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Beginning the Job Search Process

The process of looking for a job is primarily a search for information: about yourself, about career areas, and about a specific job market. You have probably already drafted atleast one resume, and/or a cover letter. The following is an organized approach to the task of information discovery.

Prepare a personal history. List your historical events on a piece of paper; you'll want to refer to it when preparing a resume or preparing for an interview. List your educational background, leisure and volunteer activities, hobbies, work histories and social histories for yourself, and your accomplishments

Recognize your skills. Skills can be either transferable or substantive. Transferable skills are those based on your aptitudes or acquired through learning: research and writing abilities, organization, leadership, and public speaking. Substantive skills are those which rely on your expertise in a particular subject matter: bankruptcy, tax, or accounting.

What is intrinsically fascinating to you? What are you drawn to? What makes you lose track of time? To the extent that you can incorporate your passions into your work, you will find increased joy and satisfaction in your life. In pursuing your passions, consider your fantasies about life. If your daydreams include helping the oppressed, working on Capitol Hill, or being a leader in your community, determine what is necessary to achieve those goals. Consider the contributions you would like to make to society and to the legal profession. Michael Josephson, chairman of the Josephson Institute of Ethics, asks people to consider how they would like to be remembered when they die. If you would hope that people would praise your service to the community, leadership, commitment to social justice, or your commitment to your family, consider the kind of job that will enable you to accomplish those goals.

Work Environment
Consider your previous jobs. How did the "where" aspect affect your job satisfaction and success? Do you work best in a relaxed work culture, reflected in casual dress styles, informal chains of command, open door policies and collegial work projects? Do you prefer more structure and formality in the work environment? If you find the environment uncomfortable, it will be difficult for you to fit in, to succeed, and to be satisfied with your work.

Sources for Job Leads

Ideally we could access one huge database on which all currently available jobs are posted. Well, it doesn't exist. Even the largest jobs database available on the Internet contains only a small percentage of all the current open positions. Employers post job openings in a variety of ways. It is part of your job as a Job Seeker to track these down. Don't overlook these resources: y Registering with the state employment services. This can be accomplished at any of the Central Texas Workforce Centers' full-service facilities and at the two satellite offices. This registration allows you to use the state's job matching and referral services. y Newspapers are a great place to look for a job. Look up their employment classifieds on the Internet and save some money. Don't concentrate only on Sunday's paper - read them every day. You never know when an ad may appear and you don't want to be the last one to find out about it. y Temporary and Placement Agencies are valuable contacts. Many companies use them exclusively to hire their employees. Although some jobs may be temporary, they do enable you to bring home a paycheck and gain valuable work experience. Be aware that some of them charge a fee y Networking. Employers look favorably on job seekers who someone they know recommended to them. Let people know you are looking for a job. Many jobs are filled through word of mouth which lead to contacts, which lead to interviews and jobs. Who is a contact? Any person that has information about a job. Use your friends, relatives, family members, and anyone else you can recruit to be your search agents. y Internet-At first, most of the positions posted on the Internet were highly technical. That has changed as more organizations, employers, and state and federal agencies have developed their own web sites. This has led to an explosion of available job postings for just about any kind of position, anywhere in the world. y Cold Contact. This is where you send your resume or otherwise contact an employer without knowing whether they have a current job opening. It can work but either your resume has to be real sharp or your contact has to be timed just right so that it occurs when a job opens but before the employer advertises the position.


