Radio Advertising

CHAPTER 1: RADIO ADVERTISING ² AN OVERVIEW
1.1. Introduction to Radio Advertising. 1.2. Definition of Radio Advertising. 1.3. History of Radio Advertising. 1.4. Basic Technical Knowledge. 1.5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Radio Advertising. 1.6. Five Keys to Radio Advertising Success. 1.7. Types of Radio Advertising. 1.8. Future of Radio Advertising. 1.9. Radio Advertising in India. 1.10. Objectives of study ² ´Radio Advertising ² It·s Managementµ.

1

Radio Advertising

1.1. Introduction to Radio Advertising
Old media don·t· die! They just bounce back in new avatars. Not so long ago radio had been written off as fuddy-duddy, down market and not so cool. Television and later ´new mediaµ were touted to being the media of the future. But thanks to technology radio is making a comeback. In fact, in its new avatar-fm-radio is all set too become the hippest, coolest and most with -it medium. Local advertisers love radio. It reaches the right people, in the right numbers at the right time. Car dealerships, for instance, can advertise during the rush hour and retailers can promote special offers in the run-up to the weekend. People listen to radio ads. Listeners just don't change radio stations in the same way that viewers flick through channels on the TV. This makes commercial radio an ideal medium for small businesses to reach out to new customers. Local radio stations are often an important part of the community and businesses that advertise on air can benefit from that connection. Moreover, listeners are loyal and often see their favorite·s station as a kind of friend. That warm feeling can extend to the regular sponsors and advertisers. With frequent airing of a radio commercial and listeners tuning in for hours at a time, it is possible to build a strong presence on the radio. The human voice is a powerful selling tool, conveying emotion and authority. Promotions and offers work well because radio drives response. In fact, many listeners are also online and radio can be a great way to get people to go to your website. Production of radio ads is relatively low-cost and fast. The script should be catchy and memorable; there should be a clear call to action and a good tag line or jingle. Air time can usually be bought in cost-effective packages and most radio stations offer all-in deals, which include production of the radio advertisement. While TV is a family medium, radio is personalized. Also advertising of certain product seems to work very well while some might not. For example, cellular phone service or auto related products would have a good impact when advertised on radio is primarily known as a ´drive timeµ medium most people who turn in are doing so while 2

Radio Advertising commuting. Thus the potential if FM is better is bigger town, as the car population is much bigger. This would be the key when evaluating the medium. Also one must not forgot that radio continues to be a medium that has tremendous reach among the poor and marginalized sections of society.

1.2. Definition of Radio
y Radio can be defined as, Radio is a system of telecommunication employing electromagnetic waves of a particular frequency range to transmit speech or other sound over long distances without the use of wires. y An electronic device designed to receive, demodulate, and amplify radio signals from sound broadcasting stations, etc. y The occupation or profession concerned with any aspect of the broadcasting of sound radio programs

1.3. History of Radio
The radio, or "wireless," was born in 1895 when Italian physicist and inventor Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) experimented with wireless telegraphy. The following year he transmitted telegraph signals, through the air, from Italy to England. By 1897 Marconi founded his own company, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, Ltd., in London and began setting up communication lines across the English Channel to France, which he accomplished in 1898. In 1900 Marconi established the American Marconi Company. He continued making improvements, including those that allowed for sending out signals on different wavelengths so that multiple messages could be transmitted at one time, without interfering with each other. The first transatlantic message, from Cornwall, England, to Newfoundland, Canada, was sent and received in 1901. At first radio technology was regarded as a novelty and few understood how it could work. But in January 1901 a Marconi wireless station at South Wellfleet, Massachusetts (on Cape Cod), and received Morse code messages as well as faint music and voices from Europe. That event changed the perception of radio: Before long, Americans had become accustomed to receiving "radiograms," messages transmitted via the wireless. In 1906 the first radio broadcast of voice and music was made: The event originated at Brant Rock, Massachusetts, on Christmas Eve-and the program was picked up by ships within a radius of several hundred miles. That accomplishment resulted from the 3

data for a radio modem or whatever). encodes it onto a sine wave and transmits it with radio waves. 1920 (Warren G. Both the transmitter and receiver use antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal. it was the first successful radio transmitter. there were more than 500 radio stations in the United States.4. was the first corporately sponsored station and the first broadcast station licensed on a frequency outside amateur bands. When you listen to a radio station and the announcer says. the "father of radio." broadcast opera singer Enrico Caruso's (1873-1921) tenor voice over the airwaves. "you are listening to 91. This band of the radio spectrum is used for no other purpose but fm radio broadcasts. Westinghouse station KDKA in Pittsburgh. The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the message from the sine wave it receives. Harding won). Basic Technical Knowledge Any radio setup has two parts: y y The transmitter The receiver The transmitter takes some sort of message (it could be the sound of someone's voice. which announced the election returns in the presidential race on November 2. Pennsylvania.5 fm ´what the announcer means is that you are listening to a radio station broadcasting an fm radio signal at a frequency of 91." so "91. 1.Radio Advertising invention of another radio pioneer. Your fm (frequency modulated) radio can tune in to that specific frequency and give you clear reception of that station. American engineer Reginald Fessenden (18661932).500. In 1916 De Forest transmitted the first radio news broadcast. Within three years of its first commercial radio broadcast.5 megahertz. In 1910 American inventor Lee De Forest (1873-1961). who patented a high-frequency alternator (1901) capable of generating continuous waves rather than intermittent impulses. All fm radio stations transmit in a band of frequencies between 88 megahertz and 108 megahertz. 4 . pictures for a TV set. Megahertz means "millions of cycles per second.5 megahertz" means that the transmitter at the radio station is operating at a frequency of 91.000 cycles per second.

and frequency allocation for AM radio occurred during the 1920s. radio has the ability to reach prospects by sex. 90% of India has access to radio which is unmatched by any other media. The first radio broadcasts occurred in 1906 or so.5. The average adult listens more than 3 hours a day. From a marketing perspective. Broadly Selectivity: Specialized radio formats with prescribed audiences and coverage areas enable advertisers to select the market they want to reach.5. educational 5 y .7 megahertz FM radio . Radio is not only the medium of hearing news but also is a source of entertainment and advertising for the rural masses. radio and electronic capabilities were fairly limited.535 kilohertz to 1.Radio Advertising Common frequency band includes the following: y y AM radio . ethnic or religious background. There is no one medium which is ideal for advertisers or every situation. Radio also reaches to uneducated village folk who do not read print publications. there are certain disadvantages of this media which need to be considered. He built the first station in 1939. hence the relatively low frequencies for AM radio. FM radio was invented by a man named Edwin Armstrong in order to make high-fidelity (and static-free) music broadcasting possible. but FM did not become really popular until the 1960s. They can·t afford a TV set. 1. Advantages of Radio y Largest Reach and Frequency: Radio offers an excellent combination of reach and frequency. Advantages and Disadvantages of Radio Advertising Every medium has special strengths and weaknesses that make it more or less suited to special marketing problems of specific advertising. Also. Radio has a number of characteristics that makes it an ideal vehicle for numerous advertisers as either a primary or secondary medium. radio builds a large audience quickly and a normal advertising schedule easily allows repeated impact on listener. At the places where the literacy rates are low where people hardly read newspapers and radio is the only medium that they can understand. Therefore radio is more popular. In the 1920s.88 megahertz to 108 megahertz AM radio has been around a lot longer than FM radio. age group.1. income group. 1. employment category.

