ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE

14
VERBS

GRAMMAR

Verbs are words that allow us to talk about such things as activities, processes, states of being, and states of mind. They divide into two major groups, according to the way they are used in a clause. Those in the larger group are called main verbs. The remainder are auxiliary verbs. This basket holds quite a lot. John is reading an essay. Larry was preparing a talk for next week's class. The cat feels much happier now. She forgot that it was her mother's birthday. Paul owned several houses. Verb phrase A verb can be a single word or a group of associated words. When a verb phrase consists of a single word it is called a simple verb. When the verb is made of an auxilliary verb and a main verb, this is called compound verb. he walks he is walking we had walked we could walk they had been walking you might have been walking MAIN VERBS These are the verbs that indicate actions and states. Most verbs in English are main verbs. They are also called lexical words. Main verbs are classified in several ways: according to whether they refer to states:

ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE

This scarf belongs to me. I already feel that I have known you for ages. or actions: I feel that I have known you for ages. regular and irregular verbs according to the spelling of their forms: regular: talk, talks, talking,talked irregular: swim, swims, swimming, swam, swum according to whether or not they are followed by an object, that is they are transitive or intransitive. I can speak English. We both read the same books. She found a short way. Tell me the truth! I saw my best friend kissing her. AUXILLIARY VERBS These verbs are used in combination with the main verbs in order to allow us talking about different times or periods od time, different degrees of compection, and different amounts of certainty or doubt. There are several types ofauxilliary verb. The primary auxilliaries help to express time, and the modal auxilliaries help to express certainty and doubt. TENSE Verbs enable us to talk about actions and states. They also allow us to talk about the time when the action or state takes place. • We use tense to talk about the complete form of the verb phrase and the time scale it expresses. All main verbs have two simple tenses: the Simple present and the Simple past. In these tenses the verb is used on its own without any auxilliary verbs. I walk. I walked. She sings. She sang. You bring. You brought. English verbs also have compound tense forms, when the main verb is accompanied by one of both of the auxilliary verbs be and have

ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE

ASPECT The compound tenses of the verb express: • two tenses, present and past • two aspects, preogessive and perfect The term aspect expresses continuing actions, versus completed actions or states. Simple tenses do not have aspect. I am walking. I was walking. He is singing. They were singing. I have walked. They have walked. You have come. You had come. When an auxilliary is added to a main verb to form a compound verb it expresses: • the continuity of an action by using a form of the auxilliary be+-ing. This is called the progressive aspect. I am still studying French. My friend was living in Bucharest at that time. James is helping out with the typing. • the completion of an action, by using a form of the auxilliary have + a past participle, usually -ed,which is called perfect aspect. I have studied English for four years. Gloria and James had found their flat by then. • .The two aspects of the verb can be joined so that we can talk about the duration and the completion of an action in the same verb phrase. Ihave been studying French for three years. He had been living in London for three years when I met him. John has been helping us this week. TENSE The tenses alow us to refer to different ways of thinking about the time of an action or state of being. SIMPLE TENSES Simple tenses show moments of time, timeless, states and habitual or repetitive actions. The Simple Present and the Simple Past of regular verbs are formed by using the base of the verb.

ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE

PROGRESSIVE TENSES Progressive Tenses show duration or continuity; The Present Progressive and the Past Progressive are formed either from the present or the past tense of the verb be + the present participle of the main verb. It is raining hard this spring. It was raininyesterday thid time too. She is eating a hamburger PERFECT TENSES Perfect tenses show that an action is completed but has some relevance to the present time. The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect are formed using respectively either the present or the past tense of the verb have + the past participle of the main verb. • Roger here has walked the Victory Way • She told us he had attempted the mountain before but the weather was too wet. • He has never visited me again from that time. • She had missed the train. PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES Perfect Progressive tenses show duretion, completion, and perfect relevance. Father has been working hard in the garden all day. My mother has been helping him. He had been working at McDonald's that summer before going to college. Bill, who had been acting as an instructor, was promoted to manager. The present Perfect Progressive and the Past Perfect Progressive are formed using respectively either the present or past tense of the verb to have+the past participle of the main verb OTHER VERB FORMS Other verb combinations are used for positive or negative statements or to express degrees of time and probability My grandma likes freshly ground cofee..

This house belonged to us once. possess Vebs of state are not usually used in progressive tenses. When they are used in progressive tenses.they change their meaning I'm just feeling to see if the bone is broken. smell. forget. VERBS OF STATE I feel unhappy.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE DO YOU LIKE INSTANT COFFEE? MAY I HAVE SOME CHOCOLATE? Another use is Future time. I mean you no harm. They will probably meet us at the station TYPES OF MAIN VERB VERBS OF ACTION When we need another verb to describe a new activity. like. fear. The verbs of state may be verbs of senses: feel. taste verbs of emotions: adore. • All the tenses can be used with action verbs. wish verbs of mental activity: believe. Chris and Debbie were windsurfing all afternoon. Rupert is being nasty but not Rupert is being intelligent. I hate quarrels. . The word used as the complement makes an important difference. They were guzumped by a buyer with more money. Some uses of the verb be allow to choose between a state or an action meaning. mean verbs of possession: belong. but not Bill is being tall. She is putting on an exhibition of her new dresses. want. it is possible to adopt other parts of speech or to invent a new word. BIll is being silly. own. expect. hear. We were tasting some French interesting wines. You will be home before you know it. love.

