3: Equilibrium
3.0 Outline 123
Mechanical System Isolation (FBD) 125
2D Systems
Equilibrium Conditions 144
3D Systems
Equilibrium Conditions 174
3.0 Outline
123
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.0 Outline
When a body is in equilibrium, the resultant on the body
is zero.
And if the resultant on a body is zero, the body is in
equilibrium.
So,
is the necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium.
3.0 Outline
F = 0 M= 0
124
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 Mechanical System Isolation (FBD)
FreeBody Diagram (FBD) is the most important first
step in the mechanics problems. It defines clearly the
interested system to be analyzed. It represents all
forces which act on the system. The system may be
rigid, nonrigid, or their combinations. The system
may be in fluid, gaseous, solid, or their combinations.
FBD represents the isolated / combination of bodies as
a single body. Corresponding indicated forces may
be
1. Contact force with other bodies that are removed
virtually.
2. Body force such as gravitational or magnetic
attraction forces.
3.1 FBD
125
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
126
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Remarks
1. Force by flexible cable is always a tension. Weight
of the cable may be significant.
2. Smooth surface ideally cannot support the tangential
or frictional force. Contact force of the rough surface
may not necessarily be normal to the tangential surface.
3. Roller, rocker, smooth guide, or slider ideally
eliminate the frictional force. That is the supports
cannot provide the resistance to motion
in the tangential direction.
4. Pin connection provides support force in any direction
normal to the pin axis. If the joint is not free to turn,
a resisting couple may also be supported.
127
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
128
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Remarks
5. The builtin / fixed support of the beam is capable of
supporting the axial force, the shear force, and
the bending moment.
6. Gravitational force is a kind of distributed noncontact
force. The resultant single force is the weight acted
through C.M. towards the center of the earth.
7. Remote action force has the same overall effects
on a rigid body as direct contact force of equal
magnitude and direction.
8. On the FBD, the force exerted on the body
to be isolated by the body to be removed is indicated.
9. Sense of the force exerted on the FBD by
the removed bodies opposes the movement which
would occur if those bodies were removed.
129
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Remarks
10. If the correct sense cannot be known at first place,
the sense of the scalar component is arbitrarily
assigned. Upon computation, a negative algebraic
sign indicates that the correct sense is opposite
to that assigned.
130
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Construction of FBD
1. Make decision which body or system is to be isolated.
That system will usually involve the unknown quantities.
2. Draw complete external boundary of the system
to completely isolate it from all other contacting
or attracting bodies.
3. All forces that act on the isolated body by the removed
contacting and attracting bodies are represented
on the isolated body diagram. Forces should be
indicated by vector arrows, each with its magnitude,
direction, and sense. Consistency of the unknowns
must be carried throughout the calculation.
4. Assign the convenient coordinate axes.
Only after the FBD is completed should the governing
equations be applied.
131
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
132
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
Note
1. Include as much as possible the system in FBD
while the unknowns are still being revealed.
2. Internal forces to a rigid assembly of members do not
influence the values of the external reactions. And so
the external response of the mechanism as a whole
would be unchanged.
3. Include the weights of the members on FBD.
4. Try to get the correct sense of unknown vectors by
visualizing the motion of the whole system when
the supports are pretended to disappear. The correct
sense will oppose the motions direction.
5. Follow the action of force prototypes in determining
the forces acted by the removed bodies.
133
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
134
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
A
x
A
y
M
O
A
x
A
y
O
y
O
x
B
x
135
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
136
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
A
x
M
A
F
F
B
y
A
x
137
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
138
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
139
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
1.
T
mg
x
N
F
y
P
T
2.
mg
R
On verge of being rolled over
means the normal force N = 0
N = 0
y
x
140
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
y
x
3.
L
T
R
x
R
y
4.
y
x
mg
m
O
g
N
A
y
A
X
141
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
O
M 0 =
3.1 FBD
5.
