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Alkylation Refining process for converting light, gaseous olefins into high-octane gasoline components (reverse of cracking). Aromatics Class of hydrocarbons that have at least one benzene ring as part of their structure. Generally describes benzene and benzene derivatives. Associated Gas Natural gas associated with oil accumulations, either dissolved in oil or found as a cap of free gas above oil in reservoir.
Benzene An aromatic hydrocarbon present to a minor degree in most crude oils. (Products manufactured from benzene include styrene, phenol, nylon and synthetic detergents.) Butane (C4H10) Either of two saturated hydrocarbons, or alkanes, with chemical formula. In both compounds carbon atoms are joined in an open chain. Carbon Atomic number is 6; element is in group 14 (or IVa) of periodic table. Carbon content of a hydrocarbon determines, to a degree, hydrocarbon's burning characteristics and qualities. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Colourless, odourless, and slightly acid-tasting gas, sometimes-called carbonic acid gas, molecule of which consists of one atom of carbon joined to two atoms of oxygen. Carbon dioxide in atmosphere tends to prevent escape of outgoing long-wave radiation from Earth to outer space; as more heat is produced and less escapes, temperature of Earth increases. Most important man-made greenhouse gas in UK accounting for 81% of direct global warming potential from national greenhouse emissions in 1990. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Chemical compound of carbon and oxygen. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Synthetic chemical that is odourless, non-toxic, nonflammable, and chemically inert. Released into atmosphere, chlorine-containing chemicals rise and are broken down by
sunlight, whereupon chlorine reacts with and destroys ozone molecules. Coal During Carboniferous period much of world was covered with vegetation growing in swamps. This vegetation died and became submerged under water. As decomposition took place, vegetable matter lost oxygen and hydrogen atoms, leaving a peat deposit with a high percentage of carbon. As time passed, layers of sand and mud settled from water over some of peat deposits. Pressure of these overlying layers, as well as movements of earth's crust and sometimes volcanic heat, acted to compress and harden deposits, thus producing coal. Condensate Liquid mixture of pentane and higher hydrocarbons.
Drilling Mud / Fluid Mixture of base substance and additives used to lubricate drill bit and to counter act natural pressure in formation. Drilling Mud Nomenclature Oil Based Mud (OBM). Esters Compounds formed by combination of acids and alcohols. Drilling mud provides circulation. Dry gas Or Lean gas is natural gas composed mainly of methane. Water Based Mud (WBM). flushing rock cuttings from bottom of well bore to surface. . Ethanol Chemical formed by fermentation or synthesis. Pseudo Oil Based Mud (POBM).
by thermal or catalytic decomposition of petroleum or its fractions. slightly sweet-smelling gas of formula H2C=CH2. or by polymerisation of hydrocarbons of lower molecular weight. by condensation or adsorption from natural gas. . Gasoline Mixture of lighter liquid hydrocarbons used chiefly as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. by hydrogenation of producer gas or coal. Produced by fractional distillation of petroleum. which contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. It is slightly soluble in water and is produced in commercial amounts by cracking and fractional distillation of petroleum and from natural gas. Ethylene is a colourless.Ethene Or Ethylene simplest member of class of aliphatic organic compounds called alkenes.
water vapour. CFCs.Greenhouse Gases Gases that alter thermal properties of atmosphere (for example. halons and ozone). Halons Halogenated carbon compounds used in fire extinguishing equipment and contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion. methane. nitrous oxide. Hexane Petroleum liquid found in small amounts in condensates. Being phased out under Montreal Protocol. Hydrocarbons . Heavy oil Long chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms. carbon dioxide.
usually in presence of a catalyst. composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen (for example. Hydrogen (H) Reactive.Family of organic compounds. hydrogen combines with carbon to form a variety of gaseous. Hydrogenation Reacting coal with hydrogen at high pressures. crude oil and natural gas). Element is usually classed in group 1 (or Ia) of periodic table. coal. colourless. Light oil Shorter chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) . Lightest of all gases. liquid and solid hydrocarbons. odourless. and tasteless gaseous element with atomic number of 1.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Pressure or refrigeration liquefies lighter hydrocarbons. mainly methane. pentane. liquefied under pressure and low temperature. Mercaptans Strong-smelling compounds of carbon. such as propane. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Issued by manufacturer of chemical substances that sets out hazards likely to be encountered by those who come into contact with substance. . butane. Added to natural gas for safety reasons.Gas. and mixtures of these gases. hydrogen and sulphur found in oil and gas.
Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Liquid hydrocarbons found in association with natural gas. often found in association with oil. first member of paraffin or alkane series of hydrocarbons. Methane contributed 12% (counting both direct and indirect global warming effects) of UK national greenhouse gas emissions in 1990. occurring naturally. Natural Gas Gas. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) . gas composed of carbon and hydrogen.Methane (CH4) Also marsh gas. Oil and gas production accounted for 2% of national emissions in 1990.
Ozone Allotropic form of oxygen having three atoms in each molecule. formula O3. Ozone formed in atmosphere from nitrogen oxides and organic gases emitted by automobiles and industrial sources.Nitrous Oxide contributed 5% of direct global warming potential from UK national greenhouse gas emissions in 1990. commonly used to manufacture plastics and gasoline. . Oil Mixture of liquid hydrocarbons of different molecular weights. Examples are ethylene and propylene. Olefins Basic chemicals made from oil or natural gas liquids feed stocks.
Petrolatum Odourless. including crude oil. and mixtures of these gases are liquefied and employed as fuels. natural gas and their products. NGLs. tasteless. greasy substance. obtained as residue from petroleum after lighter and more volatile components have been boiled off. known as mineral oil. . Petroleum Generic name for hydrocarbons. such as propane and butane. known as petroleum jelly in form of a clear to faintly yellow liquid.Pentane One of lighter hydrocarbons. Purified residue is obtained in form of a yellowish or decolourised semisolid.
and paraffin consist principally of mixtures of paraffin hydrocarbons. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) . and as a by-product of petroleum refining. which range from lighter liquid members to solid members. odourless gas of alkane series of hydrocarbons. Propane (C3H8) Colourless. petroleum jelly. heavy fuel oil. in natural gas.Petroleum products Gasoline. kerosene. It occurs in crude oil. Sour gas Natural gas containing significant quantities of hydrogen sulphide. lubricating oils.
Environmental Air Emissions .Acts as a precursor in formation of sulphate aerosols which. unlike greenhouse gases. have a net negative radiative forcing effect and tend to cool Earth's surface. Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) Gases made from coals and other hydrocarbon-containing substances. Wet Gas Natural gas having significant amounts of heavier hydrocarbons in gasoline range.
vapours and small particles released into air. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Part of project management concerned with identifying through a formal written technical evaluation likely impact (positive and negative) of a proposed development or activity on natural and man-made environment. including living systems therein.Waste gases. Environment External surroundings and conditions in which a company or an individual operates or which may effect. Environmental controls Put in place to meet or exceed legal requirements and to minimise impact on environment. Environmental Management Systems (EMS) .
property or environment. Generic Hazard Hazard which may be generally present throughout an operation or industry. but which may have widely different levels of risk. physical effect. depending on specific site characteristics. or a condition with potential to harm persons.A process that examines environmental factors and activities or processes that industry uses. . Reasonably Practicable Risk reduced to levels such that further risk reduction measures would be so disproportionate to probability and consequence that it would be objectively unreasonable to implement them. Hazard Object.
Risk Assessment Careful consideration by competent persons of hazards associated with a task. how serve it might be and likelihood of it occurring. Risk Management System that eliminates or mitigates threat from hazards. should be considered to determine effort required to make site as safe as reasonably practicable. Exploration Aero-magnetic surveys . Potential effect of each hazard.Risk Measure of likelihood of occurrence of an undesirable event and of potentially adverse consequences.
. Compressed air is released from a chamber to produce shock waves in earth. Appraisal well A well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling programme. together with properties of oil or gas.Magnetometers. help to detect magnetic anomalies or to distinguish geologic features that might appear similar from seismic data alone. Air gun Air gun array is most common technique used for seismic surveying offshore. Annulus Appraisal drilling Drilling to determine physical extent. towed by aircraft. reserves and likely production rate of a reservoir.
drill collars. Casing Seat .top of casing set in well. drill pipe and ancillary equipment).lowest point at which casing is set. Casing Steel lining used to exclude unwanted fluids. Casing head . that make up lower end of drill-string (drill bit. Capping Tightly closing a well so that hydrocarbons cannot escape. support sides of well bore.Bottom-hole assembly Components. part of casing that protrudes above surface and to which control valves and flow pipes are attached. Cement . control well pressures. together as a group.