The personal nature of radio. In the competitive environment facing most companies. radio ads can be produced very quickly. Cost ²Efficiency: Radio is the least cost medium and it helps to reach mass audience with various backgrounds. popular songs. This means an advertiser can wait until close to an air date before submitting an ad. Copy changes can also be made very quickly. advertisers are able to adapt commercials to the various stations then buy. Audiences that favor certain music may be more prone to an ad that uses recognizable. Because of the relatively low cost of production. Radio·s daily frequency offers scope for continued messages and hence the consumers are more likely to remember that product and consumer lend up buying that product. Proximity to Purchase: The mobility of radio and its huge out .Radio Advertising level or special interest with a format that adds even greater dimensions to its already strong personal communication environment. The musical formats that attract audiences to radio stations can also attract attention to radio ads. it is imperative that brands achieve consumer reinforcement as near as possible to the purchase decision.of . makes radio the choice for numerous product categories. y y y 6 . a strategy that would normally be prohibitively in television. Creativity and Flexibility: Radio is the most flexible medium because of very short closing periods for submitting an ad.home audience gives the medium an advantage enjoyed by few other advertising vehicles. and local stations often produce local spots for free. While radio may be one-dimensional in sensory stimulation. National spots can be produced for about one tenth the cost of a TV commercial. immediacy. Also. Radio also offers timeless. it can still have powerful creative impact. local relevance and creative flexibility. With this flexibility of simple formats such as voice only can be created almost immediately to reflect changing market conditions or advertisers can take advantage of special events or unique competitive opportunities in a timely fashion. Radio has been described as the theatre of the mind. combined with its flexibility and creativity. Radio·s high overall reach and its ability to provide numerous formats make it a multifaceted medium. Radio offers its reach frequency and selectivity at one of the lowest costs per thousand and radio production is relatively inexpensive.

it is difficult to gain effective reach and frequency without buying several radio stations and networks.5. in radio·s quest to continue to fine tune its reach. and persuade them to respond. 7 y y . Radio gives the advertisers the opportunity to take advantage of the right combination of words. some advertisers wonder if radio is offering too many narrowly defined options. However. advertisers who want to blanket the market have to buy multiple stations. which may not be cost effective. Radio can be targeted by lifestyle formats and is more efficient than other media from a cost and production standpoint. In television the chances of such misconception is less. As a result many advertising agencies will move their budgets into radio. The radio industry realizes that the bulk of its revenue comes from advertisers who use radio as a secondary medium. and sound effects to establish a unique ´one-on-oneµ connection with prospects that lets you grab their attention. Poor Radio Attentiveness: Just because radio reaches audiences almost everywhere does not mean that everyone is paying attention. If a large number of radio stations compete for the same audience.2. For those product categories with broad appeal. However for national advertisers and most large local and regional firms. y y 1. A fundamental marketing strategy for radio has been its ability to successfully work with other media to increase reach and frequency or to reach non-users and light users of other media. voices. A personal medium: The human voice is the most personal means of communication. radio is most often used as complementary medium to extend the reach and frequency of primary vehicles in their advertising schedule.Radio Advertising As a Complement to another Media: In some cases. he or she often switches stations when an ad comes and divides his or her attention between the radio and road. as it is audio as well as visual. radio is the primary medium for local advertisers. evoke their emotions. Fragmented Audiences: The large number of stations that try to attract the same audience in a market has created tremendous fragmentation. When a consumer is listening while doing some work or traveling in a car. Disadvantages of Radio y Misunderstanding: Sometimes there might be a misconception regarding the radio ad as it is only heard. music.

Limitations of Sound: Radio is heard but not seen. Some agencies think radio restricts their creative options. An advertiser whose product depends on demonstration or visual impact is at a loss when it comes to radio. Creative Limitations: The audio-only nature of radio communication is a tremendous creative compromise. and it does not always succeed. They can·t keep like a newspaper or a magazine ads Radio must compete with other activities for attentions. an advertiser has to buy time in individual markets on a station-by-station basis. there is no proper research has been available on the area of radio listening. y y y y y y 1. These five keys help increase your chances of having a successful radio ad campaign. Many advertisers think that without strong visual brand identification the medium can play little or no role in their advertising plans. Short Lived and Halfhearted Commercials: Radio commercials are brief and fleeting. Sometimes the voice really matters.Radio Advertising Chaotic buying procedures: For an advertiser who wants to include radio as a part of national advertising program. This could involve dozens of different negotiations and individual contracts. If the voice is irritating then there is a chance that the campaign may flop. Since national networks and syndicated broad cast do not reach every geographic market. Only 20 % of time availability restricts the frequency of message exposure. the buying process can be sheer chaos. which will be very helpful for the advertisers to decide them on advertising plan and budget and other matter. Therefore. Five Keys to Radio Advertising Success Radio is an affordable ad medium that can reach a mass audience. a drawback if the product must be seen to be understood. No proper research available: In India. 8 . RJ needs training: It is very important that the Radio Jockey is trained enough to deliver the ad.6. there could be a problem for the marketers in the sense that they might advertise on wrong channel at a wrong time.

Frequency refers to how many times your ad airs in a short amount of time. Make a list of the radio stations in your market. Advertising your western gear store on a country station makes sense. they voice it. Most stations have a complete list of voice talent in your area. Before you take the plunge into radio advertising. It's vital your ad stands out and conveys your message repeatedly. Voice talent can be as simple to find as calling the radio station. find out if you're ready for Radio. The copy needs to be crystal clear and not muddied by trying to be cutesy in your pitch. The more ads you buy the better rates you'll be able to get.Radio Advertising y Frequency of Ads: A radio commercial needs to air multiple times before it sinks in with the listener. frequency is the key so make sure your ad hits the mark and will get the consumer's attention the first time. Remember. You won't want to advertise your Christian book store during a program that uses a raunchy sense of humor. y Target Audience: Just like with every ad you create. You need a script and voice talent. A commercial that airs multiple times in a day has a better chance of reaching the listener than a commercial that only airs a few times in a week. And if you're ready to hit the airwaves. You send the script. y Producing Your Commercial: Unlike television commercials. y Rates: Take advantage of the low ad rates for radio. Your copy isn't relying on any visuals so it's vital you capture the listener's attention from the start. Radio commercials in these time frames are easier to negotiate and cheaper for you to advertise. you must know your target audience. Running your commercial once a week for a month isn't going to be enough. Ad rates are on the rise but the costs are still more affordable than visual mediums like television. production is simpler for a radio commercial. y Timing you·re spending: Ad rates are generally less expensive in the first and third quarters. However. Advertising a teen clothing store on the same station doesn't. this radio 9 . Listen to each one to help identify your own target audience. Research shows it takes a few times before the consumer actually gets what your company is all about. Use your negotiating skills to get a good deal on an ad bundle. that doesn't mean you should just slap something together. What kind of listeners will be tuning in and are they a potential customer for your product or service? Radio stations also offer programs you'll want to know more about before you buy.

The RJ informs the audience about the sponsored company throughout the programme. Disadvantage includes lack of flexibility in choosing affiliated stations the limited no.Radio Advertising commercial script can show you how to deliver strong copy that will reach your listeners every time.Likewise. exhibition going on at certain place etc. y RJ Mention/what·s On Mention: Here the Radio Jockey [RJ] informs the audience the information given by advertiser about the new product launch. sale. airtime. 1. y Spot Radio: Spot radio affords national·s advertiser·s great flexibility in their choice of markets. The advantage is less paper work and lower cost per station. and copy. of stations on a networks roster and the long lead times required to book time. Networks provide national and regional advertisers with simple administration and low effective net cost per station. Most radio stations use recorded shows with live news in between . They can tailor commercials to the local market and put them on the air quickly ² some stations will run a commercial with as little as 20 minutes lead time. nearly all radio commercials are pre recorded to reduce cost and maintain broadcast quality. y Sponsor Programme: Here the advertiser sponsors the whole or part of the programmed. stations. Radio advertising is either live or taped. It involves the same procedure as national spots. 10 .7. TYPES OF RADIO ADVERTISING: y Network: Advertiser may use one of the national radio networks to carry their messages to the entire national markets simultaneously via stations that subscribe to the networks programs. y Local Radio: Local times denote radio spots purchased by a local advertiser for local market.