• be and have are primary auxilliaries. I am listening to you. • do is a supporting auxilliary and is used in forming negative questions and emphatic statements in clauses which have simple verbs I DO NOT LIKE YOU AT ALL! You do like shrimps. Susan is liked by all her friends. Bill seems happy. Auxilliaries can be combined together in a single verb phrase . You must have been given the wrong address. Pa had already had dinner when we arrived. such as: -a modal + a form of have + a form of be + a form of a main verb. • have is used to make Present and Past Perfect tenses George has seen the show already. The first auxilliary verb performs the following functions: • it shows tense . may. I could have been making a bad mistake by trusting her. might and some others are considered modal auxilliaries. They construct future as a fact or future actions as possible.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE The verb seem has a very limited number of adjectives that can be used as its complement. I hope ? Will. They had not expected. I must go on Friday. Martin was sent to college in London. but not Bill seems tall. doubtful. to see me at that party. The students were all asking about that. AUXILLIARY VERBS Auxilliary verbs are used together with a main verb to express tenses and continuity. They are used to construct compound tenses. Mary will have lived in London for over 2 years now. or necessary. • be is used to make Present and Past Progressive tenses and also for the passive voice. I may go home on Friday. I could go home on Friday. I will go home on Friday.

.g.neither does he. . It is your car. I told you I'd find it and I have too. I'm. wouldn't. Auxilliaries are used to emphasise when they are not contracted. hasn't. He hasn't (has not) seen the fish jumping. They have seen the film before. I can't (cannot) come. don't . My parents never eat seafood and neither do I. • it shows number and person agreement with the subject She has worked too much already. we've. aren't you? Auxilliaries are used to make an addition to a statement. • it can come before the subject to make a question Do you remember me? Have you got the right number? CONTRACTED FORMS Auxilliaries are very often used in contracted forms. accompanied by so or too We considered her to be sincere and so she was. She is looking for the book. He has not been doing the same thing all the time. • it will take any negative after it The baby doesn't want to eat any more. we'd. Contracted forms are more informal than full forms and they are more used in spoken English than in written English. • a negative addition to a negative statemenet. I don't understand you. neither can he. Auxilliaries are also used in sentence tags. She has made an ass of herself! She did it! . They ususally link the subject to the main verb into a single form.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE I have finished my work. I don't want to speak to her . john's (John is or John has). isn't it? You are joking. such as: • a positive addition to a positive statement. I suppose. accompanied by neither or nor. I've. e. We don't want him here. The contracted negative form auxilliary + n't is common with all the auxilliaries except am.e.g.

The verb be is used as a main verb too and expresses: • feelings and states used in simple tenses with a suitable adjective: She was delighted with the news. are. is.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE Auxilliaries can represent a short answer to a question when they are on their own. I do. • it + be refers usually to time and distance It is a long way to London from here. being. having. There are several things to care about. has. were. • be + to infinitive can be used to refer to future time in a rather formal use Our Manager is to visit the new headquarters of the company. was. I don't. followed by the present participle. . • people's behaviour in progressive tenses of the verb together with a suitable adjective I am not being slow. or Yes. I am being careful. • there + is/are indicates the presence of something There is enough food for all of us. Progressive tenses of the main verbs the appropriate form of be. She was very busy so she was not able to see him at the hospital. The interrogative form can make not use of an auxilliary: Are you happy now? Is that you? HAVE This verb is used as an auxilliary verb and also as a main verb too. present or past. Do you like shrimps? No. and the main verb is not repeated. It has the following forms:have. been As an auxilliary verb. am.Its forms are: be. The passive voice of a main verb be is used as an auxiliary followed by the past participle. but I am not very happy. You are being very rude. BE The verb be is used as an auxilliary verb and as a main verb as well. be is used to form progressive compound tenses and passive voice. had .

She was having a rest when I phoned. so we can leave now. now. DID YOU HAVE A GOOD LUNCH ? Have got (in the sense of possession) is not used for this meaning.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE As an auxilliary verb. A form of the verb have in informal British English is have got. The negative form is made by adding not or nothing to make questions. I haven't anything for you to give. The negative form is made by adding not or another negative word after the apropriate form of have. My mother hasn't got a sister. You've got to come back. Have to or have got to may express obligation and they can use progressive tenses.It is used in expressing certain activities including eating and leisure. you are finished. progressive tenses are not allowed. I have never seen so many people. They had a fine weather. I'm having dinner with my family. I don't usually have dinner.Come and have dinner with us. They hadn't worked very hard! Have as a main verb may state a possession or a relationship. Have you got any time to see me next week? I haven't got enough money to buy the book. We are having lunch together. I have studied several possible cases. We haven't found a hotel to stay for this weekend. I'd not seen my parents for ages. . thank you. No. Do I have to come with you? Have you got to choose it ? I am having to spend less on computer games. There are also contracted forms. She had barely finished the cooking when I came back. followed by the past participle of the main verb. I had visited them before I went home. This case. have makes the Perfect tense of the main verbs. We have had a nap.using the appropriate form of present or past. I have something to tell you. The negative and the interrogative forms use do and no contractions and weak forms are allowed.

it makes Perfect forms like the other verbs. Do you like skiing ? Did he pass the exam ? As an auxilliary verb. This has been done again. We have already had lunch. doesn't he? ≡ in short answers: He likes music. She felt she had done her best. ≡ commands: Don't run on my nerves! Don't do it! ≡ sentence tags: He lives in Brussels.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE If have is a main verb. You have been doing well this term. The verb do can also have the meanings of: habit: This is what he usually does. There some meanings of the verb do when it is a main verb: carry out. I'll do the reading now. behaviour: . He does not read this book. he does. fix. provide. They do the cleaning every day. perform. Our firm doesn't do the catering for planes. Yes. The negative form of the verb has contracted form. I guess. do is used: • to form the negative and interrogative of Simple Present and Simple Past Tense • to form the negative form of Imperative Don't let me go! • to make an imperative more persuasive: Do let me see it ! • to avoid repeating a main verb in the following situations: ≡ additions: I like cooking. I do not read this book. DO Do can be a main verb or an auxilliary. and so he does. that is a supporting verb. I didn'know that you were home. but not the positive one.It is also used to avoid repetition.

