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3: Equilibrium
3.0 Outline 123
Mechanical System Isolation (FBD) 125
2D Systems
Equilibrium Conditions 144
3D Systems
Equilibrium Conditions 174
3.0 Outline
123
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.0 Outline
When a body is in equilibrium, the resultant on the body
is zero.
And if the resultant on a body is zero, the body is in
equilibrium.
So,
is the necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium.
3.0 Outline
∑ ∑
F = 0 M= 0
124
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 Mechanical System Isolation (FBD)
FreeBody Diagram (FBD) is the most important first
step in the mechanics problems. It defines clearly the
interested system to be analyzed. It represents all
forces which act on the system. The system may be
rigid, nonrigid, or their combinations. The system
may be in fluid, gaseous, solid, or their combinations.
FBD represents the isolated / combination of bodies as
a single body. Corresponding indicated forces may
be
1. Contact force with other bodies that are removed
virtually.
2. Body force such as gravitational or magnetic
attraction forces.
3.1 FBD
125
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
126
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Remarks
1. Force by flexible cable is always a tension. Weight
of the cable may be significant.
2. Smooth surface ideally cannot support the tangential
or frictional force. Contact force of the rough surface
may not necessarily be normal to the tangential surface.
3. Roller, rocker, smooth guide, or slider ideally
eliminate the frictional force. That is the supports
cannot provide the resistance to motion
in the tangential direction.
4. Pin connection provides support force in any direction
normal to the pin axis. If the joint is not free to turn,
a resisting couple may also be supported.
127
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
128
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Remarks
5. The builtin / fixed support of the beam is capable of
supporting the axial force, the shear force, and
the bending moment.
6. Gravitational force is a kind of distributed noncontact
force. The resultant single force is the weight acted
through C.M. towards the center of the earth.
7. Remote action force has the same overall effects
on a rigid body as direct contact force of equal
magnitude and direction.
8. On the FBD, the force exerted on the body
to be isolated by the body to be removed is indicated.
9. Sense of the force exerted on the FBD by
the removed bodies opposes the movement which
would occur if those bodies were removed.
129
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Remarks
10. If the correct sense cannot be known at first place,
the sense of the scalar component is arbitrarily
assigned. Upon computation, a negative algebraic
sign indicates that the correct sense is opposite
to that assigned.
130
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Construction of FBD
1. Make decision which body or system is to be isolated.
That system will usually involve the unknown quantities.
2. Draw complete external boundary of the system
to completely isolate it from all other contacting
or attracting bodies.
3. All forces that act on the isolated body by the removed
contacting and attracting bodies are represented
on the isolated body diagram. Forces should be
indicated by vector arrows, each with its magnitude,
direction, and sense. Consistency of the unknowns
must be carried throughout the calculation.
4. Assign the convenient coordinate axes.
Only after the FBD is completed should the governing
equations be applied.
131
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
132
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Note
1. Include as much as possible the system in FBD
while the unknowns are still being revealed.
2. Internal forces to a rigid assembly of members do not
influence the values of the external reactions. And so
the external response of the mechanism as a whole
would be unchanged.
3. Include the weights of the members on FBD.
4. Try to get the correct sense of unknown vectors by
visualizing the motion of the whole system when
the supports are pretended to disappear. The correct
sense will oppose the motion’s direction.
5. Follow the action of force prototypes in determining
the forces acted by the removed bodies.
133
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
134
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
A
x
A
y
M
O
A
x
A
y
O
y
O
x
B
x
135
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
136
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
A
x
M
A
F
F
B
y
A
x
137
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
138
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
139
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
1.
T
mg
x
N
F
y
P
T
2.
mg
R
On verge of being rolled over
means the normal force N = 0
N = 0
y
x
140
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
y
x
3.
L
T
R
x
R
y
4.
y
x
mg
m
O
g
N
A
y
A
X
141
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
O
M 0 =
∑
3.1 FBD
5.
F
N
R
mg
T
y
x
O
6.
y
x
A
y
A
X
B
y
B
X
142
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
7.
y
x
8.
mg
T
A
y
A
X
y
x
L
T
A
y
A
X
B
y
B
X
143
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
3.2 2D Equilibrium Conditions
A body is in equilibrium if all forces and moments
applied to it are in balance. In scalar form,
x y O
F 0 F 0 M 0 = = =
∑ ∑ ∑
• The xy coordinate system and the moment point O
can be chosen arbitrarily.
• Complete equilibrium in 2D motion must satisfy all
three equations. However, they are independent
to each other. That is, equilibrium may only be satisfied
in some generalized coordinates.
• System in equilibrium may stay still or move with
constant velocity. In both cases, the acceleration is zero.
144
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Categories of equilibrium
Some equations are automatically satisfied and
so contribute nothing in solving the problems.
145
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Equilibrium of a body under the action of two force only:
The forces must be equal, opposite, and collinear.
Weights of the members negligible
146
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Equilibrium of a body under
the action of three force only:
The lines of action of the three
forces must be concurrent.
The only exception is when the
three forces are parallel.
The system may be reduced to the
threeforce member by successive
addition of the known forces.
If all forces are concurrent, then the
equilibrium statement calls for the
closure of the polygon of forces.
147
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Alternative Equilibrium Equations
( )
x A B
Three independent equilibrium conditions:
F 0 M 0 M 0
AB xdirection
= = =
÷ ⊥
∑ ∑ ∑
148
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
A B C
Three independent equilibrium conditions:
M 0 M 0 M 0
A, B, and C are not on the same straight line
= = =
∑ ∑ ∑
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Alternative Equilibrium Equations
149
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Constraints and Statical Determinacy
The equilibrium equations may not always solve all
unknowns in the problem. Simply put, if #unknowns
(including geometrical variables) > #equations, then we
cannot solve it. This is because the system has more
constraints than necessary to maintain the equilibruim.
This is call statically indeterminate system. Extra
equations, from forcedeformation material properties,
must also be applied to solve the redundant constraints.
150
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Constraints and Statical Determinacy
P Q
mg
#unknowns = 2
#equilibrium eqs. = 2
statically determinate
P
A
x
A
y
B
x
B
y
F
B
x
B
y
A
x
A
y
C
x
C
y
#unknowns = 4
#equilibrium eqs. = 3
statically indeterminate
#unknowns = 6
#equilibrium eqs. = 3
statically indeterminate
151
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Adequacy of Constraints
152
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Problem Solution
1. List known – unknown quantities, and check the
number of unknowns and the number of available
independent equations.
2. Determine the isolated system and draw FBD.
3. Assign a convenient set of coordinate systems.
Choose suitable moment centers for calculation.
4. Write down the governing equation, e.g. ,
before the calculation.
5. Choose the suitable method in solving the problem:
scalar, vector, or geometric approach.
O
M 0 ( =
¸ ¸
∑
153
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/1 In a procedure to evaluate the strength of the
triceps muscle, a person pushes down on a
load cell with the palm of his hand as indicated
in the figure. If the loadcell reading is 160 N,
determine the vertical tensile force F generated
by the triceps muscle. The mass of the lower
arm is 1.5 kg with mass center at G. State
any assumptions.