. Choke Device to restrict rate of flow during testing of an exploratory discovery.Pumped into space between casing and well bore wall in order to hold casing in place. Circulation Techniques for bringing cuttings from bottom of well bore to surface by continuously pumping drilling mud down through drill-string and up annulus during rotary drilling. Compensator Keeps drill-sting stationary while semi-submersible and derrick move. Coiled tubing Used to carry production tubing to bottom of well.
Deep-Water Discovery An offshore discovery located in at least 200 metres of water. Derrick Elongated pyramid of latticed steel mounted over bore hole for suspending and rotating drill pipes. Down hole . Discovery well An exploratory well that finds hydrocarbons.Conductor Wide-diameter pipe from drilling platform to sea-bed to guide drilling and contain drilling fluid.
mud is constantly circulated down through drill pipe. Drill bit Located at end of drill-string cutting head is generally designed with three cone-shaped wheels tipped with hardened teeth.A term to describe tools. equipment and instruments used in well bore. To facilitate removal of cuttings. Drill collars Heavy pipe-sections that put weight on drill bit. Drill bits used for extra-hard rock are studded with thousands of tiny industrial diamonds. Drill cuttings Lifted continually to surface during drilling by a circulating-fluid system driven by a pump. and then up to surface through space between drill pipe and well . out through nozzles in drill bit.
Drilling Muds / Fluid Drill-string Series of connected 9 metre length drill pipes (joints). Dry Hole Unsuccessful well. Exploration Search for hydrocarbons by Geological and Geophysical (G&G) surveys that may be followed by exploration drilling.bore through earth (diameter of bit is somewhat greater than that of pipe). drilled without finding commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. Exploration well .
Gravity surveys Measure density variations in local rock masses.Drilling to determine whether hydrocarbons are present. Farm-in Transfer of part of an oil or gas interest in consideration for an agreement by transferee(s) to meet certain expenditure that would otherwise have to be undertaken by licensee(s). Surveys are based on use of a gravimeter down bore holes. Geophysics Branch of science that applies physical principles to study of planet earth. Horizontal Drilling .
Technique for cutting a bore hole in geological strata in a horizontal, rather than normal vertical, direction. (see also Horizontal well) Kick Back pressure in well from invading oil / gas / water. Killing a well Filling bore with drilling mud of suitable density to stop flow of oil / gas. Liner Small diameter casing extending into producing layer from just inside bottom of final string of casing cemented in a well. Modular formation dynamics tester
Measures fluid pressures and collects small samples in a well. Plugging Process whereby a well that is no longer needed is filled with concrete and abandoned. (see PA). Rotary Drilling Being coupled to rotating table on derrick floor rotates drill-string. Rotary Table / Drilling Table Turning device on derrick floor in which drill-string is held and rotated. Round trip Complete process of pulling out and running in drill-string.
Seismic surveys Measurements of seismic-wave travel. Seismic exploration is divided into refraction and reflection surveys, depending on whether the predominant portion of the seismic waves' travel is horizontal or vertical. Refraction seismic surveys are used in exploration. Seismic reflection surveys detect boundaries between different kinds of rocks; this detection assists in mapping of geologic structures. (See also 3DSeismic.) Shale shaker Drilling mud passed over to sieve out cuttings. Sidetrack Drilling A remedial operation that results in creation of a new section of well bore for purpose of detouring around "junk", redrilling a lost hole or straightening crooked holes.
Spud Commencement of drilling operations. Suspended discovery An oil or gas field identified by a discovery well but not being produced or developed. Three-dimensional Seismic / 3-D Seismic Three-dimensional images created by bouncing sound waves off underground rock formations; used to determine best places to drill for hydrocarbons. Top drive Powerful electric motor that rotates whole drill-string from top down. Tripping in / out
Upstream Well completion Well Nomenclature (E&A) Appraisal (APP) Deviated (DEVW) Discovery (DISC) Exploration (EXP) Junked & Abandoned (JA) Plugged & Abandoned (PA) Re-entry (RE) Suspended (SP) Testing (TE) Tight Hole (TIGHT) .Re-insertion of drill-string / Withdrawing drill-string.
and wells became known as wildcat wells. (Term wildcatter comes from West Texas. Appraisal expenditure Costs incurred in survey.) Fiscal Abandonment Allowance (AA) A 100% allowance for expenditure incurred in respect of abandoning a field.Wildcat Exploration well drilled in an unproven area. exploitation and appraisal of licence areas not yet under development or in production. . Shot wildcats were hung on oil derricks. where in early 1920s drilling crews encountered many wildcats as they cleared locations for exploratory wells.
or expects to have. .Commercial field Field judged to be capable of producing sufficient net income to be worth developing. PRT profits in another taxable field. E&A expenditures incurred in bringing a field to commercial production and is defined as tangible assets. Conveying & Treating (C&T) Services provided by a field to other fields in vicinity. Development expenditure All costs including financing costs. Cross Field Allowance (CFA) An element (up to 10%) of immediate relief for qualifying field development costs where a participator on a new taxable development has.