plans: What are we doing this weekend ? As a main verb do makes the negative and interrogative as the other main verbs. I could bring some good news. You can do it. I may be late home this evening. The flight could be late because of the storm. • to express different degrees of doubt and possibility about the action of the main verb: He might not be able to do the repairing. You cannot drop in his house without letting him know before! He must not notice your absence. He may be back home. please? He can borrow my car. I may be not be able to manage the matter. • to make an assumption. YOU COULD BEHAVE YOUSELF ! You will be wondering on weekend at the seaside. I think you might have cought my cold.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE I did something awful. • to express degrees of the future possibility. if he needs it. with the auxilliary do What does he do for you? He didn't do the cleaning well. but you shouldn't do it. and the conditional future. The scandal may be over when we get there. could. Do can also be used with a modal verb: I will do it for you. to the possible future may. • to request or give permision for an action to take place May I open the window. from the definite future will. MODAL VERBS Modal verbs are considered a particular kind of auxilliaries as they are used when needed special meanings to the main verb. • to express a prohibition when used with a negative You shouldn't make use of my benevolence. • to express obligation and duty . at that time.

• to refer to characteristic behaviour She can be very uggly on these occasions.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE You must have the cheking out soon. Some of the modal meanings in the past are provided by other verbs. When he was young. There are also other contracted forms. common for spoken English but rare in written English: he'll. when they are used with a time adverbial I may be late tonight. I need a new umbrella. All the negative forms are contracted to to a single word: can't. She ought to tell the bad news. Modal verbs can refer to habitual action when they are used with a time adverbial. they'll. You had to visit him. There are some semi-modal verbs that act sometimes as full main verbs or as modals How dare you speak like this? THE CHILD DARES TO ASK ME TO DO HIS HOMEWORK.They have no -s inflection in the third person singular.'ll.! She need not speak if she does't feel like. . FORMS OF THE MODAL VERBS Modal verbs have only one base form. I will be seeing him this week-end. won't.valid for Simple Present Tense and they do not have a to infinitive. wouldn't. • to add politness to a request which might otherwise sound abrupt Would you please. he would not miss any weekend trip. There are contracted forms for the modal verbs: shall/will . we'll. shan't. Must is replaced by had to in the past You must visit your father in the hospital. shut your mouth? • to make conditional sentences • in reported speech. She may be late for school. All modal verbs can be used for future reference .

In negative sentences not is placed immediately after the modal verb and in front of all the other verbs. pa? May I have some more bread? Could I stay next to you? Can and could express possibility in the future when this is related to plans or projects. he can drive even a lorry. He can drive my car whenever he wants. as the negative form can't They ca't have borrowed the car. please ? You must think about the consequences of your words! If one of the auxiliary verbs have or be follows the modal verb. He is a good driver. CAN and COULD Both are used to indicate that you know to do something She can swim very well. Can shows ability of a more general nature that includes "is permitted to". while may is more formal. They are always finite. May I open the window. I am able to dance till morning. the possibility refered to is uncertain. Can is not to be combined with the auxiliary have. Modal verbs are followed by the base form of the verb if there is no other auxiliary verb present. You could have read it by yourself! Helen might be coming too. the main verb will take the appropriate present or past participle form. Both make polite requests or ask for permission. Mary may not understand you. .but she couldn't last year. When may is used. next week. You may come to see me if you dare! Both can and could express the possibility of an action in the present. You can come and see me since I am free next week. I might not do a better cleaning. You could come and see me if I am free. When she was younger she could dance very well. Can I borrow your hat.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE POSITION Modal verbs are always placed before any other auxiliary or main verb in the verb phrase.

but she didn't. when could is used when the condition is not met. Can is changed into could in reported speech. His friend said. she can cook something. for an uncertain response. "I can do it only for you. You may go to the party since you finished your work. His friend said that he could do it only for him. might I ask you to bring some cigarettes? . Who could/can have said such a thing? Who could have imagined that he would succeed? There is a difference between can and could in conditionals. Can and could used with the Perfect form of have. while might is used for asking permission. while might makes the request more formal. If grandma is coming. If you go shopping. speculate about actions that have recently taken place. she could cook something for us. Could + the Perfect form of have express an action that was possible but did not happen. You could drive off these cars. If grandma came. Might I ask you something? May expresses permission of a speaker allowing something to hapen. please? Might I take off my coat ? He may/might recover within a week. She could have helped him. May I have you permission to leave? Might I have your permission to leave? Might is used when the speaker wants to persuade someone to do something. May can be used to make an order appear as a request. if you take care. but it can also be used for casual request. MAY and MIGHT May and might are used in requests and in expressions of possibility for the present and future May I have your attention.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE You can drive off these cars. May is used in a more formal way than can.

