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Alkylation Refining process for converting light, gaseous olefins into high-octane gasoline components (reverse of cracking). Aromatics Class of hydrocarbons that have at least one benzene ring as part of their structure. Generally describes benzene and benzene derivatives. Associated Gas Natural gas associated with oil accumulations, either dissolved in oil or found as a cap of free gas above oil in reservoir.
Benzene An aromatic hydrocarbon present to a minor degree in most crude oils. (Products manufactured from benzene include styrene, phenol, nylon and synthetic detergents.) Butane (C4H10) Either of two saturated hydrocarbons, or alkanes, with chemical formula. In both compounds carbon atoms are joined in an open chain. Carbon Atomic number is 6; element is in group 14 (or IVa) of periodic table. Carbon content of a hydrocarbon determines, to a degree, hydrocarbon's burning characteristics and qualities. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Colourless, odourless, and slightly acid-tasting gas, sometimes-called carbonic acid gas, molecule of which consists of one atom of carbon joined to two atoms of oxygen. Carbon dioxide in atmosphere tends to prevent escape of outgoing long-wave radiation from Earth to outer space; as more heat is produced and less escapes, temperature of Earth increases. Most important man-made greenhouse gas in UK accounting for 81% of direct global warming potential from national greenhouse emissions in 1990. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Chemical compound of carbon and oxygen. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Synthetic chemical that is odourless, non-toxic, nonflammable, and chemically inert. Released into atmosphere, chlorine-containing chemicals rise and are broken down by
sunlight, whereupon chlorine reacts with and destroys ozone molecules. Coal During Carboniferous period much of world was covered with vegetation growing in swamps. This vegetation died and became submerged under water. As decomposition took place, vegetable matter lost oxygen and hydrogen atoms, leaving a peat deposit with a high percentage of carbon. As time passed, layers of sand and mud settled from water over some of peat deposits. Pressure of these overlying layers, as well as movements of earth's crust and sometimes volcanic heat, acted to compress and harden deposits, thus producing coal. Condensate Liquid mixture of pentane and higher hydrocarbons.
Drilling mud provides circulation. Esters Compounds formed by combination of acids and alcohols. Drilling Mud Nomenclature Oil Based Mud (OBM). . Ethanol Chemical formed by fermentation or synthesis. Dry gas Or Lean gas is natural gas composed mainly of methane. Pseudo Oil Based Mud (POBM). flushing rock cuttings from bottom of well bore to surface.Drilling Mud / Fluid Mixture of base substance and additives used to lubricate drill bit and to counter act natural pressure in formation. Water Based Mud (WBM).
by hydrogenation of producer gas or coal. Produced by fractional distillation of petroleum. Gasoline Mixture of lighter liquid hydrocarbons used chiefly as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. . Ethylene is a colourless. slightly sweet-smelling gas of formula H2C=CH2. which contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. It is slightly soluble in water and is produced in commercial amounts by cracking and fractional distillation of petroleum and from natural gas. by condensation or adsorption from natural gas.Ethene Or Ethylene simplest member of class of aliphatic organic compounds called alkenes. or by polymerisation of hydrocarbons of lower molecular weight. by thermal or catalytic decomposition of petroleum or its fractions.
Hydrocarbons . nitrous oxide. Hexane Petroleum liquid found in small amounts in condensates. CFCs. water vapour. carbon dioxide. halons and ozone). Being phased out under Montreal Protocol. Heavy oil Long chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms. methane. Halons Halogenated carbon compounds used in fire extinguishing equipment and contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion.Greenhouse Gases Gases that alter thermal properties of atmosphere (for example.
usually in presence of a catalyst. hydrogen combines with carbon to form a variety of gaseous. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) .Family of organic compounds. colourless. crude oil and natural gas). odourless. and tasteless gaseous element with atomic number of 1. Element is usually classed in group 1 (or Ia) of periodic table. liquid and solid hydrocarbons. Hydrogen (H) Reactive. Light oil Shorter chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms. composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen (for example. Hydrogenation Reacting coal with hydrogen at high pressures. Lightest of all gases. coal.
. Mercaptans Strong-smelling compounds of carbon. such as propane.Gas. mainly methane. and mixtures of these gases. Added to natural gas for safety reasons. liquefied under pressure and low temperature. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Pressure or refrigeration liquefies lighter hydrocarbons. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Issued by manufacturer of chemical substances that sets out hazards likely to be encountered by those who come into contact with substance. hydrogen and sulphur found in oil and gas. pentane. butane.
Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Liquid hydrocarbons found in association with natural gas. Methane contributed 12% (counting both direct and indirect global warming effects) of UK national greenhouse gas emissions in 1990.Methane (CH4) Also marsh gas. Oil and gas production accounted for 2% of national emissions in 1990. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) . occurring naturally. often found in association with oil. Natural Gas Gas. first member of paraffin or alkane series of hydrocarbons. gas composed of carbon and hydrogen.
Ozone Allotropic form of oxygen having three atoms in each molecule. formula O3.Nitrous Oxide contributed 5% of direct global warming potential from UK national greenhouse gas emissions in 1990. Examples are ethylene and propylene. commonly used to manufacture plastics and gasoline. Oil Mixture of liquid hydrocarbons of different molecular weights. Olefins Basic chemicals made from oil or natural gas liquids feed stocks. Ozone formed in atmosphere from nitrogen oxides and organic gases emitted by automobiles and industrial sources. .
Purified residue is obtained in form of a yellowish or decolourised semisolid. known as petroleum jelly in form of a clear to faintly yellow liquid. including crude oil. known as mineral oil. and mixtures of these gases are liquefied and employed as fuels. Petroleum Generic name for hydrocarbons. tasteless.Pentane One of lighter hydrocarbons. greasy substance. natural gas and their products. NGLs. such as propane and butane. Petrolatum Odourless. . obtained as residue from petroleum after lighter and more volatile components have been boiled off.
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) . which range from lighter liquid members to solid members. It occurs in crude oil. Sour gas Natural gas containing significant quantities of hydrogen sulphide. petroleum jelly. Propane (C3H8) Colourless. and paraffin consist principally of mixtures of paraffin hydrocarbons. and as a by-product of petroleum refining. in natural gas. heavy fuel oil. lubricating oils. odourless gas of alkane series of hydrocarbons. kerosene.Petroleum products Gasoline.
Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) Gases made from coals and other hydrocarbon-containing substances.Acts as a precursor in formation of sulphate aerosols which. unlike greenhouse gases. Wet Gas Natural gas having significant amounts of heavier hydrocarbons in gasoline range. have a net negative radiative forcing effect and tend to cool Earth's surface. Environmental Air Emissions .
including living systems therein. Environment External surroundings and conditions in which a company or an individual operates or which may effect. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Part of project management concerned with identifying through a formal written technical evaluation likely impact (positive and negative) of a proposed development or activity on natural and man-made environment. vapours and small particles released into air. Environmental Management Systems (EMS) .Waste gases. Environmental controls Put in place to meet or exceed legal requirements and to minimise impact on environment.
. Hazard Object. property or environment.A process that examines environmental factors and activities or processes that industry uses. Generic Hazard Hazard which may be generally present throughout an operation or industry. but which may have widely different levels of risk. depending on specific site characteristics. or a condition with potential to harm persons. physical effect. Reasonably Practicable Risk reduced to levels such that further risk reduction measures would be so disproportionate to probability and consequence that it would be objectively unreasonable to implement them.
Potential effect of each hazard. Risk Assessment Careful consideration by competent persons of hazards associated with a task. how serve it might be and likelihood of it occurring. Risk Management System that eliminates or mitigates threat from hazards.Risk Measure of likelihood of occurrence of an undesirable event and of potentially adverse consequences. Exploration Aero-magnetic surveys . should be considered to determine effort required to make site as safe as reasonably practicable.
help to detect magnetic anomalies or to distinguish geologic features that might appear similar from seismic data alone. Appraisal well A well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling programme. reserves and likely production rate of a reservoir. Annulus Appraisal drilling Drilling to determine physical extent. . together with properties of oil or gas. towed by aircraft.Magnetometers. Air gun Air gun array is most common technique used for seismic surveying offshore. Compressed air is released from a chamber to produce shock waves in earth.
that make up lower end of drill-string (drill bit.lowest point at which casing is set.Bottom-hole assembly Components. support sides of well bore. control well pressures. Casing Steel lining used to exclude unwanted fluids. together as a group.top of casing set in well. Cement . Casing Seat . part of casing that protrudes above surface and to which control valves and flow pipes are attached. Capping Tightly closing a well so that hydrocarbons cannot escape. Casing head . drill collars. drill pipe and ancillary equipment).