Spearhead the government objective of growing the FM radio business in India. each radio station is reeling under the brutal financial impact of high costs.8. But at current levels of advertising support.12am 12am ² 6 am Morning drive Daytime Afternoon drive Nighttime All night 1. Providing free-to-air local broadcasts of music and entertainment. community announcements and public service messages provide a real value-added service.Radio Advertising Radio Stations Divide Their Days and Their Rates. With the government ready to reduce the license fees it will help in attractingnew palyers like reliance which had earlier backed out only due to the entry fees. various radio stations are coming up with IPO for example Radio Mirchi thus helping them expand. It can provide a level playing field with benefits for listeners. for advertisers. employment & career options.The exact divisions vary from station to station. Virgin group has already started exploring the Indian market for suitable partners.also government allowing foreign players to enter he Indian market it will help the industry grow. y y y y 11 . With more players in the fray the FM radio industry would grow and also enhance the government·s yield from licensing radio naturally. The new India deserves an active private FM radio sector. helpful information traffic advisories. 6 am -10 am 10 am ² 3 pm 3pm ² 7pm 7pm. Radio stations divide their rate cards into day parts . Future of Radio Advertising y FM Radio can play its part in building a stronger business future for India.

per 10 secs.4000/.to Rs. Rs. The radio stations have different rates even for the FMCG companies.00 am to 11. Radio Advertising in India Radio Slots Prime Time Super Prime Time Other Slots Timings 7.00 am  10. The various steps in radio advertisement Realizing the needs and wants of consumers and fulfilling them What the various radio stations have to offer the masses.00 pm š Jaggu Sangram š Bollywood badshah š Tarana 1.10. OBJECTIVES Through this project my objective has been to understand the following y y y y To find out about the current scenario of the radio industry. HOW TO ADVERTISE : When an important campaign is to be launched.7 š š š š š The Times of India EX-Star India Today BBC and Mid Day Adlabs-Reliance y SOME POPULAR PROGRAMMES ON ONE OF THE RADIO STATIONS: Radio One:  7.per 10 secs. y SPONSORSHIP: A company giving bulk business can strike a deal with the Radio companies to get tags and associate sponsorships.per 10 secs Rs.1000/.4500/. 3000/.00 pm to 8.00 pm to 7. Rs.Radio Advertising 1.00 am to 8. Though it can be of 15 secs.00 am to 11. y y SOME POPULAR RADIO STATIONS IN INDIA:      Radio Mirchi Radio City Red FM Radio One Big 92.00 am 8.per 10 secs. Duration of Radio Spots generally of 30 secs. 12 . 4000/. it is better if one or two popular radio stations are chosen by striking a deal for high frequency (playing the spots 8 to 10 times a day for some days) by adopting this strategy you can reach approximately 93% of the radio audience.00 am Rates Rs.00 am 6. Note: All this rates are for Delhi and Mumbai. etc. 20 secs. 3000/.00 am  9.9.00 am to 11.00 pm to 11.00 pm 10.to Rs.

2.1. Secondary Data 13 .Radio Advertising CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. Primary Data 1.

2.1. 14 . exploratory research will be helpful tool in doing so. Internet etc.Radio Advertising  Research Methodology: Since the study involves the study of a Radio Advertising. Secondary Method: Source of data that leads to intelligence are diverse and wide range. Studies of this nature are based on primary and secondary data. 2.2. The wide range of secondary data consists from Textbooks. Primary Method: As the research focuses on the Radio Advertising the questionnaire mainly was designed to find out the consumers perception about different channels of banking. The sample size was 20 and closed ² ended (multiple choices) questionnaire is taken for study.

Radio Advertising CHAPTER 3: BUYING RADIO TIME 3.3.4. Station Rates 3.1.2. Frequency 3. Your Day parts Buying Options 3. How many stations do you need 15 .

3.cost less than ads scheduled during a specific day parts.2. Buying packages is an 16 y y . while daytime primarily female and nighttime is mostly teen.Radio Advertising 3. syndications. the structure is actually quite straight forward. The time period decision is based primarily on a demographic description of the advertisers target audience. The price can also increase if an advertiser wants the ad read live on the air by a popular local radio personality hosting a show during a day part. About 15% is allocated to national spot placement and only 5% is invested in network broadcasts. Your Day parts Buying Options Most stations offer several options for buying air time: a) Buying by specific day parts b) Buying packages c) Buying sponsorships or adjacencies Buying specific dayparts: This relates to the time period of purchase. Advertising time can be purchased from networks. radio advertising time is purchased from rate cards issued by individual stations. Although the actual buying may be time consuming and expensive if many stations are involved. Advertiser may use one of the national radio networks to carry their messages to the entire national markets simultaneously via stations that subscribe to the networks programs. Advertisers generally invest most heavily in local placement. Networks provide national and regional advertisers with simple administration and low effective net cost per station. Drive-times dayparts attract a mostly male audience.1. or local radio stations. Station Rates While buying procedures to achieve national coverage may be chaotic.ads that stations choose when to run. Weekend sports can also effectively reach teens. There are five basic dayparts on basis of which advertiser can choose. Buying packages: As with magazine buying. Run-of-stations ads. Putting half your sports into drive time and half into midday is a very safe strategy. About 80% of annual radio advertising is placed locally. This information combined with programming formats. this does not mean they are completely without structure. guides an advertiser in a buying decision. Many stations have local rates for Individual Business and National Rates for Agencies.

m. Flight and schedule are two words you may hear your radio sales representative use when you plan your advertising. and fixed positions go for premium rates. As a general rule. Stations will usually guarantee to divide your sports fairly between drive times and other dayparts. Is brought to you by«««µ An adjacency is the next best thing to a sponsorship. (´I·m running a flight of 80 ads this month.µ) 17 . a minimum of 20 spots per week should be aired. Having your name associated with a particular show or event can do a lot to reinforce your positioning. adjacencies. requires repetition to have impact. y 3. they·re only for people who are ready for a long-term commitment. or Best Time Available( BTA).3. Sponsorships. every Monday. Other fixed-position spots are also available. Sponsorships on top-rated shows can cost up to twice as much as other spots in the same day parts. This means simply that you pay to buy a package of sports at a flat rate and the station decides (within certain specified limits) when the sports will run. For example. The RJ informs the audience about the sponsored company throughout the programme. (´I run a schedule of 20 ads a week. you may specify that you want your spot to run at 6:13 a. spending less to achieve the same impact. Marking a package buy is called buying Run of Station (ROS). If you buy an adjacency. your ad will run every day just before or just after (in other words. like most media. usually low-cost method. There are scheduling strategies that help increase the impact of the spots you place. and Friday. You are associating your company name with a specific program. The advertisers sponsor the whole or part of the programme. Wednesday. Frequency Radio. Sponsorships are like marriages. and these premium spots can be so powerful that you may be able to run far fewer spots than you otherwise would. six months out of the year. Sponsorships or adjacencies: A sponsorship is just what its name implies. adjacent to) the program you specify. ´«««««. Total Audience Plan (TAP).Radio Advertising easy.µ) A schedule is the long-term version of a flight. A flight is a group of ads.

and then tell you how many listeners each station had in each category. and you can afford to buy drive time on the dominant news/talk station in the market. Similar survey on listenership has been conducted by IMRB (Indian Market Research Bureau)  Producing Radio Commercial Producing a radio spot can be a lot of fun advertisers often say it·s the most fun they ever have in advertising. To really learn who is listening to your spots. music. which means not just the words.equipped to produce spots. If your target and audience includes both younger and older people. but the combination of words. and it must not leave the listener wondering. but it must grab the listener·s attention in about three seconds. Your spot can be clever or straightforward.Radio Advertising 3. and they often employ young. anyways?µ The following are some of the factors you should have in mind from the first moment you sit down to plan your spot. creative people whose fresh ideas will keep your spots from sounding like everywhere else·s. If your audience is business people. It all begins with a good script. survey the local market. How many stations do you need Just as you should never run too few spots. you should also not run on too few stations.4. It can also be simple and inexpensive. and sound effects. There are three basic elements to work with: the announcer·s voice. All these are part of the script. Stations are usually well. you may need to buy two or more stations with widely different formats. and sound effects. however. ´Whose spot was that. Production can be done in the station·s own studios or in an independent production house. music. There are. 18 . you should run on at least two or three stations. times when one station will suffice. that may be all you need to succeed. but that varies depending on your audience and the number of competing stations in the market. These surveys break the audience down by age and sex. But how many is enough? Generally. break the listening week down into segment.

