tiny industrial diamonds. Drill bit Located at end of drill-string cutting head is generally designed with three cone-shaped wheels tipped with hardened teeth. To facilitate removal of cuttings. Drill cuttings Lifted continually to surface during drilling by a circulating-fluid system driven by a pump. out through nozzles in drill bit. equipment and instruments used in well bore. Drill collars Heavy pipe-sections that put weight on drill bit. and then up to surface through space between drill pipe and well . mud is constantly circulated down through drill pipe.A term to describe tools.
Exploration Search for hydrocarbons by Geological and Geophysical (G&G) surveys that may be followed by exploration drilling. Dry Hole Unsuccessful well. Exploration well . Drilling Muds / Fluid Drill-string Series of connected 9 metre length drill pipes (joints).bore through earth (diameter of bit is somewhat greater than that of pipe). drilled without finding commercial quantities of hydrocarbons.
Gravity surveys Measure density variations in local rock masses. Farm-in Transfer of part of an oil or gas interest in consideration for an agreement by transferee(s) to meet certain expenditure that would otherwise have to be undertaken by licensee(s). Geophysics Branch of science that applies physical principles to study of planet earth. Surveys are based on use of a gravimeter down bore holes. Horizontal Drilling .Drilling to determine whether hydrocarbons are present.
Technique for cutting a bore hole in geological strata in a horizontal, rather than normal vertical, direction. (see also Horizontal well) Kick Back pressure in well from invading oil / gas / water. Killing a well Filling bore with drilling mud of suitable density to stop flow of oil / gas. Liner Small diameter casing extending into producing layer from just inside bottom of final string of casing cemented in a well. Modular formation dynamics tester
Measures fluid pressures and collects small samples in a well. Plugging Process whereby a well that is no longer needed is filled with concrete and abandoned. (see PA). Rotary Drilling Being coupled to rotating table on derrick floor rotates drill-string. Rotary Table / Drilling Table Turning device on derrick floor in which drill-string is held and rotated. Round trip Complete process of pulling out and running in drill-string.
Seismic surveys Measurements of seismic-wave travel. Seismic exploration is divided into refraction and reflection surveys, depending on whether the predominant portion of the seismic waves' travel is horizontal or vertical. Refraction seismic surveys are used in exploration. Seismic reflection surveys detect boundaries between different kinds of rocks; this detection assists in mapping of geologic structures. (See also 3DSeismic.) Shale shaker Drilling mud passed over to sieve out cuttings. Sidetrack Drilling A remedial operation that results in creation of a new section of well bore for purpose of detouring around "junk", redrilling a lost hole or straightening crooked holes.
Spud Commencement of drilling operations. Suspended discovery An oil or gas field identified by a discovery well but not being produced or developed. Three-dimensional Seismic / 3-D Seismic Three-dimensional images created by bouncing sound waves off underground rock formations; used to determine best places to drill for hydrocarbons. Top drive Powerful electric motor that rotates whole drill-string from top down. Tripping in / out
Re-insertion of drill-string / Withdrawing drill-string. Upstream Well completion Well Nomenclature (E&A) Appraisal (APP) Deviated (DEVW) Discovery (DISC) Exploration (EXP) Junked & Abandoned (JA) Plugged & Abandoned (PA) Re-entry (RE) Suspended (SP) Testing (TE) Tight Hole (TIGHT) .
(Term wildcatter comes from West Texas. exploitation and appraisal of licence areas not yet under development or in production.Wildcat Exploration well drilled in an unproven area. Shot wildcats were hung on oil derricks. where in early 1920s drilling crews encountered many wildcats as they cleared locations for exploratory wells. Appraisal expenditure Costs incurred in survey.) Fiscal Abandonment Allowance (AA) A 100% allowance for expenditure incurred in respect of abandoning a field. . and wells became known as wildcat wells.
. or expects to have. E&A expenditures incurred in bringing a field to commercial production and is defined as tangible assets. Conveying & Treating (C&T) Services provided by a field to other fields in vicinity. PRT profits in another taxable field. Development expenditure All costs including financing costs.Commercial field Field judged to be capable of producing sufficient net income to be worth developing. Cross Field Allowance (CFA) An element (up to 10%) of immediate relief for qualifying field development costs where a participator on a new taxable development has.