154
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/1
Assumption: contraction force from biceps muscle
acts at point O
1. Known: weight of lower hand,
pushing force
Unknown: triceps force, biceps force
2. FBD: lower hand
y
x
O
y
M 0 T 251.5g 150 160 300 0
T=1832 N
F 0 TC1.5g +160=0
C=1977 N
( = × × + × =
¸ ¸
( =
¸ ¸
∑
∑
C
T
160 N
1.5g
155
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
equivalent tension forces at the middle pulley
F = 2Tcos30
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/2
1. Unknown: l,R
Known: m, b, T
2. FBD: tensioning system with cutcable
y
x
( )
O
2
2 2 2 2
Threeforce member with m , , and
For equilibrium, three lines of action must be concurrent.
2Tbcos30
M 0 F bmg l = 0 l =
mg
R= F mg 3T m g
( = × × ∴
¸ ¸
( + = +
¸ ¸
∑
∑
g F O
F = 0
F
R
T
T
mg
156
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/3 The exercise machine consists of a lightweight cart which is
mounted on small rollers so that it is free to move along
the inclined ramp. Two cables are attached to the cart –
one for each hand. If the hands are together so that the cables
are parallel and if each cable lies essentially in a vertical plane,
determine the force P which each hand must exert on its cable
in order to maintain an equilibrium position. The mass of the
person is 70 kg, the ramp angle is 15°, and the angleβis 18°.
In addition, calculate the force R which the ramp exerts
on the cart.
157
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/3
Assumption: negligible rail friction
'
'
x
y
F 0 70gsin15 Tcos9 = 0 T =179.9 N
F 0 R70gcos15Tsin9 = 0 R = 691 N
( =
¸ ¸
(
=
¸ ¸
∑
∑
T 4Pcos9 = 0 P = 45.5 N
2P
2P
x’
T
T
70g
R
1. Unknown: P, T, R
2. FBD: exercise machine, pulley
x’
15
°
9
°
9
°
T
158
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/4 A uniform ring of mass m and radius r carries
an eccentric mass m
o
at a radius b and is in
an equilibrium position on the incline, which
makes an angleαwith the horizontal. If the
contacting surfaces are rough enough to
prevent slipping, write the expression for the
angleθwhich defines the equilibrium position.
159
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/4
1. Unknown: F, N, θ
2. FBD: ring+eccentric mass
( ) '
o
O o
1
o
x
o
m gbsin
M 0 Fr  m gbsin = 0 F =
r
r m
F 0 F m m gsin = 0 = sin 1 sin
b m
θ
θ
α θ α
( = ∴
¸ ¸
(
 
( = + ∴ +
( 
¸ ¸
\ .
¸ ¸
∑
∑
x’
mg
m
o
g
F
N
160
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/5 The hook wrench or pin spanner is used to
turn shafts and collars. If a moment of 80 Nm
is required to turn the 200 mm diameter collar
about its center O under the action of the applied
force P, determine the contact force R on the
smooth surface at A. Engagement of the pin
at B may be considered to occur at the periphery
of the collar.
161
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
( )
B A
A
Three  force member
M 0 N 0.1sin 60 P 0.375+0.1cos60 0
N 1047 N
( = × − × =
¸ ¸
=
∑
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/5
O
shaft & hook as one system
M 0 80P 0.375 = 0 P = 213.3 N ( = × ∴
¸ ¸
∑
y
x
N
A
R
B
80 Nm
162
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/6 The small crane is mounted on one side of the
bed of a pickup truck. For the positionθ=40°,
determine the magnitude of the force supported
by the pin at O and the oil pressure p against
the 50 mmdiameter piston of the hydraulic
cylinder BC.
163
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
1
geometry at BCDO
360 340sin 40 110cos 40
tan 56.2
340cos 40 110sin 40
d = 360cos 200 mm
α
α
− °
+ −
 
= =

+
\ .
=
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/6
B
C
O
D
α
α
d
360
110
340
164
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
( )
O
2
x x x
y y y
2 2
x y
Three  force member
M 0 120g 785+340 cos 40 C d = 0 C = 5063 N
F
p = 2.58 MPa
r
F 0 O Ccos = 0 O 2820 N
F 0  O 120g +Csin = 0 O 3030 N
O = O O
π
α
α
( = × − ×
¸ ¸
=
( = − =
¸ ¸
( = − =
¸ ¸
+
∑
∑
∑
4140 N =
P. 3/6
y
x
O
O
y
O
x
O
C
120g
165
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/7 The rubbertired tractor shown has a mass of 13.5 Mg with
the C.M. at G and is used for pushing or pulling heavy loads.
Determine the load P which the tractor can pull at a constant
speed of 5 km/h up the 15percent grade if the driving force
exerted by the ground on each of its four wheels is 80 percent
of the normal force under that wheel. Also find the total normal
reaction N
B
under the rear pair of wheels at B.
166
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
'
'
A B
x
2 2
A B
y
2 2
A B
2 2 2 2
A B
15
F 0 P 0.8N 0.8N 13500g 0
15 100
100
F 0 N N 13500g 0
15 100
100 15
M 0 N 1.8 P 0.613500g 1.2 13500g 0.825 0
15 100 15 100
N 6.3 kN, N 124.7 kN, P = 8
( = − + × =
¸ ¸
+
(
= + − × =
¸ ¸
+
( = × − × × × − × × =
¸ ¸
+ +
= =
∑
∑
∑
5.1 kN
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/7
'
A B
x
M 0 M 0 F 0 ( ( ( = = =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
∑ ∑ ∑
y’
x’
13500g
N
A
N
B
0.8N
A
0.8N
B
alternative equations:
167
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/8 Pulley A delivers a steady torque (moment) of
100 Nm to a pump through its shaft at C. The
tension in the lower side of the belt is 600 N.
The driving motor B has a mass of 100 kg and
rotates clockwise. Determine the magnitude R
of the force on the supporting pin at O.
168
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/8
( )
C
M 0 600 T 0.225 100 0 T =155.6 N ( = × − = ∴
¸ ¸
∑
( )
D y
y
x x x
M 0 O 0.25 600 0.2 0.075 100g 0.125
 T 0.075 Tcos30 0.2 +Tsin30 0.125 = 0
O 906 N
F 0 Tcos30 +600 O 0 O 734.7 N
O = O
( = × − × − − ×
¸ ¸
× × ×
=
( = = ∴ =
¸ ¸
∑
∑
2 2
x y
y y
O 1.17 kN
F 0 Tsin30100g  P +O 0 P = 2.8 N
+ =
( = = ∴
¸ ¸
∑
600 N
T
100 Nm by load
mg
y
x
O
x
O
y
600 N
T
P
spring compressed to resist rotation of the body
100g
D
D x O
M 0 F 0 M 0 ( ( ( = = =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
∑ ∑ ∑
169
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/9 When setting the anchor so that it will dig into the sandy bottom,
the engine of the 40 Mg cruiser with C.G. at G is run in reverse
to produce a horizontal thrust T of 2 kN. If the anchor chain
makes an angle of 60°with the horizontal, determine the
forward shift b of the center of buoyancy from its position when
the boat is floating free. The center of buoyancy is the point
through which the resultant of the buoyant force passes.