RESUME Is a document used by individuals to present their background and skillsets. Resume can be used for a variety of reasons but most often to secure new employment. A typical resume contains a summary of relevant job experience and education. KEY ELEMENTS FOR RESUME 1. HEADING. A heading should include your name, address and home and office telephone number. Placement of the heading (left-hand side, centered or right-hand side) is a personal preference. 2. OBJECTIVE. The objective should include what you expect to do, your strengths, and the results you plan on producing. 3. EDUCATION. The highest level degree should be listed first, then indicate your course of study/major, name of school and date degree was obtained. After this, you can list any prior degrees that you obtained. 4. SKILLS AND ABILITIES. This area focuses on accomplishments. All accomplishments should support the objective. When listing accomplishments, you should identify the situation, use action verbs to define what you did, list what resulted and state the significance in quantifiable terms. 5. WORK HISTORY. This section should include the title of the position you held, the name company, location (city and state), years employed and a brief description of the position. Give the broad aspects of your position, the details can be discussed in an interview. Under no circumstances should you falsify information. 6. PROFESSIONAL. This section may list professional organizations in which you have been affiliated. It is recommended you leave out information related to religious or political affiliation or conversational activities. 7. REFERENCES. References should not be listed on your resume. You can, however, indicate that references are available upon request. You should have references listed on a separate sheet. Prior to using someone as a reference, you should get their permission. Be sure the pertinent information (address and telephone number) is correct.

Types of Resumes:

There are several basic types of resumes used to apply for job openings. Depending on your personal circumstances, choose a chronological, a functional, combination, or a targeted resume.

Chronological Resume:
A chronological resume starts by listing your work history, with the most recent position listed first. Your jobs are listed in reverse chronological order with your current, or most recent job, first. Employers typically prefer this type of resume because it's easy to see what jobs you have held and when you have worked at them. This type of resume works well for job seekers with a strong, solid work history.

Functional Resume:
A functional resume focuses on your skills and experience, rather than on your chronological work history. It is used most often by people who are changing careers or who have gaps in their employment history.

Combination Resume:
A combination resume lists your skills and experience first. Your employment history is listed next. With this type of resume you can highlight the skills you have that are relevant to the job you are applying for, and also provide the chronological work history that employers prefer.

Targeted Resume:
A targeted resume is a resume that is customized so that it specifically highlights the experience and skills you have that are relevant to the job you are applying for. It definitely takes more work to write a targeted resume than to just click to apply with your existing resume.

Mini Resume:
A mini resume contains a brief summary of your career highlights qualifications. It can be used for networking purposes or shared upon request from a prospective employer or reference writer who may want an overview of your accomplishments, rather than a full length resume.


A cover letter should be attached to every resume that you send out. This document is actually the first document that the prospective employer sees. Therefore, this is really opportunity to make a good first impression. The cover letter is a means to specify and/or emphasize any pertinent qualifications. A resume can be written in a general tone if a well written cover letter giving specifics accompanies the resume. Cover letters should contain the following information:
Cover Letter Format Your Contact Information Name Address City, State, Zip Code Phone Number Email Address Date Employer Contact Information (if you have it) Name Title Company Address City, State, Zip Code Salutation Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name, (leave out if you don't have a contact) Body of Cover Letter The body of your cover letter lets the employer know what position you are applying for, why the employer should select you for an interview, and how you will follow-up. First Paragraph The first paragraph of your letter should include information on why you are writing. Mention the position you are applying for and where you found the job listing. Include the name of a mutual contact, if you have one. Middle Paragraph(s) The next section of your cover letter should describe what you have to offer the employer. Mention specifically how your qualifications match the job you are applying for. Remember, you are interpreting your resume, not repeating it. Final Paragraph Conclude your cover letter by thanking the employer for considering you for the position. Include information on how you will follow-up.

Complimentary Close Respectfully yours, Signature Handwritten Signature (for a mailed letter) Typed Signature TYPES OF COVER LETTER 1. Application letter An application letter is sent or uploaded with your resume when applying for jobs. The job application letters you send explain to the employer why you are qualified for the position and why you should be selected for an interview. 2. Inquiry letters An inquiry letter is sent to companies that may be hiring, but haven't advertised job openings. Inquiry letters should contain information on why the company interests you and why your skills and experience would be an asset to the company. Also provide information on how you will follow-up and your contact information. 3. Referral cover letters When you are applying for jobs a referral can go a long way. Hiring managers and recruiters are more likely to take a closer look at candidates who were referred by someone they know. When you mention a referral in your cover letter, be sure to mention the individual who referred you by name and also mention your connection with the person how you know them. 4. Prospecting letters A letter of interest, also known prospecting letter, is sent to companies to let them know you are interested in jobs that may be currently open or become available in the future 5. Email cover letter When you're sending an email cover letter, it's important to follow the employer's instructions on how to submit your cover letter and resume, and to make sure that your email cover letters are written as well as any other correspondence you send.