Exploration expenditure All costs. drilling of exploratory wells and other costs incurred in evaluating commercial viability of geological entities. Marginal Field A field that may not produce enough net income to make it worth developing at a given time. such a field may become commercial. associated with acquisition of new acreage. including premium payments. should technical or economic conditions change. Mineral Extraction Allowance (MEA) .Discount rate Used to convert future income / expenditure to its present day value.
Oil Taxation Act Came into force in 1975.Expenditure on mineral exploration and access and certain costs in acquiring mineral assets may be relieved by way of MEA. Only to fields where Annex B consent was first given before 18 March 1993. but cannot be used to create a tax loss. Net present value (NPV) Discounted value of future cash flow. Oil Allowance A gross production relief that reduces effective PRT rate. introducing PRT Petroleum Revenue Tax (PRT) Applies to UK oil production and associated profits of licensees. .
Scientific research allowances (SRA) .Research expenditure allowance (R&D) Relief makes allowable against a participator's liability for any field. Revenue expenses General and administrative (G&A) costs of a revenue nature and intangible development drilling costs are usually deducted in full as incurred. R&D costs that do not became allowable in a particular field within three years of being incurred. Royalty payments As part of some early UKCS licence round conditions there was an obligation to pay a royalty on "value of the petroleum" which is deductible in computing PRT and CT .
Value Added Tax (VAT) . Tariff Receipt Allowance (TRA) Participators in owner field share an allowance equivalent to 250.000 tonnes of throughput per chargeable period for each taxable user field. Tariff Payments made by fields to other fields that provide transportation and / or processing of production.Whether of a capital nature or otherwise (costs of exploration work) qualifies for full write-off as incurred. Spot market International market in which oil or oil products are traded for immediate delivery at current (spot) price.
Cap Rock . Aquifer Underground zone of permeable rock saturated with water under pressure. Geological Anticline Fold in layered rocks originating below surface in form of an elongated dome. Capillaries Minute spaces.Introduced at 8% on UK domestic fuel and power in April 1994. cracks or pores in rock through which hydrocarbon fluids move in response to natural forces.
Fault A line of fracture along which one body of rock or section of Earth's crust has been displaced relative to another.65 million years ago. Carboniferous Period of geological time about 400 . .300 million years ago.Impervious layer which overlies a reservoir rock preventing hydrocarbons escaping.300 million years ago. Devonian Period of geological time about 400 . Cretaceous Period of geological time about 144 .
materials forming it. Jurassic . cemented sandstone or salt) where cracks and pore spaces are very small or are blocked by mineral growth. Impermeable Fluids cannot flow through rocks (clays. its history. Igneous rocks Formed from solidification of molten magma. and processes that are acting and have acted on it. its shape. Geology Field of science concerned with origin of planet Earth.Formation Pressure Water underlying gas and oil in formation.
Magma Molten material that makes up Earth's crust. Pay Zone .Period of geological time about 213 . Oligocene Third division of Tertiary period spanning an interval from about 40 to 25 million years ago. Mature When source rock starts to generate hydrocarbons. Miocene Fourth division of Tertiary period spanning a time interval from 26 to 12 million years ago.144 million years ago.
Permian Period of geological time about 285 .Stratum of rock in which hydrocarbons are found. Play Group of fields with similar trap structures / reservoir rock. . Plate Tectonics Earth's solid crust is broken up into about a dozen semirigid plates. Permeable Cracks and pore spaces between the rock particles (such as porous sandstone or fractured limestone) are interconnected and are large enough to permit fluid movement.248 million years ago. boundaries of which are zones of tectonic activity.
Earliest division of time for which rock strata are recognised. also known as Ice Age.Pleistocene Division of Quaternary period. Precambrian Rocks older than 600 million years.64 million years ago. Quaternary Period of geological time about 1. Pliocene Fifth and most recent division of Tertiary period on geologic time scale from about 12 million to 2 million years ago. Seal or Cap .
Rocks (salt. Structural traps . Sedimentary rock Formed by consolidation of deposits formed by settlement of sand. Stratigraphic traps Originate where suitable combination of rock types is deposited in a particular environment. silt. and other materials. clays or cemented sandstone) in right shapes and relative positions to form traps. Source rocks Rocks containing sufficient organic substances to generate hydrocarbons.