Exploration expenditure All costs. drilling of exploratory wells and other costs incurred in evaluating commercial viability of geological entities. associated with acquisition of new acreage. should technical or economic conditions change. including premium payments. such a field may become commercial. Marginal Field A field that may not produce enough net income to make it worth developing at a given time. Mineral Extraction Allowance (MEA) .Discount rate Used to convert future income / expenditure to its present day value.
Oil Taxation Act Came into force in 1975. introducing PRT Petroleum Revenue Tax (PRT) Applies to UK oil production and associated profits of licensees.Expenditure on mineral exploration and access and certain costs in acquiring mineral assets may be relieved by way of MEA. . but cannot be used to create a tax loss. Net present value (NPV) Discounted value of future cash flow. Oil Allowance A gross production relief that reduces effective PRT rate. Only to fields where Annex B consent was first given before 18 March 1993.
Revenue expenses General and administrative (G&A) costs of a revenue nature and intangible development drilling costs are usually deducted in full as incurred. Scientific research allowances (SRA) .Research expenditure allowance (R&D) Relief makes allowable against a participator's liability for any field. Royalty payments As part of some early UKCS licence round conditions there was an obligation to pay a royalty on "value of the petroleum" which is deductible in computing PRT and CT . R&D costs that do not became allowable in a particular field within three years of being incurred.
Tariff Payments made by fields to other fields that provide transportation and / or processing of production.000 tonnes of throughput per chargeable period for each taxable user field. Tariff Receipt Allowance (TRA) Participators in owner field share an allowance equivalent to 250. Value Added Tax (VAT) . Spot market International market in which oil or oil products are traded for immediate delivery at current (spot) price.Whether of a capital nature or otherwise (costs of exploration work) qualifies for full write-off as incurred.
Capillaries Minute spaces. Geological Anticline Fold in layered rocks originating below surface in form of an elongated dome. Aquifer Underground zone of permeable rock saturated with water under pressure.Introduced at 8% on UK domestic fuel and power in April 1994. cracks or pores in rock through which hydrocarbon fluids move in response to natural forces. Cap Rock .
Carboniferous Period of geological time about 400 . Cretaceous Period of geological time about 144 .300 million years ago. . Fault A line of fracture along which one body of rock or section of Earth's crust has been displaced relative to another.65 million years ago.Impervious layer which overlies a reservoir rock preventing hydrocarbons escaping.300 million years ago. Devonian Period of geological time about 400 .
materials forming it. Igneous rocks Formed from solidification of molten magma. Geology Field of science concerned with origin of planet Earth. its history. cemented sandstone or salt) where cracks and pore spaces are very small or are blocked by mineral growth. and processes that are acting and have acted on it. Impermeable Fluids cannot flow through rocks (clays. Jurassic . its shape.Formation Pressure Water underlying gas and oil in formation.
144 million years ago. Oligocene Third division of Tertiary period spanning an interval from about 40 to 25 million years ago.Period of geological time about 213 . Pay Zone . Miocene Fourth division of Tertiary period spanning a time interval from 26 to 12 million years ago. Magma Molten material that makes up Earth's crust. Mature When source rock starts to generate hydrocarbons.
boundaries of which are zones of tectonic activity. Plate Tectonics Earth's solid crust is broken up into about a dozen semirigid plates.Stratum of rock in which hydrocarbons are found. Permian Period of geological time about 285 . Play Group of fields with similar trap structures / reservoir rock. Permeable Cracks and pore spaces between the rock particles (such as porous sandstone or fractured limestone) are interconnected and are large enough to permit fluid movement.248 million years ago. .
also known as Ice Age. Earliest division of time for which rock strata are recognised. Precambrian Rocks older than 600 million years. Seal or Cap . Quaternary Period of geological time about 1.Pleistocene Division of Quaternary period.64 million years ago. Pliocene Fifth and most recent division of Tertiary period on geologic time scale from about 12 million to 2 million years ago.