low. you should use a voice that is appropriate for your image. one can have the midday announcer do the honors.Radio Advertising  The Voice There are two factors concerning voice. b) Use free music from the station·s library. the local community theater or. (But It·s difficult and expensive to obtain the rights). a child·s. In fact. the better. c) Get permission to use an existing recording by a known artist.cost option: a) Using local radio talent b) Using an amateur voice c) Hiring professional voice talent. Celebrity voices can sometimes be hired. from a talent agency. d) Buy canned music (sound alike) in the style of many popular composers in all large markets who supply such productions for a modest charge. Using professional voice talent: If a very sleek production value is needed hire voice talent from another station.cost options for achieving this. but only a small (but increasing) percentage of all broadcast sales presentations are made by women. one of their on-air people risk having the voice be so familiar that the listener doesn·t pay attention. Get the least familiar voice available. There are two good. Studies have shown that women presenters are just as effective as men. 19 . If the ad runs only in drive time. A woman·s voice. Using amateur voices: One great thing about radio is that even an untrained voice can be very effective. or even your own can make listeners stop and pay attention simply because it·s not what they·re expecting to hear. First. y y y  Music The power of music can·t be overemphasized. A word of caution: Amateurs can sound stiff and false. Using local radio talent: If station produces the spot. in larger markets. Listeners will be less likely to tune it out. Female announcers can also be used. and one higher. the less the voice sounds like one of the regular announcers. There are several options for putting music into your commercials: a) Have original music produced.

The cost runs anywhere from Rs. At may be just you and the announcer in the studio. whistle etc. the announcer will operate the equipment. ho ho ho. sensations. and visual images. are available at the local radio station. Be aware that the announcer may have slight interpretation of the reading than you do. You should also understand. and sound effects. and it can be a very worth while investment. more involved with your spot. music. and don·t expect a performance that could only come from someone reading your mind. 20 . A catchy jingle helps potential customers remember you more than almost anything else. When you use sound to evoke smells. voice.  The tapping Session Once the decision is made about the script.600 to a few thousand rupees. it·s time to record. will be more involved with your ideas.  Sound Effects Various onomatopoeic sounds like eeek. an engineer will record the spot while you and the announcer concentrate on the reading. you bring the listener. ding dong.Radio Advertising A lot of radio or TV advertising can be done having a jingle product. Radio is entirely a medium of sound. At large stations and professional recording studios. The sound of waves on the shore can help sell your vacation package and bird song can put people in the mood for your spring sale.

4. Measuring the Radio Effect 21 .Radio Advertising CHAPTER 4: SELLING RADIO COMMERCIAL 4. Creative Radio Advertising 4. Steps in Radio Ad Production 4.5. Elements of Good Radio Commercial 4.1. Introduction to Selling Radio Commercial 4.2.3.

Radio Advertising

4.1. SELLING RADIO COMMERCIAL
Selling radio advertising involves a number of steps. The radio salesperson must be aware that everyone involved in the transaction is looking for different results. The media buyer is looking for efficient cost per point, while the client·s goal is to move product. As all radio stations are perceived to be same it is important to build value into the radio station by offering credible benefits that produced results and solutions for prospective clients. Radio salesperson must begin with the client·s needs and marketing goals. The first step in the process is to meet the client to gain as much information as possible about the client and his or her business. After the salesperson has a firm grasp of the advertising problem, the next step is to prepare a proposal. The successful ones begin with the clients· problem and sales objectives an move systematically to a solution. Often the job of the radio sales person must be conducted on a number of levels. a) An advertiser who is not currently scheduling radio may have to be convinced that the medium in general is for a particular product. b) The salesperson must move from the general advantages of radio to the advantages of specific station. c) The radio representative may have to show how radio fits into the media mix currently being used by the advertisers. Radio advertising faces challenges both from within the industry and from other media as it competes for advertising price. Dayparts 6 a.m. - 10.00 a.m. Characteristics Drive time, breakfast audience, interested chiefly in news news 3.00 p.m. - 7.00 p.m. Afternoon, drive time ; radio prime time and same as morning drive time 7.00 p.m. - 12.00 a.m. News, music, talk shows 12.00 a.m. - 6.00 a.m. Music, talk shows

10.00 a.m. - 3.00 p.m. Daytime, program characteristics of station, talk , music, or all-

22

Radio Advertising

4.2. ELEMENTS OF GOOD RADIO COMMERCIAL
y

Be single-minded, focused: The consumer should not be burdened with too
much information. Prioritize the copy points. The central idea should be highlighted.

y

Research your product or service: Many clients keep tabs on their
competition, but they rarely related their features and benefits to factual data. Meaningful statistics can give substantial support to your massage.

y

Relate to the consumer: Always relate the brand to customers wants and needs. Generate extension: The effect of a commercial can be multiplied by achieving
extension. A clever phrase or execution can have consumers asking other people if they have heard the spot.

y

y

Produce an immediate physical: emotional or mental response. Laughter, a tug
on the heartstrings, or mental exercises of a consumer during a radio spot help seed the memory and aid messages retention.

y

Use plain: Conversational English. Be a clear communicator.

4.3. CREATIVE RADIO ADVERTISING
These are some guidelines for producing creative radio advertisements:y y y y y y y y Understand the environment. Speak the listener·s language. Engage and entertain the listeners. Keep it simple, Judge what you hear, not what you read. Production values are important. Plan your production. Dare to be different. Take it seriously. 23

Radio Advertising

4.4. STEPS IN RADIO ADVERTISING
1. Understand what the product or service does and how it can be helpful

to the consumer before you write a radio ad:
How does it benefit, improve or fill a need in your target audience members' lives? 2. Think about the target audience for your product: To whom are you marketing the product or service? For instance, you might promote a dance club much differently than you would a life insurance policy. Major target demographics are things like males, females, age, income level, and geographic location. 3. Describe who the company is, what the product or service is, where it is

being sold, when it is or will be available, and why the consumer should spend money on the product or service:
Answering these questions will give you a framework for how to write a radio ad. 4. Create engaging copy for the product or service: Remember that most people who are listening to radio advertisements are driving a car. When the music or show stops, they are apt to change the station. The copy must stop them from changing that station, or get through the other thoughts they have in their head while driving. 5. Use multiple aspects of sound to create a desire for the product or

service:
For instance, if you are selling a beverage, hearing the bottle open can be enticing. If you are selling season tickets to a baseball team, the crack of the bat and roar of the crowd can grab someone's attention. Rely on these other elements to enhance your ad. 6. Mention the name of the product or service at least three times in your

advertisement:
If you listen to radio ads you will start to hear that names are mentioned over and over in an attempt to have the listener make an unmistakable connection to the 24

This tendency to misattribute can be offset by using matched samples of listeners and non-listeners. particularly TV. Time your ad copy: As you learn how to write a radio ad you want to make sure that it can be performed in 10. omit words which are not needed.Radio Advertising product or service that is being sold. Brand names can be bleeped out of the commercial. MEASURING THE RADIO EFFECT Effectiveness research requires clarity of objectives ² what are the agreed objectives of the overall campaign and of the radio campaign within this? Radio effectiveness can be measured either using continuous research or in stages (´pre & postµ) ² the pre-stage is normally the week before the campaign.4. This is particularly likely to happen where there is a strong executional link between the two media and/or where there is an history of TV advertising for the brand. Radio research can successfully be done using telephone interviewing ² ads can be played down the line. playing the ads to consumers. This way. if the increase in advertising awareness is greater among listeners than it is among non-listeners. then the effect can be attributed to radio fairly confidently ² even if the listeners think the advertising was in another medium. 25 . However cases where other media are to be included in the research it might be more appropriate to use face-to-face interviewing. It provides a more robust measure of whether they have heard the campaign. 6. If the copy is long. the post-stage in the week after the campaign finishes. Even the most annoying ads can be effective because the consumer's brain is literally branded with the name of the product or service. try mentioning another aspect of the product or service. Consumers tend to misattribute radio-advertising memories to other media. to test whether the campaign is linked to the brand. If the copy is short. 7. Commercial recognition is a valuable technique ² i. 15 or 30 seconds which are common lengths for ads on the radio. Remember also that there might be a second or two for bumper music or disclaimers as well. and avoids problems of trying to describe the ads.e.

