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CURRENT TRANSFORMER B Y ENG .Yehia Tag Eldin
CURRENT
TRANSFORMER
B Y
ENG .Yehia Tag Eldin
The main tasks of instrument transformer are: • To transform current, or voltages, from a
The main tasks of instrument
transformer are:
• To transform current, or voltages, from a high value to a value
easy to handle for relays and instruments.
I
1 N
2
=
I
2 N
1
• Insulate secondary circuits from the primary.
• permit the use of standard current ratings for
secondary equipment.
APPLICATION Current transformers (CT,s) are instrument transformers that are used to supply a reduced value

APPLICATION

Current transformers (CT,s) are instrument transformers that are used to supply a reduced value of current to protective relays , meters and other instruments. CT,s provide isolation from the high voltage primary , permit grounding of the secondary windings for safety , and step down the magnitude of the measured current to a value that can be safely handled by the instruments

RATIO The most common CT secondary full load current is 1A or 5A. CT ratio

RATIO

The most common CT secondary full load current is 1A or 5A.

CT ratio are expressed as a ratio of rated primary current to the rated secondary current . Example

CT will produce 1A of secondary

a 1000/1 A

current when 1000 A flows through the primary .

As the primary current changes the secondary current will vary accordingly.

POLARITY All CT,s are subtractive polarity . Polarity refers to the instantaneous direction of the

POLARITY

All CT,s are subtractive polarity .

Polarity refers to the instantaneous direction of the primary current with respect to the secondary current and is determined by the way the transformer leads are brought out of the case .

On

subtractive polarity transformers the H1

primary lead and the X1 secondary lead will be on the same side of the transformer.

CT POLARITY P1 S1
CT POLARITY
P1
S1
Terminal markings
Terminal markings

GENERAL RULES The terminal markings shall identify: the primary and secondary windings; the winding sections, if any; the relative polarities of windings and winding sections; the intermediate tapings, if any

GRAPHIC SYMBOLS OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

GRAPHIC SYMBOLS OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

GRAPHIC SYMBOLS OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
GRAPHIC SYMBOLS OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
CT RING TYPE
CT RING TYPE
CT RING TYPE
CT

CT

CT
SUMMATION CT

SUMMATION CT

SUMMATION CT
CT EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

CT EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

CT EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
EXCITATION
EXCITATION

CURVE

EXCITATION CURVE
1 Non saturated - zone 2 intermediate 3 saturated - zone -zone

1 Non saturated - zone

2 intermediate

3 saturated

- zone

-zone

TEST RESULT
TEST RESULT

current(I)

voltage(V)

0.01

9

0.04

9

0.10

9

0.12

9

0.14

9

0.20

9

0.30

9

0.40

9

40.0

9

SECONDARY EXCITING CURRENT

SECONDARY EXCITING CURRENT

SECONDARY EXCITING CURRENT
CT 1200 / 5 Rs A 0.0024 ohm/turn V = 1.785 * 1200 5 =

CT 1200 / 5

Rs

A

0.0024 ohm/turn

V =

1.785 *

1200

5

= 1.785 x 240

= 428.4 v

A C.T consists essentially of an iron core with two windings. One winding is connected
A C.T consists essentially of an iron core with two windings. One
winding is connected in the circuit whose current is to be measured.

The flow of current in the primary winding produces an alternating flux in the core and this flux induces an e.m.f in the secondary winding which results in the flow of secondary current when this winding is connected to an external closed circuit .

The magnetic effect of the secondary current , in accordance with fundamental principles , is
The magnetic effect of the secondary current , in accordance with
fundamental principles , is in opposition to that of the primary and the
value of the secondary current automatically adjust itself to such a
value , that the resultant magnetic effect of the primary and secondary
currents , produce a flux required to induce the e.m.f. necessary to drive
the secondary current through the impedance of the secondary.
TERMS & SPECIFICATIONS Thermal continuous current rating The thermal continuous current rating (r.m.s.value in

TERMS & SPECIFICATIONS

Thermal continuous current rating The thermal continuous current rating (r.m.s.value in operates) 1.2 times , or in extended-range current transformers 1.2 or 2.0 times , the rated current.