F
N
R
mg
T
y
x
O
6.
y
x
A
y
A
X
B
y
B
X
142
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.1 FBD
7.
y
x
8.
mg
T
A
y
A
X
y
x
L
T
A
y
A
X
B
y
B
X
143
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
3.2 2D Equilibrium Conditions
A body is in equilibrium if all forces and moments
applied to it are in balance. In scalar form,
x y O
F 0 F 0 M 0 = = =
The xy coordinate system and the moment point O
can be chosen arbitrarily.
Complete equilibrium in 2D motion must satisfy all
three equations. However, they are independent
to each other. That is, equilibrium may only be satisfied
in some generalized coordinates.
System in equilibrium may stay still or move with
constant velocity. In both cases, the acceleration is zero.
144
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Categories of equilibrium
Some equations are automatically satisfied and
so contribute nothing in solving the problems.
145
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Equilibrium of a body under the action of two force only:
The forces must be equal, opposite, and collinear.
Weights of the members negligible
146
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Equilibrium of a body under
the action of three force only:
The lines of action of the three
forces must be concurrent.
The only exception is when the
three forces are parallel.
The system may be reduced to the
threeforce member by successive
addition of the known forces.
If all forces are concurrent, then the
equilibrium statement calls for the
closure of the polygon of forces.
147
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Alternative Equilibrium Equations
( )
x A B
Three independent equilibrium conditions:
F 0 M 0 M 0
AB xdirection
= = =
148
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
A B C
Three independent equilibrium conditions:
M 0 M 0 M 0
A, B, and C are not on the same straight line
= = =
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Alternative Equilibrium Equations
149
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Constraints and Statical Determinacy
The equilibrium equations may not always solve all
unknowns in the problem. Simply put, if #unknowns
(including geometrical variables) > #equations, then we
cannot solve it. This is because the system has more
constraints than necessary to maintain the equilibruim.
This is call statically indeterminate system. Extra
equations, from forcedeformation material properties,
must also be applied to solve the redundant constraints.
150
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Constraints and Statical Determinacy
P Q
mg
#unknowns = 2
#equilibrium eqs. = 2
statically determinate
P
A
x
A
y
B
x
B
y
F
B
x
B
y
A
x
A
y
C
x
C
y
#unknowns = 4
#equilibrium eqs. = 3
statically indeterminate
#unknowns = 6
#equilibrium eqs. = 3
statically indeterminate
151
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Adequacy of Constraints
152
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
Problem Solution
1. List known unknown quantities, and check the
number of unknowns and the number of available
independent equations.
2. Determine the isolated system and draw FBD.
3. Assign a convenient set of coordinate systems.
Choose suitable moment centers for calculation.
4. Write down the governing equation, e.g. ,
before the calculation.
5. Choose the suitable method in solving the problem:
scalar, vector, or geometric approach.
O
M 0 ( =
153
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/1 In a procedure to evaluate the strength of the
triceps muscle, a person pushes down on a
load cell with the palm of his hand as indicated
in the figure. If the loadcell reading is 160 N,
determine the vertical tensile force F generated
by the triceps muscle. The mass of the lower
arm is 1.5 kg with mass center at G. State
any assumptions.
154
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/1
Assumption: contraction force from biceps muscle
acts at point O
1. Known: weight of lower hand,
pushing force
Unknown: triceps force, biceps force
2. FBD: lower hand
y
x
O
y
M 0 T 251.5g 150 160 300 0
T=1832 N
F 0 TC1.5g +160=0
C=1977 N
( = + =
( =
C
T
160 N
1.5g
155
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
equivalent tension forces at the middle pulley
F = 2Tcos30
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/2
1. Unknown: l,R
Known: m, b, T
2. FBD: tensioning system with cutcable
y
x
( )
O
2
2 2 2 2
Threeforce member with m , , and
For equilibrium, three lines of action must be concurrent.
2Tbcos30
M 0 F bmg l = 0 l =
mg
R= F mg 3T m g
( =
( + = +
g F O
F = 0
F
R
T
T
mg
156
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/3 The exercise machine consists of a lightweight cart which is
mounted on small rollers so that it is free to move along
the inclined ramp. Two cables are attached to the cart
one for each hand. If the hands are together so that the cables
are parallel and if each cable lies essentially in a vertical plane,
determine the force P which each hand must exert on its cable
in order to maintain an equilibrium position. The mass of the
person is 70 kg, the ramp angle is 15, and the angleis 18.