Electronic Resume
The Electronic Resume, sometime known as digital resume or e-resume is the online counterpart of printed resume and curriculum vitae. Electronic Resume is

created when the applicant upload or sent his resume over the Internet or when the applicant filled up a resume form into the so-called resume banks. It is slightly different in traditional resume because resume intended for this purpose are often formatted in plain and basic style. Standard typeface or font is usually used and the entire document is free from any graphics, artwork and special character to ensure that it is universally searchable. Guidelines for Electronic Resumes Technology used to accurately scan an electronic resume faces two obstacles: the organization of information on a resume, and the characters or fonts used on the resume. Scanning software also looks for certain keywords to tell it why type of information is being conveyed, such as work experience. In addition, the software is looking for, and organizing, keywords in the document. This allows for rapid identification of resumes that match up against certain job requirements. The formatting rules for an electronic resume help simplify this process by providing a clean and understandable layout for the electronic scanning system. The following guidelines were used to produce the electronic resume samples we provide later on in this publication:
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Restrict your use of fonts to Times New Roman, Arial, or Helvetica. Use only one font size, preferably between 10 and 14 points. Remove all underlining, bolding and italics. Remove any graphics or artwork on your resume including shading, vertical and horizontal lines. Make sure your name is the only item that appears on the first line of the document. Move all text to the left margin. Tabs, tables, and centered text can sometimes confuse the scanning software. Bulleted items can confuse scanners, so convert them to simple hyphens or asterisks. Converting Resumes to Electronic Resumes in the ASCII Format If you have an existing resume, and you're happy with the information contained in that resume, then it's a fairly simple process to convert that resume into an electronic version. The only thing you need is a word processing application such as Microsoft's Word. If you're using Word, the following steps can be used to convert your resume:

1. Open your existing resume document file.

2. Select all the text in the document and copy it into a new document. You can do this by using the commands: Edit, Select All followed by Edit, Copy. 3. Create a new document file via: File, New. 4. Paste the resume into the new document using: Edit, Paste Special, Unformatted Text. At this point you should have a plain text document without any bolding, underlining or tables. 5. Close your existing resume document file so you don't mistakenly overwrite the file. 6. You may have to manually replace tabs and remove bullets as noted in the guidelines above. You may also have to rearrange some information on your resume. For example, you want to make sure your name appears on the first line of the document. 7. After you've finished making all your manual changes, it's time to save it in the ASCII format. You can do this right from Word using: File, Save As, and then changing the Save As Type to Plain Text. 8. At this point, a dialog box will pop up for File Conversion. Under Text Encoding select Other Encoding, and then select US-ASCII. 9. You should now be able to save the document in the ASCII format.


Electronic Resume Nursing Sample John A. Nurse 101 Main Street Your City, NY 10002 (617)555-1212 Registered Nursing Position Education and Licensing University of Pennsylvania, Bachelors of Science in Nursing, GPA 3.5/4.0 Advanced Practice Registered Nurse, Board Certified Clinical Experience / Knowledge Pediatrics: New York State Hospital Psychiatric: MyHome Center Surgical: Union County Hospital Maternity: Union County Hospital Geriatric: Muhlenberg Hospital

Career Achievements

- Elected as Nurse of the Year at Muhlenberg Hospital for innovative work done in the redesign of their Geriatric ward. - Launched the Surgical Care program while at Union County Hospital, which was a program that provided a higher level of post surgical care for patients. Clinical Nursing Experience Union County Hospital, Your City, NY 9/2006 to present