Source rocks Rocks containing sufficient organic substances to generate hydrocarbons. clays or cemented sandstone) in right shapes and relative positions to form traps. Structural traps . Stratigraphic traps Originate where suitable combination of rock types is deposited in a particular environment. Sedimentary rock Formed by consolidation of deposits formed by settlement of sand.Rocks (salt. silt. and other materials.
Subsalt Refers to rock formations lying beneath long.64 million years ago.1.Formed by Earth movements that fold rocks into suitable shapes or juxtapose reservoir and sealing rocks along faults. . horizontal layers of salt. Traps may also form when rocks are domed over rising salt masses. Timescale Trap Geological structure in which hydrocarbons build up to from an oil or gas field. These rock formations may contain hydrocarbons. Tertiary Period of geological time about 65 .
Legislation Annex B Development plan approval to develop and produce from a commercial field. Consortium .213 million years ago.Triassic Period of geological time about 248 . BNOC British National Oil Corporation set up 1976 abolished 1985.
Energy). Continental Shelf Act Passed by UK Parliament in 1964 DETR DG Directorate General (department of EU Commission with responsibilities in a certain field. III . XI Environment. II Economic and Financial Affairs.A group of unrelated companies acting together in a specific venture (Licence application). XVII . for example. DTI Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) .Industry.
agreed to return its emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by 2000 .a necessary first step. EU European Union Framework Convention on Climate Change UK signed Framework convention at Rio in 1992 and. Portugal on 17 December 1994.Signed by 45 governments and EU in Lisbon. along with other developed countries. Gas Act 1995 Enabled final liberalisation of gas market by creating licensing framework for new entrants into domestic UK market. Licence .
Licence Nomenclature (UK Onshore) Appraisal Licence (AL) Development Licence (DL) Mining Licences (ML) PEDL Production Licences (PL) Supplementary Seismic Licence (SSSL) Exploration Licences (XL).Right to explore for and exploit hydrocarbon reserves within a defined area. Licence Nomenclature (UKCS) Licence (P) Licence Round .
Period during which Government offers and then allocates a number of specified areas (Blocks or part Blocks) within its national boundaries. Operator Company which operates a Licence. Licensee(s) Companies that Government believes are capable of satisfying various conditions of a Licence. or. either on its own behalf. New single licence came into effect in 1995 (Seventh Round) for onshore UK Licensing. development or production). if a member of a consortium. PEDL Petroleum Exploration and Development Licence. on behalf of Licensees. . Takes primary responsibility for day-to-day operations for an activity (exploration.
Occurs where a field lies under different licences with differing equity interests.Petroleum (Production) Act 1934 Onshore legislation which vested in Crown ownership of all petroleum (oil and natural gas) existing in natural conditions in strata in Great Britain. UKCS Key Dates Unitisation When licensees of oil and/or gas reserves pool their individual interests in return for an interest in overall unit. which is then operated by a single company on behalf of group. Measurement API gravity .
Atmospheric pressure Weight of atmosphere on surface of Earth. Bar One bar = 100 kPa Barrel (bbl) 7. Higher API gravity. 1. At sea level approx. lighter oil.013 bars.Scale used to express specific gravity of oils.176 Mboe) bcm .29 bbls = One cubic metre: One bbl = 159 litres approx.3 bbls = One tonne: 6. bcf Billion Cubic Feet (One bcf = 0.
200 250 sq.Billion Cubic Metres (One bcm = 0. British Thermal Unit (BTU) . at one-degree intervals. bopd / boe bbls of oil per day / bbls of oil equivalent. Generally defined in terms of latitude and longitude.83 MToe) Billion One thousand million (109) Block UKCS acreage one thirtieth of a quadrant (approx. Brent blend International marker for crude oil pricing based on a blend of North Sea crudes. kms).
a perfect radiator that absorbs no light. Cubic foot Standard unit used to measure quantity of gas at atmospheric pressure (One cubic foot = 0.06 kJ Approx.400 MJ Candela SI unit of light intensity defined as 1/60 of the light radiated from a sq.05506 kJ = 0. held at the temperature of freezing platinum. one million tonnes of oil = 40 x 1012 BTUs = 40. .293 watt-hour Calorific equivalents One cubic foot of gas = 1000 BTUs = 1055.0283 cubic metres). cm of a blackbody.One BTU or Btu = 1.
