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OVER VIEW

Agriculture has played a key role in the development of human civilization. Until the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the human population labored in agriculture. The type of agriculture they developed was typically subsistence agriculture in which farmers raised most of their crops for consumption on farm, and there was only a small portion left over for the payment of taxes, dues, or trade. In subsistence agriculture cropping decisions are made with an eye to what the family needs for food, and to make clothing, and not the world marketplace. Development of agricultural techniques has steadily increased agricultural productivity, and the widespread diffusion of these techniques during a time period is often called an agricultural revolution. A remarkable shift in agricultural practices has occurred over the past century in response to new technologies, and the development of world markets. This also led to technological improvements in agricultural techniques, such as the Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate which made the traditional practice of recycling nutrients with crop rotation and animal manure less necessary. Synthetic nitrogen, along with mined rock phosphate, pesticides and mechanization, have greatly increased crop yields in the early 20th century. Increased supply of grains has led to cheaper livestock as well. Further, global yield increases were experienced later in the 20th century when high-yield varieties of common staple grains such as rice, wheat, and corn (maize) were introduced as a part of the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution exported the technologies (including pesticides and synthetic nitrogen) of the developed world to the developing world. Thomas Malthus famously predicted that the Earth would not be able to support its growing population, but technologies such as the Green Revolution have allowed the world to produce a surplus of food.

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<html> <title>over view</title> <fontsize=20><center> <head><B>OVER VIEW</B></head><br></font> </br></center> Agriculture has played a key role in the development of human civilization. Until the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the human population labored in agriculture. The type of agriculture they developed was typically subsistence agriculture in which farmers raised most of their crops for consumption on farm, and there was only a small portion left over for the payment of taxes, dues, or trade. In subsistence agriculture cropping decisions are made with an eye to what the family needs for food, and to make clothing, and not the world marketplace. Development of agricultural techniques has steadily increased agricultural productivity, and the widespread diffusion of these techniques during a time period is often called an agricultural revolution. A remarkable shift in agricultural practices has occurred over the past century in response to new technologies, and the development of world markets. This also led to technological improvements in agricultural techniques, such as the Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate which made the traditional practice of recycling nutrients with crop rotation and animal manure less necessary. </p> Synthetic nitrogen, along with mined rock phosphate, pesticides and mechanization, have greatly increased crop yields in the early 20th century. Increased supply of grains has led to cheaper livestock as well. Further, global yield increases were experienced later in the 20th century when high-yield varieties of common staple grains such as rice, wheat, and corn (maize) were introduced as a part of the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution exported the technologies

(including pesticides and synthetic nitrogen) of the developed world to the developing world. Thomas Malthus famously predicted that the Earth would not be able to support its growing population, but technologies such as the Green Revolution have allowed the world to produce a surplus of food. </body> </html>

HISTORY
Agricultural practices such as irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers, and pesticides were developed long ago, but have made great strides in the past century. The history of agriculture has played a major role in human history, as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide socio-economic change. Division of labor in agricultural societies made commonplace specializations rarely seen in hunter-gatherer cultures. So, too, are arts such as epic literature and monumental architecture, as well as codified legal systems. When farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in their society were freed to devote themselves to projects other than food acquisition. Historians and anthropologists have long argued that the development of agriculture made civilization possible. The total world population probably never exceeded 15 million inhabitants before the invention of agriculture.

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<html> <title>history</title> <fontsize=20><center> <head><B>HISTORY</B></head><br></font> </br></center> Agricultural practices such as irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers, and pesticides were developed long ago, but have made great strides in the past century. The history of agriculture has played a major role in human history, as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide socio-economic change. Division of labor in agricultural societies made commonplace specializations rarely seen in hunter-gatherer cultures. So, too, are arts such as epic literature and monumental architecture, as well as codified legal systems. When farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in their society were freed to devote themselves to projects other than food acquisition. Historians and anthropologists have long argued that the development of agriculture made civilization possible. The total world population probably never exceeded 15 million inhabitants before the invention of agriculture </body> </html>

MIDDLE AGES
During the Middle Ages, farmers in North Africa, the Near East, and Europe began making use of agricultural technologies including irrigation systems based on hydraulic and hydrostatic principles, machines such as Norris, water-raising machines, dams, and reservoirs. This combined with the invention of a three-field system of crop rotation and the moldboard plow greatly improved agricultural efficiency. In the European medieval period, agriculture was considered part of the set of seven mechanical arts. "Between 1413 and 1635, the top 5 percent of villagers tripled the amount of arable land they held, (Duple sis). The wealth getting wealthier.