170
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/9
y
x
x
y
A
F 0 Acos60 2000 = 0 A = 4 kN
F 0 B 40000g  Asin60 = 0 B = 395864 N
M 0 40000g 8 2000 3 Bx = 0 x = 7.915 m
b = 8 x = 85.2 mm
( = ∴
¸ ¸
( = ∴
¸ ¸
( = × × ∴
¸ ¸
∑
∑
∑
free floating (no thrust, tension): buoyancy force = weight, acting at C.G.
backward motion: new buoyancy force acting at new position
to maintain equilibrium
40000g
A
B
x b
171
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/10 A special jig for turning large concrete pipe sections (shown
dotted) consists of an 80 Mg sector mounted on a line of rollers
at A and a line of rollers at B. One of the rollers at B is a gear
which meshes with a ring of gear teeth on the sector so as to
turn the sector about its geometric center O. When α= 0,
a counterclockwise torque of 2460 Nm must be applied to the
gear at B to keep the assembly from rotating. When α = 30,
a clockwise torque of 4680 Nm is required to prevent rotation.
Locate the mass center G of the jig by calculating r and θ.
172
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
B 1 1
2 2
M 0 = 0 : 2460 F 0.24 0, F 10250 N
= 30 :  4680 + F 0.24 0, F 19500 N
α
α
( = ° × = =
¸ ¸
° × = =
∑
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/10
y
x
( )
O
M 0 0 : 80000g rcos 10250 5 0
30 : 80000g rcos 18030 19500 5 0
r 367 mm, 79.8
α θ
α θ
θ
( = = ° × − × =
¸ ¸
= ° × + × =
= = °
∑
2460 Nm
F
1
4680 Nm
F
2
N
A
N
B
F
80000g
173
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
3.3 3D Equilibrium Conditions
A body is in equilibrium if all forces and moments
applied to it are in balance. In scalar form,
x y z
x y z
O O O
F 0 F 0 F 0
M 0 M 0 M 0
= = =
= = =
∑ ∑ ∑
∑ ∑ ∑
• The xyz coordinate system and the moment point O
can be chosen arbitrarily.
• Complete equilibrium in 3D motion must satisfy all
six equations. However, they are independent
to each other. That is, equilibrium may only be satisfied
in some generalized coordinates.
• System in equilibrium may stay still or move with
constant velocity. In both cases, the acceleration is zero.
174
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
175
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
Categories of equilibrium
Some equations are automatically satisfied and
so contribute nothing in solving the problems.
176
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
Constraints and Statical Determinacy
The equilibrium equations may not always solve all
unknowns in the problem. Simply put, if #unknowns
(including geometrical variables) > #equations, then we
cannot solve it. This is because the system has more
constraints than necessary to maintain the equilibrium.
This is call statically indeterminate system. Extra
equations, from forcedeformation material properties,
must also be applied to solve the redundant constraints.
177
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
Adequacy of Constraints
178
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/11 The light right angle boom which supports the
400 kg cylinder is supported by three cables
and a ballandsocket joint at O attached to the
vertical xy surface. Determine the reactions
at O and the cable tensions.
179
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
AC
BD
BE OE
OB
OD
0.408 0.408 0.816
0.707 0.707
,
0.6 0.8
0.6 0.8
= − −
= −
= − =
=
=
n i + j k
n j k
n k n i
n i + k
n i + j
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/11
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
OB AC
AC AC OB AC
OD BE
AC AC BE BE OD BE
OE BD
BD BD
M 0 to find T
0.75 400g 2 T 0 T 4808.8 N
M 0 to find T
2 T 0.75 2 400g 1.5 T 0 T 654 N
M 0 to find T
2 T 0.75 2 40
( =
¸ ¸
− × − + × = ⇒ = (
¸ ¸
( =
¸ ¸
× + × − + × = ⇒ = (
¸ ¸
( =
¸ ¸
× + × −
∑
∑
∑
i j k n n
k n i + k j i n n
j n i + k
( ) ( )
AC AC OE BD
x y z
0g 2 T 0 T 2775.1 N
O 1962 N, O 0 N, O 6540 N
+ × = ⇒ = (
¸ ¸
( = = =
¸ ¸
∑
j k n n
F = 0
400g
O
T
BE
T
BD
T
AC
180
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/12 The 600 kg industrial door is a uniform rectangular panel which
rolls along the fixed rail D on its hangermounted wheels A and B.
The door is maintained in a vertical plane by the floormounted
guide roller C, which bears against the bottom edge. For the
position shown compute the horizontal side thrust on each of
the wheels A and B, which must be accounted for in the design
of the brackets.
181
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/12
z
AB C C
A C x x
x x x C x
M 0 600g 0.15 N 3 0 N 294.3 N
M 0 N 0.6 B 3 0 B 58.86 N
F 0 A B N 0 A 235.44 N
( = × − × = ⇒ =
¸ ¸
( = × − × = ⇒ =
¸ ¸
( = + − = ⇒ =
¸ ¸
∑
∑
∑
N
C
A
x
A
z
B
z
B
x
600g
182
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/13 The smooth homogeneous sphere rests in the
120°groove and bears against the end plate
which is normal to the direction of the groove.
Determine the angle θ, measured from the
horizontal, for which the reaction on each side
of the groove equals the force supported by
the end plate.
183
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/13
Projection onto two orthogonal planes
y 1 2
z
x r
r
F 0 N N N
F 0 mgcos 2Ncos30
F 0 N mgsin
if N N, tan 1/ 2cos30 30 , N mg/2
θ
θ
θ θ
( = = =
¸ ¸
( = =
¸ ¸
( = =
¸ ¸
= = ⇒ = ° =
∑
∑
∑
x
y
z
z
mg
mgcosθ
θ
N
r
N
2
N
1
N
1
cos30+N
2
cos30
30°
184
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/14 The mass center of the 30 kg door is in the
center of the panel. If the weight of the door is
supported entirely by the lower hinge A, calculate
the magnitude of the total force supported by
the hinge at B.
185
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/14
y
x
x A x x x
y A y y y
2 2
x y
F 0 M 0 30g 0.36 B 1.5 0, B A 70.6 N
F 0 M 0 B 1.5 30g 0.9 0, B A 176.6 N
B B B 190.2 N
(
( = = × − × = = =
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
( ( = = × − × = = =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= + =
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
30g
30g
x
y
z
A
y
B
y
B
x
A
x
186
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/15 One of the three landing pads for the Mars Viking lander is
shown in the figure with its approximate dimensions. The mass
of the lander is 600 kg. Compute the force in each leg when
the lander is resting on a horizontal surface on Mars. Assume
equal support by the pads and consult Table D/2 in Appendix D
as needed.
187
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/15
( )
DC CA
BA DC
DC DC DC
x
DC DC CA CA CB
0.35 0.936 , 0.7664 0.418 0.4877
M 0 to find F
0.85 0.1 F 200g 0.55 0 F 1049.1 N
F 0 and symmetry about xz plane
F 2T 0.7664 0 T T 239
= − = − + +
( =
¸ ¸
× − × ⇒ = (
¸ ¸
( =
¸ ¸
− × = ⇒ = =
∑
∑
n i k n i j k
k + i n j j =
n i
.5 N
g=3.73 m/s
2
200g
F
DC
T
CB
T
CA
188
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/16 The uniform 15 kg plate is welded to the vertical shaft, which
is supported by bearings A and B. Calculate the magnitude
of the force supported by bearing B during application of the
120 Nm couple to the shaft. The cable from C to D prevents
the plate and shaft from turning, and the weight of the
assembly is carried entirely by bearing A.