Thermal short –time current Ith Ith is the value of current quoted on the rating

Thermal short –time current Ith

Ith is the value of current quoted on the rating plate with a duration of 1 sec. whose heating effect the current transformer can withstand without damage with the secondary winding short circuited (r.m.s in KA)

Ith =

without damage with the secondary winding short circuited (r.m.s in KA) Ith = (t + 0.05

(t + 0.05 (50/f)

Ik

Ik

=

Ssc 3 * Un
Ssc
3 * Un
Example MVA SC V I k I k I dyn = 5000 MVA = 380

Example

MVA SC

V

I k

I k

I dyn

= 5000 MVA

= 380 KV

5000

=

3
3

* 380

= 7.597 KA

Ik (1+0.05(50/)

= 2.5 Ith

Ith

=

Ith =
Dynamic current rating I dyn I dyn is the h ighest amplitude of current whose

Dynamic current rating

I dyn

I dyn

is the h

ighest amplitude of current whose

mechanical effects the CT can withstand , with the secondary winding short circuited , without damage (peak value in KA)

I dyn

= 2.5 …

3 I th

Burden Burden = The impedance of the secondary circuit in ohms and power factor. The

Burden Burden = The impedance of the secondary circuit in ohms and power factor. The burden is usually expressed as the apparent power (S) in volt-amperes absorbed at a specified power-factor at the rated secondary current.

EXTERNAL BURDEN
EXTERNAL BURDEN
EXTERNAL BURDEN BURDEN VA / I ² { = R B L B
EXTERNAL BURDEN BURDEN VA / I ² { = R B L B
EXTERNAL BURDEN BURDEN VA / I ² { = R B L B

BURDEN

VA / I²{

=

EXTERNAL BURDEN BURDEN VA / I ² { = R B L B

RB

LB

EXTERNAL BURDEN BURDEN VA / I ² { = R B L B
To protect instrument and meters from high fault currents the metering cores must be saturated
To protect instrument and meters from high fault currents the metering
cores must be saturated 10-40 times the rated current depending of the type
of burden.
The instrument security factor “Fs”
P
+ P
n i
n
=
* F
s
P
+ P
b
i
The main characteristics of protection CT cores are: • Lower accuracy than for measuring transformer
The main characteristics of protection CT cores are:
• Lower accuracy than for measuring transformer .
• High saturation voltage.
• Little , or no turn correction at all.
5P and 10P The error is then 5 and 10 at the specified ALF and at
rated burden.
The Accuracy Limit Factor indicates the over current as a multiple times the rated current
The Accuracy Limit Factor indicates the over current as a multiple times the
rated current , up to which the rated accuracy (5P or 10P) is fulfilled (with
the rated burden connected).
P
n
n =
+ P i * ALF
p
+ P
b
i
No. of primary turns = 1 turn No. of secondary turns = N turn Ip
No. of primary turns
= 1 turn
No. of secondary turns = N turn
Ip = N * Is
Ideal transformer for (Is) to flow through R there must be some
potential Es = The E.M.F
Es = Is * R
Es is produced by an alternating flux in the core.
d φ
E
s
dt
E = I *R + I *z s s CT s B Flux required to
E
= I
*R
+ I
*z
s
s
CT
s
B
Flux required to produce Es
φ= B* A
Where
B = Flux density in the core
A = cross-sectional area of core
E
k =4.44* * * *
B
f
A
N
Equ. 1
E
= I
(
z
+z
+z
)
Equ. 2
Required
E
f E
s
s
B
CT
L
k
s
CT 2000/5 , Rs =0.31, Imax =40 KA , MaX Flux density =1.6 Tesla Find
CT 2000/5 , Rs =0.31, Imax =40 KA , MaX Flux density =1.6 Tesla
Find maximum secondary burden permissible if no saturation is to occur.
Solution

N=2000/5 = 400Turns Is max = 40000/400 = 100Amps From Equ.1 Vk = 4.44*1.6*20*60*(400/10000) = 340 Volt

Max burden = 340/100 = 3.4 ohms Max connected burden = 3.4 - 0.31 =
Max burden = 340/100 = 3.4 ohms
Max connected burden = 3.4 - 0.31 = 3.09
CT ratio are selected to match the maximum load current requirements. i.e. the maximum design
CT ratio are selected to match the maximum load current requirements.
i.e. the maximum design load current should not exceed the CT rated
current.
The CT ratio should be large enough so that the CT secondary current does
not exceed 20 times rated current under the maximum symmetrical primary
fault current.
It is customary to place CT,s on both sides of the breaker. So that the
It is customary to place CT,s on both sides of the breaker. So that the
protection zones will overlap.
The
protection Engineer can determine which side of the breaker is best for

CT location . All possibilities of fault position should be considered .

