Chapter 2: FUNGI CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE.

The Kingdom Fungi is enormous, the identified species and those not yet classified add up to over 300,000 species. The majority of these species are microscopic fungi (yeasts and moulds, often used for the production of antibiotics). A relatively small number of species have reproductive systems known as “mushrooms” that can be easily observed. In the field, fungi of various shapes and colours can be observed. Examples of common shapes and appearances are the saddle or honeycomb shapes, coral shape appearances or egg-shaped growing under ground, and finally the best known appearance, the umbrella shaped (with a cap and a stipe). Similar variations exist in the colour, taste and smell of fungi. However, such macroscopic observations are not sufficient to achieve a proper scientific identification and classification of fungi and, consequently, microscopic studies are also necessary. For the purposes of this guide the following classification is used (COURTECUISSE, 1994): Kingdom Fungi Division Amastigomycota Subdivision Ascomycotina Class Ascomycetes Subclass Pyrenomycetidae Order Xylariales Subclass Pezizomycetideae Order Helotiales Order Ostropales Order Pezizales Order Tuberales Subdivision Basidiomycotina Class Phragmabasidiomycetes Order Auriculariales Order Tremellales Class Homobadisiomycetes Subclass Aphyllophoromycetideae Order Cantharellales Order Clavariales Order Ganodermatales Order Polyporales Suclass Gasteromycetidae Order Lycoperdales Order Sclerodermatales Subclass Agaricomycetideae Order Agaricales Order Amanitales Order Boletales Order Cortinariales Order Entolomatales Order Pluteales Order Russulales Order Tricholomatales

alveoli.) fungi. Calvatia ). Aleuria aurantia BASIDIOMYCETES. This subclass has the highest diversity of species and it represents the majority of edible (Amanita caesarea. They can produce secondary spores from the basidiospores. Tuber.. scales and which can be smooth.4 mm]) which are called “asci”. Russulales: they are umbrella-shaped and the hymenium has gills. These reproductive cells are surrounded by sterile ones. the “paraphyses”.3). Helvella. etc. Differing from the precedent group. Boletales: the hymenium of these fungi is formed by pores and tubes. Cortinarius. B. Entoloma. Agaricomycetideae: these umbrella-shaped fungi have hymenium made up of gills and the flesh is fibrous. the hymenium of these species is protected or enclosed inside fruiting-bodies. They are of gelatinous or ligneous consistence. Aphyllophoromycetideae: this order includes fungi of very various shapes and with hymenia formed of pleats. Ascomycetes are characterised by sac-shape sporanges of relatively big size (up to 400 μm [0. They form the majority of the known species. spines. They differ from the Basidiomycetes in their reproductive cells.ASCOMYCETES. Terfezia. tubes. The most interesting species from a gastronomic and commercial point of view are from the following genera: Morchella. The Basidiomycetes are divided in different groups according to microscopic characteristics: Phragmabasidiomycetes: the basidia have membranous walls orientated transversally or longitudinally. etc. the “ascospores”. Macrolepiotas. Their sporanges are club-shaped formations and are called “basidia”. both are part of the hymenium. They can be hypogeous or epigeous. Lepiota. with spores inside.Gasteromycetideae. Homobasidiomycetes: the basidia do not have walls. are not clavate (club-shaped) or cylindrical and their basidiospores never produce secondary spores. They are called “higher fungi” along with the Basidiomycetes. . but the flesh is granulate and in the case of Lactarius contains latex.) and poisonous (Amanita. etc. This group includes “puffballs” (Lycoperdon. Agaricus. The sterile cells surrounding them are “cystidia”. although they can exceptionally have gills easily separable from the cap flesh. they carry “basidiospores” attached to them through the intermediate of a “sterigma”.

His work presents a general classification of plants. This universal system of classification of living beings is called binomial system. KINGDOM TYPE or DIVISION CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES The success of the method relies on its objective and universal character. because each species is defined by two Latin or Latinised names. in lower-case letter. better known as Linneus. CLASS. published a book in Latin entitled Systema Naturalis. In 1735 the Swedish botanist Karl von Linné. and it is often forgotten that after the identification there is a great amount of work needed in the classification of fungi. which were then divided more specifically by TYPE. A specific name. following some rational and universal criteria. in large kingdoms according to their morphological characteristics. to finally group the living beings the most similar by GENUS and SPECIES. THE CURRENT CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI. always with its initial in capital letter. Though it is an old system and subjected to continuous modifications. A generic name. .MODERN TAXONOMY. Linneus divided plants and living beings in general. The Modern Mycological Taxonomy There is a belief that a mycologist is only an expert in the identification of fungi. Animals and plants that are discovered at a later date will follow the same rules of classification that the ones already discovered. based on morphological characteristics. it is used world-wide by scientists to classify living beings. therefore the method is open and flexible. ORDER and FAMILY.

ORDER FAMILY Sub. -MYCOTINA. TERMINATION FUNGI -MYCOTA.var.For someone starting to discover and learn about Mycology. two problems occur: To know. Cl. this part is one of the most unpleasant. as it contains a lot of strange and difficult names.ecot. . The table below shows the most important ranks and its nomenclature. D.DIVISIÓN CLASS Sub. .D.O.CLASS ORDER Sub. F. . To know the hierarchical order of each rank. . MYCOLOGICAL TAXONOMY CLASIFICATION KINGDOM DIVISION Sub.) T. .Cl. -MYCETES -MYCETIDEAE -ALES -INEAE -ACEAE -OIDEAE -EAE . (Fam. (s.Fam. order. . O.F.spp. . while facing a new name. s.g.r. FAMILY TRIBU GENUS SUBGENUS SPECIES SUBSPECIES VARIETY RACE ECOTYPE ABREVIATION K. Concerning the names.ssp.sg. which rank or taxon it corresponds to (are we dealing with the genus.) s. class or is it a common name in a vernacular language?). s. s.