Rehabilitation Nurse. Assisted with the post surgical care of amputees and those patients with knee and hip replacements. Frequently participated in interdepartmental teams addressing the need to make patient care more consistent by leveraging best practices. Muhlenberg Hospital, My City, NY 10/2003 to 9/2006 Adult Health Care Nurse. Provided the direct supervision of Muhlenberg Hospital's adult health care staff and volunteer nurses. Responsible for the development and staffing of schedules to ensure proper coverage. Provided direct nursing care to patients as well as the administration of medications

Sample Chronological Resume for a Retail Position

Paul Jones 6 Pine StreetArlington, VA 12333 555.555.5555 (home) 566.486.2222 (cell) Experience Key Holder, Montblanc April 2008 - Present y y y y y Opened new specialty boutique Placed orders to restock merchandise and handled receiving of products Managed payroll, scheduling, reports, email, inventory, and maintained clientele book and records Integrated new register functions Extensive work with visual standards and merchandising high-ticket items

Sales Associate, Nordstrom - Collectors and Couture Departments July 2006 - April 2008 y Merchandised designer women's wear y Set-up trunk shows and attended clinics for new incoming fashion lines y Worked with tailors and seamstresses for fittings y Scheduled private shopping appointments with high-end customers Bartender, Jigg's Corner February 2004 - July 2006 y y y Provided customer service in fast-paced bar atmosphere Maintained and restocked inventory Administrative responsibilities included processing hour and tip information for payroll and closing register

Education Bachelor of Arts, Ramapo College, Arlington, VA

Computer Skills y y Proficient with Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. Experience with social media and internet research

Sample Functional Resume - Management

Jose A. Adelo 1525 Jackson Street, City, NY 11111 Phone: 555-555-5555 Email: OBJECTIVE To obtain a position where I can maximize my multilayer of management skills, quality assurance, program development, training experience, customer service and a successful track record in the Blood Banking care environment. SUMMARY OF QUALIFICATIONS Results-oriented, high-energy, hands-on professional, with a successful record of accomplishments in the blood banking, training and communication transmission industries. Experience in phlebotomy, blood banking industry, training, quality assurance and customer service with focus on providing the recipient with the highest quality blood product, fully compliant with FDA cGMP, Code of Federal Regulations, AABB accreditation and California state laws. PROFESSIONAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS Program/Project Manager Provided daily operational review/quality control of education accountability as it relates to imposed government regulatory requirements in a medical environment.

Reduced employee turnovers, introduced two-way communication to field employees, enhanced employee appearance and spearheaded the implementation of employee (health) benefits. Reviewed FAA safety requirements and procedures to ensure compliance for aircraft and passenger safety. Communication expert and programming specialist for the intermediate range Lance and Persian missile systems. Trained to operate and repair the (FDC) fire direction control computer system and field satellite communications. EDUCATION y Associate of Art, Administration of Justice, San Jose University, San Jose, CA y NCTI Certified, CATV System Technician, Denver, CO y ABM Certified, Cornerstone Technician, Denver, CO

Sample of Combination Resume Software Engineer

James Bass 775 117th Terr. N. #8 St. Petersburg, FL 33716-2502 (727) 578-0191 I am interested in pursuing a career in software development. I consider myself a fast learner and a team player. I feel that I can make a contribution to any Implementation Services department. Computer Experience Machines: IBM PC compatibles, Rockwell ACD, Macintosh Languages: VBA, BASIC, Turbo Pascal, DB/c, Turbo C, COBOL Programs: MS Access, MS Word, MS Excel, MS Outlook, Crystal Reports, MS Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Support Magic, Norton Utilities Operating Systems: MS Vista, MS XP, MS Windows1, SCO UNIX, MS DOS Experience Systems Developer Responsible for migration of extensive filePro database to MS Access utilizing tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, modules, and VBA.

