Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

11 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Soln03
- Condon&Shortley_capII
- 2011F Appendix Solving a Set of Simultaneous Equations
- Landauer Buttiker Proof
- Diagonal Ization
- Eigen Vector & Eigen Values
- Test Cases
- MatTutor_43
- ch2aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
- jsee13_3 Response of Secondary System
- Symmetric With 1 Pos Eigen
- mm-24
- 463
- Noise level estimation using SVD
- Det Slides
- 1586_C018
- Paper
- Appendix a-Signals and Systems
- Linear Algebra Lecture Notes
- class12BMEB

You are on page 1of 4

Yufei Zhao

September 22, 2009

Appetizer problem

(This problem doesnt actually use determinants.)

Problem 1. Do there exist square matrices A and B such that AB BA = I?

Solution. No. Take the trace of both sides and using tr(AB) = tr(BA), we get that tr(ABBA) = 0

while tr(I) = 0.

1. Introduction

In this talk Ill discuss some techniques on dealing with determinants that may be useful for the

Putnam exam. We will focus on the evaluation and manipulation of determinants. I wont talk

about applications of determinants to, say, combinatorics (maybe another time).

We will assume familiarity with basic properties of determinants. Just a reminder, if A =

(a

ij

)

1i,jn

is an n n matrix, then

det A =

Sn

sgn()a

1(1)

a

2(2)

a

n(n)

where the sum is taken over all permutations of {1, 2, . . . , n}.

Heres an outline of techniques used to deal with determinants.

Evaluation

Row and column operations

Expansion by minors

Setting variables / Vandermonde

Eigenvalues / circulant matrices

Manipulation

Assume invertibility

Block decomposition

Conjugation and positivity

2. Evaluation of determinants

Ill talk about how to evaluate determinants when the entries are given.

The most basic (and often extremely useful) method is row/column operations and minor

expansions. Though I wont discuss them here, since I want to talk more exciting techniques.

The rst example is everyones favorite Vandermonde determinant.

Problem 2 (Vandermond determinant). Let

V =

_

_

_

_

_

1 x

1

x

2

1

x

n1

1

1 x

2

x

2

2

x

n1

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1 x

n

x

2

n

x

n1

n

_

_

_

_

_

.

Show that

det V =

1i<jn

(x

j

x

i

).

1

2

Solution. Let

p(x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n

) = det V,

viewed as a polynomial in n variables. Now, suppose we view p as a single-variable polynomial in

x

1

with coecients in Q(x

2

, . . . , x

n

). If we set x

1

to x

i

, for any i = 1, then two rows of the matrix

are equal and hence the determinant vanishes, and therefore (x

1

x

i

) must be a factor of p.

Similarly, every (x

i

x

j

) for i = j is a factor of p(x

1

, . . . , x

n

). But the degree of p is

1

2

n(n1) (from

looking at the matrix), and we just showed that

1i<jn

(x

j

x

i

) (which has degree

1

2

n(n 1))

divides p. Therefore,

p(x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n

) = k

1i<jn

(x

j

x

i

),

for some constant k. Comparing the coecient of the term x

2

x

2

3

x

3

4

x

n1

n

shows that k = 1.

Our next example is the circulant matrix.

Problem 3 (Circulant matrix). Let

C =

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

a

0

a

1

a

2

a

n1

a

n1

a

0

a

1

a

n2

a

n2

a

n1

a

0

a

n3

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

0

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

Then

det C =

n1

j=0

_

n1

k=0

jk

a

k

_

where = e

2i/n

.

Solution. We know that the determinant equals to the product of the eigenvalues. The eigenvectors

of C are

v

0

=

_

_

1

1

1

.

.

.

1

_

_

v

1

=

_

_

1

2

.

.

.

n1

_

_

v

2

=

_

_

1

4

.

.

.

2(n2)

_

_

v

n1

=

_

_

1

n1

2(n1)

.

.

.

(n1)

2

_

_

.

They are independent because of the Vandermonde determinant, so they form a complete set of

eigenvalues. The corresponding eigenvectors are

0

= a

0

+ a

1

+ a

2

+ + a

n1

1

= a

0

+ a

1

+ a

2

2

+ + a

n1

n1

= a

0

+ a

1

n1

+ a

2

2(n1)

+ + a

n1

(n1)

2

Thus det C =

0

1

n1

.

Now you have the tools to solves the following problem, which appeared as Putnam 1999/B5.

The highest score on his problem was 2 points by one contestant! By this measure, it is one of

the most dicult Putnam problems in history; but knowing the above technique is becomes not so

bad.

Problem 4 (Putnam 1999/B5). Let n 3. Let A be the nn matrix with A

jk

= cos(2(j +k)/n).