In addition, calculate the force R which the ramp exerts
on the cart.
157
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/3
Assumption: negligible rail friction
'
'
x
y
F 0 70gsin15 Tcos9 = 0 T =179.9 N
F 0 R70gcos15Tsin9 = 0 R = 691 N
( =
(
=
T 4Pcos9 = 0 P = 45.5 N
2P
2P
x
T
T
70g
R
1. Unknown: P, T, R
2. FBD: exercise machine, pulley
x
15
T
158
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/4 A uniform ring of mass m and radius r carries
an eccentric mass m
o
at a radius b and is in
an equilibrium position on the incline, which
makes an anglewith the horizontal. If the
contacting surfaces are rough enough to
prevent slipping, write the expression for the
anglewhich defines the equilibrium position.
159
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/4
1. Unknown: F, N,
2. FBD: ring+eccentric mass
( ) '
o
O o
1
o
x
o
m gbsin
M 0 Fr  m gbsin = 0 F =
r
r m
F 0 F m m gsin = 0 = sin 1 sin
b m
( =
(
 
( = + +
( 
\ .
x
mg
m
o
g
F
N
160
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/5 The hook wrench or pin spanner is used to
turn shafts and collars. If a moment of 80 Nm
is required to turn the 200 mm diameter collar
about its center O under the action of the applied
force P, determine the contact force R on the
smooth surface at A. Engagement of the pin
at B may be considered to occur at the periphery
of the collar.
161
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
( )
B A
A
Three  force member
M 0 N 0.1sin 60 P 0.375+0.1cos60 0
N 1047 N
( = =
=
y
x
N
A
R
B
80 Nm
162
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/6 The small crane is mounted on one side of the
bed of a pickup truck. For the position=40,
determine the magnitude of the force supported
by the pin at O and the oil pressure p against
the 50 mmdiameter piston of the hydraulic
cylinder BC.
163
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
1
geometry at BCDO
360 340sin 40 110cos 40
tan 56.2
340cos 40 110sin 40
d = 360cos 200 mm
+
 
= =

+
\ .
=
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/6
B
C
O
D
d
360
110
340
164
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
( )
O
2
x x x
y y y
2 2
x y
Three  force member
M 0 120g 785+340 cos 40 C d = 0 C = 5063 N
F
p = 2.58 MPa
r
F 0 O Ccos = 0 O 2820 N
F 0  O 120g +Csin = 0 O 3030 N
O = O O
( =
=
( = =
( = =
+
4140 N =
P. 3/6
y
x
O
O
y
O
x
O
C
120g
165
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/7 The rubbertired tractor shown has a mass of 13.5 Mg with
the C.M. at G and is used for pushing or pulling heavy loads.
Determine the load P which the tractor can pull at a constant
speed of 5 km/h up the 15percent grade if the driving force
exerted by the ground on each of its four wheels is 80 percent
of the normal force under that wheel. Also find the total normal
reaction N
B
under the rear pair of wheels at B.
166
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
'
'
A B
x
2 2
A B
y
2 2
A B
2 2 2 2
A B
15
F 0 P 0.8N 0.8N 13500g 0
15 100
100
F 0 N N 13500g 0
15 100
100 15
M 0 N 1.8 P 0.613500g 1.2 13500g 0.825 0
15 100 15 100
N 6.3 kN, N 124.7 kN, P = 8
( = + =
+
(
= + =
+
( = =
+ +
= =
5.1 kN
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/7
'
A B
x
M 0 M 0 F 0 ( ( ( = = =
y
x
13500g
N
A
N
B
0.8N
A
0.8N
B
alternative equations:
167
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/8 Pulley A delivers a steady torque (moment) of
100 Nm to a pump through its shaft at C. The
tension in the lower side of the belt is 600 N.
The driving motor B has a mass of 100 kg and
rotates clockwise. Determine the magnitude R
of the force on the supporting pin at O.
