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Class XI: Math

Chapter: Probability

Chapter Notes

Key Concepts

1. The theory of probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with

uncertain or unpredictable events. Probability is a concept that gives a

numerical measurement for the likelihood of occurrence of an event.

2. An act which gives some result is an experiment.

3. A possible result of an experiment is called its outcome.

4. The sample space S of an experiment is the set of all its outcomes.

Thus, each outcome is also called a sample point of the experiment

5. An experiment repeated under essentially homogeneous and similar

conditions may result in an outcome, which is either unique or not

unique but one of the several possible outcomes.

6. An experiment is called random experiment if it satisfies the following

two conditions:

(i) It has more than one possible outcome.

(ii) It is not possible to predict the outcome in advance.

7. The experiment that results in a unique outcome is called a

deterministic experiment.

8. Sample space is a set consisting of all the outcomes, its cardinality is

given by n(S).

9. Any subset ‘E’ of a sample space for an experiment is called an event.

10.The empty set | and the sample space S describe events. In fact | is

called an impossible event and S, i.e., the whole sample space is called

the sure event.

11.Whenever an outcome satisfies the conditions, given in the event, we

say that the event has occurred

12.If an event E has only one sample point of a sample space, it is called

a simple (or elementary) event. In the experiment of tossing a coin,

the sample space is {H,T}and the event of getting a {H} or a {T}is a

simple event.

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13.A subset of the sample space, which has more than on element is

called a compound event. In throwing a dice, the event of appearing of

odd numbers is a compound event, because E={1,3,5} has '3' sample

points or elements in it.

14.Events are said to be equally likely, if we have no reason to believe

that one is more likely to occur than the other. The outcomes of an

unbiased coin are equally likely.

15.Probability of an event E, is the ratio of happening of the number of element in

the event to the number of elements in the sample space.

(i) P(E) =

n(E)

n(S)

(ii) 0sP(E) s1

16.Independent Events: Two or more events are said to be independent if

occurrence or non-occurrence of any of them does not affect the

probability of occurrence or non-occurrence of the other event.

17.The complement of an event A, is the set of all outcomes which are

not in A (or not favourable to) A. It is denoted by

A’

.

18.Events Aand B are said to be mutually exclusive if and only if they

have no elements in common.

19.When every possible outcome of an experiment is considered, the

events are called exhaustive events.

Events E

1

, E

2

,..., E

n

are mutually exclusive and exhaustive if

E

1

E

2

….E

n

= S and E

i

∩ E

j

= φ, for every distinct pair of events.

20. When the sets A and B are two events associated with a sample

space, then ‘A B’ is the event ‘either A or B or both.

Therefore Event ‘ A or B’ = A B = {e:e e A or e e B}

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21.If A and B are events, then the event 'A and B' is defined as the set of

all the outcomes which are favourable to both A and B, i.e. 'A and B' is

the event A B. This is represented diagrammatically as follows

22. If A and B are events, then the event 'A - B' is defined to be the set of

all outcomes which are favourable to a but not to B. A - B = = A · B’ = { x:

x e A and x e B}

This is represented diagrammatically as:

23. If S is the sample space of an experiment with n equally likely outcomes

S= {w

1

, w

2

,w

3

,----w

n

} then P(w

1

) = P(w

2

) = P(w

n

) = n

n

i

i 1

P(w )

=

¿ = 1

So P(w

n

) = 1/n

24. Let S be the sample space of a random experiment. The probability P is a

real valued function with domain the power set of S and range the interval

[0,1] satisfying the axioms that

(i) For any event E, P (E) is greater than or equal to 1.

(ii) P (S) = 1

(iii) Number P (ωi) associated with sample point ω

i

such that

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i

0 P( ) 1 s e s

25. Addition Theorem of probability If ‘A’ and ‘B’ be any two events, then

the probability of occurrence of at least one of the events ‘A’ and ‘B’ is given

by:

P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) – P (A · B)

(a) If A and B are mutually exclusive events then

P(A B) = P(A) + P(B)

26. Addition Theorem for 3 events

P(AUBUC) =P(A)+P(B)+P(C)-P(A·B)-P(B·C)-P(A·C)+P(A·B·C)

27. If ‘E’ is any event and E’ be the complement of event ‘E’, then

P(E’) = 1 - P(E)

28. Probability of difference of events: Let A and B be events.

Then, P(A - B) = P(A) - P(A B)

29. Addition theorem in terms of difference of events:

P(A

B) = P(A-B)+P(B-A)+

P(A B)

The complement of an event A. the events are called exhaustive events. In throwing a dice.When every possible outcome of an experiment is considered.3..2 13. n(E) (i) P(E) = (ii) 0P(E) 1 n(S) 16. is the set of all outcomes which are not in A (or not favourable to) A. 17. En are mutually exclusive and exhaustive if E1 E2….En = S and Ei ∩ Ej = φ. It is denoted by A’ .com . then ‘A B’ is the event ‘either A or B or both. 18.5} has '3' sample points or elements in it.topperlearning.Probability of an event E.Events are said to be equally likely. because E={1... 19. is the ratio of happening of the number of element in the event to the number of elements in the sample space. E2. When the sets A and B are two events associated with a sample space. 20. The outcomes of an unbiased coin are equally likely. the event of appearing of odd numbers is a compound event. Events E1..Events Aand B are said to be mutually exclusive if and only if they have no elements in common. 15. Therefore Event ‘ A or B’ = A B = {: A or B} Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. which has more than on element is called a compound event. 14. for every distinct pair of events. if we have no reason to believe that one is more likely to occur than the other.A subset of the sample space.Independent Events: Two or more events are said to be independent if occurrence or non-occurrence of any of them does not affect the probability of occurrence or non-occurrence of the other event.

P (E) is greater than or equal to 1. then the event 'A and B' is defined as the set of all the outcomes which are favourable to both A and B. If S is the sample space of an experiment with n equally likely outcomes S= {w1. If A and B are events. (ii) P (S) = 1 (iii) Number P (ωi) associated with sample point ωi such that Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. The probability P is a real valued function with domain the power set of S and range the interval [0. w2. This is represented diagrammatically as follows 22.B = = A B’ = { x: x A and x B} This is represented diagrammatically as: 23. Let S be the sample space of a random experiment.B' is defined to be the set of all outcomes which are favourable to a but not to B. A .If A and B are events.w3.e.----wn} then P(w1) = P(w2) = P(wn) = n P(wi ) i1 n =1 So P(wn) = 1/n 24. then the event 'A . i. 'A and B' is the event A B.com .3 21.1] satisfying the axioms that (i) For any event E.topperlearning.

Then.B) = P(A) .P(E) 28. Addition Theorem of probability If ‘A’ and ‘B’ be any two events. P(A .topperlearning.P(A B) 29. If ‘E’ is any event and E’ be the complement of event ‘E’. Addition theorem in terms of difference of events: P(A B) = P(A-B)+P(B-A)+ P(A B) Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. then P(E’) = 1 . Addition Theorem for 3 events P(AUBUC) =P(A)+P(B)+P(C)-P(AB)-P(BC)-P(AC)+P(ABC) 27.4 0 P(i ) 1 25.com . then the probability of occurrence of at least one of the events ‘A’ and ‘B’ is given by: P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) – P (A B) (a) P(A If A and B are mutually exclusive events then B) = P(A) + P(B) 26. Probability of difference of events: Let A and B be events.