28/09/2011

Electrical Circuit Concepts

INTRODUCTION
What is Voltage and Current?

MCB1033 EPM

Mechanical Engineering Department Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS 18-03-19 05-368 7147

Rosmawati Mat Zain

rosmawati@petronas.com.my

Voltage, V Voltage

Voltage, V Voltage
The difference in energy level of a unit charge located at each of two points in a circuit, and therefore, represents the energy required to move the unit charge from one point to the other

Every source of voltage is established by simply creating a separation of positive and negative Charges

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Electrical Circuit Concepts Voltage (potential difference) • The energy required to move a unit charge through an element.” “Time rate of flow of electric charge past a given point.. measured in Ampere.” t dq i = dt • The sign of the current indicates the direction of flow q = _ ∫ t0 idt _ + + 2 . V • Imagine water flow from a reservoir a v ab = vab = -vba dw dq vab = voltage drop vba = voltage rise b How do we measure Voltage? Current. measured in volts.28/09/2011 Close your eyes. I Current “Time rate of change of charge.

batteries and some special generators – alternating current (ac): current that varies sinusoidally with time.g. household current which varies with time How do we measure Current? Electrical Circuit Concepts Voltage and Current? Which came first? Chicken Egg 3 . I Example of current • Types of current: – direct current (dc): current re main constant with time. e.28/09/2011 Current.g. e.

measured in watts. P = -vi • Law of conservation of energy: + Power absorbed = . P dw p = dt = vi dw dq = .Power supplied. dq dt = vi – Negative (-) Power: element supplies power. measured in joules (J)” [1] Sign Convention • Passive sign convention : current enters through the positive polarity of the voltage I + Circuit Element Power •“Time rate of expanding or absorbing energy. and the current is the reaction to that pres sure. Passive Elements • Active elements can generate energy: – Batteries – Voltage and current sources The Applied voltage is the starting mechanism the current is a reaction to the applied voltage The applied voltage (Potential Difference) in an elec trical system is the ‘Pressure’ to set the system in motion.28/09/2011 Voltage or Current? Active vs.W. • Passive elements cannot generate energy: – Resistors – Capacitors and Inductors (but CAN store energy) Electrical Circuit Concepts Energy •“The capacity to do work.” [1] – • Consequence for P = VI – Positive (+) Power: element absorbs power. or ∑ p = 0 4 .

voltage and power – Current: time rate of change of electric charge I = dq/dt 1 Amp = 1 Coulomb/sec – Voltage: electromotive force or potential. V 1 Volt = 1 Joule/Coulomb = 1 N—m/coulomb – Power: P=IV 1 Watt = 1 Volt—Amp = 1 Joule/sec 5 .28/09/2011 Basic Electrical Quantities Basic quantities: current.

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