168
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/8
( )
C
M 0 600 T 0.225 100 0 T =155.6 N ( = =
( )
D y
y
x x x
M 0 O 0.25 600 0.2 0.075 100g 0.125
 T 0.075 Tcos30 0.2 +Tsin30 0.125 = 0
O 906 N
F 0 Tcos30 +600 O 0 O 734.7 N
O = O
( =
=
( = = =
2 2
x y
y y
O 1.17 kN
F 0 Tsin30100g  P +O 0 P = 2.8 N
+ =
( = =
600 N
T
100 Nm by load
mg
y
x
O
x
O
y
600 N
T
P
spring compressed to resist rotation of the body
100g
D
D x O
M 0 F 0 M 0 ( ( ( = = =
169
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/9 When setting the anchor so that it will dig into the sandy bottom,
the engine of the 40 Mg cruiser with C.G. at G is run in reverse
to produce a horizontal thrust T of 2 kN. If the anchor chain
makes an angle of 60with the horizontal, determine the
forward shift b of the center of buoyancy from its position when
the boat is floating free. The center of buoyancy is the point
through which the resultant of the buoyant force passes.
170
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/9
y
x
x
y
A
F 0 Acos60 2000 = 0 A = 4 kN
F 0 B 40000g  Asin60 = 0 B = 395864 N
M 0 40000g 8 2000 3 Bx = 0 x = 7.915 m
b = 8 x = 85.2 mm
( =
( =
( =
free floating (no thrust, tension): buoyancy force = weight, acting at C.G.
backward motion: new buoyancy force acting at new position
to maintain equilibrium
40000g
A
B
x b
171
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.2 2D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/10 A special jig for turning large concrete pipe sections (shown
dotted) consists of an 80 Mg sector mounted on a line of rollers
at A and a line of rollers at B. One of the rollers at B is a gear
which meshes with a ring of gear teeth on the sector so as to
turn the sector about its geometric center O. When = 0,
a counterclockwise torque of 2460 Nm must be applied to the
gear at B to keep the assembly from rotating. When = 30,
a clockwise torque of 4680 Nm is required to prevent rotation.
Locate the mass center G of the jig by calculating r and .
172
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
B 1 1
2 2
M 0 = 0 : 2460 F 0.24 0, F 10250 N
= 30 :  4680 + F 0.24 0, F 19500 N
( = = =
= =
( = = =
= + =
= =
2460 Nm
F
1
4680 Nm
F
2
N
A
N
B
F
80000g
173
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
3.3 3D Equilibrium Conditions
A body is in equilibrium if all forces and moments
applied to it are in balance. In scalar form,
x y z
x y z
O O O
F 0 F 0 F 0
M 0 M 0 M 0
= = =
= = =
The xyz coordinate system and the moment point O
can be chosen arbitrarily.
Complete equilibrium in 3D motion must satisfy all
six equations. However, they are independent
to each other. That is, equilibrium may only be satisfied
in some generalized coordinates.
System in equilibrium may stay still or move with
constant velocity. In both cases, the acceleration is zero.
174
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
175
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
Categories of equilibrium
Some equations are automatically satisfied and
so contribute nothing in solving the problems.
176
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
Constraints and Statical Determinacy
The equilibrium equations may not always solve all
unknowns in the problem. Simply put, if #unknowns
(including geometrical variables) > #equations, then we
cannot solve it. This is because the system has more
constraints than necessary to maintain the equilibrium.
This is call statically indeterminate system. Extra
equations, from forcedeformation material properties,
must also be applied to solve the redundant constraints.
177
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
Adequacy of Constraints
178
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/11 The light right angle boom which supports the
400 kg cylinder is supported by three cables
and a ballandsocket joint at O attached to the
vertical xy surface. Determine the reactions
at O and the cable tensions.