Circulation Techniques for bringing cuttings from bottom of well bore to surface by continuously pumping drilling mud down through drill-string and up annulus during rotary drilling. Choke Device to restrict rate of flow during testing of an exploratory discovery. . Coiled tubing Used to carry production tubing to bottom of well.Pumped into space between casing and well bore wall in order to hold casing in place. Compensator Keeps drill-sting stationary while semi-submersible and derrick move.
Derrick Elongated pyramid of latticed steel mounted over bore hole for suspending and rotating drill pipes.Conductor Wide-diameter pipe from drilling platform to sea-bed to guide drilling and contain drilling fluid. Discovery well An exploratory well that finds hydrocarbons. Down hole . Deep-Water Discovery An offshore discovery located in at least 200 metres of water.
To facilitate removal of cuttings. Drill cuttings Lifted continually to surface during drilling by a circulating-fluid system driven by a pump. equipment and instruments used in well bore. Drill bits used for extra-hard rock are studded with thousands of tiny industrial diamonds. Drill bit Located at end of drill-string cutting head is generally designed with three cone-shaped wheels tipped with hardened teeth. mud is constantly circulated down through drill pipe. out through nozzles in drill bit.A term to describe tools. Drill collars Heavy pipe-sections that put weight on drill bit. and then up to surface through space between drill pipe and well .
Drilling Muds / Fluid Drill-string Series of connected 9 metre length drill pipes (joints).bore through earth (diameter of bit is somewhat greater than that of pipe). Dry Hole Unsuccessful well. Exploration Search for hydrocarbons by Geological and Geophysical (G&G) surveys that may be followed by exploration drilling. drilled without finding commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. Exploration well .
Gravity surveys Measure density variations in local rock masses. Geophysics Branch of science that applies physical principles to study of planet earth. Horizontal Drilling . Farm-in Transfer of part of an oil or gas interest in consideration for an agreement by transferee(s) to meet certain expenditure that would otherwise have to be undertaken by licensee(s). Surveys are based on use of a gravimeter down bore holes.Drilling to determine whether hydrocarbons are present.
Technique for cutting a bore hole in geological strata in a horizontal, rather than normal vertical, direction. (see also Horizontal well) Kick Back pressure in well from invading oil / gas / water. Killing a well Filling bore with drilling mud of suitable density to stop flow of oil / gas. Liner Small diameter casing extending into producing layer from just inside bottom of final string of casing cemented in a well. Modular formation dynamics tester
Measures fluid pressures and collects small samples in a well. Plugging Process whereby a well that is no longer needed is filled with concrete and abandoned. (see PA). Rotary Drilling Being coupled to rotating table on derrick floor rotates drill-string. Rotary Table / Drilling Table Turning device on derrick floor in which drill-string is held and rotated. Round trip Complete process of pulling out and running in drill-string.
Seismic surveys Measurements of seismic-wave travel. Seismic exploration is divided into refraction and reflection surveys, depending on whether the predominant portion of the seismic waves' travel is horizontal or vertical. Refraction seismic surveys are used in exploration. Seismic reflection surveys detect boundaries between different kinds of rocks; this detection assists in mapping of geologic structures. (See also 3DSeismic.) Shale shaker Drilling mud passed over to sieve out cuttings. Sidetrack Drilling A remedial operation that results in creation of a new section of well bore for purpose of detouring around "junk", redrilling a lost hole or straightening crooked holes.
Spud Commencement of drilling operations. Suspended discovery An oil or gas field identified by a discovery well but not being produced or developed. Three-dimensional Seismic / 3-D Seismic Three-dimensional images created by bouncing sound waves off underground rock formations; used to determine best places to drill for hydrocarbons. Top drive Powerful electric motor that rotates whole drill-string from top down. Tripping in / out
Re-insertion of drill-string / Withdrawing drill-string. Upstream Well completion Well Nomenclature (E&A) Appraisal (APP) Deviated (DEVW) Discovery (DISC) Exploration (EXP) Junked & Abandoned (JA) Plugged & Abandoned (PA) Re-entry (RE) Suspended (SP) Testing (TE) Tight Hole (TIGHT) .
Appraisal expenditure Costs incurred in survey. where in early 1920s drilling crews encountered many wildcats as they cleared locations for exploratory wells. and wells became known as wildcat wells. (Term wildcatter comes from West Texas. . Shot wildcats were hung on oil derricks. exploitation and appraisal of licence areas not yet under development or in production.Wildcat Exploration well drilled in an unproven area.) Fiscal Abandonment Allowance (AA) A 100% allowance for expenditure incurred in respect of abandoning a field.