HE MUST BE MAD TO BELIEVE SUCH A THING ! You can't be serious! • must and have to are used in the interrogative Must I go by myself? DOES SHE HAVE TO DO THIS? Must can be used in negative sentences You must not cross the street when the light is red. she could cook something for the children. • to advice or reccomend emphatically You must show everyone what you can do! • to express a positive assumption. can is used instead. Must is used: • to express obligation All the children must go to school. There mustn't be a mistake. If grandma came. It is replaced by have to in the Past Tense. might makes be in the present or in the past tense. If grandma comes.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE When used in conditional sentences. MUST Must is used to show obligation. but in spoken English it is difficult to make distinction between shall and will. May becomes might in reported speech. she might cook something. since the contracted form. You don't have to waste your time talking to her. 'll is used for will and shall. SHALL and WILL The modal verb will is usually used to express simple future time.Compare with could. compulsion and general accepted truths. do not have to is used. The fact that you are not obliged to do something. when it is a negative one.The modal verb shall is not very much used in English except in questions. You must not waste your time talking to her. Shall is used: • in questions of the third person singular and plural Shall we go to the cinema tonight? .

I am sorry/surprised that: . Contracted negative forms: Shall:shan't: Don't worry. as a modal verb.it is odd that. is used to express: • a moral obligation I suggest you should buy another computer for the company to replace the one you broke. open the window? • persistence: My friends will fight together whwtever I do. • to express willingness and insistence with the second and third person singular and plural You shall come back immediately! Mary shall do her work. please.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE Shall I drive your car? • to express intentions and promises with the third person singular and plural We shall/will keep in touch. Should you need more information. contect me. • advice or instructions You should avoid meeting her. Will: won't I won't speak to her again! SHOULD and WOULD Should. I shan't tell him the truth. • predictions: My family will have had already dinner by now. please call my secretary. There are formal expressions with should used with the main verb that are used together with: it is a pity that. otherwise she will be sorry. Will is used with all the persons except the situations showed previously and expresses : • polite requests and invitations: Will you came and see me tomorrow? • orders: Will you please. • politeness in a conditional clause If you should decide to buy.

In case there is not an "if clause".In this case would is more common in modern spoken English.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE I am surprised that you should care about it. it is to understand that if conditions are right. You should have learnt much better. I warned you. The modal verb would is used: • for a polite request: Would you mind leaving us alone? Would you pass me the bread. I wouldn't refuse if you ask me to have some more. You would keep saying it. Should + perfect form of a main verb is used to express regret or annoyance of not having done something.It is used to: • express an obligation or an expectation They should know they ought to leave promptly. • to show persistence in activity. • to express wonder and probability That would be the book I have been looking forsuch a long time! • to express a condition in "if clause" I would have read it only if the teacher had asked me to. . sometimes expressing a complaint about that. please ? • to offer something politely: Would you like to have dinner together? • to indicate an usual activity Nick would play cards all day long. OUGHT TO It is a modal verb which is less strong than should or must and it has not a past form. I would travel abroad. He should have finished his work before going to bed. Should replaces shall when reported speech I told him he should go and see that movie Should is also used in "If clause" with the first person singular and plural when referring to some possible future event which seems desirable but will happen only if external conditions are fulfiled I should travel abroad if I had money. so it is used for present and future only. My parents promissed me they would buy a new computer next week. • to replace will in reported speech.

• and must when suggesting or threatening You must not upset people like that! • should sounds more natural in question than ought to. He dare not say a word. Does he need to leave now? When the two verbs are used as modal verbs in a statement.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE Children ought to be taught to pay respect to the old people.:never. it is advisable to use should You should consider the feelings of others. No one dare risk his chance. He daren't say it. but when adding a reprouch. Dare as a modal verb I dare not see. . Larry ought to have been here by now. and sometimes they behave as main verbs. These semi-modal verbs are used in negative or interrogative clauses. hardly He need only begin and he will like it. Lucy doesn't need to know what her friend dares to do. a negative word must be present in the same clause. using auxiliaries and -s inflection for the third person singular and are followed by long infinitive. Ought I to report it to the police? Should I report it to the police? DARE AND NEED These verbs are considered to be semi-modal verbs as they sometimes behave like modal verbs and do not have -s added to the third person singular. and they do not need an auxiliary. • to express the likelihood of something to happen The results of the official talks ought to be announced tomorow. • to give a general advice You ought to consider the feelings of others. I dared not dress like that. Need I go now? Dare Helen prevent him? He need only try to succeed. only. He dared not come here.

Doesn't dare? Doesn't dare? It is possible to have a mixed modal and main verb pattern: Dare he say that! modal Does he dare to say that! main verb Does he dare say that! mixed NEED AS A MODAL VERB I need not come. He need not promisse. Need I ask? Need he try? Needn't he see? Need as a main verb I need. I needed . He does not dare. He needs . I did not dare. I do not need. He doesn't dare. Does he need? . I did not need. He did not dare. He does not need. He needn't ask. He has needed.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE Dare I try it? Dare he come here? Daren't he do that? Dared I try it again? Dared she do it once more? Dare as a main verb I dare He dares.

ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE USED TO It is a marginal modal verb available for Past Tense only. and the auxiliary is used only in the past. It is used • to describe a repeated action in the past with no certainity in the present He used to like riding the bike when he was a child. The adverb or the preposition becomes a part of the verb. He used to read a lot when he was yonger. To break in. you used to.. they used to. .. HOW DID YOU COME? BY PLANE a) This type of phrasal verbs are transitive (they have an object) He picked me on his way to office I turned the radio off. • did not/ didn't + use + base form I didn't use to drive last year. etc There are two negative forms: • used + not + to + base form I used not to watch TV too much. There two interrogative forms of used to: • used + subject + to + base verb Used he to..? • did + subject + use to + base verb: Did he use to. Forms of used to It is common for all subject: I used to... • to describe an ususal activity in the past but not available in the present. They do not answer to any wh-questions.? PHRASAL VERBS A phrasal verb is a main verb combined with either: a) an adverb: to take off. etc b) a preposition: to get at c) an adverb-preposition:to get out of having as a result another meaning.