8 FM] 26 . Radio Mirchi [98.5. Red [93.4. Meow [104.3.3fm] 5. All India Radio 5.5fm] 5.2. Radio City [91fm] 5.1.Radio Advertising CHAPTER 5: STATIONS OF RADIO ADVERTISING IN INDIA 5.

regional and local.Radio Advertising 5. Add FM radio and you have a formidable arsenal. educate and entertain the masses.R. AIR has a three-tier system of broadcasting. It caters to the needs of the people. When India attained Independence in 1947. National channel of All India Radio started functioning on May 18. sports. Sound broadcasting started in India in 1927 with the proliferation of two privately owned transmitters in Bombay and Calcutta. which is a national service planned. A.'s coverage exceeds 90% of India. Mogra and Delhi beaming from dusk to dawn. plays. It transmits centrally originated news bulletins in Hindi and English. 50 high frequency (SW) transmitters and 87 FM transmitters. ALL INDIA RADIO A. 27 . The Regional Stations in different States form the middle tier of the broadcasting. and another 10 foreign languages in external services. Including North-Eastern Service at Shillong disseminates the vibrant and radiant cultural heritage of the Northeastern region of the country. developed and operated by the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting under the Government of India. It was changed to All India Radio in 1936 and it came to be known as Akashwani since 1957 to inform. All India Radio has a network of 283 broadcasting centers with 146 medium frequency (MW) transmitters.I. newsreel.1. With broadcasts in 24 languages and 146 dialects (home services). namely. reaching over 98% of the people in the largest democracy of the world. national. through its transmitters at Nagpur. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks in the world in terms of reach. music. to nearly 76% of the country's population fully reflecting the broad spectrum of national life. AIR had a network of six stations and a complement of 18 transmitters. spoken word and other topical programs.R.I. 1988.

y Place: Intensive (all over Bombay) also. Delhi.Mittal. 5. a perfect blend of English and Hindi music. STAR India·s radio division would provide or take charge of advertisement sales.Bangalore. Nagpur and Lucknow. Selective in the sense that it has set up radio stations across the country in six cities . Target audience Radio City is not looking at any particular segment to target.The airtime. 5.2. Patna. Nagpur and Lucknow. teamed up with professional. The idea is to create the brand and then to move on to specific target programming. marketing and programming.2 RADIO CITY [91FM] Radio City. in mix of Hindi and English For corporate and retailers: . a portfolio of entertainment programming 24 hours a day. MBPL is a company backed by P. so as to enable more targeted programming in the future. a venture promoted by Star and Music Broadcast Private Ltd (MBPL). This is thanks to its promotions. The Mumbai license was secured for Rs 10 crores. y y 28 . information. Price: Advertisement rates Promotion: Radio city is one of the top 3 stations in the city. Intensive research is being carried out to ascertain demographic profiles of radio listeners. Mumbai. Radio City·s market strategy is backed up by six months of intensive research in Bangalore. Patna.Music. Mumbai.Bangalore. family and Associates. and is trying to create a brand name. Delhi.2 The 4 P·s y Product:   For listeners . The company has received the license to set up radio stations across the country in six cities . was launched on 21st May 2002. Radio City aims to reach out to listeners across demographic barriers.K.Radio Advertising 5.2.1. vivacious RJ·s.

5. on the other hand. Radio City has managed to attract advertisements. involves one-on-one sales and education as to how advertising will help the brand. The retail market. 1. So they talk to them about radio. Advertising Radio City also hopes to provide an effective advertisement medium. Because of this the strength of our retail sales team is three times that of our corporate sales team because in retail sales there is this job of exploration and education. 29 . probably create a radio spot. Hoardings all over the city. The process is pretty lengthy. This is to fulfill the aspirations of national advertisers seeking vast local reach as well as to local advertisers to access an organized medium for projecting their products and services. the success rate with national advertisers is a lot higher than in the case of retail advertisers. Radio City will have a four-hour slot in its 24-hour broadcast for advertisement. Radio city is trying to drive the market by encouraging the ad spends on radio to increase from two per cent to the world average of 10 per cent. besides advertising. The Television ´fun ka doze har rozµ ad campaign. Hence.2.3. tell them this is how the brand will sound when on radio. make them listen to it. sales and marketing support. National advertisers are all familiar with the concept of advertising. The channel is into sponsoring events especially college festival around Bombay city. IBM and HLL. Star India is in-charge of providing the content. breaking to a 10-minute projection in every hour's programmed. and of breaking new ground whereas with national advertisers.Radio Advertising On the promotion front. it is a question of marketing a new medium and educating people about it rather than having to explain the concept of advertising per se. 2. from small local stores as well as big brands like Tanishq. the channel undertook huge promotion campaign in the initial stages of its launch.

In the second phase. Red FM may not be modest but it is certainly witty. the 24-hour FM radio channel from the Living Media stable. screams the advertisement of Red FM. RED FM has spent close to Rs 17. Moreover y y 30 . which promote the station. They changes everything in terms of how we play music and the RJs we have according to this target group 5. Target Audience 93.3.5FM] ´93. RED [93. energetic and passionate Apparently. reliable.5 Red FM caters to 25-plus age group. The much-awaited Red FM on 93.87 crores as license fees for the three centers of Delhi. as a bright. Described. The 4 P·s y Product:  For listeners: The programming mix has non-stop music interspersed with Red FM·s ¶crisp· and ¶entertaining· updates on traffic. city-specific events and the latest buzz on everything current. Promotion: Red Fm is affiliated with some clubs and pubs. The ¶take aways· are plenty ² everything that the station says and does is of relevance to its listeners.Radio Advertising 5.  For corporate and retailers: the airtime. An additional Rs 20 crores has been invested on infrastructure etc in these three cities. Also it has a tie up with shopping malls like crossroads and ¶Groove· a music store.5 red fm-bajaate rahoµ. y Place: Intensive in Mumbai and selective all over the country because it has other stations in Delhi and Kolkatta. 2002. warm. followed by Delhi and Kolkata. Because it is more a mature audience.3.2. They have 100 hoardings all over Mumbai city.1. uncomplicated and honest. Mumbai and Kolkata for the first year. weather.5 MHz hit the airwaves in Mumbai first on June 26. 5. Price: advertisement rates.3. friendly.

and the rates might increase or decrease depending upon the need of the advertisers. Endorsing advertising on RED is not just about buying spots. trains etc have also been adopted. KC. music. Hutch. 31 . Red FM was launched six months late. HR and nearly every other college in North Mumbai. LG. they form a healthy percentage of advertisers.3. Coke. length of the commercial. use their strengths and improve co-ordination between the three stations.3. towards the influence of one station with the other. 4. The normal jingle length is 10 seconds and again here rates will differ on the basis of the sound effects. but is a total experience. State Bank of India. tailored to the customer·s needs. Zee. Red is also focusing.000/. none of them have refused to consider them in their media plan. Within a few days of launching. this is an important task in terms of helping the advertiser. Idea. Red·s current advertisers profile includes both retail clients and corporates. They have other high profiled clients like Sony Entertainment. Kotak Mahindra and Dabur among others. their job is to suggest that instead of a 30 second spot. ICICI Prudential. So if a retailer wants to announce his sale and he does not have a big budget. Advertising Red Fm does not go to sell radio spots but works like a consultant with the client. Their revenue only from Bombay is more than two crore. play a 10 second spot through the day. Based on the need of the advertiser. and therefore they faced a major drawback in terms of losing out on a number of corporates. they carried a DJ live on turntables from their studios.Radio Advertising innovative methods like painting Double Decker buses. Every committee hosts its own festival and Red has been in touch with committees from Jai Hind. they suggest the best ways of achieving the objective. they went on air live from a night club like Velocity and received a huge response from the listeners. HT.3. 5. However. Metlife. the shortcoming is only in terms of delay.4. Recently. as they had already freezeed their media budget for the year. They normally charge around Rs. Marketing strategies It stays connected with youth by being in touch with the committees of various colleges in order to collaborate with them on internal festivals. 5. for the first time in India.