189
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
z
y
x
DC
O DC
A x x x
A y y y
2 2
x y
0.95 0.316
M 0 120 0.6 T 0, T 632.9 N
M 0 B 0.2 15g 0.3 T 0.68 0, B 2265 N
M 0 B 0.2 T 0.68 0, B 680 N
B B B 2635 N
= − −
( = + × = =
¸ ¸
(
= − × + × + × = =
¸ ¸
( = × − × = =
¸ ¸
= + =
∑
∑
∑
n i j
i n k
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/16
x
y
z
T
15g
B
x
B
y
A
y
A
x
15g
190
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/17 The uniform 900x1200 mm trap door has a
mass of 200 kg and is propped open by the light
strut AB at the angle θ= atan(4/3). Calculate
the compression F
B
in the strut and the force
supported by the hinge D normal to the hinge
axis. Assume that the hinges act at the extreme
ends of the lower edge.
191
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
 
( )
x
y
z
AB
C AB AB AB
C z z
C y AB AB y
2 2
n y z
0.2857 0.4286 0.857
M 0 0.9 T 200g 0.45cos53.13 0, T 688 N
M 0 200g 0.6 D 1.2 0, D 981 N
M 0 D 1.2 T 0.9 0, D 147.4 N
D D D 992 N
= − − +
( = × − × = =
¸ ¸
(
= − × + × = =
¸ ¸
( = − × + − × = =
¸ ¸
= + =
∑
∑
∑
n i j k
j n i
n i
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/17
x
y
z
D
y
D
x
D
z
200g
C
T
AB
192
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/18 The uniform rectangular panel ABCD has a mass of 40 kg
and is hinged at its corners A and B to the fixed vertical surface.
A wire from E to D keeps edges BC and AD horizontal. Hinge A
can support thrust along the hinge axis AB, whereas hinge B
supports force normal to the hinge axis only. Find the tension
T in the wire and the magnitude B of the force supported by
hinge B.
193
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/18
( )
 
( )
x
y
DE
A
DE DE DE
A z z
AE y
0.35 0.707 0.61
M 0 0.6 40g cos30 sin30
1.2 T 0 T 278.55 N
M 0 1.2 40g cos30 sin30 2.4B 0, B 169.9 N
M 0 B 0 N
= − +
( = × − − (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
× ⇒ =
(
= × − − − = = (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
( = =
¸ ¸
∑
∑
∑
n i j k
j k i i
+ j n i =
i k i j
n
B 169.9 N ∴ =
40g
y
x
z
T
DE
A
z
A
y
A
x
B
z
B
y
194
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/19 Under the action of the 40 Nm torque (couple) applied to the
vertical shaft, the restraining cable AC limits the rotation of the
arm OA and attached shaft to an angle of 60°measured from
the yaxis. The collar D fastened to the shaft prevents downward
motion of the shaft in its bearing. Calculate the bending moment
M, the compression P, and the shear force V in the shaft at
section B. (note: Bending moment, expressed as a vector,
is normal to the shaft axis, and shear force is also normal to
the shaft axis.)
195
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/19
section the shaft at B revealing the reaction force and moment
 
( )
x y
x y
AC
z AC AC AC
z AC AC
2 2 2 2
x y AC
B B B AC AC
B B
0.53 0.38 0.758
M 0 40 0.18 T 0 T 419.3 N
F 0 P T 0 P 317.8 N
V V V T P 273.5 N
M M 40 0.09 0.18 T
M 42.87 Nm, M 20.0
= −
( = + × = ⇒ =
¸ ¸
( = + ⇒ =
¸ ¸
= + = − =
( = + − + × =
¸ ¸
= =
∑
∑
∑
n i + j k
j n k
n k =
M 0 i + j + k j n 0
x y
2 2
b B B
Nm M M M 47.3 Nm ∴ = + =
x
y
T
AC
M
Bx
M
By
40 Nm
P
V
x
V
y
196
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/20
197
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
y
O
M 0 100 0.15 P 0.3 0, P 50 N
(
= × − × = =
¸ ¸
∑
x
y
B
C C
B A C
M 0 200 0.2 100sin15 0.35
Psin30 0.075 N 0.5 0, N 58.13 N
M 0 N 0.525 N 0.2625 200 0.2625
100cos15 0.52 100sin15 0.2237
( = × − ×
¸ ¸
− × − × = =
(
= − × − × + ×
¸ ¸
+ × − ×
∑
∑
A
z A B C B
Pcos30 0.635 Psin30 0.1125 0, N 108.56 N
F 0 N N 100sin15 N Psin30 200 0, N 32.44 N
− × + × = =
( = + + + − − = =
¸ ¸
∑
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/20
FBD of reel only
x
y
z
N
A
N
B N
C
198
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/21 The drum and shaft are welded together and
have a mass of 50 kg with mass center at G.
The shaft is subjected to a torque (couple) of
120 Nm, and the drum is prevented from
rotating by the cord wrapped securely around
it and attached to point C. Calculate the
magnitudes of the forces supported by
bearings A and B.
199
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
y
z
x
B
B x x
B z z
x x x x
z
M 0 T 0.15 120 0, T 800 N
M 0 Tcos66.87 0.36 A 0.7 0, A 161.6 N
M 0 50g 0.3 Tsin66.87 0.36 A 0.7 0, A 588.6 N
F 0 A B Tcos66.87 0, B 152.6 N
F 0
(
= × − = =
¸ ¸
( = × − × = =
¸ ¸
( = × + × − × = =
¸ ¸
( = + − = =
¸ ¸
( =
¸ ¸
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑ z z z
2 2 2 2
x z x z
A B 50g Tsin66.87 0, B 637.6 N
A A A 610.4 N, B B B 655.6 N
+ − − = =
= + = = + =
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/21
0.18
0.24
0.15
66.87°
T
T
50g
A
z
A
x
B
x
B
z
x
y
z
200
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/22
201
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
BC AD
AB z
z BC BC AD AD
x BC BC AD AD
BC AD
y
0.13 0.91 0.39 , 0.48 0.84 0.241
M 0 O 0 N
M 0 1.8 T 2.1 T 0
M 0 2.1 T 2.1 T 50g 2.1 0
T 625 N, T 1024 N
M 0 M 50gx
= − + = − − +
( = =
¸ ¸
( = × + ×
¸ ¸
( = × + × − × =
¸ ¸
= =
( = + +
¸ ¸
∑
∑
∑
∑
n i j k n i j k
i n k j n k =
j n i j n i
( )
BC BC
y y BC BC AD AD y
x x BC BC AD AD x
2 2 2
x y z
1.5 T 0
M 365.66 490.5
F 0 O T T 0, O 1429 N
F 0 O T T 0, O 410 N
O O O O 1487 N
x
×
= −
( = + + = =
¸ ¸
( = + + = =
¸ ¸
= + + =
∑
∑
i n j =
n j n j
n i n i
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/22
double Ujoint
x
z
M
50g
T
AD
T
BC
O
z
O
y
O
x
202
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.0 Outline When a body is in equilibrium, the resultant on the body is zero. And if the resultant on a body is zero, the body is in equilibrium. So,
124
∑F = 0
∑M = 0
is the necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium.