Cross Field Allowance (CFA) An element (up to 10%) of immediate relief for qualifying field development costs where a participator on a new taxable development has. Development expenditure All costs including financing costs. or expects to have. Conveying & Treating (C&T) Services provided by a field to other fields in vicinity. PRT profits in another taxable field. .Commercial field Field judged to be capable of producing sufficient net income to be worth developing. E&A expenditures incurred in bringing a field to commercial production and is defined as tangible assets.
such a field may become commercial. Exploration expenditure All costs. Marginal Field A field that may not produce enough net income to make it worth developing at a given time. associated with acquisition of new acreage. should technical or economic conditions change.Discount rate Used to convert future income / expenditure to its present day value. including premium payments. Mineral Extraction Allowance (MEA) . drilling of exploratory wells and other costs incurred in evaluating commercial viability of geological entities.
Oil Taxation Act Came into force in 1975. but cannot be used to create a tax loss. . Oil Allowance A gross production relief that reduces effective PRT rate. Only to fields where Annex B consent was first given before 18 March 1993. introducing PRT Petroleum Revenue Tax (PRT) Applies to UK oil production and associated profits of licensees. Net present value (NPV) Discounted value of future cash flow.Expenditure on mineral exploration and access and certain costs in acquiring mineral assets may be relieved by way of MEA.
Revenue expenses General and administrative (G&A) costs of a revenue nature and intangible development drilling costs are usually deducted in full as incurred. Royalty payments As part of some early UKCS licence round conditions there was an obligation to pay a royalty on "value of the petroleum" which is deductible in computing PRT and CT .Research expenditure allowance (R&D) Relief makes allowable against a participator's liability for any field. Scientific research allowances (SRA) . R&D costs that do not became allowable in a particular field within three years of being incurred.
000 tonnes of throughput per chargeable period for each taxable user field. Spot market International market in which oil or oil products are traded for immediate delivery at current (spot) price. Value Added Tax (VAT) . Tariff Payments made by fields to other fields that provide transportation and / or processing of production.Whether of a capital nature or otherwise (costs of exploration work) qualifies for full write-off as incurred. Tariff Receipt Allowance (TRA) Participators in owner field share an allowance equivalent to 250.
Capillaries Minute spaces. Aquifer Underground zone of permeable rock saturated with water under pressure. Geological Anticline Fold in layered rocks originating below surface in form of an elongated dome. Cap Rock .Introduced at 8% on UK domestic fuel and power in April 1994. cracks or pores in rock through which hydrocarbon fluids move in response to natural forces.
Carboniferous Period of geological time about 400 . Cretaceous Period of geological time about 144 .300 million years ago. .65 million years ago. Fault A line of fracture along which one body of rock or section of Earth's crust has been displaced relative to another.300 million years ago. Devonian Period of geological time about 400 .Impervious layer which overlies a reservoir rock preventing hydrocarbons escaping.
Igneous rocks Formed from solidification of molten magma. Jurassic . its history. materials forming it.Formation Pressure Water underlying gas and oil in formation. Geology Field of science concerned with origin of planet Earth. Impermeable Fluids cannot flow through rocks (clays. and processes that are acting and have acted on it. its shape. cemented sandstone or salt) where cracks and pore spaces are very small or are blocked by mineral growth.
Period of geological time about 213 . Magma Molten material that makes up Earth's crust. Oligocene Third division of Tertiary period spanning an interval from about 40 to 25 million years ago.144 million years ago. Mature When source rock starts to generate hydrocarbons. Pay Zone . Miocene Fourth division of Tertiary period spanning a time interval from 26 to 12 million years ago.
248 million years ago. Permeable Cracks and pore spaces between the rock particles (such as porous sandstone or fractured limestone) are interconnected and are large enough to permit fluid movement. boundaries of which are zones of tectonic activity. Plate Tectonics Earth's solid crust is broken up into about a dozen semirigid plates.Stratum of rock in which hydrocarbons are found. Play Group of fields with similar trap structures / reservoir rock. Permian Period of geological time about 285 . .
Precambrian Rocks older than 600 million years. Seal or Cap .Pleistocene Division of Quaternary period. Earliest division of time for which rock strata are recognised. Pliocene Fifth and most recent division of Tertiary period on geologic time scale from about 12 million to 2 million years ago.64 million years ago. Quaternary Period of geological time about 1. also known as Ice Age.