Find det(I + A).

3

3. Manipulation of matrices

Now Ill discuss some techniques on dealing with determinants of matrices without knowing their

entires. We will make repeated uses of the fact that det AB = det Adet B for square matricies.

Problem 5. Let A and B be n n matrices. Show that det(I + AB) = det(I + BA).

Solution. First, assume that A is invertible. Then

det(I + AB) = det(A(I + BA)A

1

) = det Adet(I + BA) det(A

1

) = det(I + BA).

Now we give two ways of working around the assumption that A is invertible.

Method 1. For any t R, let A

t

= A tI. Then A

t

is non-invertible precisely when t is

an eigenvalue of A. Thus, if t is not an eigenvalue, then det(I + A

t

B) = det(I + BA

t

). Now,

det(I +A

t

B) det(I +BA

t

) is a polynomial in t which vanishes everywhere except for the nitely

many eigenvalues; hence det(I + A

t

B) det(I + BA

t

) = 0 for all t. Setting t = 0 gives the result.

Method 2. View the entries of A and B as indeterminants, so that what we are proving is a

polynomial identity in {a

ij

} {b

ij

}. Work over the eld Q(a

11

, . . . , b

11

, . . . ). Then in this eld, A

is invertible, and the proof works.

Remark. The set of invertible matrices form a Zariski (dense) open subset, and hence to verify a

polynomial identity, it suces to verify it on this dense subset.

Remark. The statement is also true when A and B are not square matrices. Specically, suppose

that A is an n m matrix, and B an mn matrix, then det(I

n

+AB) = det(I

m

+BA). To prove

this fact, extend A and B to square matrices by lling in zeros.

The technique of assuming invertibility is very powerful. Let us give another example.

Problem 6. Let A, B, C, D be n n matrices such that AC = CA. Prove that

det

_

A B

C D

_

= det(AD CB).

Solution. First assume that A is invertible. Then

_

I O

CA

1

I

__

A B

C D

_

=

_

A B

O D CA

1

B

_

,

so that

det

_

A B

C D

_

= det

_

A B

O D CA

1

B

_

= det Adet(D CA

1

B)

= det(AD ACA

1

B) = det(AD CB).

(We used the fact that A and C commute.)

Now we need to get rid of the invertibility assumption. Let A

t

= A tI. Since AC = CA, we

get A

t

C = CA

t

for all t. It follows that

det

_

A

t

B

C D

_

= det(A

t

D CB).

whenever t is not an eigenvalue of A. But this is a polynomial equation in t, which holds for all

but nitely many ts, and hence it must hold for all t. In particular, setting t = 0 gives the desired

result.

Finally, let us look at a few problems involving inequalities.

Problem 7. Let A be a square matrix with real entries. Show that det(A

2

+ I) 0.

4

One way to solve this problem is to look at the eigenvalues of A. If the eigenvalues of A are {

i

}

(as a multiset, i.e., counting multiplicities), then the eigenvalues of A

2

+I are {

2

i

+1}, and hence

det(A

2

+ 1) =

i

(

2

i

+ 1). Finally use the fact that all non-real eigenvalues

i

come in conjugate

pairs.

Here is a much slicker solution.

Proof. We have A

2

+ I = (A + iI)(AiI). So

det(A

2

+ I) = det(A + iI) det(AiI) = det(A + iI)det(A + iI) = |det(A + iI)|

2

0.

Problem 8. Let A, B, C be nn real matrices that pairwise commute and ABC = O. Show that

det(A

3

+ B

3

+ C

3

) det(A + B + C) 0.

Solution. Recall the identity

A

3

+ B

3

+ C

3

3ABC = (A + B + C)(A + B +

2

C)(A +

2

B + C)

where = e

2/3

is a third root of unity. We used the assumption that A, B, C pairwise commute.

Hence,

det(A

3

+ B

3

+ C

3

) det(A + B + C) = det(A

3

+ B

3

+ C

3

3ABC) det(A + B + C)

= (det(A + B + C))

2

det(A + B +

2

C) det(A +

2

B + C)

= (det(A + B + C))

2

det(A + B +

2

C)det(A + B +

2

C)

0.

Problem 9. Let A and B be two nn real matrices that commute. Suppose that det(A+B) 0.

Prove that det(A

k

+ B

k

) 0 for all k 1

Problem 10. Let A be real skew-symmetric square matrix (i.e., A

t

= A). Prove that det(I +

tA

2

) 0 for all real t.