Exposure Measurement of time during which subject is at risk from a hazard. Gas Oil Ratio (GOR) Volume of gas at atmospheric pressure produced per unit of oil produced. Dead Weight (dwt) Difference between loaded and unloaded weights of a ship.Cubic metre SI unit used to measure quantity of gas at atmospheric pressure (One cubic metre = 35. Joule (j) .31 cubic feet).
cm Kilowatt-hour (kWh) One kWh = 3. Kilopascal (kPa) Defined as pressure of 0. Gigajoule = One million joules = 278 kWh.412 BTU = 860 kcal = 0. Kilogram (kg) SI unit of mass. Kilocalorie (kcal) One thousand calories.0949 cubic metres of gas) m / mcf Thousands / Thousands of Cubic Feet (of Gas) .6 MJ = 3. One thousand grams.Derived SI unit of work or energy.0102 kg / sq.
mm / M Millions mmbbls / mmboe Million bbls / Million bbls of oil equivalent mmscf / mmscfd Millions of Standard Cubic Feet (of Gas) / Millions of Standard Cubic Feet per Day (of Gas) MtC Million tonnes of carbon MtCH4 Million tonnes of methane MtCO2 .
Million tonnes of carbon dioxide Mboe / MToe Million bbls of oil equivalent / Million tonnes of oil equivalent Oil Equivalent Method of assessing work of calorific value of different sources of energy in terms of one tonne of oil.89 kPa Quadrant UKCS acreage one degree by one degree. 30 Blocks to Quadrant. . ppb / ppm parts per billion / parts per million psi Pounds per square inch One psi = 6.
3861 sq. now employed for all scientific and most technical purposes. SI unit Self-consistent system of measurement units based on the MKS (metre-kilogram-second) system.590 Km2 .Specific Gravity Ratio of density of a substance at a particular temperature to density of water. Adopted for international use under Le Système International d'Unités. miles Square Miles One Sq Mile (640 acres) = 2. One Km2 (100 hectares) = 0. kms / Km2) 1000 metres x 1000 metres. Square kilometres (Sq.
Gigawatt (GW) = Thousand megawatts. production and transportation facilities and restoration of depleted .tcf Trillion (a million million) Cubic Feet (of Gas) Tonne (t) Metric tonne = 1000 kilograms Watt (W) Power which in one second gives rise to energy of one joule (j). Megawatt (MW) = One million watts. Production Abandonment / Decommissioning Process of dismantling wellhead. Kilowatt (kW) = One kW = 1000 watts.
Acid stimulation Form of hydrochloric acid is pumped down well hole to enlarge pore space in oil bearing rocks to increase flow and recovery. Air injection An enhanced recovery technique in which air is injected into hydrocarbon formation to increase reservoir pressure. Acoustic log Record of time taken by a sound wave to travel over a certain distance through geological formations.producing areas in accordance with licence requirements and /or legislation. Annulus .
Blow-down Condensate and gas produced simultaneously from outset of production. Cathodic protection Method used to minimise rate of electrochemical corrosion of structures. pipelines and storage tanks. for bringing oil to surface. installations offshore. other than natural drives. Casing perforation Holes made in liner of a finished well to allow hydrocarbons to flow into production tube. Christmas tree .Artificial lift Any techniques. for example.
Delineation well . Commingling Producing oil and gas from two or more reservoirs at different depths. or where product of two or more fields is transported via a common pipeline. gauges and valves on top end of each production well to control flow of oil or gas. Closed-in Descriptive of a well that is capable of producing.Branching series of pipes. but is not currently producing. Coiled tubing Used to carry production equipment to bottom of well.
reserves and likely production rate of a new oil or gas field.Drilled at a distance from a discovery well to determine physical extent. Development Phase on which a proven oil or gas field is brought into production by drilling production (development) wells. Development well A production well drilled with intent of producing oil or gas from a proven field. Downstream . Deviated well Horizontal well drilled at an angle (over 80 degrees) to vertical.
Field Geographical area under which an oil or gas reservoir lies. Field Nomenclature Field ceased production (FCP) Field under development (FUD) Field in production (FIP) Flaring and venting .Dual Completion A well completed to produce from two separate reservoirs. Enhanced reach Deviated wells (over 65 degrees) from vertical and reach out horizontally more than twice vertical depth.
Venting is release of gases to atmosphere. some gas will often collect at top of reservoir in a single deposit. Condensate appears when gas in drawn from well. and its temperature and pressure change sufficiently for some of it to became liquid petroleum. Gas field .Flaring is burning of hydrocarbon gases for commercial or technical reasons. Gas Cap In field containing both gas and oil. Flare Stack Steel structure on an offshore installation or at a processing facility from which gas is flared. with greater proportion of gas. Gas/Condensate field Reservoir containing both natural gas and oil.