KINGDOM FUNGI D. ZYGOMYCOTINA • Coenocytic structure. • Mobile or immobile. • Asexual reproduction by conidia. Penicillium). GYMNOMYCOTA D.D. Ink).GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI • Also called “MYXOMYCETES • Division between fungi and animals or protista. . ASCOMYCOTINA s.D. s. DEUTEROMYCOTA • So-called “IMPERFECT FUNGI” in the past. • Spores NEVER flagellated. Balstomicosis. D. HIV). MASTIGOMYCOTA • Sexual reproduction by flagellated spores (+/).D. AMASTIGOMYCOTA • Sexual reproduction (in all or part of the cycle). • Organisation without cellular separation (cenocytic). D. • Important cause of diseases: ⇒ plant (Mildew. ⇒ animal (Trout disease: saprolegniosis). s. • Alternation of reproductive phases: ⇒ sexual (anamorph) ⇒ asexual (teleomorph) ⇒ both ( synanamorph) • Important actual status: ⇒ medical (Candidiasis. BASIDIOMYCOTINA • Membranous walls. ⇒ industrial (Aspergillus.

ACARPOASCOMYCETES s.C. DISCOM.Cl. TUBERALES Fam.PEZIZOMYCETIDEAE O. DISCOM. Cl.D. Pirenomycetidae Cl. LABOULBENIOMYCETES. TERFEZIEAE.O. .Cl. Lecanoromycetideae s. OPERCULADOS s. O. O.Cl. SARCOSCYPHINEAE s.Pezizomycetideae. PEZIZINEAE Fam. NO OPERCULADOS s.Cl.Cl. PHACIDIALES. Erysiphomycetideae s. ASCOMYCOTINA Cl. HYMENIOASCOMYCETES s.GENERAL CLASIFICATION OF “ASCOMYCETES” Cl. O. LEOTIALES. s. Loculoascomycetideae s. TUBERACEAE. OSTROPALES. PLECTOMYCETES.

s. Aphyllophoromycetideae Cl. GRUPOS DE TRANSICION. TELIOMYCETES. s. s.GENERAL CLASIFICATION OF “BASIDIOMYCETES” AND “APHYLLOPHOROMYCETES” Cl. Gasteromycetideae. Agaricomycetideae. HOMOBASIDIOMYCETES s.Cl. .D. PHRAGMOBASIDIOMYCETES.Cl.Cl. BASIDIOMYCOTINA Cl.

CANTHARELLALES .O. FISTULINACEAE F. HYDNACEAE F. HYMENOCHAETALES O. FOMITOPSIDACEAE F. GOMPHACEAE F. RAMARIACEAE F. SCUTIGERACEAE O. GANODERMATALES S. COLTRICIACEAE F. POLIPORACEAE F. STEREACEAE F. AURISCALPIACEAE F. SPARASSIDACEAE F. TYPHULACEAE F. HERICIALES O. CANTHARELLACEAE F. CRATERELLACEAE F. GRIFOLACEAE F. BJERKANDERACEAE F. CLAVARIACEAE F. CLAVARIALES F. CORTICIALES F. PHAEOLACEAE F. CLAVULINACEAE F. SCHYZOPYLLACEAE O. Cl. CORTICIACEAE F. HERICIACEAE F. CLAVARIADELPHACEAE F. GANODERMATACEAE F. TELEPHORALES O. APHYLLOPHOROMYCETIDEAE O. HYMENOCHAETALES O. CORIOLACEAE F. PHELLINACEAE F. CLAVICORONACEAE F. BANKERACEAE F. TELEPHORACEAE F.

Limacella F.g. OMPHALOTACEAE F. MACROCYSTIDIACEAE F. RUSSULALES O. Amanita . CREPIDOTACEAE F. MARASMIACEAE F.F.g. Leucopaxilloideae s.F. AGARICOMYCETIDEAE O. STROBILOMYCETACEAE O. TRICHOLOMATALES O. GOMPHIDIACEAE F. BOLETALES . ENTOLOMATALES O. PLUTEALES O. STROPHARIACEAE F. PLUTEACEAE F. TRICHOLOMATACEAE s.GENERAL CLASIFICATION OF “AGARICOMYCETES” F. RHODOTACEAE F. HYGROPHORACEAE F. BOLBITIACEAE F. DERMOLOMACEAE O. COPRINACEAE . CORTINARIALES O. ENTOLOMATACEAE F. CORTINARIACEAE F. PLEUROTACEAE F. Tricholomatoideae s. AGARICACEAE F. PAXILLACEAE F. BOLETACEAE F.F. HYGROPHOROPSIDACEAE F.Cl. AGARICALES F. Lyophylloideae F. GYRODONTACEAE F. ELASMOMYCETACEAE F. AMANITALES s. RUSSULACEAE F.

PISOLITHACEAE F. GEASTRACEAE F.Cl. NIDULARIACEAE F.HYMENOGASTERALES F. NIDULARIALES F. MELANOGASTRALES F.GASTEROMYCETIDEAE F. LYCOPERDALES F. LEUCOGASTRACEAE O. GASTERELLACEAE O. MELANOGASTRACEAE F.GENERAL CLASIFICATION OF “GASTEROMYCETES” O. SPHAEROBOLACEAE O.SCLERODERMATALES s. PHALLACEAE F. TULOSTOMATACEAE O. PHALLALES . HYMENOGASTRACEAE F. TULOSTOMALES F. CLATHRACEAE O. LYCOPERDACEAE O. BATTARAEACEAE F. SCLERODERMATACEAE O. HYSTERANGIALES F. ASTRACEAE F.

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