You are on page 1of 30

Chapter 3 Transmission lines

  • 3.1 Distribution circuit analysis of transmission lines

transmission line equation and solution, characteristic impedance, input impedance

  • 3.2 Sending end impedance load impedance, reflection coefficient, return loss, insertion loss, lossless line, low loss line, distortionless line

  • 3.3 Standing wave and standing wave ratio

VSWR, load impedance measurement

  • 3.4 Smith chart

general properties, examples

3-1

微波工程講義

3.1 Distribution circuit analysis of transmission lines

Basics 1. Transmission line equations

distributed elements

3.1 Distribution circuit analysis of transmission lines Basics 1. Transmission line equations distributed elements 3-2 微波工程講義
3.1 Distribution circuit analysis of transmission lines Basics 1. Transmission line equations distributed elements 3-2 微波工程講義

3-2

微波工程講義

2. Traveling wave solution

2. Traveling wave solution 3-3 微波工程講義

3-3

微波工程講義

Discussion 1. Characteristic impedance (wave impedance) of a transmission line is the ratio of the incident voltage to the incident current wave, or the ratio of voltage to current as the line is non-reflective

Discussion 1. Characteristic impedance (wave impedance) of a transmission line is the ratio of the incident

input impedance

2 π 2. phase constant β λ v p w = = w phase velocity v
2 π
2. phase constant
β
λ
v p
w
=
=
w
phase velocity
v p =
β

wavelength

λ

=

  • 2 π

β

group velocity

v g

=

  • d β

 

  d

ω

1

3-4

微波工程講義

C=0.012pF/m, 3. Attenuation constant L=0.002uH/m, parameters operated 1.6GHz Ex.3.1. line has of A 4. at
C=0.012pF/m,
3. Attenuation constant
L=0.002uH/m,
parameters
operated
1.6GHz
Ex.3.1.
line
has
of
A
4.
at

R=0.015/m and G=0.1mS/m, Find Z, Y and Z 0

C=0.012pF/m, 3. Attenuation constant L=0.002uH/m, parameters operated 1.6GHz Ex.3.1. line has of A 4. at R=0.015

3-5

微波工程講義

p 5. Ex.3.2 Signal source is at 100MHz and v , find v(z,t), i(z,t) 8 /
p
5. Ex.3.2 Signal source is at 100MHz and v
, find v(z,t), i(z,t)
8 /
2.5
10
m
×
s
=

6. Ex.3.3 A line has parameters R=2/m, G=0.5mS/m, L=8nH/m, and C=0.23pF/m. Operation

frequency is 1GHz. Find Z 0 and γ

p 5. Ex.3.2 Signal source is at 100MHz and v , find v(z,t), i(z,t) 8 /

3-6

微波工程講義

7. Ex.3.4 Antenna A and B are exited through a 50line to give current I A and I B . Find Z 0 ,

matching element reactance

7. Ex.3.4 Antenna A and B are exited through a 50 Ω line to give current
7. Ex.3.4 Antenna A and B are exited through a 50 Ω line to give current

3-7

微波工程講義

3.2 Sending end impedance

Basics

1. Standing wave solution

3.2 Sending end impedance Basics 1. Standing wave solution 2. Input impedance at z=0 3. Input
  • 2. Input impedance at z=0

3.2 Sending end impedance Basics 1. Standing wave solution 2. Input impedance at z=0 3. Input
3.2 Sending end impedance Basics 1. Standing wave solution 2. Input impedance at z=0 3. Input
  • 3. Input impedance at z=l