3.0 Outline
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 Mechanical System Isolation (FBD)
125
FreeBody Diagram (FBD) is the most important first step in the mechanics problems. It defines clearly the interested system to be analyzed. It represents all forces which act on the system. The system may be rigid, nonrigid, or their combinations. The system may be in fluid, gaseous, solid, or their combinations. FBD represents the isolated / combination of bodies as a single body. Corresponding indicated forces may be 1. Contact force with other bodies that are removed virtually. 2. Body force such as gravitational or magnetic attraction forces. 3.1 FBD
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
126
3.1 FBD
3. Roller. Contact force of the rough surface may not necessarily be normal to the tangential surface. a resisting couple may also be supported. Pin connection provides support force in any direction normal to the pin axis. That is the supports cannot provide the resistance to motion in the tangential direction. 3: Equilibrium 127 Remarks 1. Force by flexible cable is always a tension.Ch. smooth guide. Weight of the cable may be significant. If the joint is not free to turn. 3. or slider ideally eliminate the frictional force.1 FBD . rocker. 4. Smooth surface ideally cannot support the tangential or frictional force. 2.
1 FBD .Ch. 3: Equilibrium 128 3.
Remote action force has the same overall effects on a rigid body as direct contact force of equal magnitude and direction. and the bending moment.M. On the FBD. The resultant single force is the weight acted through C. 3: Equilibrium 129 Remarks 5. The builtin / fixed support of the beam is capable of supporting the axial force. 9. 8. 3. 6. 7.Ch. towards the center of the earth. Sense of the force exerted on the FBD by the removed bodies opposes the movement which would occur if those bodies were removed.1 FBD . Gravitational force is a kind of distributed noncontact force. the shear force. the force exerted on the body to be isolated by the body to be removed is indicated.
3: Equilibrium Remarks 10. a negative algebraic sign indicates that the correct sense is opposite to that assigned. the sense of the scalar component is arbitrarily assigned. 130 3. Upon computation.1 FBD . If the correct sense cannot be known at first place.Ch.
and sense. 3: Equilibrium 131 Construction of FBD 1.1 FBD . Assign the convenient coordinate axes. Only after the FBD is completed should the governing equations be applied. All forces that act on the isolated body by the removed contacting and attracting bodies are represented on the isolated body diagram. direction. each with its magnitude. Make decision which body or system is to be isolated. 3. 3. Draw complete external boundary of the system to completely isolate it from all other contacting or attracting bodies.Ch. 4. Forces should be indicated by vector arrows. 2. That system will usually involve the unknown quantities. Consistency of the unknowns must be carried throughout the calculation.
1 FBD . 3: Equilibrium 132 3.Ch.
Include the weights of the members on FBD.1 FBD .Ch. 5. Follow the action of force prototypes in determining the forces acted by the removed bodies. Internal forces to a rigid assembly of members do not influence the values of the external reactions. 3. 4. Try to get the correct sense of unknown vectors by visualizing the motion of the whole system when the supports are pretended to disappear. And so the external response of the mechanism as a whole would be unchanged. The correct sense will oppose the motion’s direction. 133 3. 2. Include as much as possible the system in FBD while the unknowns are still being revealed. 3: Equilibrium Note 1.
3: Equilibrium 134 3.1 FBD .Ch.
1 FBD . 3: Equilibrium Ax Ay MO 135 Ox Oy Bx Ax Ay 3.Ch.
3: Equilibrium 136 3.1 FBD .Ch.
Ch. 3: Equilibrium 137 F F By Ax MA Ax 3.1 FBD .
3: Equilibrium 138 3.1 FBD .Ch.
Ch. 3: Equilibrium 139 3.1 FBD .
1 FBD . 3: Equilibrium 1. P R N=0 On verge of being rolled over means the normal force N = 0 y x T 3.Ch. T y x mg mg F N 140 2.
T Rx Ry L y x 141 4.1 FBD .Ch. y N AX Ay mg mOg x 3. 3: Equilibrium 3.
1 FBD .Ch. mg O T y x F R N 142 ∑M y O =0 6. 3: Equilibrium 5. AX Ay By BX x 3.
L 3.1 FBD . 3: Equilibrium 7. T y AX Ay x mg BX T By AX Ay y x 143 8.Ch.
• System in equilibrium may stay still or move with constant velocity.2 2D Equilibrium Conditions A body is in equilibrium if all forces and moments applied to it are in balance.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . That is. they are independent to each other. equilibrium may only be satisfied in some generalized coordinates. = 0= 0 = 0 ∑ Fx ∑ Fy ∑ MO 144 • The xy coordinate system and the moment point O can be chosen arbitrarily. the acceleration is zero. In both cases. • Complete equilibrium in 2D motion must satisfy all three equations. 3: Equilibrium 3.Ch. 3. However. In scalar form.
3. 3: Equilibrium Categories of equilibrium 145 Some equations are automatically satisfied and so contribute nothing in solving the problems.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .Ch.
and collinear.Ch.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3: Equilibrium 146 Weights of the members negligible Equilibrium of a body under the action of two force only: The forces must be equal. opposite. 3.
The only exception is when the three forces are parallel. If all forces are concurrent.Ch. The system may be reduced to the threeforce member by successive addition of the known forces. then the equilibrium statement calls for the closure of the polygon of forces. 147 3. 3: Equilibrium Equilibrium of a body under the action of three force only: The lines of action of the three forces must be concurrent.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .
Ch. 3: Equilibrium Alternative Equilibrium Equations 148 Three independent equilibrium conditions: = 0= 0= 0 ∑ Fx ∑ MA ∑ MB ¬ AB ⊥ xdirection ( ) 3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .
2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3: Equilibrium Alternative Equilibrium Equations 149 Three independent equilibrium conditions: = 0= 0 = 0 ∑ MA ∑ MB ∑ MC A. and C are not on the same straight line 3.Ch. B.
This is because the system has more constraints than necessary to maintain the equilibruim. This is call statically indeterminate system. from forcedeformation material properties. Simply put. if #unknowns (including geometrical variables) > #equations. then we cannot solve it. must also be applied to solve the redundant constraints. Extra equations. 3: Equilibrium Constraints and Statical Determinacy The equilibrium equations may not always solve all unknowns in the problem. 150 3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .Ch.
= 2 statically determinate Ay By Cy Ax Bx Cx F #unknowns = 4 #equilibrium eqs. 3: Equilibrium Constraints and Statical Determinacy 151 mg P Q Ax Ay By Bx P #unknowns = 2 #equilibrium eqs. = 3 statically indeterminate 3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .Ch. = 3 statically indeterminate #unknowns = 6 #equilibrium eqs.
2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3: Equilibrium Adequacy of Constraints 152 3.Ch.
Determine the isolated system and draw FBD. Choose suitable moment centers for calculation. 4. List known – unknown quantities. Write down the governing equation.Ch.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3: Equilibrium Problem Solution 1. e. 153 3. vector. and check the number of unknowns and the number of available independent equations. or geometric approach. 5. 3.g. ∑ M O = 0 . before the calculation. 2. Assign a convenient set of coordinate systems. Choose the suitable method in solving the problem: scalar.
