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Physics Department, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899, USA International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Beirut 24, 34014 Trieste, Italy Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, OX1 3NP, UK Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), sezione di Trieste, Italy

Abstract. We argue that eective superluminal travel, potentially caused by the tipping over of light cones in Einstein gravity, is always associated with violations of the null energy condition (NEC). This is most easily seen by working perturbatively around Minkowski spacetime, where we use linearized Einstein gravity to show that the NEC forces the light cones to contract (narrow). Given the NEC, the Shapiro time delay in any weak gravitational eld is always a delay relative to the Minkowski background, and never an advance. Furthermore, any object travelling within the lightcones of the weak gravitational eld is similarly delayed with respect to the minimum traversal time possible in the background Minkowski geometry.

INTRODUCTION

The relationship between the causal aspects of spacetime and the stress-energy of the matter that generates the geometry is a deep and subtle one. In this note, which is a simplied presentation based on our earlier work [1], we shall focus in somewhat more detail on the perturbative investigation of the connection between the null energy condition (NEC) and the light-cone structure. We shall demonstrate that in linearized gravity the NEC always forces the light cones to contract (narrow): Thus the validity of the NEC for ordinary matter implies that in weak gravitational elds the Shapiro time delay is always a delay rather than an advance. This simple observation has implications for the physics of (eective) faster-thanlight (FTL) travel via warp drive. It is well established, via a number of rigorous theorems, that any possibility of eective FTL travel via traversable wormholes necessarily involves NEC violations [25]. On the other hand, for eective FTL travel via warp drive (for example, via the Alcubierre warp bubble [6], or the Krasnikov FTL hyper-tube [7]) NEC violations are observed in specic examples but it is dicult to prove a really general theorem guaranteeing that FTL travel implies NEC violations [1]. Part of the problem arises in even dening what we mean by FTL, and recent progress in this regard is reported in [1,8].

In this note we shall (for pedagogical reasons) restrict attention to weak gravitational elds and work perturbatively around at Minkowski spacetime. One advantage of doing so is that the background Minkowski spacetime provides an unambiguous denition of FTL travel. A second advantage is that the linearized Einstein equations are simply (if formally) solved via the gravitational Linard e Wiechert potentials. The resulting expression for the metric perturbation provides information about the manner in which light cones are perturbed.

LINEARIZED GRAVITY

For a weak gravitational eld, linearized around at Minkowski spacetime, we can in the usual fashion write the metric as [4,9,10] g = + h , (1)

with h 1. Then adopting the HilbertLorentz gauge (aka Einstein gauge, harmonic gauge, de Donder gauge, Fock gauge) 1 h h = 0, 2 the linearized Einstein equations are [4,9,10] 1 h = 16G T T . 2 This has the formal solution [4,9,10] h (x, t) = 16G dy

3 1 T (y, t) 2 T (y, t)

(2)

(3)

|x y|

(4)

where t is the retarded time t = t |x y|. These are the gravitational analog of the LinardWiechert potentials of ordinary electromagnetism, and the integral e has support on the unperturbed backward light cone from the point x. In writing down this formal solution we have tacitly assumed that there is no incoming gravitational radiation. We have also assumed that the global geometry of spacetime is approximately Minkowski, a somewhat more stringent condition than merely assuming that the metric is locally approximately Minkowski. Finally note that the fact that we have been able to completely gauge-x Einstein gravity in a canonical manner is essential to argument. That we can locally gauge-x to the HilbertLorentz gauge is automatic. By the assumption of asymptotic atness implicit in linearized Einstein gravity, we can apply this gauge at spatial innity where the only remaining ambiguity, after we have excluded gravitational radiation, is that of the Poincare group. (That is: Solutions of the HilbertLorentz gauge condition, which can be rewritten as 2 x = 0, are under these conditions unique

up to Poincare transformations.) We now extend the gauge condition inward to cover the entire spacetime, the only obstructions to doing so globally coming from black holes or wormholes, which are excluded by denition. Thus adopting the HilbertLorentz gauge in linearized gravity allows us to assign a canonical at Minkowski metric to the entire spacetime, and it is the existence of this canonical at metric that permits us to make the comparisons (between two dierent metrics on the same spacetime) that are at the heart of the argument that follows. Now consider a vector k which we take to be a null vector of the unperturbed Minkowski spacetime k k = 0. In terms of the full perturbed geometry this vector has a norm ||k||2 g k k = h k k = 16G Now assume the NEC T k k 0, (9) d3 y T (y, t) k k . |x y| (6) (7) (8) (5)

and note that the kernel |x y|1 is positive denite. Using the fact that the integral of a everywhere positive integrand is also positive, we deduce g k k 0. Barring degenerate cases, such as a completely empty spacetime, the integrand will be positive denite so that g k k > 0. (10)