(they have no object) I came back. two: the object of the verb and the object of the preposition. He doesn't learn.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE If the object is a noun. I am fed up with your bad behaviour. • Does he learn? Doesn't he learn? He does not learn. • Do I learn? I do not learn. please. We asked for the bill. • I work. the auxiliary do is used. TENSE Tense is the way the verb makes time reference. the phrasal verb will alow an adverb come either: • before the object: He blew ot the candles on his birthcake. As for the interrogative and negative form of the Simple Present Tense. If the object is a pronoun. I don't learn. I worked. • He works. or they are intransistive. All the parts of this type of phrasal verbs come before the object.There are two simple tenses (consisting of only the main verb) and six compound (consisting of the main verb and the auxiliary). c) This type of phrasal verb is a combination of the previous ones. He learns. • Do you learn? Don't you learn? You do not learn. The Simple Present Tense is used to express: . We asked the waiter for the bill. • after the object He blew the candles out. Sit down. An -s is received by the main verb in the third person singular at Simple Present Tense Affirmative. b) This type of phrasal verbs have an object at least and sometimes. it must come before the object: He blew them out. There is a Simple Present Tense and a Simple Past Tense. • You learn. You don't learn. You learnt.

The Simple Past Tense uses the verb do as a support auxiliary for interrogative and negative form in the same Past Tense (did). The phone was ringing when I entered the house. sometimes. never. He did not learn. or adverbial phrases: in winter. Simple Past Tense is used: • to describe actions in the past: He asked the question and waited for the answer. I was wathing the TV program when the stranger knocked the door open. • in conditional sentences about real possibilities If the weather doesn't improve. • a general belief or feeling of the speaker: I think that he was angry. I finished my work yesterday early in the morning. never. on Sundays. Water freezes at O degrees.or when another action takes place during or alongside another. I didn't learn. • a planned future action with a time adverb We leave by train at 4 o'clock in the morning. our weekend plans will fail. • scientific or general truths admitted: We like scool. Did I learn? Did he learn? I did not learn. • to describe an action which goes on during or alongside another. He watched TV as he took a bath. often I often visited my aunt as she was ill. • points where the main action is broken. (she has the age to do this and she does so) I usually spend my weekends in the mountains. . • to describe habitual actions in the past. He didn't learn. etc) Susan goes to school. regularly. usually accompanied by adverbs such as: always. • to describe past actions in a definite time considered to be finished I visited America 1o years ago.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE • habits or things that happen regularly and adds some adverbs such as : often. usually.

or the past participle of it when it is an irregular verb. PROGRESSIVE ASPECT is formed by using the appropriate form of the auxiliary be together with the preffix -ing added to the main verb. The tense of the auxiliary and the participle represents the aspect of the verb. COMPOUND TENSES The compound tenses consist of a main verb and one auxiliary or more. so I had to wait for him. . It is possible that a compound tense show both aspects.It shows: • that an action is going on at the time of speaking: ≡ I am using a computer. A part of the compound tense represents the tense and the other part represents the aspect. I have borrowed the book until tomorrow.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE TENSE ASPECT Aspect describes the way the verbal actions are considered. I had been visiting my parents. either progressive or perfect. The perfect aspect shows that: • is complete at the time of speaking I have enjoyed the party very much. progressive and perfect. • the action was going on throughout the time referring at: ≡ Last time I saw him two hours ago. • was complete at the time the speaker is referring to: I had lost my key. There are the poossible combinations: a) Present Progressive = present of be + ing participle My family is having a celebrating-party on Sunday. he was reading in the reading hall. The tense of the auxiliary shows the present or the past of the main-compound verb. PERFECT ASPECT is formed by using the appropriate form of the auxiliary have together with the suffix -ed added to the main verb when this is a regular one. b) Past Progressive = past of be + ing participle I was watching the TV program when he rang. • completed or not completed. • The action will take place in a referring future time: ≡ She will be visiting America next Monday.

b)Past Perfect Progressive • past of have + past participle of be + ing participle I had been sleeping before the new-comer entered the office.the auxiliary do is used. I could. Simple tense . I do. then it comes before the subject and the rest of the verb: You may not have been joking! Won't she be calling on me tonight? Modals are not used in Simple tenses and are not used together with the supporting auxiliary verb do. I could be coming with you next time. I could be. If the negative contracted form is used . This produces the following combinations: a) Present Perfect Progressive • present have + past participle of be + ing participle I have been trying to forgive you. ≡ be or have is the first verb in the verb phrase . or Yes. she was.it is used together with the auxiliary as a response. Was grandma calling? Yes.it is used as a response. he might have. Yes.They can be used by themselves or followed by the base forms of have or be The modal verbs are followed by: • the subject and the rest of the verb Will you be so kind to answer the question? • the negation not and the rest of the verb. Had he bought everything? Yes. .ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE c) present of have + ed participle We have bought a new house. d) past of have + ed participle I had already asked him about the copnsequences of the accident. In responses one of the auxiliary form is to be used. using two auxiliaries and a main verb. he might or Yes. ≡ modal verb . A compound verb can also combine bath the progressive and perfect aspects. The modal auxiliaries are also used in compound tenses. Might he have forgotten about our arrival? Yes. Do you like cookies? Yes. he had.