State any assumptions. 154 3.5 kg with mass center at G. If the loadcell reading is 160 N. 3: Equilibrium P. determine the vertical tensile force F generated by the triceps muscle. 3/1 In a procedure to evaluate the strength of the triceps muscle.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .Ch. a person pushes down on a load cell with the palm of his hand as indicated in the figure. The mass of the lower arm is 1.
5g 160 N 3. biceps force 2. pushing force Unknown: triceps force.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . FBD: lower hand ∑ M O 0 = T × 251. 3: Equilibrium P. Known: weight of lower hand.5g +160=0 C=1977 N 1.5g ×150 + 160 × 300 0 = T=1832 N 155 y T C x ∑ Fy = 0 TC1. 3/1 Assumption: contraction force from biceps muscle acts at point O 1.Ch.
Unknown: l. 2Tbcos30 ∑ M O= 0 F × bmg × l = 0 ∴l = mg ∑ F = 0 R= F2 + ( mg ) = 3T 2 + m 2 g 2 2 3. three lines of action must be concurrent. b. and O For equilibrium.R Known: m. F. 3/2 1. 3: Equilibrium P. FBD: tensioning system with cutcable R T y x F mg T 156 equivalent tension forces at the middle pulley F = 2Tcos30 Threeforce member with mg. T 2.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .Ch.
3: Equilibrium P. Two cables are attached to the cart – one for each hand.Ch. calculate the force R which the ramp exerts on the cart. 3/3 The exercise machine consists of a lightweight cart which is mounted on small rollers so that it is free to move along the inclined ramp.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . 157 3. The mass of the person is 70 kg. the ramp angle is 15°. If the hands are together so that the cables are parallel and if each cable lies essentially in a vertical plane. In addition. and the angleβis 18°. determine the force P which each hand must exert on its cable in order to maintain an equilibrium position.
5 N 3. Unknown: P. FBD: exercise machine.Tcos9 = 0 R70gcos15Tsin9 = 0 T = 179. pulley 158 T 15° T 9° 9° x’ 2P x’ 2P R ∑ Fx ' = 0 ∑ F ' = 0 y 70gsin15 . T.9 N R = 691 N T .Ch.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3: Equilibrium P. 3/3 Assumption: negligible rail friction 70g T 1. R 2.4Pcos9 = 0 P = 45.
159 3.Ch. 3/4 A uniform ring of mass m and radius r carries an eccentric mass mo at a radius b and is in an equilibrium position on the incline. If the contacting surfaces are rough enough to prevent slipping. which makes an angleαwith the horizontal. 3: Equilibrium P.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . write the expression for the angleθwhich defines the equilibrium position.
N. FBD: ring+eccentric mass mg mog x’ F N ∑ M O = 0 ∑ Fx ' = 0 Fr . 3: Equilibrium P.( m o + m ) gsinα = 0 3.m o gbsinθ = 0 ∴F = m o gbsinθ r r m ∴θ = sin 1 1 + sin α b mo 160 F .Ch.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . Unknown: F. θ 2. 3/4 1.
3: Equilibrium P.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3. Engagement of the pin at B may be considered to occur at the periphery of the collar.Ch. 3/5 161 The hook wrench or pin spanner is used to turn shafts and collars. If a moment of 80 Nm is required to turn the 200 mm diameter collar about its center O under the action of the applied force P. determine the contact force R on the smooth surface at A.
1sin 60 − P × ( 0.375 = 0 ∴ P = 213. 3: Equilibrium P.3 N N A × 0.force member ∑ M B 0 = ∑ M O = 0 NA shaft & hook as one system 80P × 0.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .375 + 0.Ch. 3/5 R B 162 80 Nm y x Three .1cos60 ) 0 = N A = 1047 N 3.
3: Equilibrium P.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . For the positionθ=40°. 3/6 163 The small crane is mounted on one side of the bed of a pickup truck. 3.Ch. determine the magnitude of the force supported by the pin at O and the oil pressure p against the 50 mmdiameter piston of the hydraulic cylinder BC.
2° 340 cos 40 + 110sin 40 d = 360cosα = 200 mm 3.Ch. 3: Equilibrium P.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3/6 110 C d α B geometry at BCDO 164 D 340 O α 360 α 360 + 340sin 40 − 110 cos 40 tan −1 = 56.
3: Equilibrium P. 3/6 y x 120g C O Oy O Ox 165 Three .force member ∑ M O 0 120g × ( 785 + 340 ) cos 40 − C × d = 0 C = 5063 N = F p = 2 = 2.O y − 120g + Csinα = 0 0 O = O 2 + O 2 = 4140 N x y Oy = 3030 N 3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .Ch.58 MPa πr ∑ Fx = 0 O x − Ccosα = 0 O x =N 2820 ∑ Fy = .
2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . Also find the total normal reaction NB under the rear pair of wheels at B. Determine the load P which the tractor can pull at a constant speed of 5 km/h up the 15percent grade if the driving force exerted by the ground on each of its four wheels is 80 percent of the normal force under that wheel. 3/7 The rubbertired tractor shown has a mass of 13.5 Mg with the C. 166 3. 3: Equilibrium P.M. at G and is used for pushing or pulling heavy loads.Ch.
7 kN.6 13500g × 152 + 1002 152 + 1002 = 6.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3/7 y’ x’ 13500g 167 0. P = 85.3 kN. 3: Equilibrium P.825 = ∑ M A = N B × 1.8NA NA ∑ Fx ' = 0 ∑ F ' 0 = y P .8N B + 13500g × N A + N B − 13500g × 100 15 = 0 152 + 1002 0.1 kN NA = 2 alternative equations: ∑ M A ∑ Fx ' = 0 = 0= 0 ∑ M B 3.8NB NB = 0 15 + 1002 100 15 0 0 × 1.8N A − 0. N B 124.2 − 13500g × × 0.0.8 − P × 0.Ch.
The driving motor B has a mass of 100 kg and rotates clockwise.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . Determine the magnitude R of the force on the supporting pin at O.Ch. 168 3. 3: Equilibrium P. 3/8 Pulley A delivers a steady torque (moment) of 100 Nm to a pump through its shaft at C. The tension in the lower side of the belt is 600 N.
2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .Ch.2 + Tsin30 × 0.075 ) − 100g × 0.7 N O = O 2 + O 2 = kN 1.075 .6 N ∑ M D 0 = O y × 0.T ) × 0. 3/8 T 600 N y x 100g T ∑ M C = 0 169 mg 100 Nm by load ( 600 .T × 0.P + = 0 Oy ∴ P = 2.125 = 0 O y = 906 N 600 N ∑ Fx = 0 Tcos30 + 600 .2 − 0.25 − 600 × ( 0.225 − 100 = 0 ∴ T = 155.Tcos30 × 0.8 N spring compressed to resist rotation of the body ∑ M O = 0= 0 = 0 ∑ M D ∑ Fx 3.O x = 0 ∴ O x = 734.125 .17 x y D Ox P Oy = ∑ Fy 0 Tsin30 100g . 3: Equilibrium P.