determine which side of the breaker is best for CT location . All possibilities of fault
The overlap should occur across a C.B, so the C.B lies in both zones for
The overlap should occur across a C.B, so the C.B lies in both zones for this
arrangement it is necessary to install C.Ts on both sides of the C.B.
C.T,s mounted on both sides of breaker no
unprotected region
No region un protected
Current transformers mounted on C.B side only of breaker fault shown not cleared by bus
Current transformers mounted on C.B side
only of breaker fault shown not cleared by
bus bar protection.
Current transformers mounted on bus bar side only of breaker fault shown not cleared circuit
Current transformers mounted on bus bar
side only of breaker fault shown not
cleared circuit protection.
C,B will open by line protection but fault
will last.
IEC standard PROTECTION RATIO 2000/5 A POWER 20 CLASS VA 5P20

IEC standard PROTECTION

RATIO

2000/5 A

POWER 20 CLASS

POWER 20 CLASS

VA

5P20

IEC standard MEASURING RATIO POWER 20 CLASS 2000/5 A VA 0.5SF5

IEC standard MEASURING

RATIO

POWER 20 CLASS

2000/5 A

VA

0.5SF5

CT class X THE FOLLOWING INFRMATION IS REQUIRED Turns Ratio Knee Point Voltage Maximum Excitation

CT class X

THE FOLLOWING INFRMATION IS REQUIRED

Turns Ratio Knee Point Voltage Maximum Excitation Current Secondary Circuit Resistance

TPX, TPY AND TPZ current transformers CTs of class P, models were developed for CTs

TPX, TPY AND TPZ current transformers

CTs of class P, models were developed for CTs of cla ss TPX (closed-core), TPY and TPZ (nonclosed-core). All models are based on known rated values of the CTs. This is an advantage of the presented method, because no additional measurements of the parameters of the CTs are needed.

TPX High remanence type CT The high remanence type has no limit for the remanence

TPX

High remanence type CT The high remanence type has no limit for the remanence flux. This CT has a magnetic core without any air gap and a remanence flux might remain for almost infinite time. In this type of transformers the remanence flux can be up to 70-80% of the saturation flux. Typical examples of high remanence type CT are class P, TPS, TPX according to IEC,class P, X according t o BS (British Standard) and non gapped class C, K according to ANSI/IEEE

TPY Low remanence type CT The low remanence type has a specified limit for the

TPY

Low remanence type CT The low remanence type has a specified limit for the remanence flux. This CT is made with a small air gap to reduce the remanence flux to a level that does not exceed 10% of the saturation flux. The small air gap has only very limited influence on the other properties of the CT. Class TPY according to IEC is a low remanence type CT.

TPZ Non remanence type CT The non remanence type CT has practically negligible level of

TPZ

Non remanence type CT The non remanence type CT has practically negligible level of remanence flux. This type of CT has relatively big air gaps in order to reduce the remanence flux to practically zero level. At the same time, these air gaps minimize the influence of the DC-component from the primary fault current. The air gaps will also reduce the measuring accuracy in the non-saturated region of operation. Class TPZ according to IEC is a non remanence type CT.

As a matter of safety, the secondary circuits of a current transformer should never be

As a matter of safety, the secondary circuits of a current transformer should never be opened under load, because these would then be no secondary mmf to oppose the primary mmf, and all the primary current would become exciting current and thus might induce a very high voltage in the secondary.

General As a matter of safety, the secondary circuits of a current transformer should never

General As a matter of safety, the secondary circuits of a current transformer should never be opened under load, because these would then be no secondary mmf to oppose the primary mmf, and all the primary current would become exciting current and thus might induce a very high voltage in the secondary.

EQUIVALENT DIAGRAM
EQUIVALENT DIAGRAM
Ip Xp Is Rp Rs e c Pri Ie Ze Sec
Ip
Xp
Is
Rp
Rs
e
c
Pri
Ie
Ze
Sec

d

f

g

h

Ve = EXCITATION VOLTAGE Vef Ie = CURRENT Ze = IMPEDANCE Vt = TERMINAL VOLTAGE Vgh

KNEE POINT OR EFFECTIVE POINT OF SATURATION ANSI/IEEE: as the intersection of the curve with
KNEE POINT OR EFFECTIVE POINT OF SATURATION
KNEE POINT OR EFFECTIVE POINT OF
SATURATION
ANSI/IEEE: as the intersection of the curve with a 45° tangent line IEC defines the
ANSI/IEEE: as the intersection of the curve with a 45°
tangent line
IEC defines the knee point as the intersection of
straight lines extended from non saturated and
saturated parts of the excitation curve.
IEC knee is higher than ANSI - ANSI more
conservative.
45° LINE
45° LINE
ANSI/IEEE KNEE POINT Excitation Volts Knee Point Volts
ANSI/IEEE
KNEE POINT
Excitation Volts
Knee Point Volts
IEC KNEE POINT ANSI/IEE KNEE POINT EX: READ THE KNEE POINT VOLTAGE
IEC KNEE POINT ANSI/IEE KNEE POINT EX: READ THE KNEE POINT VOLTAGE
IEC KNEE POINT
ANSI/IEE
KNEE POINT
EX: READ THE KNEE POINT VOLTAGE
RATIO CONSIDERATIONS CURRENT SHOULD NOT EXCEED CONNECTED WIRING AND RELAY RATINGS AT MAXIMUM LOAD. NOTE