And from the non-accredited ad agency. there would be food-related brands advertising on it.Radio Advertising background conversation. Is it a women·s product? Is it male-oriented? Is it a retailer? If it is a retailer. then the client has to pay substantial amount of money to radio station because if they produce a jingle that is their assets. they could slot it in the 11²6 time band when people are going to the market or when a housewife might be listening to the radio while cooking. similarly. If there were a programme on beauty tips. The do give some discounts to the accredited ad agency. 32 . they would advise the drive time hours or the late night show. we would advise a cosmetics brand to advertise on that programme. They do produce jingles according to the advertisers and if the advertiser or the client wants to use that jingle somewhere else in some other media. if there were a cookery show. They take 100 % money in advance from the direct client. face-to-face conversation. For male dominated products. There are several questions that RED FM identifies before making a time-band suggestion. surveys reveal that a number of men like tuning in to radio just before sleeping.

As the punch line says. This segment addresses about 12 lakh listener 5. RADIO MIRCHI [98. Since radio is a free to air medium.' They have a very clearly defined position . Promotion: The marketing strategy of Radio Mirchi revolves around two crucial pegs ² create hype around the name Radio Mirchi.4. Radio Mirchi has landed this gift indirectly from Reliance and Zee who chickened out of the FM radio business after instigating a bidding war resulting in unviable and exorbitant license fees (Rs. Hence it quickly became a mass channel with Hinglish being its prime lingo and having a wide audience appeal.3FM] Radio Mirchi belonging to the Times of India Group is in an enviable position to encase into a monopoly the 10-year license period for FM radio in the 12 cities it won.3 FM. they are also the only private FM radio broadcaster in the cities of Ahmedabad. Indore and Pune. Radio Mirchi is now present in seven Indian cities and is the only company with private FM radio stations in all four metropolitan cities of Delhi. On April 23.it also does a lot of tie-ups and contests for the consumers 33 . 9 crores annual fees for Mumbai). plug Radio Mirchi through the other media that The Times Group owns. Delhi. a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Times Group.  y For corporate and retailers: the airtime Place: Intensive in Mumbai and selective all over the country since it is established in cities like Kolkatta. Chennai and Kolkata. owned by Entertainment Network (India) Ltd. 'it is hot. the Radio Mirchi private FM station. Mumbai.1.they are a contemporary hit radio station. and their Target is around 18 to 35 .SEC A and B and in that too mainly youth and housewives. which reaches the lower end of the audience spectrum. Chennai.4. on 98. RM later made a conscious decision to go Hindi. 2002. debuted in Mumbai.Radio Advertising 5. The 4 P·s y Product:  For listeners: 90% of the music played on RM is Hindi and contemporary English hits are played keeping in mind the tastes of their TG. y y Price: The advertisement rates.

The rates are so reasonable that advertisers can afford 10 or 15 spots a day and run the campaign for 15 days or three weeks at a fraction of the cost that you will incur in print or Television.4. So they have package deals for them also. Today it is fashionable to be on radio. Radio mirchi sells independently and does not offer any print package deal even though they belong to Times Group ² they are an independent company. There is very little retail advertising on radio.I·m hot and I·m Radio Mirchi!!µ big names that generated curiosity and excitement and compelled the listener to refrain from flipping the dial. There is an average listenership of 45 minutes per day on the station.3 .2 Marketing strategies Radio mirchi has also tied up with various shopping malls. In Indore more than half of Mirchi revenue comes from retail. y y A very large factor that contributed towards the establishing the brand of RADIO MIRCHI was its catchy slogan ´it·s hotµ. the rest of the FM channels charge anything between Rs 1. In Ahmedabad and Pune it is probably about 25 to 40% of the business.500 for a 10-second slot. pubs for continuous advertisement of their channel to make people aware of the temptations given by the channels to them. retail showrooms.000 for a 10-second slot.000 and Rs 1. Advertising Radio Mirchi charges the highest rate of Rs 2.4. 5. But in Mumbai it is at 10%. Most of the national advertisers on radio mirchi today want to buy all the stations on air. Radio mirchi has two main objectives behind doing an extensive marketing which areTo create the Top of the Mind recall in the relevant Target Audience.Radio Advertising y 5. There are about more than 300 advertisers on Mirchi. Radio Mirchi gives 45 lakhs weekly listeners as per Radar study. However the slogan by itself was incomplete without the voices that accompanied it. CELEBRITIES and film stars that repeated every so often ´hi I·m -------. Connect with the growing Radio listening population in Mumbai. While all the other stations offer more slots and run ads for over 15 34 . Currently radio mirchi has hiked their prices because they know that Radio Mirchi today is one of the best radio channels and they offer value to the advertisers who spend on their station.

IMRB conducts research for radio mirchi which is after every 15 days to know exactly what the listeners actually want to lend their ears to. Hence. That will still take us to about 15 frequencies.Radio Advertising minutes. which means going into the smaller towns.4. They are interested in some of the bigger cities for instance. In most cases. 35 . Future Plans: Radio Mirchi is looking radio Industry from the long term point of view. Mirchi would eventually look at having a presence in every nook and corner of this country. definitely Coimbatore. There is huge inventory pressure on them and therefore they had to increase the ad rates. On an average. Bangalore. accordingly. Clients buy effective rates and they buy a combination of spots like prime time. non prime time and the likes. But this country can have 5. radio mirchi can provide them with the more information and help them to decide on the time slots and frequency etc. there are 125 to 175 brands advertising on Radio Mirchi. Hyderabad. 5. Chandigarh. on an average. they offer ten minutes per hour on Radio Mirchi. Ludhiana. Lucknow and Kanpur. the effective ad rate going for a ten second spot would be anywhere between Rs 1000 to Rs 2000. they have implemented the changes in the time slots of the different shows on air.4. Currently. stations offer discounts on what is on their rate cards.000 radio stations. across the five stations. So when the advertisers wants to advertise on radio.

Meow 104. It symbolized spirituality. Initially meow did not use to play more than 4 or 5songs in an hour. hence Meow. 5. Meow FM an India Today Group venture was launched on 30th may 2007. where she could be all by herself.Radio Advertising 5.5. 5. we are letting women do what they do best ² talkµ ² Anil Srivatsa.5. Meow [104. Talk was the primary form of entertainment while music was secondary form of entertainment. Being a serious radio channel.1. had launched Meow 104. Meow embodied the attributes of a woman. the discussions on the channel were sober. The idea behind the business model and its objective Meow was also particular about the seriousness to different issues and discussions topics. They also believed that there were a lot of facets of a woman that could be brought alive by radio. ´Women carry the reputation of being talkative.8 FM was a niche talk-based radio station. the radio division of the India Today Group. Marketing Strategy ´Kill two birds with one stoneµ-strategy The management at Meow 104. targeted at women.8 FM] Radio meow a FM radio station used to come at a frequency of 104. professionalism. clean and free in itself.8 FM believed that it was obvious for women to tune into (because it was the first women oriented radio station) and they also were 36 . sensuality.8 mega hertz. Talk radio is an exciting. The anonymity of radio was considered to be an added strength.2. Although the time allotted to talks was still much more than songs being played. It was more than a cat call as everyone initially perceived it. Meow in its earlier format claimed to be India·s only Talk format radio station The radio channel could be heard taking long call-ins involving discussions on various topics related to various walks of life. however later they started playing more songs in an hour. and conveyed its desire to appeal to the myriad moods of a woman Kill two birds with one stone. Thodi Catty· reflected the station·s positioning. Through Meow FM. with Anil Srivatsaas as its Chief Operating Officer. The cat is much more feminine. sincere and thoughtful.5. Radio Today Broadcasting Ltd. new concept and was estimated to certainly be an emerging trend in the Indian market. COO.8 FM in Delhi. Also its tagline ¶Thodi Meethi.