The center of buoyancy is the point through which the resultant of the buoyant force passes. If the anchor chain makes an angle of 60°with the horizontal. 3/9 When setting the anchor so that it will dig into the sandy bottom.G.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . the engine of the 40 Mg cruiser with C. at G is run in reverse to produce a horizontal thrust T of 2 kN. determine the forward shift b of the center of buoyancy from its position when the boat is floating free. 3: Equilibrium P.Ch. 170 3.
2000 = 0 ∴ A = 4 kN ∴ B = 395864 N ∴ x = 7.x = 85.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions . acting at C.Ch. backward motion: new buoyancy force acting at new position to maintain equilibrium ∑ Fx ∑ Fy 0 0 Acos60 .2000 × 3 .Bx = 0 MA b = 8 .2 mm 3.915 m B .G.40000g .Asin60 = 0 ∑= 0 40000g × 8 . 3: Equilibrium P. 3/9 40000g y x 171 b B x A free floating (no thrust. tension): buoyancy force = weight.
When α= 0.Ch. 3: Equilibrium P. 3/10 A special jig for turning large concrete pipe sections (shown dotted) consists of an 80 Mg sector mounted on a line of rollers at A and a line of rollers at B. a clockwise torque of 4680 Nm is required to prevent rotation. One of the rollers at B is a gear which meshes with a ring of gear teeth on the sector so as to turn the sector about its geometric center O. Locate the mass center G of the jig by calculating r and θ. 172 3. a counterclockwise torque of 2460 Nm must be applied to the gear at B to keep the assembly from rotating. When α = 30.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .
24= 0. F1 = 10250 N α = 30° : . 3: Equilibrium P.24 0.8° = r y NA F NB x 3.F1 × 0. = F2 19500 N = 80000g ∑ M O = 0 α = 0° : 80000g × rcosθ − 10250 × 5 = 0 α = 30° : 80000g × rcos (18030θ ) + 19500 × 5 = 0 = 367 mm.4680 + F2 × 0. θ 79.Ch. 3/10 2460 Nm F1 4680 Nm F2 173 ∑ M B = 0 α = 0° : 2460 .2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions .
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Equilibrium Conditions A body is in equilibrium if all forces and moments applied to it are in balance. In scalar form,
= 0= 0= 0 ∑ Fx ∑ Fy ∑ Fz = 0 = 0= 0 ∑ M Ox ∑ M Oy ∑ M Oz
174
• The xyz coordinate system and the moment point O can be chosen arbitrarily. • Complete equilibrium in 3D motion must satisfy all six equations. However, they are independent to each other. That is, equilibrium may only be satisfied in some generalized coordinates. • System in equilibrium may stay still or move with constant velocity. In both cases, the acceleration is zero. 3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
175
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
Categories of equilibrium
176
Some equations are automatically satisfied and so contribute nothing in solving the problems. 3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
Constraints and Statical Determinacy The equilibrium equations may not always solve all unknowns in the problem. Simply put, if #unknowns (including geometrical variables) > #equations, then we cannot solve it. This is because the system has more constraints than necessary to maintain the equilibrium. This is call statically indeterminate system. Extra equations, from forcedeformation material properties, must also be applied to solve the redundant constraints.
177
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
3: Equilibrium Adequacy of Constraints 178 3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .Ch.
Determine the reactions at O and the cable tensions. 3/11 The light right angle boom which supports the 400 kg cylinder is supported by three cables and a ballandsocket joint at O attached to the vertical xy surface.Ch. 179 3. 3: Equilibrium P.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .
8 N ∑ M OD = 0 to find TBE ( 2k ) × TACn AC + ( 0.1 N ( 2 j) × TBDn BD + ( 0. O y N.75i + 2k ) × ( −400gj) + (1.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3/11 TAC O TBE TBD 180 400g n AC = j − 0.707k n BD n BE =OE = −k .5i ) × TBE n BE n OD= 0 ⇒ TBE= 654 N ∑ M OE = 0 to find TBD 0 2775. n i n OB = 0.408 = 0.408i + 0.8 j ∑ M OB = 0 to find TAC ( −0.75i + 2k ) × ( −400gj) + ( 2k ) × TACn AC n OE = ⇒ TBD = ∑ F = 0= 1962= 0= 6540 N Ox N.75i ) × ( −400gj) + ( 2k ) × TACn AC n OB= 0 ⇒ TAC= 4808.8k n OD = 0.Ch. O z 3.6i + 0.707 j − 0. 3: Equilibrium P.816k −0.6i + 0.
Ch. which bears against the bottom edge.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3. 3: Equilibrium P. The door is maintained in a vertical plane by the floormounted guide roller C. For the position shown compute the horizontal side thrust on each of the wheels A and B. which must be accounted for in the design of the brackets. 3/12 181 The 600 kg industrial door is a uniform rectangular panel which rolls along the fixed rail D on its hangermounted wheels A and B.
3/12 Bx Ax Bz Az 600g 182 NC = ∑ M AB= 0 600g × 0. 3: Equilibrium P.44 N 3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .86 N = ∑ Fx = 0 A x + Bx − N C = 0 ⇒ A x = 235.Ch.6 − Bx × 3 0 ⇒ Bx= 58.15 − N C × 3 0 ⇒ N C= 294.3 N ∑ M Az= 0 N C × 0.
3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3/13 The smooth homogeneous sphere rests in the 120°groove and bears against the end plate which is normal to the direction of the groove.Ch. for which the reaction on each side of the groove equals the force supported by the end plate. Determine the angle θ. 183 3. 3: Equilibrium P. measured from the horizontal.
Ch. 3/13 Projection onto two orthogonal planes z mgcosθ y 184 z θ mg x N1 30° N2 Nr N1cos30+N2cos30 ∑ = 0 N1 N 2 N Fy = = = 0= 2Ncos30 ∑ Fz mgcosθ ∑ Fx Nr = 0= mgsinθ if N r = N.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . N = mg/2 3. 3: Equilibrium P. tanθ =1/ 2 cos 30 ⇒ θ =30°.
If the weight of the door is supported entirely by the lower hinge A. calculate the magnitude of the total force supported by the hinge at B.Ch. 3: Equilibrium 185 P. 3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3/14 The mass center of the 30 kg door is in the center of the panel.
6 N B= B2 + B2 = 190. By = A y = 176. 3/14 Bx By z 186 Ax Ay 30g x 30g y ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ M A y = 0 30g × 0.5 = 0.Ch. Bx = A x = 70.9 = 0.36 − Bx ×1. 3: Equilibrium P.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .6 N ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ M A x = 0 By ×1.5 − 30g × 0.2 N x y 3.
Compute the force in each leg when the lander is resting on a horizontal surface on Mars. 3/15 One of the three landing pads for the Mars Viking lander is shown in the figure with its approximate dimensions. 3: Equilibrium P.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . 187 3. Assume equal support by the pads and consult Table D/2 in Appendix D as needed. The mass of the lander is 600 kg.Ch.
1i ) × FDCn DC − 200g × 0.Ch.73 m/s2 TCA 188 200g n DC = 0.7664 = ⇒ TCA = CB = .5 N 0 T 239 3.4877k 0. 3: Equilibrium P.35i − −0. 3/15 FDC TCB g=3. n CA = i + 0.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .85k + 0.936k .418 j + 0.1 ∑ Fx = 0 and symmetry about xz plane FDCn DC i − 2TCA × 0.7664 ∑ M BA = 0 to find FDC ( 0.55j j = 0 ⇒ FDC = N 1049.