Support Engineer Troubleshoot and debug minor program bugs. Modify existing programs with enhancements. Implement fixes and enhancements. Design, create, and implement ticket designs. Previous positions: Senior Technical Support Representative Technical Support Representative1988 to 1995 Home Shopping Network, St. Petersburg, FL Education St. Petersburg Jr. College, St. Petersburg, FL 1986 to 1994 Major: A.S. Computer Programming and Analysis Warner Robins High School, Warner Robins, GA 1972 to 1975 Recipient of Who's Who in American High Schools References Available upon request

Sample Targeted Resume - Human Resources

FirstName LastName Street, City, State, Zip home: 555.555.5555 cell: 566.486.2222 email: SUMMARY OF PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS y y y y Experienced manager with expertise in human relations and project management Staff training and development Superb written and oral communication skills Organizational and Strategic Planning PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS y y Society of Human Resources Management Portland Human Resources Management Association PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE CLINICAL DIRECTOR Riverbend Inc., 2000-2010 y y Leadership in the setting and achieving of strategic and organizational goals. Established training programs for staff in regard to all aspects of workplace performance and professional development.

PROGRAM DIRECTOR y Administrative, clinical, fiscal and human resources management of a large outpatient mental health center; 60 full time employees and 45 contract employees housed in various locations. Provided training to enhance workplace performance at all levels of staffing.

PROGRAM DIRECTOR Family Reconciliation Services, 1988-1998 y y Provided program management of the largest FRS contract in Washington State. FRS was responsible for providing in-home crises counseling to families on a 24/7 basis. EDUCATION y y Senior Professional Human Resources (SPHR) certification course work completed The Whidbey Institute, Organizational Development and Leadership

Job-Hunting Follow-Up: Tracking Down All Job Leads and Obtaining the Job Offer You Seek
This step is all about how you can track down all job leads, follow-up on all interviews, and obtain the salary and job offer you desire. Here's what you need to undertake during this step: 1. Tracking down all job leads is vital. Until you have accepted a job offer, continue to seek out job leads.

Follow Up All Job Leads: Dont Wait by the Phone (or Computer)

Tips for Following-Up General Tips:

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Always make time to follow-up all job leads, no matter how busy you are. Follow-up in a timely fashion -- usually a week to 10 days for conventional job-searching, sooner for online applications.

If you apply online for a position, consider following-up the online application with a cover letter and resume sent to the hiring manager via postal mail. You will stand out over the other online applicants because few will also send a hard copy.

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Keep your follow-up brief, to the point, and professional. Focus your follow-up around your fit with the position and organization and your USP. You might also ask the hiring manager if he/she needs any further information not included in your original application.

If you recently completed training, received an award, or earned some other recognition that would make you an even better candidate for the position, be sure to mention it in your follow-up.

Continue following-up regularly, but don't overdo it.

2. Follow-up all job interviews. Besides writing thank-you letters to all the folks you interview with, you must continue contacting the prospective employer to show your interest in the position.

Job Interview Follow-Up Do's and Don'ts

Job Interview Follow-Up Do's and Don'ts


Do ask at the end of the interview when the employer expects to make the hiring decision.

Do be proactive and consider follow-up a strategic part of your job search process. Follow-up can give you just the edge you need to get the job offer over others who interviewed for the position.

Do use these follow-up techniques to continue to show your enthusiasm and desire for the position, but don't make it seem as though you are desperate.

Do obtain the correct titles and names of all the people who interviewed you. (Ideally, do get each person's business card.)

Do write individual thank you notes or letters to each person who interviewed you -- within two business days. Each letter can be essentially the same, but try to vary each a bit in case recipients compare notes. Don't ever fail to send a thank you -- even if you are sure the job is not for you. And do write thank you notes after every interview.

Don't worry so much about hand-written versus typed thank you letters, but don't make a mistake by sending it through the wrong medium; make sure you know the best method of reaching the employer, whether by regular mail, email, or fax.

In your thank you letter, do show appreciation for the employer's interest in you and do remind the employer about why you are the perfect person for the position. See some sample interview thank you letters.