Rocks (salt. clays or cemented sandstone) in right shapes and relative positions to form traps. Source rocks Rocks containing sufficient organic substances to generate hydrocarbons. Stratigraphic traps Originate where suitable combination of rock types is deposited in a particular environment. silt. Structural traps . Sedimentary rock Formed by consolidation of deposits formed by settlement of sand. and other materials.
Tertiary Period of geological time about 65 . Subsalt Refers to rock formations lying beneath long.1. . horizontal layers of salt.Formed by Earth movements that fold rocks into suitable shapes or juxtapose reservoir and sealing rocks along faults. Timescale Trap Geological structure in which hydrocarbons build up to from an oil or gas field. Traps may also form when rocks are domed over rising salt masses.64 million years ago. These rock formations may contain hydrocarbons.
Consortium .213 million years ago.Triassic Period of geological time about 248 . BNOC British National Oil Corporation set up 1976 abolished 1985. Legislation Annex B Development plan approval to develop and produce from a commercial field.
Energy). XI Environment. III . DTI Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) .Industry.A group of unrelated companies acting together in a specific venture (Licence application). for example. II Economic and Financial Affairs. XVII . Continental Shelf Act Passed by UK Parliament in 1964 DETR DG Directorate General (department of EU Commission with responsibilities in a certain field.
Portugal on 17 December 1994. Gas Act 1995 Enabled final liberalisation of gas market by creating licensing framework for new entrants into domestic UK market. agreed to return its emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by 2000 . along with other developed countries.a necessary first step.Signed by 45 governments and EU in Lisbon. EU European Union Framework Convention on Climate Change UK signed Framework convention at Rio in 1992 and. Licence .
Licence Nomenclature (UKCS) Licence (P) Licence Round .Right to explore for and exploit hydrocarbon reserves within a defined area. Licence Nomenclature (UK Onshore) Appraisal Licence (AL) Development Licence (DL) Mining Licences (ML) PEDL Production Licences (PL) Supplementary Seismic Licence (SSSL) Exploration Licences (XL).
Licensee(s) Companies that Government believes are capable of satisfying various conditions of a Licence. either on its own behalf. Operator Company which operates a Licence.Period during which Government offers and then allocates a number of specified areas (Blocks or part Blocks) within its national boundaries. New single licence came into effect in 1995 (Seventh Round) for onshore UK Licensing. Takes primary responsibility for day-to-day operations for an activity (exploration. if a member of a consortium. or. development or production). . PEDL Petroleum Exploration and Development Licence. on behalf of Licensees.
Occurs where a field lies under different licences with differing equity interests. Measurement API gravity .Petroleum (Production) Act 1934 Onshore legislation which vested in Crown ownership of all petroleum (oil and natural gas) existing in natural conditions in strata in Great Britain. which is then operated by a single company on behalf of group. UKCS Key Dates Unitisation When licensees of oil and/or gas reserves pool their individual interests in return for an interest in overall unit.
Atmospheric pressure Weight of atmosphere on surface of Earth.Scale used to express specific gravity of oils. lighter oil.176 Mboe) bcm . Bar One bar = 100 kPa Barrel (bbl) 7.013 bars.3 bbls = One tonne: 6. 1. bcf Billion Cubic Feet (One bcf = 0.29 bbls = One cubic metre: One bbl = 159 litres approx. Higher API gravity. At sea level approx.
kms).Billion Cubic Metres (One bcm = 0.83 MToe) Billion One thousand million (109) Block UKCS acreage one thirtieth of a quadrant (approx. Generally defined in terms of latitude and longitude. British Thermal Unit (BTU) . at one-degree intervals. 200 250 sq. Brent blend International marker for crude oil pricing based on a blend of North Sea crudes. bopd / boe bbls of oil per day / bbls of oil equivalent.
held at the temperature of freezing platinum. a perfect radiator that absorbs no light.06 kJ Approx.400 MJ Candela SI unit of light intensity defined as 1/60 of the light radiated from a sq. cm of a blackbody. .0283 cubic metres).One BTU or Btu = 1. one million tonnes of oil = 40 x 1012 BTUs = 40. Cubic foot Standard unit used to measure quantity of gas at atmospheric pressure (One cubic foot = 0.293 watt-hour Calorific equivalents One cubic foot of gas = 1000 BTUs = 1055.05506 kJ = 0.