Subsalt Refers to rock formations lying beneath long.Formed by Earth movements that fold rocks into suitable shapes or juxtapose reservoir and sealing rocks along faults. Timescale Trap Geological structure in which hydrocarbons build up to from an oil or gas field.64 million years ago. horizontal layers of salt. .1. These rock formations may contain hydrocarbons. Traps may also form when rocks are domed over rising salt masses. Tertiary Period of geological time about 65 .
Triassic Period of geological time about 248 . BNOC British National Oil Corporation set up 1976 abolished 1985. Consortium . Legislation Annex B Development plan approval to develop and produce from a commercial field.213 million years ago.
XVII . II Economic and Financial Affairs. XI Environment. for example.Industry. Continental Shelf Act Passed by UK Parliament in 1964 DETR DG Directorate General (department of EU Commission with responsibilities in a certain field.A group of unrelated companies acting together in a specific venture (Licence application).Energy). III . DTI Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) .
a necessary first step. Portugal on 17 December 1994. agreed to return its emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by 2000 . Licence . Gas Act 1995 Enabled final liberalisation of gas market by creating licensing framework for new entrants into domestic UK market. along with other developed countries. EU European Union Framework Convention on Climate Change UK signed Framework convention at Rio in 1992 and.Signed by 45 governments and EU in Lisbon.
Licence Nomenclature (UKCS) Licence (P) Licence Round . Licence Nomenclature (UK Onshore) Appraisal Licence (AL) Development Licence (DL) Mining Licences (ML) PEDL Production Licences (PL) Supplementary Seismic Licence (SSSL) Exploration Licences (XL).Right to explore for and exploit hydrocarbon reserves within a defined area.
or. Licensee(s) Companies that Government believes are capable of satisfying various conditions of a Licence. if a member of a consortium. . Operator Company which operates a Licence. development or production). PEDL Petroleum Exploration and Development Licence. Takes primary responsibility for day-to-day operations for an activity (exploration. New single licence came into effect in 1995 (Seventh Round) for onshore UK Licensing.Period during which Government offers and then allocates a number of specified areas (Blocks or part Blocks) within its national boundaries. either on its own behalf. on behalf of Licensees.
Occurs where a field lies under different licences with differing equity interests. Measurement API gravity . which is then operated by a single company on behalf of group. UKCS Key Dates Unitisation When licensees of oil and/or gas reserves pool their individual interests in return for an interest in overall unit.Petroleum (Production) Act 1934 Onshore legislation which vested in Crown ownership of all petroleum (oil and natural gas) existing in natural conditions in strata in Great Britain.
Bar One bar = 100 kPa Barrel (bbl) 7. 1.176 Mboe) bcm . Atmospheric pressure Weight of atmosphere on surface of Earth.29 bbls = One cubic metre: One bbl = 159 litres approx.Scale used to express specific gravity of oils.3 bbls = One tonne: 6. Higher API gravity.013 bars. bcf Billion Cubic Feet (One bcf = 0. lighter oil. At sea level approx.
bopd / boe bbls of oil per day / bbls of oil equivalent.Billion Cubic Metres (One bcm = 0. 200 250 sq. Brent blend International marker for crude oil pricing based on a blend of North Sea crudes.83 MToe) Billion One thousand million (109) Block UKCS acreage one thirtieth of a quadrant (approx. at one-degree intervals. Generally defined in terms of latitude and longitude. British Thermal Unit (BTU) . kms).
400 MJ Candela SI unit of light intensity defined as 1/60 of the light radiated from a sq.293 watt-hour Calorific equivalents One cubic foot of gas = 1000 BTUs = 1055. cm of a blackbody.One BTU or Btu = 1.05506 kJ = 0. Cubic foot Standard unit used to measure quantity of gas at atmospheric pressure (One cubic foot = 0. held at the temperature of freezing platinum. a perfect radiator that absorbs no light.0283 cubic metres). .06 kJ Approx. one million tonnes of oil = 40 x 1012 BTUs = 40.
31 cubic feet).Cubic metre SI unit used to measure quantity of gas at atmospheric pressure (One cubic metre = 35. Gas Oil Ratio (GOR) Volume of gas at atmospheric pressure produced per unit of oil produced. Joule (j) . Dead Weight (dwt) Difference between loaded and unloaded weights of a ship. Exposure Measurement of time during which subject is at risk from a hazard.