179
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
AC
BD
BE OE
OB
OD
0.408 0.408 0.816
0.707 0.707
,
0.6 0.8
0.6 0.8
=
=
= =
=
=
n i + j k
n j k
n k n i
n i + k
n i + j
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/11
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
OB AC
AC AC OB AC
OD BE
AC AC BE BE OD BE
OE BD
BD BD
M 0 to find T
0.75 400g 2 T 0 T 4808.8 N
M 0 to find T
2 T 0.75 2 400g 1.5 T 0 T 654 N
M 0 to find T
2 T 0.75 2 40
( =
+ = = (
( =
+ + = = (
( =
+
i j k n n
k n i + k j i n n
j n i + k
( ) ( )
AC AC OE BD
x y z
0g 2 T 0 T 2775.1 N
O 1962 N, O 0 N, O 6540 N
+ = = (
( = = =
j k n n
F = 0
400g
O
T
BE
T
BD
T
AC
180
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/12 The 600 kg industrial door is a uniform rectangular panel which
rolls along the fixed rail D on its hangermounted wheels A and B.
The door is maintained in a vertical plane by the floormounted
guide roller C, which bears against the bottom edge. For the
position shown compute the horizontal side thrust on each of
the wheels A and B, which must be accounted for in the design
of the brackets.
181
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/12
z
AB C C
A C x x
x x x C x
M 0 600g 0.15 N 3 0 N 294.3 N
M 0 N 0.6 B 3 0 B 58.86 N
F 0 A B N 0 A 235.44 N
( = = =
( = = =
( = + = =
N
C
A
x
A
z
B
z
B
x
600g
182
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/13 The smooth homogeneous sphere rests in the
120groove and bears against the end plate
which is normal to the direction of the groove.
Determine the angle , measured from the
horizontal, for which the reaction on each side
of the groove equals the force supported by
the end plate.
183
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/13
Projection onto two orthogonal planes
y 1 2
z
x r
r
F 0 N N N
F 0 mgcos 2Ncos30
F 0 N mgsin
if N N, tan 1/ 2cos30 30 , N mg/2
( = = =
( = =
( = =
= = = =
x
y
z
z
mg
mgcos
N
r
N
2
N
1
N
1
cos30+N
2
cos30
30
184
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/14 The mass center of the 30 kg door is in the
center of the panel. If the weight of the door is
supported entirely by the lower hinge A, calculate
the magnitude of the total force supported by
the hinge at B.
185
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/14
y
x
x A x x x
y A y y y
2 2
x y
F 0 M 0 30g 0.36 B 1.5 0, B A 70.6 N
F 0 M 0 B 1.5 30g 0.9 0, B A 176.6 N
B B B 190.2 N
(
( = = = = =
( ( = = = = =
= + =
30g
30g
x
y
z
A
y
B
y
B
x
A
x
186
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/15 One of the three landing pads for the Mars Viking lander is
shown in the figure with its approximate dimensions. The mass
of the lander is 600 kg. Compute the force in each leg when
the lander is resting on a horizontal surface on Mars. Assume
equal support by the pads and consult Table D/2 in Appendix D
as needed.
187
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/15
( )
DC CA
BA DC
DC DC DC
x
DC DC CA CA CB
0.35 0.936 , 0.7664 0.418 0.4877
M 0 to find F
0.85 0.1 F 200g 0.55 0 F 1049.1 N
F 0 and symmetry about xz plane
F 2T 0.7664 0 T T 239
= = + +
( =
= (
( =
= = =
n i k n i j k
k + i n j j =
n i
.5 N
g=3.73 m/s
2
200g
F
DC
T
CB
T
CA
188
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/16 The uniform 15 kg plate is welded to the vertical shaft, which
is supported by bearings A and B. Calculate the magnitude
of the force supported by bearing B during application of the
120 Nm couple to the shaft. The cable from C to D prevents
the plate and shaft from turning, and the weight of the
assembly is carried entirely by bearing A.
189
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
z
y
x
DC
O DC
A x x x
A y y y
2 2
x y
0.95 0.316
M 0 120 0.6 T 0, T 632.9 N
M 0 B 0.2 15g 0.3 T 0.68 0, B 2265 N
M 0 B 0.2 T 0.68 0, B 680 N
B B B 2635 N
=
( = + = =
(
= + + = =
( = = =
= + =
n i j
i n k
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/16
x
y
z
T
15g
B
x
B
y
A
y
A
x
15g
190
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/17 The uniform 900x1200 mm trap door has a
mass of 200 kg and is propped open by the light
strut AB at the angle = atan(4/3). Calculate
the compression F
B
in the strut and the force
supported by the hinge D normal to the hinge
axis. Assume that the hinges act at the extreme
ends of the lower edge.