That is, a vector that is null in the Minkowski metric will be spacelike in the full perturbed metric. Thus the null cone of the perturbed metric must everywhere lie inside the null cone of the unperturbed Minkowski metric. Because the light cones contract, the coordinate speed of light must everywhere decrease. (Not the physical speed of light as measured by local observers, as always in Einstein gravity, that is of course a constant.) This does however mean that the time required for a light ray to get from one spatial point to another must always increase compared to the time required in at Minkowski space. This is the well-known Shapiro time delay, and we see two important points: (1) to even dene the delay (delay with respect to what?) we need to use the at Minkowski metric as a background, (2) the fact that in the solar system it is always a delay, never an advance, is due to the fact that everyday bulk matter satises the NEC. (We mention in passing that the strong energy condition [SEC] provides a somewhat stronger result: If the SEC holds then the proper time interval between any two timelike separated events in the presence of the gravitational eld is always

larger than the proper time interval between these two events as measured in the background Minkowski spacetime.) Now subtle quantum-based violations of the NEC are known to occur [11], but they are always small and are in fact tightly constrained by the FordRoman quantum inequalities [12,13]. There are also classical NEC violations that arise from non-minimally coupled scalar elds [14], but these NEC violations require Planckscale expectation values for the scalar eld. NEC violations are never appreciable in a solar system or galactic setting. (SEC violations are on the other hand relatively common. For example: cosmological ination, classical massive scalar elds, etc.) From the point of view of warp drive physics, this analysis is complementary to that of [8], (and also to the comments by Coule [15], regarding energy condition violations and opening out the light cones). Though the present analysis is perturbative around Minkowski space, it has the advantage of establishing a direct and immediate physical connection between FTL travel and NEC violations. Generalizing this result beyond the weak eld perturbative regime is somewhat tricky [1], and we have addressed this issue elsewhere. To even dene eective FTL one will need to compare two metrics. (Just to be able to ask the question FTL with respect to what?). Even if we simply work perturbatively around a general metric, instead of perturbatively around the Minkowski metric, the complications are immense: (1) the Laplacian in the linearized gravitational equations must be replaced by the Lichnerowicz operator; (2) the Green function for the Lichnerowicz operator need no longer be concentrated on the past light cone [physically, there can be backscattering from the background gravitational eld, and so the Green function can have additional support from within the backward light cone]; and (3) the Green function need no longer be positive denite. For example, even for perturbations around a FriedmanRobertsonWalker (FRW) cosmology, the analysis is not easy [16]. Because linearized gravity is not conformally coupled to the background the full history of the spacetime back to the Big Bang must be specied to derive the Green function. From the astrophysical literature concerning gravitational lensing it is known that voids (as opposed to over-densities) can sometimes lead to a Shapiro time advance [1719]. This is not in conict with the present analysis and is not evidence for astrophysical NEC violations. Rather, because those calculations compare a inhomogeneous universe with a void to a homogeneous FRW universe, the existence of a time advance is related to a suppression of the density below that of the homogeneous FRW cosmology. The local speed of light is determined by the local gravitational potential relative to the FRW background. Voids cause an increase of the speed of photons relative to the homogeneous background. The total time delay along a particular geodesic is, however, aected by two factors: the gravitational potential eect on the speed of propagation and the geometric eect due to the change in path of the photon (lensing) which may make the total path length longer. Thus traveling through a void doesnt necessarily imply an advance relative to the background geometry.

DISCUSSION

This note argues that any form of FTL travel requires violations of the NEC. The perturbative analysis presented here is very useful in that it demonstrates that it is already extremely dicult to even get even started: Any perturbation of at space that exhibits even the slightest amount of FTL (dened as widening of the light cones) must violate the NEC. The perturbative analysis also serves to focus attention on the Shapiro time delay as a diagnostic for FTL, and it is this feature of the perturbative analysis we have extended elsewhere to the nonperturbative regime to provide both a non-perturbative denition of FTL [1], and a non-perturbative theorem regarding superluminal censorship.

REFERENCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Electronic mail: visser@kiwi.wustl.edu Electronic mail: bruce@thphys.ox.ac.uk Electronic mail: liberati@sissa.it M. Visser, B. Bassett, and S. Liberati, Superluminal censorship, gr-qc/9810026. M.S. Morris and K.S. Thorne, Am. J. Phys. 56, 395 (1988). M.S. Morris, K.S. Thorne, and U. Yurtsever, Phys. Rev. Lett, 61, 1446 (1988). M. Visser, Lorentzian wormholes, (AIP Press, New York, 1995). D. Hochberg and M. Visser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 746 (1998); Phys. Rev. D57, 044021 (1998). M. Alcubierre, Class. Quantum Grav. 11, L73 (1994). S.V. Krasnikov, Phys. Rev. D57, 4760 (1998). K. Olum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3567 (1998) C.W. Misner, K.S. Thorne, and J.A. Wheeler, Gravitation, (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973). R.M. Wald, General Relativity, (Chicago University Press, 1984). M. Visser, Phys. Lett. B349, 443 (1995); Phys. Rev. D54, 5103 (1996); D54, 5116 (1996); D54, 5123 (1996); D56, 936 (1997). L.H. Ford and T.A. Roman, Phys. Rev. D51, 4277 (1995); D53, 5496 (1996) M.J. Pfenning and L.H. Ford, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1743 (1997); E.E. Flanagan and R.M. Wald, Phys. Rev. 54, 6233 (1996). D.H. Coule, Class. Quantum Grav. 15, 2523 (1998). M.J. Pfenning and L.H. Ford, Phys. Rev. D55, 4813, (1997). P. Schneider, J. Ehlers, and E.E. Falco, Gravitational Lenses, (SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1992). N. Mustapha, B.A. Bassett, C. Hellaby, and G.F.R. Ellis, Class. Quantum Grav. 15, 2363 (1998). G.F.R. Ellis and D.M. Solomons, Class. Quantum Grav. 15 2381 (1998).

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