0102 kg / sq.412 BTU = 860 kcal = 0. Kilopascal (kPa) Defined as pressure of 0. Kilocalorie (kcal) One thousand calories. One thousand grams.0949 cubic metres of gas) m / mcf Thousands / Thousands of Cubic Feet (of Gas) . Gigajoule = One million joules = 278 kWh. cm Kilowatt-hour (kWh) One kWh = 3.6 MJ = 3.Derived SI unit of work or energy. Kilogram (kg) SI unit of mass.
mm / M Millions mmbbls / mmboe Million bbls / Million bbls of oil equivalent mmscf / mmscfd Millions of Standard Cubic Feet (of Gas) / Millions of Standard Cubic Feet per Day (of Gas) MtC Million tonnes of carbon MtCH4 Million tonnes of methane MtCO2 .
ppb / ppm parts per billion / parts per million psi Pounds per square inch One psi = 6.Million tonnes of carbon dioxide Mboe / MToe Million bbls of oil equivalent / Million tonnes of oil equivalent Oil Equivalent Method of assessing work of calorific value of different sources of energy in terms of one tonne of oil. . 30 Blocks to Quadrant.89 kPa Quadrant UKCS acreage one degree by one degree.
kms / Km2) 1000 metres x 1000 metres.3861 sq. miles Square Miles One Sq Mile (640 acres) = 2. One Km2 (100 hectares) = 0.590 Km2 . Adopted for international use under Le Système International d'Unités. now employed for all scientific and most technical purposes.Specific Gravity Ratio of density of a substance at a particular temperature to density of water. Square kilometres (Sq. SI unit Self-consistent system of measurement units based on the MKS (metre-kilogram-second) system.
tcf Trillion (a million million) Cubic Feet (of Gas) Tonne (t) Metric tonne = 1000 kilograms Watt (W) Power which in one second gives rise to energy of one joule (j). production and transportation facilities and restoration of depleted . Gigawatt (GW) = Thousand megawatts. Kilowatt (kW) = One kW = 1000 watts. Production Abandonment / Decommissioning Process of dismantling wellhead. Megawatt (MW) = One million watts.
Acid stimulation Form of hydrochloric acid is pumped down well hole to enlarge pore space in oil bearing rocks to increase flow and recovery. Air injection An enhanced recovery technique in which air is injected into hydrocarbon formation to increase reservoir pressure. Acoustic log Record of time taken by a sound wave to travel over a certain distance through geological formations. Annulus .producing areas in accordance with licence requirements and /or legislation.
Casing perforation Holes made in liner of a finished well to allow hydrocarbons to flow into production tube. for example. pipelines and storage tanks. Christmas tree . installations offshore. for bringing oil to surface. Cathodic protection Method used to minimise rate of electrochemical corrosion of structures. other than natural drives. Blow-down Condensate and gas produced simultaneously from outset of production.Artificial lift Any techniques.
Closed-in Descriptive of a well that is capable of producing. or where product of two or more fields is transported via a common pipeline. gauges and valves on top end of each production well to control flow of oil or gas. Commingling Producing oil and gas from two or more reservoirs at different depths.Branching series of pipes. Delineation well . Coiled tubing Used to carry production equipment to bottom of well. but is not currently producing.
Drilled at a distance from a discovery well to determine physical extent. reserves and likely production rate of a new oil or gas field. Downstream . Development well A production well drilled with intent of producing oil or gas from a proven field. Development Phase on which a proven oil or gas field is brought into production by drilling production (development) wells. Deviated well Horizontal well drilled at an angle (over 80 degrees) to vertical.
Field Nomenclature Field ceased production (FCP) Field under development (FUD) Field in production (FIP) Flaring and venting . Enhanced reach Deviated wells (over 65 degrees) from vertical and reach out horizontally more than twice vertical depth.Dual Completion A well completed to produce from two separate reservoirs. Field Geographical area under which an oil or gas reservoir lies.
Venting is release of gases to atmosphere.Flaring is burning of hydrocarbon gases for commercial or technical reasons. Gas Cap In field containing both gas and oil. with greater proportion of gas. some gas will often collect at top of reservoir in a single deposit. Condensate appears when gas in drawn from well. Gas/Condensate field Reservoir containing both natural gas and oil. Gas field . and its temperature and pressure change sufficiently for some of it to became liquid petroleum. Flare Stack Steel structure on an offshore installation or at a processing facility from which gas is flared.
but no oil. Gas lift Gas from same or nearby field is mixed with oil in tubing to lessen weight of liquid column.Field containing natural gas. Gas gathering system Central collection point for offshore gas fields. In this way rate of production of crude oil also can be increased. Production is then piped to central processing system onshore. Gas Oil Ratio (GOR) Gas Processing . Gas Injection (GI) Associated gas is pumped back into a reservoir to maintain reservoir pressure.