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<html> <title>middle ages</title> <fontsize=20><center> <head><B>MIDDLE AGES</B></head><br></font> </br></center> During the Middle Ages, farmers in North Africa, the Near East, and Europe began making use of agricultural technologies including irrigation systems based on hydraulic and hydrostatic principles, machines such as Norris, water-raising machines, dams, and reservoirs. This combined with the invention of a three-field system of crop rotation and the moldboard plow greatly improved agricultural efficiency. </p> In the European medieval period, agriculture was considered part of the set of seven mechanical arts. "Between 1413 and 1635, the top 5 percent of villagers tripled the amount of arable land they held, (Duple sis). The wealth getting wealthier. </body> </html>

CROP PRODUCTION
Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer. Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests are burnt, releasing nutrients to support cultivation of annual and then perennial crops for a period of several years. Then the plot is left fallow to regrow forest, and the farmer moves to a new plot, returning after many more years (10-20). This fallow period is shortened if population density grows, requiring the input of nutrients (fertilizer or manure) and some manual pest control. Annual cultivation is the next phase of intensity in which there is no fallow period. This requires even greater nutrient and pest control inputs. Further industrialization lead to the use of monocultures, when one cultivar is planted on a large acreage. Because of the low biodiversity, nutrient use is uniform and pests tend to build up, necessitating the greater use of pesticides and fertilizers. Multiple cropping, in which several crops are grown sequentially in one year, and intercropping, when several crops are grown at the same time are other kinds of annual cropping systems known as polycultures.

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<html> <title>production</title> <fontsize=20><center> <head><B>CROP PRODUCTION</B></head><br></font> </br></center> Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer. Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests are burnt, releasing nutrients to support cultivation of annual and then perennial crops for a period of several years. </p> Then the plot is left fallow to regrow forest, and the farmer moves to a new plot, returning after many more years (10-20). This fallow period is shortened if population density grows, requiring the input of nutrients (fertilizer or manure) and some manual pest control. Annual cultivation is the next phase of intensity in which there is no fallow period. This requires even greater nutrient and pest control inputs </p> Further industrialization lead to the use of monocultures, when one cultivar is planted on a large acreage. Because of the low biodiversity, nutrient use is uniform and pests tend to build up, necessitating the greater use of pesticides and fertilizers. Multiple cropping, in which several crops are grown sequentially in one year, and intercropping, when several crops are grown at the same time are other kinds of annual cropping systems known as polycultures </body> </html>

BETTER FUTURE
A broken food system and environmental crises are now reversing decades of progress against hunger according to new Oxfam analysis. Spiraling food prices and endless cycles of regional food crises will create millions more hungry people unless we transform the way we grow and share food. Oxfam launches, in June 2011, a global campaign to ensure everyone has enough to eat always. Growing a Better Future, catalogues the symptoms of todays broken food system: growing hunger, flat-lining yields, a scramble for fertile land and water and rising food prices. It warns we have entered a new age of crisis where depletion of the earths natural resources and increasingly severe climate change impacts will create millions more hungry people.

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<html> <title>future</title> <fontsize=20><center> <head><B>BETTER FUTURE</B></head><br></font> </br></center> A broken food system and environmental crises are now reversing decades of progress against hunger according to new Oxfam analysis. Spiraling food prices and endless cycles of regional food crises will create millions more hungry people unless we transform the way we grow and share food. Oxfam launches, in June 2011, a global campaign to ensure everyone has enough to eat always. </p> Growing a Better Future, catalogues the symptoms of todays broken food system: growing hunger, flat-lining yields, a scramble for fertile land and water and rising food prices. It warns we have entered a new age of crisis where depletion of the earths natural resources and increasingly severe climate change impacts will create millions more hungry people. </body> </html>

HERBICIDE
A herbicide is any of a number of chemical substances intended to kill vegetation. Since the vast majority of herbicides are nonselective in their lethal action, there may be widespread adverse ecological consequences from their use. These outcomes include not only organism death, but may involve mutagenic, developmental and carcinogenic effects to animals and plants. Herbicides are in broad use for agriculture, golf courses, utility corridors, residential and other land uses. The earliest herbicides were inorganic chemical substances, although modern herbicides are dominated by organic compounds. Presently, there is massive application of chemical herbicides; in the U.S. alone 480 million kilograms are applied annually. Widespread herbicide use beginning in the 1940s is responsible for numerous species extinctions, including birds, amphibians, fish and arthropods. In many cases, herbicide use is a contributory cause along with habitat destruction to species endangerment. Many herbicides have persistent effects in the environment, retaining their toxicity as they remain in soils for decades in some cases; furthermore, some herbicides are highly soluble, so that they may enter aquatic systems, where non-selective lethal effects can occur. Often the herbicides undergo chemical change after release into the environment.