Joule (j) .Cubic metre SI unit used to measure quantity of gas at atmospheric pressure (One cubic metre = 35. Dead Weight (dwt) Difference between loaded and unloaded weights of a ship.31 cubic feet). Gas Oil Ratio (GOR) Volume of gas at atmospheric pressure produced per unit of oil produced. Exposure Measurement of time during which subject is at risk from a hazard.
Derived SI unit of work or energy. One thousand grams.6 MJ = 3.0102 kg / sq. Gigajoule = One million joules = 278 kWh. Kilopascal (kPa) Defined as pressure of 0. cm Kilowatt-hour (kWh) One kWh = 3. Kilocalorie (kcal) One thousand calories.0949 cubic metres of gas) m / mcf Thousands / Thousands of Cubic Feet (of Gas) .412 BTU = 860 kcal = 0. Kilogram (kg) SI unit of mass.
mm / M Millions mmbbls / mmboe Million bbls / Million bbls of oil equivalent mmscf / mmscfd Millions of Standard Cubic Feet (of Gas) / Millions of Standard Cubic Feet per Day (of Gas) MtC Million tonnes of carbon MtCH4 Million tonnes of methane MtCO2 .
ppb / ppm parts per billion / parts per million psi Pounds per square inch One psi = 6.Million tonnes of carbon dioxide Mboe / MToe Million bbls of oil equivalent / Million tonnes of oil equivalent Oil Equivalent Method of assessing work of calorific value of different sources of energy in terms of one tonne of oil. 30 Blocks to Quadrant.89 kPa Quadrant UKCS acreage one degree by one degree. .
590 Km2 . One Km2 (100 hectares) = 0.3861 sq. Square kilometres (Sq. Adopted for international use under Le Système International d'Unités. SI unit Self-consistent system of measurement units based on the MKS (metre-kilogram-second) system. now employed for all scientific and most technical purposes. miles Square Miles One Sq Mile (640 acres) = 2. kms / Km2) 1000 metres x 1000 metres.Specific Gravity Ratio of density of a substance at a particular temperature to density of water.
tcf Trillion (a million million) Cubic Feet (of Gas) Tonne (t) Metric tonne = 1000 kilograms Watt (W) Power which in one second gives rise to energy of one joule (j). Megawatt (MW) = One million watts. production and transportation facilities and restoration of depleted . Gigawatt (GW) = Thousand megawatts. Production Abandonment / Decommissioning Process of dismantling wellhead. Kilowatt (kW) = One kW = 1000 watts.
Acid stimulation Form of hydrochloric acid is pumped down well hole to enlarge pore space in oil bearing rocks to increase flow and recovery. Air injection An enhanced recovery technique in which air is injected into hydrocarbon formation to increase reservoir pressure. Annulus .producing areas in accordance with licence requirements and /or legislation. Acoustic log Record of time taken by a sound wave to travel over a certain distance through geological formations.
Blow-down Condensate and gas produced simultaneously from outset of production. Cathodic protection Method used to minimise rate of electrochemical corrosion of structures. for bringing oil to surface. for example. Casing perforation Holes made in liner of a finished well to allow hydrocarbons to flow into production tube.Artificial lift Any techniques. Christmas tree . pipelines and storage tanks. installations offshore. other than natural drives.
but is not currently producing. Coiled tubing Used to carry production equipment to bottom of well.Branching series of pipes. Closed-in Descriptive of a well that is capable of producing. or where product of two or more fields is transported via a common pipeline. Commingling Producing oil and gas from two or more reservoirs at different depths. Delineation well . gauges and valves on top end of each production well to control flow of oil or gas.
reserves and likely production rate of a new oil or gas field. Development Phase on which a proven oil or gas field is brought into production by drilling production (development) wells. Development well A production well drilled with intent of producing oil or gas from a proven field. Deviated well Horizontal well drilled at an angle (over 80 degrees) to vertical.Drilled at a distance from a discovery well to determine physical extent. Downstream .
Field Nomenclature Field ceased production (FCP) Field under development (FUD) Field in production (FIP) Flaring and venting . Field Geographical area under which an oil or gas reservoir lies.Dual Completion A well completed to produce from two separate reservoirs. Enhanced reach Deviated wells (over 65 degrees) from vertical and reach out horizontally more than twice vertical depth.
some gas will often collect at top of reservoir in a single deposit.Flaring is burning of hydrocarbon gases for commercial or technical reasons. with greater proportion of gas. Gas Cap In field containing both gas and oil. and its temperature and pressure change sufficiently for some of it to became liquid petroleum. Gas/Condensate field Reservoir containing both natural gas and oil. Venting is release of gases to atmosphere. Gas field . Flare Stack Steel structure on an offshore installation or at a processing facility from which gas is flared. Condensate appears when gas in drawn from well.