191
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
 
( )
x
y
z
AB
C AB AB AB
C z z
C y AB AB y
2 2
n y z
0.2857 0.4286 0.857
M 0 0.9 T 200g 0.45cos53.13 0, T 688 N
M 0 200g 0.6 D 1.2 0, D 981 N
M 0 D 1.2 T 0.9 0, D 147.4 N
D D D 992 N
= +
( = = =
(
= + = =
( = + = =
= + =
n i j k
j n i
n i
n i j k
j k i i
+ j n i =
i k i j
n
B 169.9 N =
40g
y
x
z
T
DE
A
z
A
y
A
x
B
z
B
y
194
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/19 Under the action of the 40 Nm torque (couple) applied to the
vertical shaft, the restraining cable AC limits the rotation of the
arm OA and attached shaft to an angle of 60measured from
the yaxis. The collar D fastened to the shaft prevents downward
motion of the shaft in its bearing. Calculate the bending moment
M, the compression P, and the shear force V in the shaft at
section B. (note: Bending moment, expressed as a vector,
is normal to the shaft axis, and shear force is also normal to
the shaft axis.)
195
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/19
section the shaft at B revealing the reaction force and moment
 
( )
x y
x y
AC
z AC AC AC
z AC AC
2 2 2 2
x y AC
B B B AC AC
B B
0.53 0.38 0.758
M 0 40 0.18 T 0 T 419.3 N
F 0 P T 0 P 317.8 N
V V V T P 273.5 N
M M 40 0.09 0.18 T
M 42.87 Nm, M 20.0
=
( = + = =
( = + =
= + = =
( = + + =
= =
n i + j k
j n k
n k =
M 0 i + j + k j n 0
x y
2 2
b B B
Nm M M M 47.3 Nm = + =
x
y
T
AC
M
Bx
M
By
40 Nm
P
V
x
V
y
196
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/20
197
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
y
O
M 0 100 0.15 P 0.3 0, P 50 N
(
= = =
x
y
B
C C
B A C
M 0 200 0.2 100sin15 0.35
Psin30 0.075 N 0.5 0, N 58.13 N
M 0 N 0.525 N 0.2625 200 0.2625
100cos15 0.52 100sin15 0.2237
( =
= =
(
= +
+
A
z A B C B
Pcos30 0.635 Psin30 0.1125 0, N 108.56 N
F 0 N N 100sin15 N Psin30 200 0, N 32.44 N
+ = =
( = + + + = =
z z z
2 2 2 2
x z x z
A B 50g Tsin66.87 0, B 637.6 N
A A A 610.4 N, B B B 655.6 N
+ = =
= + = = + =
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/21
0.18
0.24
0.15
66.87
T
T
50g
A
z
A
x
B
x
B
z
x
y
z
200
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/22
201
Ch. 3: Equilibrium
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
BC AD
AB z
z BC BC AD AD
x BC BC AD AD
BC AD
y
0.13 0.91 0.39 , 0.48 0.84 0.241
M 0 O 0 N
M 0 1.8 T 2.1 T 0
M 0 2.1 T 2.1 T 50g 2.1 0
T 625 N, T 1024 N
M 0 M 50gx
= + = +
( = =
( = +
( = + =
= =
( = + +
n i j k n i j k
i n k j n k =
j n i j n i
( )
BC BC
y y BC BC AD AD y
x x BC BC AD AD x
2 2 2
x y z
1.5 T 0
M 365.66 490.5
F 0 O T T 0, O 1429 N
F 0 O T T 0, O 410 N
O O O O 1487 N
x
=
( = + + = =
( = + + = =
= + + =
i n j =
n j n j
n i n i
3.3 3D Eqilibrium Conditions
P. 3/22
double Ujoint
x
z
M
50g
T
AD
T
BC
O
z
O
y
O
x
202