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<html> <title>herb</title> <fontsize=20><center> <head><B>HERBICIDE</B></head><br></font> </br></center> A herbicide is any of a number of chemical substances intended to kill vegetation. Since the vast majority of herbicides are nonselective in their lethal action, there may be widespread adverse ecological consequences from their use. These outcomes include not only organism death, but may involve mutagenic, developmental and carcinogenic effects to animals and plants. </p> Herbicides are in broad use for agriculture, golf courses, utility corridors, residential and other land uses. The earliest herbicides were inorganic chemical substances, although modern herbicides are dominated by organic compounds. Presently, there is massive application of chemical herbicides; in the U.S. alone 480 million kilograms are applied annually. </p> Widespread herbicide use beginning in the 1940s is responsible for numerous species extinctions, including birds, amphibians, fish and arthropods. In many cases, herbicide use is a contributory cause along with habitat destruction to species endangerment. Many herbicides have persistent effects in the environment, retaining their toxicity as they remain in soils for decades in some cases; furthermore, some herbicides are highly soluble, so that they may enter aquatic systems, where non-selective lethal effects can occur. Often the herbicides undergo chemical change after release into the environment. </body> </html>

AGRICULTURE IN INDIA
Agriculture in Goa is one of the important economic activities in the state. Located between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats, Goa faces problems for enough cultivable land to feed its own population. The coastal areas are exposed to salinity and do not qualify as good agricultural areas, while the inland areas are not productive enough. So for its day-to-day needs of agricultural produce like vegetables, Goa is dependent on Karnataka and Maharashtra. However, approximately one-third of the total land in Goa falls under forest areas and yields substantial profits. The government, however, has done much to improve and develop agriculture in Goa to make it more productive, thus enabling the farmers to get a better return for their labor. Rice and fish being the staple diet of the people, paddy becomes the principal crop in the scenario of agriculture in Goa. The important crops, apart from paddy, are rage, maize, jowar, bajra and pulses. Cash crops like coconut, cashew-nut, arecanut, mango, jackfruit, banana, pineapple are also grown in abundance. Cashew is an important crop in Goa. A kind of intoxicating drink called Feni is produced from cashew. Sugarcane cultivation has been taken up only recently and a sugar factory has also been set up in Goa. A variety of mangoes are grown in Goa. Some of the famous Mango varieties are mancurade, mussarade, fernandine, xavier, alfonsa, colaco.

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<html> <title>india</title> <fontsize=20><center> <head><B>AGRICULTURE IN INDIA</B></head><br></font> </br></center> Agriculture in Goa is one of the important economic activities in the state. Located between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats, Goa faces problems for enough cultivable land to feed its own population. The coastal areas are exposed to salinity and do not qualify as good agricultural areas, while the inland areas are not productive enough. So for its day-to-day needs of agricultural produce like vegetables, Goa is dependent on Karnataka and Maharashtra. However, approximately one-third of the total land in Goa falls under forest areas and yields substantial profits. </p> The government, however, has done much to improve and develop agriculture in Goa to make it more productive, thus enabling the farmers to get a better return for their labor. Rice and fish being the staple diet of the people, paddy becomes the principal crop in the scenario of agriculture in Goa. The important crops, apart from paddy, are rage, maize, jowar, bajra and pulses. Cash crops like coconut, cashew-nut, arecanut, mango, jackfruit, banana, pineapple are also grown in abundance. Cashew is an important crop in Goa. A kind of intoxicating drink called Feni is produced from cashew. Sugarcane cultivation has been taken up only recently and a sugar factory has also been set up in Goa. A variety of mangoes are grown in Goa. Some of the famous Mango varieties are mancurade, mussarade, fernandine, xavier, alfonsa, colaco. </body> </html>

AGRIQUALITY
AgriQuality Ventures and Services in Agriculture and Horticulture, was established in 1998. The company specializes in ventures, business development and marketing of companies in the everexpanding agriculture hi-tech field. For the agriculture input producers, we mainly offer worldwide market development services. Our services include planning, priority setting, performance and quality control of marketing processes. The nature of our activities is comprehensive, from the management level through marketing performance and sales. A Collaboration with AgriQuality offers businesses an opportunity to excel in marketing and expand sales while significantly lowering international marketing expenses.

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<html> <title>agriquality</title> <fontsize=20><center> <head><B>AGRIQUALITY</B></head><br></font> </br></center> AgriQuality Ventures and Services in Agriculture and Horticulture, was established in 1998. The company specializes in ventures, business development and marketing of companies in the everexpanding agriculture hi-tech field. </p> For the agriculture input producers, we mainly offer worldwide market development services. Our services include planning, priority setting, performance and quality control of marketing processes. The nature of our activities is comprehensive, from the management level through marketing performance and sales. </p> A Collaboration with AgriQuality offers businesses an opportunity to excel in marketing and expand sales while significantly lowering international marketing expenses </body> </html>