- Soln03Uploaded byAnshu Kumar Gupta
- Condon&Shortley_capIIUploaded byelamye
- 2011F Appendix Solving a Set of Simultaneous EquationsUploaded byvinh_hoang_14
- Landauer Buttiker ProofUploaded byNicole Zhang
- Diagonal IzationUploaded byorg25gr
- Eigen Vector & Eigen ValuesUploaded bymacynthia26
- Test CasesUploaded byAli Sam
- MatTutor_43Uploaded byArtist Recording
- ch2aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaUploaded bybbteenager
- jsee13_3 Response of Secondary SystemUploaded byhamadani
- Symmetric With 1 Pos EigenUploaded bySara Ahmadi
- mm-24Uploaded bySomasekhar Chowdary Kakarala
- 463Uploaded byNono4138
- Noise level estimation using SVDUploaded byVineeth Kumar
- Det SlidesUploaded byKrishna Kulkarni
- 1586_C018Uploaded byEngr Shahnawaz Ghanchi
- PaperUploaded byArka Guha
- Appendix a-Signals and SystemsUploaded byNeelamAsif
- Linear Algebra Lecture NotesUploaded byxeemac
- class12BMEBUploaded byvijai
- Coursera, Everything is the same, Lecture 12Uploaded byJoanne
- A1cUploaded byTanmoy Pal Chowdhury
- Susskind Quantum Mechanics NotesUploaded byGary Shea
- Lab 00 IntroMATLAB2.pdfUploaded by'Jph Flores Bmx
- Tam ProbabilityLinearAlgebraReviewUploaded bykyawmoesoe
- MAY2016-2141905-CVNMUploaded byElite Industries
- lec15Uploaded byshashank
- Matrix Analysis ( 2nd ) Solutions to ExercisesUploaded byAnonymous bZtJlFvPtp
- Jacek BrodzkiUploaded byErnesto C
- laUploaded byAnonymous 8lHmQse4r

- Problems From the BookUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Notes 06Uploaded byGeovane Junior
- 03 Number TheoryUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Putnam 2013 bUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Problems Proposed by Vasc and Arqady - Edited by Sayan MukherjeeUploaded byGeovane Junior
- IMOMATH - Functional EquationsUploaded byDijkschneier
- 2014 APMO-Application Result_ENUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Nonlinear a Functional Analysis, A First Course - KesavanUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Polynomials PrasolovUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Camp2013 Tutorial Linear AlgebraUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Camp2013 Tutorial CombinatoricsUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Camp2013 Abstract AlgebraUploaded byGeovane Junior
- CombinatoricsUploaded byHanamese Monkeyxote
- EllipticUploaded byGeovane Junior
- pcomb05Uploaded byGeovane Junior
- Complex Analysis - k HoustonUploaded byGeovane Junior

- Influence Lines for Indeterminate StructureUploaded byveerusite
- Ece 513 Chap 1 SlidesUploaded byGupta Aakash
- Prer Mo 2016Uploaded byDhrubajyoti Ghosh
- Clock Equation for a Real Number Line CycleUploaded byJim Eshuis
- LLL WikipediaUploaded by00carambola
- 01-1-14Uploaded byDom DeSicilia
- 1503.06675Uploaded byaaditya01
- SULIT 3472/1 Additional Mathematics Kertas 1 Peraturan Pemarkahan August/September 2009Uploaded bydyra khoo
- Knapsack BacktrackUploaded byVlad Alexandru
- 2 Integral definition and Properties of Gamma and Beta functions.docxUploaded byaisha nakato
- The n-th Power Signed Graphs (II)Uploaded byDon Hass
- Adventures In Mathematics.pdfUploaded byVilhelmo De Okcidento
- 1504.03049.pdfUploaded byVivek tiwari
- Chapter 8 SolutionsUploaded byMrq Hey
- Block Hadamard ProductUploaded byjakub_gramol
- 10. Programación Entera - CortesUploaded byAndreaReyes
- Question Bank of 12 ClassUploaded byShantanuSingh
- unit 1 resourcesUploaded byapi-269682710
- Homework1 SolutionsUploaded byDominic Lombardi
- DIP3E Errata SheetUploaded byGowtham Rajasekar
- Cov MainUploaded bySuguna
- 372_3601510-TC Matematica ITA-IME Lista 07Uploaded byMônica Alves
- Quantum MechanicsUploaded byRastko Vukovic
- Novi LINDO.docUploaded byJasmina Sevic
- Laplacian-like Energy of TreesUploaded bydragance106
- njc differential equation lecture notes teachers editionUploaded bybhimabi
- FibonacciUploaded byLiliana Condrea
- R. T. Seeley - Spherical HarmonicsUploaded byFadly Nurullah
- Mathematics HL paper 3 TZ2 series and differential equations.pdfUploaded bySerigne Saliou Mbacke Sourang
- project 1Uploaded byapi-233325571

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.