7.Will be + present participle. as usual. We shall be flying to London on Monday. Fresh fish was sold in the market. be going to + base form of the verb expresses the intention for an action in the future 3. my sister will have been left for school. The Future Perfect Tense (will have + the Past Participle) + time adverb represents an action to be finished in a future time the speaker is referring to. 8.The subject of an active-voice sentence is is the doer of the action. FORMS of the PASSIVE Be + the PAST PARTICIPLE of the main verb. They sold fresh fish in the market. The Present Progressive Tense with a time adverb is used for plans and arrangements. 5. I leave for the office at 7 o'clock in the morning. Future Progressive tense .ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE FUTURE REFERENCE 1. 6. Fish is sold in the market. We were just about to leave for the station when he came in. The passive voice is used it is not important who carries out the action expressed by the verb or it is not important to know. The form of the auxiliary verb be indicates the tense. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE Active . They sell fish in the market. shall/will + the basic form of the main verb represent the direct form of the future tense in English. . 2. 4. Unfortunatelly. We shall go to the theatre nex weekend. be about to + the base form of the verb is used for the near future time. Next summer I will be spending my holiday with my grandma.The subject of such a sentence is the person or thing that is acted on by the verb. Simple Present Tense + time adverb is used for previuos arrangements or plans belonging to a timetable. Passive . to be + the base form of the verb Market economy principles are to be applied in our country too. by the time I arrive.

happy. ≡ after adjectives of emotion such : angry. agreable. ≡ the particle to can be used without the verb when the whole verb form is used in a previous sentence. silly. get washed. surprised He was glad to see me but sorry to hear the bad news. nice. glad. tall.(or for + a noun phrase) etc It was a mistake for us to buy that house. what. hard. a mistake. It is said that it was a terrible accident. not + adjective of quality + enough Mother is not enough recovered to leave the bed. which.g. I got lost once in Paris.it + passive It is heard that you left the country. ≡ after an adjective such as: good. I intended to. a good thing.get dressed. sorry. Did you see that film? No. . ≡ after a WH-word: how. impossible + for + noun phrase It is difiicult for me to understand your behaviour. where. It was a good ideea to have some fun together. sad. ≡ after a verb followed by for. funny that is used in combination with: too + adjective of quality The weather was still too stormy to leave for the mountain. etc His dog got run over yesterday. get lost. who. I was wondering who to see on the stage.be is replaced by get to express an action that has just happen or that is done to the subject. wrong (sometimes + of + another noun phrase) It is so kind of you to invite me to your wedding party. difficult. whom We had no ideea what way to take. THE LONG (TO) INFINITIVE The to infinitive is used: ≡ after an adjective of quality such as small. ≡ after an adjective such as easy. wait + for + noun phrase We are waiting for you to decide. e. pleasant. ≡ to can be used to express purpose or necessity after a verb followed by a pronoun or a noun . ≡ after a noun phrase such as:a good ideea. whether. ask.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE Passive Voice impersonal . but I didn't. The passive with get .

expect. forgive. prefer. She went out to do some shopping. I forgot to post the letter. dislike. delay. hope. want. wish. remind. it's worth. love. We really expected him to come and see us. After verbs as go and come the to infinitive expresses a purpose. offer. teach. mean. allow.this case using certain verbs bein an object of the first ones:it's fun. used to. intend. I gave up trying to convince him. imagine. I prefer to wash the car myself. The use of the to infinitive concentrates upon action. persuade. seen. go on. hate. Some verbs may be followed either by the to infinitive or by the -ing form. Verbs followed either directly by the to infinitive or by an object + the to infinitive: ask. forget. the meaning of the sentence remaining the same: begin. according to the form used: try. I hope to meet you again. manage.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE I looked for her to talk to her. command. I forgot to bring you the book. It's worth trying again . it's no use. I want to wash my car. hate. intend. continue. I tried all day long writing the letter. choose. invite. escape. plan. help. tell. / I want you to wash the car. fail. I prefer washing the car myself. Some verbs may be followed either by the to infinitive or by -ing form with a change-meaning of the sentence. while the use of ing-form concentrates upon what happens. prefer. remember. Verbs followed by an object + to infinitive: advise. start. decide. I invited Laura to have lunch together. THE TO INFINITIVE AND . arrange attempt. force. prefer. give up. learn.ING FORM Both of them can be used after certain verbs. Verbs followed by to infinitive: agree. forbid. finish. remind. It is time to leave. Verbs followed by -ing form are: avoid. be.

behaviour.intangible items: honesty. happiness. months and annual Church festivals:Monday. news. Uncountable nouns refer to things that cannot be counted or qualities or abstract names:furniture. formed from the present participle of verbs. girl.progress. and theatre names: The Odeon ≡ -itles or professional labels: Doctor Johnson. knowledge. Metro ≡ newspaper and magazine title: THe Times ≡ shop. chairs. They do not have a plural form and they are not accompanied by the definite article.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE NOUN A. leisure. time.tangible items animate nouns : cat. milk. France is well known for some types of cheeses it exports. cinema. triumph. etc ≡ Concrete nouns . dispair. anger. money. Common nouns denominating all the other beeings or things. evidence.is the noun denominating a real particular name of a person or a thing. Danube ≡ days of the week. beauty. please! PARTITIVE NOUNS are used when using mass nouns or when referring to uncountables. Christmas ≡ patented goods and trade name: Persil. Count nouns refer to things that can be counted:car. Romanian ≡ geographical items: Turkey.Professor James B. This type of nouns take a plural only in special sases. Prpoer noun . They are : ≡ Abstract nouns . conduct. Too much sugar is not good for health. a slice of bread . Two coffees. research. safety. It is not accompanied by an indefinite article. house ≡ Collective nouns : a herd of deer. etc. information. homework. Mass nouns refer to a substance that can be divided or measured but not counted: sugar. are considered uncountable nouns. jumble. Walking is good for health. a swarm of bees Nouns can also be singular and plural in number. ≡ names of people: English. horse inaninate nouns : table. ≡ Verbal nouns.