So now they can host a show like ´Mama Meowµ and even ask audience to tell ´five innovative ways to break news about their pregnancy to their familiesµ without thinking twice. 5. Patiala and Shimla to cater to distinct consumer preference. Amritsar.Sabse Filmi: y With the new identity. The station will tweak its product offering for all its seven stations. The new tagline of Oye FM is Sabse Filmi. Jodhpur. Kolkata. Delhi.3. 5.4. Reason behind re-branding the MEOW as OYE .8 FM TV Today Network has re-launched its FM radio channel Meow FM to Oye! 104.5.8 FM. The radio station will offer listeners a mix of Bollywood. 5. This is a big plus as now they can mostly focus on airing programs that strike a chord with women without worrying much about the other gender. With the new positioning the radio station will focus on the Bollywood quotient. Meow FM was distinctly targeted at the women listeners.5.5. y To cater to a larger market. RJ talk and humour. 37 .Radio Advertising convinced with the fact that men too will follow to check what women talk or discuss about. which is their biggest and probably best differentiator. Target audience Instead of targeting everyone (which actually means targeting ´no oneµ) they have focused on Women folk.5.Mumbai. the radio station will focus on the 'filmi' way of life and has changed its tagline to Sabse Filmi. Meow FM re-branded as Oye! 104.

Big FM and the rest.6. Time Machine.8 FM went on air on 19th September. Remote Control. Radio One. is far from being a women only focused channel. and Love Stories will be launched. 2010. It·s a generic radio station like many others we already have.8 FM The complete new Oye! 104. Radio Mirchi. 38 . OYE! Sabse filmi. Oye! will have a competitive edge in terms of synergy for content such as celebrity interviews and promotion.Radio Advertising 5. As part of the rebranding several new shows such as Nikal Padi. About oye! 104.5.

1 Radio with Television 6.2 Radio with Newspapers 6.3 Radio with Outdoor 6.4 Radio with Magazines 39 .Radio Advertising CHAPTER 6: RADIO WITH OTHER MEDIA 6.

Reason enough for us to study the role of Radio vis-à-vis other key media.1. y 40 .1. radio also allows tighter targeting against audiences thus reducing wastage. 'What Radio can add' to each medium on three key parameters:    Planning Communication and Detailing of communication points. radio can bring brands closer and speak to the consumer at their level.1 Characteristics of Television: TV has traditionally been the most powerful and popular advertising medium for people in the media business.coverage. the downside with TV is that the audience is now fragmented across many different channels. radio can be used to reach light viewers. it extends TV messages to key times of day when TV audiences are lower or when product relevance is higher. 6. This is mainly because it does most things well .1 RADIO WITH TELEVISION 6. production costs are extremely high and viewers are increasingly avoiding ad breaks. In detail: Radio allows activity to be geographically varied. y In communication: Given that Radio is perceived as personal medium. Traditionally a high-cost medium.Radio Advertising RADIO WITH OTHER MEDIA Most brands tag radio to their existing communication plans. radio can be used for regional or local exposure booster.2. either in the same period as the TV campaign or later to extend the campaign over time. persuasion. demonstration. What radio can add: y In planning: Radio's main contribution is a dramatic increase in frequency of exposures. Sonic Brand Triggers are sounds. radio can allow a fast turnaround for new initiatives. low production costs mean multiple copy messages can be varied round the core TV communication Sonic Brand Triggers. image. frequency. impact etc. radio has a culture of response where listeners frequently interact with their station which they see as accessible. 6. which consumers recognize and associate with certain brands.

which has been successfully established on TV. Characteristics of Newspapers Newspaper brings 'immediacy' to a communication. as they tend to rely on rhythm and music. adding radio also means increased share of voice thus overcoming clutter In communication: Radio brings intrusiveness to a press campaign.2. which may seem flat on the page. As a print medium.Radio Advertising Example of powerful SBTs: "Britannia Ting Ting Ting" They help to ensure that TV and radio advertising is well branded.2. speaking in a more personal way than press. the national press suffers from clutter and from the fact that the reader can and does edit ruthlessly to avoid advertising. Radio brings brand messages closer to the individual. RADIO WITH NEWSPAPERS 6.2. can be transferred on to radio. and are good at presenting detail. it can bring to life ideas. y y In detail: Flexibility means radio allows geographical variation on top of a national press campaign. radio can more strongly convey the brand's tone. 6. They leave a brand impression with even the most passive TV viewer or radio listener. and this is real frequency in that exposures take place in real time.2. radio also reaches non-readers so it can significantly increase coverage. which are absorbed at very low involvement levels. 41 . 6. radio allows brands to emphasize specific key times of day. in most sectors.1. A sound. Newspapers also have the authority of the written word. What radio adds: y In planning: Radio adds frequency. and there is less ad avoidance.

radio is better able to communicate the tone or character of a brand. radio also offers tighter timing . it also allows localized copy variation relating to a national poster execution.typically travelling time. The weaknesses of outdoor advertising mainly stem from three issues: it has no editorial context.3. it uses extremely simple. y 6. in the sense that additional exposures to the advertising are played in full rather than having the listener look away or ignore.and it suffers from relatively expensive production.4 RADIO WITH MAGAZINES 6.2 What radio adds: y In planning: Radio adds real frequency. y In communication: Radio allows more information to be conveyed. Weaknesses of magazines include the fact that lead times can be very long depending on the title's frequency of publication. radio offers far tighter targeting which means reducing wastage. 6. the high levels of clutter. day of week or even week of month. radio allows multiple copy.4. as listeners identify with their radio station and see it as aimed at people like them.3.1 Characteristics of magazines Magazines are useful to advertisers because of the relationship they have with the readers. who consume them in a personal way. In many magazines the ads are seen as part of the magazine experience. posters also operate within time which people think of as free . radio brings brands closer. Like radio.Radio Advertising 6. striking ideas to be effective. They allow targeting by lifestyle and interest group. in a very public way.within time of day.3 RADIO WITH OUTDOOR 6.1 Characteristics of Outdoor The strength of outdoor advertising lies in its ability to suddenly confront the consumer with an idea or a challenge. 42 . which is useful for explaining or persuading. and the reader's inclination to simply turn the page. In detail: Radio offers speed of production compared with the lengthy process of poster print deadlines.

In detail: Radio offers fast turnaround within the long copy deadlines of magazines. Thoughts on what the main message of the ads was y 43 . and there is less ad avoidance. you will be seeking to detect spontaneous and prompted awareness. which means overcoming clutter. cooking. Commercial recognition ² playing the ads to respondents. radio also offers a greater share of voice for most categories. and the opportunity for geographical variations. It allows brands to speak to consumers close to certain activities . At the post-stage. radio allows tighter timing . radio can bring to life ideas which might seem flat on the page.2 What radio adds: y In planning: Radio adds frequency and also extends coverage well beyond the magazine readership.Radio Advertising 6. y In communication: Radio brings intrusiveness to a magazine campaign. day of week etc.time of day. housework etc. radio can more strongly convey the advertising tone of voice.driving.    Recall of advertising.4.

Radio Advertising CHAPTER 7: FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7. Recommendations 44 . Findings 7.1.2.

because people can listen to radio anytime and anywhere they want. y No proper Research is available. not only are listeners tuning into it more often but also sticking to radio for longer hours every day.Radio Advertising 7. They can·t afford a TV set. In comparison with other Medias. other media or the advertisers or agency can use this medium for brand recall.1. Radio can work across many different industries and businesses. many stations are conducting their own research which can be biased. The success of each radio campaign is built upon a unique combination of creative messaging and media strategy. It is also a free medium. Radio is considered as a background medium. Therefore. Radio is a complement to another media. Therefore radio is more popular. 90% of India has access to radio which is unmatched by any other media. Radio offers its reach frequency and selectivity at one of the lowest costs per thousand and radio production is relatively inexpensive. Radio is the least cost medium and it helps to reach mass audience with various backgrounds. and reveals that radio listenership habits have changed considerably. y y y y y y y y 45 . it is found that Radio is welcoming the opportunity for the advertiser to grab the masses. Radio also reaches to uneducated village folk who do not read print publications. At the places where the literacy rates are low where people hardly read newspapers and radio is the only medium that they can understand. Findings The success of private FM stations.