3.2 Sending end impedance Basics 1. Standing wave solution 2. Input impedance at z=0 3. Input

3-8

微波工程講義

  • 4. Input impedance

4. Input impedance 5. Reflection coefficient 3-9 微波工程講義
  • 5. Reflection coefficient

4. Input impedance 5. Reflection coefficient 3-9 微波工程講義

3-9

微波工程講義

Discussion

1. Lossless line α=0 (R=G=0)

Discussion 1. Lossless line α =0 (R=G=0) 3-10 微波工程講義

3-10

微波工程講義

  • 2. Low loss line R <<wL, G<<wC

2. Low loss line R << w L, G<< w C 3. Distortionless line RC=LG 3-11
  • 3. Distortionless line RC=LG

2. Low loss line R << w L, G<< w C 3. Distortionless line RC=LG 3-11

3-11

微波工程講義

L 2 P 10 log 4. Insertion loss IL dB P L 1 ( ) =
L 2
P
10 log
4. Insertion loss
IL dB
P
L 1
(
)
=
  • 5. Ex. 3.5 A λ/4 impedance transformer has 300sending impedance and 150load impedance, operating wavelength λ=1m. Find transformer length l, Z 0 , Γ L

L 2 P 10 log 4. Insertion loss IL dB P L 1 ( ) =

3-12

微波工程講義

6. Coaxial line, dominant mode: TEM mode

6. Coaxial line, dominant mode: TEM mode 7. Ex. 3.6 A λ /4 coaxial line (
6. Coaxial line, dominant mode: TEM mode 7. Ex. 3.6 A λ /4 coaxial line (

7. Ex. 3.6 A λ/4 coaxial line ( εr=2.1, outer conductor diameter 0.5cm) impedance transformer

has 20sending impedance and 45 load impedance, operating at 3GHz. Find transformer

length l, Z 0 , inner conductor diameter.

6. Coaxial line, dominant mode: TEM mode 7. Ex. 3.6 A λ /4 coaxial line (

3-13

微波工程講義

8. Microstrip line, dominant mode: quasi-TEM mode design

formula are given in p.556

8. Microstrip line, dominant mode: quasi-TEM mode design formula are given in p.556 9. Ex. 3.7.
8. Microstrip line, dominant mode: quasi-TEM mode design formula are given in p.556 9. Ex. 3.7.

9. Ex. 3.7. Design a λ/4 microstrip line (εr=2.3, thickness 1.6mm) impedance transformer to

match a 80 antenna to a 50line, operating at 3GHz. Find transformer length l and width

w.

8. Microstrip line, dominant mode: quasi-TEM mode design formula are given in p.556 9. Ex. 3.7.

3-14

微波工程講義

10. Ex. 3.8 A 50 distortionless line has α=0.01dB/m and C=100pF/m, Find R, L, G and v p

10. Ex. 3.8 A 50 Ω distortionless line has α =0.01dB/m and C=100pF/m, Find R, L,

11. Measurement of Z 0 and γ

10. Ex. 3.8 A 50 Ω distortionless line has α =0.01dB/m and C=100pF/m, Find R, L,

3-15

微波工程講義

12. Ex. 3.9 Open and short circuit impedance are Z oc =j53.1

Z in =30+j60

, Z sc = -j48.3 . Find Z L for

12. Ex. 3.9 Open and short circuit impedance are Z =j53.1 Z =30+j60 Ω Ω ,

13. Ex. 3.10. Open and short circuit impedance measured through a 1.5m transmission line are

Z oc =-j54.6 , Z sc = j105 . Find Z 0 and γ,

12. Ex. 3.9 Open and short circuit impedance are Z =j53.1 Z =30+j60 Ω Ω ,

3-16

微波工程講義

14. Ex.3.11. Find Z in , V(0), V L
14. Ex.3.11. Find Z in , V(0), V L

3-17

微波工程講義

15. Ex.3.12. Find P L
15. Ex.3.12. Find P L

3-18

微波工程講義

3.3 Standing wave and standing wave ratio

Basics

  • 1. Voltage standing wave ratio

3.3 Standing wave and standing wave ratio Basics 1. Voltage standing wave ratio Discussion 1. VSWR

Discussion

  • 1. VSWR derivation

3.3 Standing wave and standing wave ratio Basics 1. Voltage standing wave ratio Discussion 1. VSWR
3.3 Standing wave and standing wave ratio Basics 1. Voltage standing wave ratio Discussion 1. VSWR