In this way rate of production of crude oil also can be increased. Gas lift Gas from same or nearby field is mixed with oil in tubing to lessen weight of liquid column. but no oil. Production is then piped to central processing system onshore.Field containing natural gas. Gas Oil Ratio (GOR) Gas Processing . Gas Injection (GI) Associated gas is pumped back into a reservoir to maintain reservoir pressure. Gas gathering system Central collection point for offshore gas fields.
condensate. Horizontal well Used when reservoir permeability is low or hydrocarbons are being produced from vertical fractures in rock. Gravity Structures Either concrete or hybrid (concrete base and steel legs and superstructure) structures that due to weight rest on seabed or piled into it. and removal of impurities and NGLs from natural gas. Jacket .Separation of oil and gas. hydrogen sulphide and NGLs from natural gas. Gas Treatment Removal of impurities.
oil and gas separation. Multilateral well More than one horizontal section drilled in one well. platform power generation. storage. mud. Used to maximise number of wells that can be drilled from small installations. filter and exhaust) located on production installations. gas compression. well head. Marine Riser Pipe connecting offshore installation to a subsea wellhead or pipeline for drilling or production purposes. Module Self-contained box or package built with a specific purpose (for example. diesel.Supporting (concrete base or steel legs) structure for an offshore installation. .
Oil in Place (OIP) Estimation of real amount of oil in a reservoir. Pig . Higher value than recoverable reserves of reservoir.Odorant Substance (for example mercaptan) added to odourless natural gas or NGLs to enable detection. Offshore Oil Loading Nomenclature Single buoy mooring (SBM) Single point mooring (SPM) Exposed location single buoy mooring (ELSBM) Spar Enables offshore loading with vessel swinging to present least resistance to prevailing wind or current conditions.
) Piling Long steel piles driven into the seabed to anchor fixed offshore structures solidly in place. crude oil or petroleum products are pumped between two points.fitted with sensors to check for corrosion or defects in pipelines. Pipeline A pipe through which natural gas. (Intelligent pig . Plateau Level of peak oil or gas field production.Device for cleaning a pipeline or separating two liquids being moved down pipeline. either onshore or offshore. Platform . it is always followed by declining level of production.
Fixed structure resting on seabed or piled into it. Platform Nomenclature Tension Leg Platform (TLP) Minimum Facility Platform (MINF) Not Normally Attended Installation (NNAI) Gravity based structures (GBS) Accommodation (ACCOM) Compression (COMP) Drilling (DRIL) Riser (RISE) Preventative maintenance Maintenance carried out prior to unit or system failure. Primary Recovery .
Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir using only natural reservoir pressure. Production String . Produced along side oil production.(see also Secondary and Tertiary Recovery.) Produced Water Brines naturally present or injected into reservoir to enhance production. Production Drilling Drilling of wells in order to bring a field into production. Production Installation An installation from which development wells are drilled and that carries all associated processing plants and other equipment needed to maintain a field in production.
Determined by a various factors such as reservoir dimensions.) Redetermination Retroactive adjustment to relative percentage interests of joint venturers in a field. (see also Primary. Reserves: Probable . pressure. nature of hydrocarbons.Tubing or piping in a production well through which oil or gas flows from reservoir to wellhead. Recovery Factor Ratio of recoverable oil and / or gas to estimated oil and / or gas in place in reservoir. and development plan. Secondary and Tertiary Recovery. Reserves: Possible Reserves at present cannot be regarded as "probable".
Reserves not yet "proven". but are estimated to have a better than 50% chance of being technically and economically producible. Reservoir engineering model . Reservoir drive Powered by difference in pressures within reservoir and well. permeable rock formation in which hydrocarbons are present. Reserves: Proven Reserves which on available evidence are virtually certain to be technically and economically producible. Reservoir Subsurface. porous.
(see also Primary and Tertiary Recovery. Secondary Recovery Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir by increasing reservoir pressure by injecting gas or water into reservoir rock.Used to predict reservoir behaviour during production to enable selection of most efficient method of recovery. Satellite Installation An offshore structure that depends on another installation for materials or services. Subsea manifolds .) Slug catcher Plant installed in a gas pipeline system to catch unwanted "slugs" of liquid.