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Don't ever have any errors (misspellings or typos) in your thank you letters. Do alert your references -- if you have not done so already -- that they may be getting a phone call from the employer.

Don't stop job-hunting, even if you feel confident that you will get a job offer. Do continue to interview and attempt to find other opportunities.

Do follow-up with a telephone call to the employer within a week to ten days (or sooner, if the employer had a shorter timetable) to ask about the position. And do continue to build rapport and sell your strengths during the phone call.

Do be patient. The hiring process often takes longer than the employer expects.

Do continue following-up, especially if the employer asks you to. Remember the adage about the squeaky wheel getting the oil. Just don't go overboard and annoy or bother the employer.

Don't place too much importance on one job or one interview; there will be other opportunities for you.

Do use other job offers as leverage in your follow-up -- to get the offer you really want.

Don't burn any bridges if you do not get a job offer. And do try and turn the situation into a positive by bringing the interviewer(s) into your network, possibly even asking them for referrals to other contacts.

3. Salary negotiation is always tough for younger job-seekers. There are both risks and rewards, so make sure you know the key tactics for negotiating. And remember, salary is not everything.

Salary Negotiation and Job Offer Tools and Resources

How to dress for an interview The first impression you make on a potential employer is the most important one. The first judgment an interviewer makes is going to be based on how you look and what you are wearing. That's why it's always important to dress professionally for a job interview, even if the work environment is casual.

Men's Interview Attire

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Suit (solid color - navy or dark grey) Long sleeve shirt (white or coordinated with the suit)

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Belt Tie Dark socks, conservative leather shoes Little or no jewelry Neat, professional hairstyle Limit the aftershave Neatly trimmed nails Portfolio or briefcase

Women's Interview Attire Suit (navy, black or dark grey) The suit skirt should be long enough so you can sit down comfortably Coordinated blouse Conservative shoes Limited jewelry (no dangling earrings or arms full of bracelets) No jewelry is better than cheap jewelry Professional hairstyle Neutral pantyhose Light make-up and perfume Neatly manicured clean nails Portfolio or briefcase

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What Not to Bring to the Interview

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Gum Cell phone Ipod Coffee or soda If you have lots of piercing, leave some of your rings at home (earrings only, is a good rule) Cover tattoos

Interview Attire Tips

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Before you even think about going on an interview, make sure you have appropriate interview attire and everything fits correctly. Get your clothes ready the night before, so you don't have to spend time getting them ready on the day of the interview. If your clothes are dry clean only, take them to the cleaners after an interview, so they are ready for next time. Polish your shoes. Bring a breath mint and use it before you enter the building.

Resigning from a job Reasons: >To seek better positions here and in abroad. > Inability to adjust to the work situation > Family >Marriage > Children > Relocation of family

Sample Resignation Letter for Nurse Youre Address City, State, Zip

April 19, 2011

Mr. John K. Smith, Medical Director ABC Hospital 111 Example Street Atlantic City, NJ 64111

Dear Mr. Smith: With this letter I wish to inform you that I will be resigning from my position as Registered Nurse with ABC Hospital. My resignation will be effective from May 01, 2011. I regret about any difficulty which might be caused by this resignation, even though I will do my best to have my current work finished and the whole things will be handed over properly to my successor.

Please allow me to state my best wishes for all the employees of ABC Hospital. Working with the ABC Hospital has been rewarding in numerous ways. Here, I learned a lot of new skills and patient care techniques. While I have been contented with my good time and service here, I can't stay away from the upcoming opportunity which will is vital for my career advancement. I am thankful for the experience I have gained in ABC Hospital.

I will be available at my seat till April 30, 2011. Please let me know regarding any formalities I need to fulfill with HR, for instance an exit interview or return of my uniform

and supplies. Thank you once again for your support during my service and best of luck to all of my colleagues and seniors.

Sincerely, (Signature) Sara Lee (999) 999-9999