Sometimes. They are used in singular only.The team won their match.Nouns used for a group. e. Each student must apply to his or her tutor for the diploma paper. Some special nouns denominating babies and small animals are considered neutral and those denominating vehicles . Some of the behave like count or uncountable nouns according to their use in the sentence. clothes. She read the book three times. have common or neuter gender. The man is looking for his coat. I need the scissors at their place all the time. Gender differences are shown by names of male and female and by relationships: horse sheep parent child mare cow ewe mother daughter stallion ram father son gelding steer . Each student must apply to their tutor for the diploma paper. The crew loved their ship. government or team. GENDER OF NOUNS English does not have grammatical gender for nouns. jeans. Gender distinction is relevant where personal pronouns and possessive determiners are needed.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE a spoonful of sugar a bit of cheese a piece of furniture There are some nouns that have both count and uncountable uses. The bird flew away to pick up its baby. The team has changed its strategy. in spoken English their is used after a singular noun or an indefinite pronoun. of feminine gender. Time passes slowly sometimes. Some nouns are used only in plural form even when it is about one item: trousers.g. They use to call her "their girl". crew. Inaninate objects and abstract notions are also neuter.

CASE OF NOUNS The case indicates that the noun has a particular function ina clause. a) The basic case of a noun is when it can be a subject or an object and its form doesn't change. political or emitional point of view. b) The possessive case (genitive) that has two forms: ≡ the 's possessive used only with animate items and in time phrases. the woman's pair of shoes the dog's ear Yesterday's magazine a week's holiday the boys' bikes There are the following exceptions: ≡ for common nouns ending in -s in the singular. from economic. unless the final sound of it is [iz] Mrs Evans's car Mr Johns's car ≡ compound nouns put the -'s or the -s' at the end of the complete compound my mother-in-law's house ≡ noun phrases that are descriptive receive -'s on the headword a stock market analyst's annual income .ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE There are specific suffixes to mark feminine or masculine gender: waiter waitress There are separate professional denominations and common professional denominations: manager manageress shephard hephardess doctor doctoress woman doctor chairman chairperson chair A country can be nominated as offeminine gender . Romania is a rich country. and most plural nouns add -s'. There are two cases for common nouns. She is my country. the choice for -s' or -'s is optional the cactus' spines cactus's spines ≡ nouns ending in -en uses 's children's toys ≡ proper nouns and coomon nouns that end in -s add -'s.Most singular nouns add 's.

The noun in this case.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE ≡ for an of construction the -'s or -s' comes to the last noun: the director of marketing's personal assistant ≡ the of possessive is used with inaninate things and abstract ideas The power of thought the world of ideas COMPOUND NOUNS Compound nouns are formed from two or more other words. • a car mechanic. eye shadow • with a hyphen: air-conditioning NOUNS AS MODIFIERS Nouns can be used as modifiers without forming a compound noun. The main noun is normaly the last one: self-control headache Compound nouns are commonly formed fromthe following word combinations: • a noun + a noun boyfriend. has the same function as an adjective. skinhead • a verb + a noun • an adjective + a noun • a phrasal verb breakfast software a break-in • a participle + a noun overseer. an office manager NUMBER OF NOUNS singular plural count nouns = have both singular and plural un ountable nouns and mass nouns = do not have a plural form a regular plural -s exceptions to the normal pattern: singular noun plural noun . aftershave Compound nouns can be written: • as one word : bookcase • as two words: post office.

buzzes -o hero . -x.form the plural by adding -s to the last word of the compound.prices church .boxes buzz .knives -s or -ves -ves IRREGULAR PLURALS two plural forms fish .-ss.fish / fishes the same form for plural and singular a sheep / ten sheep a change of vowel to form plural man/men.dwarves -fe knife . woman/women -en plural child / children brethern = alternative plural for brother having the sense of members of a religious group COMPOUND NOUNS .ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE ending -s. Exceptions: a verb + an adverb = -s to the last word . -ch.focuses prince . focus .babies vowel + -y key – keys ending -es -es -ies -s -f hoof .churches box . -e.heroes consonant + -y baby .hoofs dwarf . -zz.

keep their plural original form an axis .spoonfuls/spoonsful PLURAL NOUNS WITH SINGULAR REFERENCE nouns referring to clothes and tools are treated as plurals and are followed bythe verb in the plural. but it can be precedeed. a pair of.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE a Chinese take-away .tho Chinese take-aways a noun + adverb = the first word=pl a passer-by .two axes a crisis . by an indefinite article or used in the plural the screaming of the baby .two crises take plurals according to the English rules memorandum .memorandums have two plurals: from the foreign language and from English.two passers-by -man/woman + noun = both make pl a manservant .exc when they mean an indefitely large number Millions of people travel around the world every year.menservants -ending in -ful + -s after ful or -s after the main noun a cupful . binoculars. dozen/million = have no plural form .e present participle of a verb. usually works as an uncountable noun. FOREIGN PLURALS Nouns that came into English as foreign words. sometimes. i. It is sometimes called a gerund. The first one is used for scientific or profesional use: an index / indexes/ indices formula / formulae/ formulas VERBAL NOUNS They are represented by the -ing form./ pairs of trousers.cupfuls/cupsful a spoonful . used as a noun.