Separation of oil and gas. Gas Treatment Removal of impurities. hydrogen sulphide and NGLs from natural gas. and removal of impurities and NGLs from natural gas. condensate. Gravity Structures Either concrete or hybrid (concrete base and steel legs and superstructure) structures that due to weight rest on seabed or piled into it. Horizontal well Used when reservoir permeability is low or hydrocarbons are being produced from vertical fractures in rock. Jacket .
diesel. mud. oil and gas separation. Marine Riser Pipe connecting offshore installation to a subsea wellhead or pipeline for drilling or production purposes. storage. Multilateral well More than one horizontal section drilled in one well. Module Self-contained box or package built with a specific purpose (for example.Supporting (concrete base or steel legs) structure for an offshore installation. . Used to maximise number of wells that can be drilled from small installations. platform power generation. filter and exhaust) located on production installations. gas compression. well head.
Oil in Place (OIP) Estimation of real amount of oil in a reservoir.Odorant Substance (for example mercaptan) added to odourless natural gas or NGLs to enable detection. Higher value than recoverable reserves of reservoir. Pig . Offshore Oil Loading Nomenclature Single buoy mooring (SBM) Single point mooring (SPM) Exposed location single buoy mooring (ELSBM) Spar Enables offshore loading with vessel swinging to present least resistance to prevailing wind or current conditions.
(Intelligent pig .Device for cleaning a pipeline or separating two liquids being moved down pipeline. it is always followed by declining level of production. Pipeline A pipe through which natural gas. Platform .) Piling Long steel piles driven into the seabed to anchor fixed offshore structures solidly in place. either onshore or offshore.fitted with sensors to check for corrosion or defects in pipelines. crude oil or petroleum products are pumped between two points. Plateau Level of peak oil or gas field production.
Platform Nomenclature Tension Leg Platform (TLP) Minimum Facility Platform (MINF) Not Normally Attended Installation (NNAI) Gravity based structures (GBS) Accommodation (ACCOM) Compression (COMP) Drilling (DRIL) Riser (RISE) Preventative maintenance Maintenance carried out prior to unit or system failure.Fixed structure resting on seabed or piled into it. Primary Recovery .
Produced along side oil production. Production Drilling Drilling of wells in order to bring a field into production.(see also Secondary and Tertiary Recovery.) Produced Water Brines naturally present or injected into reservoir to enhance production. Production Installation An installation from which development wells are drilled and that carries all associated processing plants and other equipment needed to maintain a field in production. Production String .Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir using only natural reservoir pressure.
Determined by a various factors such as reservoir dimensions. Recovery Factor Ratio of recoverable oil and / or gas to estimated oil and / or gas in place in reservoir. and development plan. Reserves: Possible Reserves at present cannot be regarded as "probable". Secondary and Tertiary Recovery.Tubing or piping in a production well through which oil or gas flows from reservoir to wellhead. pressure. Reserves: Probable . nature of hydrocarbons.) Redetermination Retroactive adjustment to relative percentage interests of joint venturers in a field. (see also Primary.
Reservoir drive Powered by difference in pressures within reservoir and well. Reservoir engineering model . Reserves: Proven Reserves which on available evidence are virtually certain to be technically and economically producible. but are estimated to have a better than 50% chance of being technically and economically producible.Reserves not yet "proven". permeable rock formation in which hydrocarbons are present. porous. Reservoir Subsurface.
Subsea manifolds . Satellite Installation An offshore structure that depends on another installation for materials or services.Used to predict reservoir behaviour during production to enable selection of most efficient method of recovery. (see also Primary and Tertiary Recovery. Secondary Recovery Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir by increasing reservoir pressure by injecting gas or water into reservoir rock.) Slug catcher Plant installed in a gas pipeline system to catch unwanted "slugs" of liquid.
cranes. are installed. Tension Leg Platform A floating offshore structure held in position by a number of tension-maintaining cables anchored to seabed.Allows wells to be put on production without need to build a platform to operate and maintain wells. Substructure Support form of an offshore installation on which derrick. Sub-sea wellhead A wellhead installed on the sea floor and controlled remotely from a platform. a floating production facility or land. Terminal . Cables dampen wave action to keep platform stationary. helicopter pad. engines. etc.