Field containing natural gas. In this way rate of production of crude oil also can be increased. but no oil. Gas Oil Ratio (GOR) Gas Processing . Gas lift Gas from same or nearby field is mixed with oil in tubing to lessen weight of liquid column. Gas gathering system Central collection point for offshore gas fields. Gas Injection (GI) Associated gas is pumped back into a reservoir to maintain reservoir pressure. Production is then piped to central processing system onshore.
Jacket . condensate. Gravity Structures Either concrete or hybrid (concrete base and steel legs and superstructure) structures that due to weight rest on seabed or piled into it.Separation of oil and gas. Horizontal well Used when reservoir permeability is low or hydrocarbons are being produced from vertical fractures in rock. and removal of impurities and NGLs from natural gas. Gas Treatment Removal of impurities. hydrogen sulphide and NGLs from natural gas.
well head. mud.Supporting (concrete base or steel legs) structure for an offshore installation. Marine Riser Pipe connecting offshore installation to a subsea wellhead or pipeline for drilling or production purposes. oil and gas separation. filter and exhaust) located on production installations. Module Self-contained box or package built with a specific purpose (for example. platform power generation. storage. Multilateral well More than one horizontal section drilled in one well. diesel. Used to maximise number of wells that can be drilled from small installations. gas compression. .
Higher value than recoverable reserves of reservoir. Pig . Offshore Oil Loading Nomenclature Single buoy mooring (SBM) Single point mooring (SPM) Exposed location single buoy mooring (ELSBM) Spar Enables offshore loading with vessel swinging to present least resistance to prevailing wind or current conditions.Odorant Substance (for example mercaptan) added to odourless natural gas or NGLs to enable detection. Oil in Place (OIP) Estimation of real amount of oil in a reservoir.
either onshore or offshore.Device for cleaning a pipeline or separating two liquids being moved down pipeline.) Piling Long steel piles driven into the seabed to anchor fixed offshore structures solidly in place. Pipeline A pipe through which natural gas. (Intelligent pig . Platform . Plateau Level of peak oil or gas field production.fitted with sensors to check for corrosion or defects in pipelines. it is always followed by declining level of production. crude oil or petroleum products are pumped between two points.
Platform Nomenclature Tension Leg Platform (TLP) Minimum Facility Platform (MINF) Not Normally Attended Installation (NNAI) Gravity based structures (GBS) Accommodation (ACCOM) Compression (COMP) Drilling (DRIL) Riser (RISE) Preventative maintenance Maintenance carried out prior to unit or system failure.Fixed structure resting on seabed or piled into it. Primary Recovery .
Production Drilling Drilling of wells in order to bring a field into production.Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir using only natural reservoir pressure. Production Installation An installation from which development wells are drilled and that carries all associated processing plants and other equipment needed to maintain a field in production. Production String .(see also Secondary and Tertiary Recovery. Produced along side oil production.) Produced Water Brines naturally present or injected into reservoir to enhance production.
Recovery Factor Ratio of recoverable oil and / or gas to estimated oil and / or gas in place in reservoir. and development plan. Secondary and Tertiary Recovery. (see also Primary. nature of hydrocarbons. Reserves: Probable . pressure.) Redetermination Retroactive adjustment to relative percentage interests of joint venturers in a field.Tubing or piping in a production well through which oil or gas flows from reservoir to wellhead. Determined by a various factors such as reservoir dimensions. Reserves: Possible Reserves at present cannot be regarded as "probable".
Reservoir Subsurface. Reserves: Proven Reserves which on available evidence are virtually certain to be technically and economically producible.Reserves not yet "proven". porous. permeable rock formation in which hydrocarbons are present. but are estimated to have a better than 50% chance of being technically and economically producible. Reservoir engineering model . Reservoir drive Powered by difference in pressures within reservoir and well.
(see also Primary and Tertiary Recovery.Used to predict reservoir behaviour during production to enable selection of most efficient method of recovery. Satellite Installation An offshore structure that depends on another installation for materials or services. Secondary Recovery Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir by increasing reservoir pressure by injecting gas or water into reservoir rock.) Slug catcher Plant installed in a gas pipeline system to catch unwanted "slugs" of liquid. Subsea manifolds .