Research is the main base to attract client and get more revenue. the percentage of listener tuned to anyone station is likely very small. Research is very important for any advertising segment.Radio Advertising 7. Recommendations y The government should agreed upon revenue-sharing model. Radio ads must be attention grabbing to get optimal results . So that they can develop themselves well because this industry is still in an introduction stage. There are many emotions that a radio ad can evoke. y y There should be proper network to access radio for this Fragmented Audience.not only does the open need to command attention. but the actual claims themselves need to be so impactful (while relevant) that the listening audience has no doubt in their minds about wanting to call. which is for the growth of the radio stations. And therefore. the large number of the audience in India is fragmented in various remote places. The question of whether or not radio will work for your business advertising is one that can ultimately only be answered by engaging in a well-crafted testing process. The voice talent must inject a sense of "feeling" into the ad Therefore. the most crucial step in casting the right voice for your radio commercials is to really understand what feeling or tone you're looking to create for listeners. y y y y 46 . There should be proper research available. When casting a voice for your radio commercial.2. So that many stations can conduct their own research. remember to first understand which tone or emotion you believe will drive the most response .then move on to casting your radio commercials from there.

Radio Advertising CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSION 47 .

as the car population is much bigger. However. It would be just plain old quality of programming and the explosion of contests and sweepstakes offered by the Radio Stations currently. what will spell out the difference between success and failure will be neither size nor niche. superior listener loyalty. ad recall and message retention. radio is personalized. One aping the other is an honest testimonial to justify this statement. Also advertising of certain product seems to work very well while some might not. These advantages include high amount of time spent listening. superior target ability. broadcasters need to develop the market by being more responsive to the advertiser's needs. For example.Radio Advertising  CONCLUSION Radio has many natural advantages that make it an excellent choice for an advertising medium. you need to ensure that you overcome the lack of visual elements and capture your audience's attention with words and sound. 48 . While TV is a family medium. In the end Radio offers tremendous opportunities for advertisers and media planners need to explore various options by which they can effectively use radio in their media mix. This would be the key when evaluating the medium. Conversely. Thus the potential if FM is better is bigger town. Also one must not forgot that radio continues to be a medium that has tremendous reach among the poor and marginalized sections of society. To write a radio ad that achieves this. cellular phone service or auto related products would have a good impact when advertised on radio is primarily known as a ´drive timeµ medium most people who turn in are doing so while commuting. This will provide an opportunity for the market to arrive at the final verdict on the effectiveness of the medium. and much more which can be attributed to the ¶low cost of ownership· feature of RADIO as a medium.

Radio Advertising CHAPTER 9: CASE STUDY 49 .

Its major competitors are orange and R. India·s leading cellular operator in the private sector. Promotional strategies adopted by Airtel through radio: Uff Uff Mirchi! Haay Haay Mirchi! Airtel is now the first GSM service provider to tie up with a radio channel for the users benefit.I. Mr. Recently. Airtel saw this as an opportunity to grab the most number of customers through radio and their started spending more on radio than ever before. Hotpot Crackpot. Operating in more than 23 cities it has been able to attain a high number of customers and is now regarded as one of the best cellular services being provided in India. users have to pay a Value Added Service (VAS) rate of Rs. For a long time now. With increasing competition airtel is now going in for more of radio advertising as against the television. Airtel is creating an attitude of being people friendly and thus gaining huge share in the market. However it has a long way to go as no one is ever safe in this market and one has to keep up its good work going.the Asli Batliboi and Ding Dong . Pre-paid and post-paid customers of AirTel can access this service. The reason being the huge radio boom with the large number of customers tuning into radio more often than ever.Radio Advertising CASE STUDY ON ´AIRTELµ Airtel. the users need to dial 646 from their Airtel enabled mobile handsets. users can listen to songs. Among CDMA service providers. Bappi-da Da Gyan. They can then listen to some popular programmes of the channel like. through the R World of Reliance handsets. Airtel's tie-up allows users to listen to one channel only.M and various other providers. The radio channel in question happens to be Radio Mirchi. Nokia first introduced FM enabled phones.6 per minute with no extra subscription charges.Mona Sing a Song. For this. To avail this innovative tie-up. radios have offered services to 50 . Mirchi Movie of the Month. where users can listen to any FM channel through their handsets. Devdas . there has been an increasing demand of listening to FM channels through mobile handsets.

With regard to this particular trend. it does become quite doubtful as to how long Airtel's 'mirchi effect' will last with the charge rates as high as Rs. Yaar Buddy Kutte.. Sab Buddy A To Z Gin Gin Ke Naam Bheja Roast Hota Hai Par Har Ek Friend Zaroori Hota Hai Lekin Har Ek Friend Zaroori Hota Hai Guys guys.. Principal. Koi Class Room Friend Koi Bike Pe Race Wala Vroom-Vroom Friend Shopping Mall Wala Sopping Friend Koi Exam Hall Wala Copying Friend Movie Buddy. Poke Buddy Gana Buddy.6 per minute.. Par Har Ek Friend Zaroori Hota Hai Ek Ghadi Ghadi kaam Aye Par Kabhi Kabhi Call Kare Ek Kabhi Kabhi Kaam Aye Aur Ghadi Ghadi Call Kare Gossip Ka Koi Ghoomta Phirta Satellite Koi Saath Rahe To karde Sab Alright Koi Effortless. Airtel ... Shaana Buddy Chaddi Buddy.. Groovie Buddy Hi Buddy.radio ad jingle: ´Chai Ke Liye Jaise Toast Hota Hai Vaise Har Ek Friend Zaroori Hota Hai Aise Har Ek Friend Zaroori Hota Hai Koi Subah Paanch Baje Neend Se Jagaye Koe Raat Ko Teen Baje Jaan Bachaye Ek Teri Kadki Mein Sharing Kare Aur Ek Tere Budget Mein Sneak In Kare Koi Nature Se Guest. Principal.µ 51 . Everybody....Radio Advertising its users free of cost.... KKoi Host Hota Hai... Bye Buddy Joke Buddy. Koi Forced Hota Hai Lekin Har Ek Friend Zaroori Hota hai Chat Room Friend.. Principal. Har friend zaroori hai yaar«. Kaminey..

Radio Advertising  Conclusion: Jingle made by airtel basically targets its own customers by saying that wherever they go they will be able to avail of airtel services anywhere. And would also be convenient for its customers to recharge their mobile phones in these centers. 52 . This all shows about their care for their customers.

Radio Advertising BIBLIOGRAPHY 53 .

 y Internet:     http://www. 54 .Mary Lou Robert and Paul Berger.marketingdonut. Mascarenhas.Second edition Vipul·s BMS series Special Study In Marketing. Jaico Publication House Direct Marketing Management .afaqs.org/wiki/Radio_Mirchi.8+FM.html?sid=28298_Meow+FM+rebranded+as+Oye!+104.Romeo S.com/news/story.wikipedia. http://en.co. 142-171.Radio Advertising  Bibliography y Books:   The advertising handbook by Dell Dennison.wikipedia. http://en.org/wiki/History_of_radio. http://www.uk/marketing/advertising/radio-tv-andcinema-advertising. Page no-13.

3 FM o Radio city 91.Radio Advertising ANNEXURE 1.5 FM o Radio Mirchi 98. Is radio important as advertising Tool? o Yes o No 4. Which media gets your attention? o Print o Radio o Television o Word of mouth 3.75 FM 55 .1 FM o Big 92. At what time do you listen to the radio if you do? o 6 am ² 10 am morning drive o 10 am ² 3 pm daytime o 3pm-7pm Afternoon time o 7pm-12am night time o 12am-6am all night 6. Name: _________________________________________________Sex:___________ Occupation: ______________________________________________Age: _________ 2. Which radio stations do you listen to? o Red 93. Do you find radio ads attractive? o Yes o No 5.

Radio Advertising 7. Can you familiarise the specified radio by hearing the jingle? o Yes o No 10. Where would you expect to get the most detailed analysis of the news? o Radio o Television o Newspaper o Newsmagazine 56 . What Type of Music are you most interested in? o Jazz o Pop o Bollywood o Sentimental o Rock o Classical 8. Does radio advertisement create an urge in you to try the brand? o Yes o No 9.

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