RATIO

CONSIDERATIONS

CURRENT SHOULD NOT EXCEED CONNECTED WIRING AND RELAY RATINGS AT MAXIMUM LOAD. NOTE DELTA CONNECTD CT’s PRODUCE CURRENTS IN CABLES AND RELAYS THAT ARE 1.732 TIMES THE SECONDARY CURRENTS

RATIO CONSIDERATIONS SELECT RATIO TO BE GREATER THAN THE MAXIMUM DESIGN CURRENT RATINGS OF THE

RATIO

CONSIDERATIONS

SELECT RATIO TO BE GREATER THAN THE MAXIMUM DESIGN CURRENT RATINGS OF THE ASSOCIATED BREAKERS AND TRANSFORMERS.

RATIO CONSIDERATIONS RATIOS SHOULD NOT BE SO HIGH AS TO REDUCE RELAY SENSITIVITY, TAKING INTO

RATIO

CONSIDERATIONS

RATIOS SHOULD NOT BE SO HIGH AS TO REDUCE RELAY SENSITIVITY, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT AVAILABLE RANGES.

RATIO CONSIDERATIONS THE MAXIMUM SECONDARY CURRENT SHOULD NOT EXCEED 20 TIMES RATED CURRENT. (100 A

RATIO

CONSIDERATIONS

THE MAXIMUM SECONDARY CURRENT SHOULD NOT EXCEED 20 TIMES RATED CURRENT. (100 A FOR 5A RATED SECONDARY)

RATIO CONSIDERATIONS HIGHEST CT RATIO PERMISSIBLE SHOULD BE USED TO MINIMIZE WIRING BURDEN AND TO

RATIO CONSIDERATIONS

HIGHEST CT RATIO PERMISSIBLE SHOULD BE USED TO MINIMIZE WIRING BURDEN AND TO OBTAIN THE HIGHEST CT CAPABILITY AND PERFORMANCE.

RATIO CONSIDERATIONS FULL WINDING OF MULTI-RATIO CT’s SHOULD BE SELECTED WHENEVER POSSIBLE TO AVOID LOWERING

RATIO CONSIDERATIONS

FULL WINDING OF MULTI-RATIO CT’s SHOULD BE SELECTED WHENEVER POSSIBLE TO AVOID LOWERING OF THE EFFECTIVE ACCURACY CLASS.

Core Demagnetizing The core should be demagnetized as the final test before the equipment is

Core Demagnetizing

The core should be demagnetized as the final test before the equipment is put in service. Using the Saturation test circuit, apply enough voltage to the secondary of the CT to saturate the core and produce a cecondary current of 3-5 amps. Slowly reduce the voltage to zero before turning off the variac.

TESTING
TESTING

Saturation

The saturation point is reached when there is a rise in the

test current but not the voltage.

Burden

TESTING
TESTING

Flashing

This test checks the polarity of the CT

Ratio Insulation test

SATURATION Abnormal high primary current High secondary burden Combination of the above two factors will

SATURATION

Abnormal high primary current High secondary burden Combination of the above two factors will result in the creation of high flux density in the current transformer iron core. When this density reaches or exceeds the design limit of the core , saturation results.

SATURATION The accuracy of the CT becomes very poor. The output wave form distorted. The

SATURATION

The accuracy of the CT becomes very poor. The output wave form distorted. The result secondary current lower in magnitude. The greatest dangerous is loss of protective device coordination

SATURATION

SATURATION

SATURATION
list of CT problems usually found at site: • Shorted CT secondaries • Open-circuited CT

list of CT problems usually found at site:

• Shorted CT secondaries • Open-circuited CT secondaries • Miswired CTs • CTs that had not been wired • CTs installed backwards • Incorrect CTs • Defective CTs • CTs with incorrect ratios or on the wrong taps Mind you, this was just at one site and had been

Yehia Tag ELdin THANKS

Yehia Tag ELdin

THANKS