Terminal . etc.Allows wells to be put on production without need to build a platform to operate and maintain wells. Sub-sea wellhead A wellhead installed on the sea floor and controlled remotely from a platform. helicopter pad. Tension Leg Platform A floating offshore structure held in position by a number of tension-maintaining cables anchored to seabed. engines. Substructure Support form of an offshore installation on which derrick. are installed. Cables dampen wave action to keep platform stationary. a floating production facility or land. cranes.
for example. (see also Primary and Secondary Recovery) Tubing Piping installed in wells for production of oil and gas. Topsides Top of an installation positioned on jacket.Onshore transit installation that receives oil or gas from offshore production facilities via pipeline and / or tankers. Upstream . Plant and equipment designed to receive and process crude oil or gas to remove water and impurities. Tertiary Recovery Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir by sophisticated methods. heating reservoir or enlarging pore spaces using chemicals.
Pressure in reservoir as a whole can be maintained or increased and production can be maintained or increased.Water Injection (WI) Water is pumped into alternate wells in a field. Workover Re-entry into a completed field well for modification or repair. Well completion Well Nomenclature (Field) Development (DEV) Deviated (DEVW) Gas Injection (GI) Water Injection (WI). Restoring well productivity by cleaning out .
Competence . and / or loss. silt or other substances that clog production tubing. and / or damage. BRIGHT EYE Regular UKCS exercise to test search and rescue capability. Blow-out Preventers (BOPs) High-pressure wellhead (top of casing) valves designed to shut-off flow of hydrocarbons to prevent blowouts (accidental escapes of oil or gas from a well). Safety Accident Any event which results in injury.accumulations of sand.
Fatality Rate (FR) .Ability to perform particular job in compliance with performance standards. Fatality Death due to work related injury / illness. Danger Risk of injury Dangerous occurrence Readily identifiable event with potential to cause an accident or disease to persons at work and public or of significant actual of potential material damage. Fatal Accident Frequency Rate (FAFR) Number of fatalities per 100 million man hours worked.
Number of fatalities per 1000 employees. Gas Detector Instrument to detect presence of various gases. Hazard Incident An unplanned event or chain of events which has or could have caused injury or illness and / or damage or loss to environment. third parties or assets. Flash Point Lowest temperature at which vapour above a flammable liquid can be ignited. Injury .
Injury Rate (IR) Number of injuries per one hundred employees.Physical harm or damage to a person resulting from traumatic contact between body of person and an outside agency. Lost Time Injury Frequency (LTIF) . Injury Frequency (IF) Number of injuries per million man hours worked. Lost Time Injury (LTI) Any work related injury or illness which prevents that person from doing any work day after accident. Injury Severity Rate (ISR) Number of days lost per one million man hours worked. or from exposure to environmental factors.
Permit-to-Work (PTW) Formal written system used to control certain types of work which are identified as (potentially) hazardous. Reasonably Practicable . but which was avoided by circumstances. per million hours worked by that group. Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) Equipment / clothing which offers protection against risks to health and safety.Number of LTIs recorded for a group of workers. Near miss / accident Any event which had potential to cause injury and/or damage and or/loss.
Risk Risk Assessment Risk Management Vessels Barge Non-self-propelled marine vessel used as cargo tankers. crane platforms and support and accommodation bases in offshore drilling. as equipment and supply carriers. and as submarine pipe-laying vessels. Crane Barge .
Floating Vessel Nomenclature Floating accommodation for offshore personnel (Flotel).Vessel capable of lifting heavy equipment onto / off offshore installations. Drill Ship Free floating mobile drilling platform used in very deep waters. Positioned by dynamic positioning. Storage and Offloading Vessel (FPSO) Floating Production Vessel (FPV) Floating Storage Unit (FSU) Jack-up Rig Mobile drilling platform with retractable legs used in shallow waters less than 100 metres deep. . Floating Production.
LNG Carrier Tanker. . Kept in position by anchors or dynamic positioning. with insulated pressure tanks. designed to carry refrigerated LNG shipments.Lay barge Vessel specially equipped to lay submarine pipelines. Lightering Unloading cargo from large marine tankers into smaller tankers that can enter shallow-water ports. Semi-submersible Rig Mobile drilling platform with floats or pontoons submerged to give stability while operating. Used in deeper waters down to 360 metres or more.
000 tonnes dwt. VLCC Very large crude carrier. Oil tanker over 200.000 tonnes dwt. . Oil tanker over 300.TEMPSC Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Craft ULCC Ultra large crude carrier.
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