Plant and equipment designed to receive and process crude oil or gas to remove water and impurities. for example. heating reservoir or enlarging pore spaces using chemicals. (see also Primary and Secondary Recovery) Tubing Piping installed in wells for production of oil and gas. Tertiary Recovery Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir by sophisticated methods.Onshore transit installation that receives oil or gas from offshore production facilities via pipeline and / or tankers. Upstream . Topsides Top of an installation positioned on jacket.
Pressure in reservoir as a whole can be maintained or increased and production can be maintained or increased. Well completion Well Nomenclature (Field) Development (DEV) Deviated (DEVW) Gas Injection (GI) Water Injection (WI). Workover Re-entry into a completed field well for modification or repair. Restoring well productivity by cleaning out .Water Injection (WI) Water is pumped into alternate wells in a field.
accumulations of sand. Safety Accident Any event which results in injury. BRIGHT EYE Regular UKCS exercise to test search and rescue capability. silt or other substances that clog production tubing. Competence . and / or damage. and / or loss. Blow-out Preventers (BOPs) High-pressure wellhead (top of casing) valves designed to shut-off flow of hydrocarbons to prevent blowouts (accidental escapes of oil or gas from a well).
Fatality Death due to work related injury / illness. Fatal Accident Frequency Rate (FAFR) Number of fatalities per 100 million man hours worked. Fatality Rate (FR) .Ability to perform particular job in compliance with performance standards. Danger Risk of injury Dangerous occurrence Readily identifiable event with potential to cause an accident or disease to persons at work and public or of significant actual of potential material damage.
third parties or assets. Hazard Incident An unplanned event or chain of events which has or could have caused injury or illness and / or damage or loss to environment.Number of fatalities per 1000 employees. Flash Point Lowest temperature at which vapour above a flammable liquid can be ignited. Injury . Gas Detector Instrument to detect presence of various gases.
Lost Time Injury Frequency (LTIF) . Lost Time Injury (LTI) Any work related injury or illness which prevents that person from doing any work day after accident. Injury Rate (IR) Number of injuries per one hundred employees. or from exposure to environmental factors. Injury Severity Rate (ISR) Number of days lost per one million man hours worked.Physical harm or damage to a person resulting from traumatic contact between body of person and an outside agency. Injury Frequency (IF) Number of injuries per million man hours worked.
but which was avoided by circumstances. Permit-to-Work (PTW) Formal written system used to control certain types of work which are identified as (potentially) hazardous. Near miss / accident Any event which had potential to cause injury and/or damage and or/loss.Number of LTIs recorded for a group of workers. per million hours worked by that group. Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) Equipment / clothing which offers protection against risks to health and safety. Reasonably Practicable .
crane platforms and support and accommodation bases in offshore drilling. as equipment and supply carriers. Crane Barge .Risk Risk Assessment Risk Management Vessels Barge Non-self-propelled marine vessel used as cargo tankers. and as submarine pipe-laying vessels.
Floating Production. Storage and Offloading Vessel (FPSO) Floating Production Vessel (FPV) Floating Storage Unit (FSU) Jack-up Rig Mobile drilling platform with retractable legs used in shallow waters less than 100 metres deep.Vessel capable of lifting heavy equipment onto / off offshore installations. . Positioned by dynamic positioning. Drill Ship Free floating mobile drilling platform used in very deep waters. Floating Vessel Nomenclature Floating accommodation for offshore personnel (Flotel).
Kept in position by anchors or dynamic positioning. . with insulated pressure tanks. Used in deeper waters down to 360 metres or more. Lightering Unloading cargo from large marine tankers into smaller tankers that can enter shallow-water ports. LNG Carrier Tanker.Lay barge Vessel specially equipped to lay submarine pipelines. Semi-submersible Rig Mobile drilling platform with floats or pontoons submerged to give stability while operating. designed to carry refrigerated LNG shipments.
TEMPSC Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Craft ULCC Ultra large crude carrier. VLCC Very large crude carrier. Oil tanker over 300. .000 tonnes dwt. Oil tanker over 200.000 tonnes dwt.
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