3: Equilibrium P.Ch. The cable from C to D prevents the plate and shaft from turning. which is supported by bearings A and B. 189 3. and the weight of the assembly is carried entirely by bearing A. 3/16 The uniform 15 kg plate is welded to the vertical shaft.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . Calculate the magnitude of the force supported by bearing B during application of the 120 Nm couple to the shaft.
T = 632.2 − Ty × 0.68 0. By 680 N = = Ax B= B2 + B2 = 2635 N x y 190 z x 3.68 0.3 + Tx × 0.9 N ∑ M A = 0 − Bx × 0.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .2 + 15g × 0. 3/16 15g Ay A By x Bx y 15g T n DC = i − 0.95 ∑ M Oz = 0 120 + 0.Ch. Bx= 2265 N = y ∑ M= 0 By × 0.6i × Tn DC k = 0.316 j −0. 3: Equilibrium P.
3. 3/17 The uniform 900x1200 mm trap door has a mass of 200 kg and is propped open by the light strut AB at the angle θ= atan(4/3). 3: Equilibrium 191 P.Ch. Calculate the compression FB in the strut and the force supported by the hinge D normal to the hinge axis. Assume that the hinges act at the extreme ends of the lower edge.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .
4 N = = 2 D 2 + D z = 992 N y 3. D y 147.2 0.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .6 + D z ×1.9 0. D z 981 N = = 0.2 + ( −TABn AB i ) × 0.857k −0.9j × TABn AB ]i − 200g × 0.45cos53.Ch.4286 j + 0. 3: Equilibrium P. TAB = 688 N − D y ×1. 3/17 z Dz Dx C x TAB 200g Dy y 192 n AB = i − 0.13= − 200g × 0.2857 ∑ M Cx = 0 ∑ M C = 0 y ∑ M Cz 0 = Dn = [0.
3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . A wire from E to D keeps edges BC and AD horizontal. Find the tension T in the wire and the magnitude B of the force supported by hinge B. Hinge A can support thrust along the hinge axis AB. 3: Equilibrium P. whereas hinge B supports force normal to the hinge axis only. 3.Ch. 3/18 193 The uniform rectangular panel ABCD has a mass of 40 kg and is hinged at its corners A and B to the fixed vertical surface.
3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3: Equilibrium P.2i × 40g ( − cos 30k − sin 30i ) j − 2.35 = ∑ M Ax 0 M = 0 ∑ Ay y Az 0.9 ∑ M AE 0= 0 N = By 3.707 j + 0. 3/18 x By Bz 40g Ay Ax TDE z 194 n DE = i − 0.9 N ∴ Bn = N 169.4Bz = 0.6j × 40g ( − cos 30k − sin 30i ) i + [1.55 1.61k 0.Ch. Bz = 169.2 j × TDE n DE ]i = 0 ⇒ TDE = N 278.
3/19 195 Under the action of the 40 Nm torque (couple) applied to the vertical shaft. and the shear force V in the shaft at section B. 3: Equilibrium P. and shear force is also normal to the shaft axis. expressed as a vector. The collar D fastened to the shaft prevents downward motion of the shaft in its bearing. Calculate the bending moment M. the compression P. the restraining cable AC limits the rotation of the arm OA and attached shaft to an angle of 60°measured from the yaxis. (note: Bending moment.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .) 3. is normal to the shaft axis.Ch.
3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .5 N = 0 M Bx i + M By j + 40 + ( −0.09= 0 k + 0.8 N P Fz V= Vx2 + Vy2 = 2 TAC − P 2 = 273.3 N ∑= 0 P + TACn AC k = 0 ⇒ = 317.3 Nm B B 3. 3/19 x y MBx Vx 40 Nm 196 Vy MBy TAC P section the shaft at B revealing the reaction force and moment = 0.18 j × TACn AC ]k = ⇒ TAC = 0 0 419.Ch.53i + 0.38 j − 0. 3: Equilibrium P.0 Nm = M Bx ∴ Mb = M 2 x + M 2 y= 47. M By 20.18 j) × TACn AC ∑ M B = 42.87 Nm.758k n AC ∑ M z = 40 + [ 0.
Ch. 3/20 197 3. 3: Equilibrium P.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .
1125 = 0. 3/20 z 198 x y FBD of reel only ∑ M O 0 = y ∑ M Bx 0 = ∑ M B= 0 y NC NA NB 100 × 0. N= 32.56 N ∑ Fz 0 = N A + N B + 100sin15 + N C − Psin30 − 200 0.2625 + 100 cos15 × 0. N A = 108.Ch.2237 − Pcos30 × 0.5 0.2 − 100sin15 × 0.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . N C 58.075 − N C × 0.635 + Psin30 × 0. = 50 N = P 200 × 0.44 N = B 3.13 N = = − N A × 0. 3: Equilibrium P.35 − Psin30 × 0.2625 + 200 × 0.15 − P × 0.52 − 100sin15 × 0.3 0.525 − N C × 0.
and the drum is prevented from rotating by the cord wrapped securely around it and attached to point C. 199 3. The shaft is subjected to a torque (couple) of 120 Nm. 3/21 The drum and shaft are welded together and have a mass of 50 kg with mass center at G.Ch. 3: Equilibrium P.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . Calculate the magnitudes of the forces supported by bearings A and B.
87 × 0.6 N A x + Bx − Tcos66.36 − A z × 0.18 A 2 + A 2 = 610. 3/21 50g z 200 Ax Az T Bx x Bz 66.3 + Tsin66. T = 800 N = = Tcos66.87 0.87° 0. B = x z 3.6 N x y T 0.4 N.87 0.Ch.6 N = = 50g × 0. A x 161.15 − 120 = 0.7 0. Bx 152.87 × 0. A z 588.6 N = = A z + Bz − 50g − Tsin66.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .15 ∑ M B = 0 y ∑ M = 0 Bz ∑ M Bx 0 = ∑ Fx 0 = ∑ Fz = 0 A= T × 0.36 − A x × 0.7 0.6 N = = 2 B2 + Bz = 655. Bz 637. 3: Equilibrium P.24 0.
Ch.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions . 3: Equilibrium P. 3/22 201 3.
66 − 490.5 x M ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ Fx = 0 O= O y + TBCn BC j + TADn AD j = O y = 0.84 j + 0.13 −0.8i × TBCn BC )k + ( 2.39k .1j × TADn AD )i − 50g × 2.1 0 = = = 625 N. n AD = i − 0.5i × TBCn BC ) j = 0 = = 365. 410 50g O 2 + O 2 + O 2 = 1487 N x y z 3.48 ∑ M AB 0= 0 N = Oz ∑= 0 (1. TAD 1024 N TBC = ∑ M y 0 M + 50gx + (1. 1429 N O x + TBCn BC i + TADn AD i = O x = N 0.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions .1j × TBCn BC )i + ( 2.241k 0. 3: Equilibrium P.1j × TADn AD )k = 0 Mz ∑ M x 0 ( 2. 3/22 double Ujoint TBC Oy M z TAD Ox 202 Oz x n BC =i − 0.Ch.91j + 0.
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