3-19

微波工程講義

  • 2. Standing wave pattern repeats every λ/2

2. Standing wave pattern repeats every λ /2 3. Open circuit load Γ =1 ∠ 0
  • 3. Open circuit load Γ L =10°, short circuit Γ L =1180°

2. Standing wave pattern repeats every λ /2 3. Open circuit load Γ =1 ∠ 0
  • 4. 1VSWR≦∞, matched load: |Γ L |=0 VSWR=1

  • 5. Ex. 3.13 A line of Z 0 =5 0 +j0.01with Z L =73-j42.5. Find Γ L , VSWR

2. Standing wave pattern repeats every λ /2 3. Open circuit load Γ =1 ∠ 0

3-20

微波工程講義

6. Load impedance measurement VSWR, x min => Z L
6. Load impedance measurement VSWR, x min => Z L

3-21

微波工程講義

7. Ex. 3.13 A line of Z 0 =100with Z L gives VSWR=2.4 and Δx min =100cm. x min =275cm moves

to 235cm as it is terminated with a short circuit. Find Z L and λ.

7. Ex. 3.13 A line of Z =100 Ω with Z gives VSWR=2.4 and Δ x

3-22

微波工程講義

3.4 Smith chart

Basics

3.4 Smith chart Basics 3-23 微波工程講義

3-23

微波工程講義

Discussion

1. Derivation of Smith chart

Discussion 1. Derivation of Smith chart 2. 3-24 微波工程講義

2.

Discussion 1. Derivation of Smith chart 2. 3-24 微波工程講義
Discussion 1. Derivation of Smith chart 2. 3-24 微波工程講義

3-24

微波工程講義

3.

3. 4. 5. 6. Plot 3-25 微波工程講義

4.

3. 4. 5. 6. Plot 3-25 微波工程講義
3. 4. 5. 6. Plot 3-25 微波工程講義

5.

3. 4. 5. 6. Plot 3-25 微波工程講義

6.

Plot

3. 4. 5. 6. Plot 3-25 微波工程講義
3. 4. 5. 6. Plot 3-25 微波工程講義

3-25

微波工程講義

3-26 微波工程講義

3-26

微波工程講義

7. Ex.3.15. A 50, λ/4 line with Z L =50+j100Ω. Find Z in , Γ L , VSWR.

7. Ex.3.15. A 50 Ω , λ /4 line with Z =50+j100 Ω . Find Z

8. Ex. 3.16. A 75Ω line with Z L =150+j150Ω. Find Γ L , VSWR at 0.375λ from load, shorted

distance to give a resistive Z in and its value.

7. Ex.3.15. A 50 Ω , λ /4 line with Z =50+j100 Ω . Find Z

3-27

微波工程講義

9. Ex. 3.17. A 100Ω line with Z L =100+j100Ω, λ=5cm. Find first locations for V max , V min ,

VSWR.

9. Ex. 3.17. A 100 Ω line with Z =100+j100 Ω , λ =5cm. Find first

10. Ex. 3.18 A 75Ω line Z L =150Ω. Find Z in for 2.15λand 3.75λfrom load.

9. Ex. 3.17. A 100 Ω line with Z =100+j100 Ω , λ =5cm. Find first

3-28

微波工程講義

11. Ex. 3.19 A 100Ω line with Y L =0.0025-j0.0025S, find Z in for 3.15λfrom load and VSWR.

11. Ex. 3.19 A 100 Ω line with Y =0.0025-j0.0025S, find Z for 3.15 λ from

12. Load impedance measurement VSWR, x min => Z L

11. Ex. 3.19 A 100 Ω line with Y =0.0025-j0.0025S, find Z for 3.15 λ from

3-29

微波工程講義

13. Ex. 3.20 A 100Ω line with Z L has VSWR=2 andΔx min =50cm. Minimum location is shifted

toward load by 15cm as load becomes a short circuit, find Z L .

13. Ex. 3.20 A 100 Ω line with Z has VSWR=2 and Δ x =50cm. Minimum

Homework #2 (due 2 weeks) 6, 14, 22, 28, 32, 34

3-30

微波工程講義