Cables dampen wave action to keep platform stationary. Tension Leg Platform A floating offshore structure held in position by a number of tension-maintaining cables anchored to seabed. are installed. Terminal . etc. Sub-sea wellhead A wellhead installed on the sea floor and controlled remotely from a platform. engines. a floating production facility or land.Allows wells to be put on production without need to build a platform to operate and maintain wells. cranes. Substructure Support form of an offshore installation on which derrick. helicopter pad.
Onshore transit installation that receives oil or gas from offshore production facilities via pipeline and / or tankers. Topsides Top of an installation positioned on jacket. heating reservoir or enlarging pore spaces using chemicals. for example. Upstream . (see also Primary and Secondary Recovery) Tubing Piping installed in wells for production of oil and gas. Tertiary Recovery Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir by sophisticated methods. Plant and equipment designed to receive and process crude oil or gas to remove water and impurities.
Workover Re-entry into a completed field well for modification or repair. Well completion Well Nomenclature (Field) Development (DEV) Deviated (DEVW) Gas Injection (GI) Water Injection (WI). Pressure in reservoir as a whole can be maintained or increased and production can be maintained or increased.Water Injection (WI) Water is pumped into alternate wells in a field. Restoring well productivity by cleaning out .
Competence . BRIGHT EYE Regular UKCS exercise to test search and rescue capability. Blow-out Preventers (BOPs) High-pressure wellhead (top of casing) valves designed to shut-off flow of hydrocarbons to prevent blowouts (accidental escapes of oil or gas from a well).accumulations of sand. Safety Accident Any event which results in injury. and / or damage. silt or other substances that clog production tubing. and / or loss.
Ability to perform particular job in compliance with performance standards. Danger Risk of injury Dangerous occurrence Readily identifiable event with potential to cause an accident or disease to persons at work and public or of significant actual of potential material damage. Fatality Death due to work related injury / illness. Fatality Rate (FR) . Fatal Accident Frequency Rate (FAFR) Number of fatalities per 100 million man hours worked.
third parties or assets. Injury . Hazard Incident An unplanned event or chain of events which has or could have caused injury or illness and / or damage or loss to environment. Gas Detector Instrument to detect presence of various gases. Flash Point Lowest temperature at which vapour above a flammable liquid can be ignited.Number of fatalities per 1000 employees.
Lost Time Injury (LTI) Any work related injury or illness which prevents that person from doing any work day after accident.Physical harm or damage to a person resulting from traumatic contact between body of person and an outside agency. Injury Frequency (IF) Number of injuries per million man hours worked. Injury Rate (IR) Number of injuries per one hundred employees. or from exposure to environmental factors. Injury Severity Rate (ISR) Number of days lost per one million man hours worked. Lost Time Injury Frequency (LTIF) .
Reasonably Practicable . but which was avoided by circumstances. Near miss / accident Any event which had potential to cause injury and/or damage and or/loss.Number of LTIs recorded for a group of workers. per million hours worked by that group. Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) Equipment / clothing which offers protection against risks to health and safety. Permit-to-Work (PTW) Formal written system used to control certain types of work which are identified as (potentially) hazardous.
as equipment and supply carriers. Crane Barge .Risk Risk Assessment Risk Management Vessels Barge Non-self-propelled marine vessel used as cargo tankers. and as submarine pipe-laying vessels. crane platforms and support and accommodation bases in offshore drilling.
. Floating Production.Vessel capable of lifting heavy equipment onto / off offshore installations. Floating Vessel Nomenclature Floating accommodation for offshore personnel (Flotel). Drill Ship Free floating mobile drilling platform used in very deep waters. Storage and Offloading Vessel (FPSO) Floating Production Vessel (FPV) Floating Storage Unit (FSU) Jack-up Rig Mobile drilling platform with retractable legs used in shallow waters less than 100 metres deep. Positioned by dynamic positioning.
. Lightering Unloading cargo from large marine tankers into smaller tankers that can enter shallow-water ports. Semi-submersible Rig Mobile drilling platform with floats or pontoons submerged to give stability while operating. designed to carry refrigerated LNG shipments.Lay barge Vessel specially equipped to lay submarine pipelines. Used in deeper waters down to 360 metres or more. Kept in position by anchors or dynamic positioning. with insulated pressure tanks. LNG Carrier Tanker.
TEMPSC Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Craft ULCC Ultra large crude carrier. VLCC Very large crude carrier.000 tonnes dwt.000 tonnes dwt. Oil tanker over 200. Oil tanker over 300. .
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