and it functions as: subject: Singing calms me down. etc They were all for giving it up. The boy went to play football eithout me letting know. a possessive determiner can be used in formal English with the verbal noun. can't help. parfect passive form: The door showed no sign of having been opened. it's no use/good I can't help loughing. DETERMINERS Determiners are words that make the reference of nouns specific./ verbal noun can be precedeed by indefinite article. complement (be): Her greatest pleasure is dancing.. or with a personal pronoun used in informal English: The boy went to play football without my letting know. look forward to/ put off.. passive form: Being asked does not bother me. Verbal noun has different forms: perfect form: having. They can be divided according to: their meaning their position in a sentence There are eight classes of determiners: the indefinite article the definite article the demonstratives: the possessives the quantifiers the numbers: cardinal/ordinal the distributives . object after certain verbs:I like reading but my sister prefers walking. after certain set of expressions: can't stand. as any noun. adjective and possessives. After prepositions: How much can you resist without screaming? Verbal noun can also be used : after some phrasal verbs: be for / against/.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE smoking is prohibited The takings were down this week-end in the shop.+ ed She recognized to have mistaken. give up/. keep on/.

for countable and uncountable nouns. • to express a quantity I'd like a cup of tea. seas. The Guardian. both). The house of Parliament. A few determiners: (all. most newspapers and some magazines: British Museum. THE INDEFINITE DETERMINER a or an ( for nouns beginning with a vowel) The indefinite article is used: • with reference to a noun mentioned for the first time • with reference to a noun without being specific A man was seen crossing the street. can be used together with another determiner. indicate nationality or an entire class of people: The Germans are skilful engineers. groups of islands. honour) an is not used before nouns beginning with a semi-vowel: ( ex: a unique book) or before h which is not silent (ex: a hotel. • in definitions: An octopus is seafood. The poor were sheltered in the church. honest. oceans and mountain ranges: The Thames indicate certain public institutions. heiress. a history) THE DEFINITE ARTICLE The unique form of the definite article is the used both for singular and for plural nouns. The Economist indicate parts of the body when these are refered to in an impersonal way I was struck on my head.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE the exclamatives A noun phrase has usually only one determiner or none at all. an is used only before nouns beginning with a vowel (ex: an awful mistake ) or beginning with a silent h ( ex: an hour. in order to: make definite or specific the reference to a noun that has already been mentioned before to refer to a noun already specified previously to make general reference to a whole class or species: The crocodile is hunted for its skin. and numbers. • when referring to someone's profession My mother is a teacher. indicate names of rivers. . heir.

supper. night When I was a student iused to rise at dawn and went to bed at sunset. institutions with the prepositions to or in: work. referring to: travel I like traveling by car. day. lunch We had dinner together last week. Jones you speak about lives just next to my house. dineer. those This and these refer to objects near to the speaker . prison Catherine was at home all day. DEMONSTRATIVES Demonstratives are used to place an item in relation to the speaker. time. They are:this. hospital. tea. midnight. when prepositions are used: before. seasons of the year when generalizing: In summer days are long and nights are short. meals: to have breakfast.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE proper nouns that refer to common persons. sunset. or by dawn sunrise. make a distinction between the people who have identical names The Mr. and proper nouns used in conjunction with titles (Queen Elisabeth) take a definite article if: they stand for the name of a place or thing The Queen herself opens the Parliament. school. night. these. church. I went to the hospital to visit her after I had been to work. that. NOUNS WITHOUT A DETERMINER The omission of the determiner has always one of the significances: the use of a noun or a noun phrase in the plural to make a generalization Vegetables are good for your health now. noon. at. general reference made by singular uncountable nouns Do you like cake? Uncountable nouns can be used with a determiner when the reference becomes specific: Would you like some of the cake? There are some idiomatic expressions that usually do not use a determiner.

These and those are for plural. Have some chocolate. but may also include another determiner itself. any. No information could be obtained from the accident. Mine has not. much and enough are used for denominating a part of the item You have eaten too much. today. Mother gave me all her money. . Possessive phrase is a noun or a noun phrase ending in 's or s' and acts as a possessive determiner.no can be used before a singular or a plural count noun or uncountable noun. any. POSSESSIVES Possessives are used to specify the relationship of ownership referring to an item.John's new hobby QUANTIFIERS Quantifiers are used to indicate the amount or quantity of something referred to by a noun. all. some. . no can be used before an uncountable noun or a plural countable noun. some.my brother-in-law's sister .Here are the form of them. There are no pictures on the wall.a good day's work . according to the person or the thing that possesses the item: Person Singular Plural Ist my our 2nd your your 3rd M his their 3rd F her their 3rd N its their Possessive derminers are to be distinguished from possessive pronouns which can stand alone. . This and that are for singular.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE That and those refer to objects that are situated further away from the speaker. much. Our dream has come true. enough.

a few and a little have a positive sense A few kind people helped the man bleeding. Most of the European people are white. double is used for uncountable nouns The employees claimed for a double amount of money for working on holidays. More and more people are interested in computers. fewest are used with graded quantities of plural count nouns: Few people know the answer. few and little are used in negative sense and suggest disapointment and pessimism Little encouragemente was given to him. few. most are used with graded quantities of uncountable nouns: I feel much more interested now about the matter. more. § informal:He didn't have any trouble infinding the right man. little. She can't bear the least opposition to her will. much.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE I didn't find any photo of yours. half can be used with countable and uncountable nouns Half of the emploees were fired. Most of the paintings are forgery. both define two things represented by a plural count noun Both men and women have equal rights. PLEASE? No can be used with there is or there are § formal: He had no trouble in finding the right man. Have you any information today? WOULD YOU LIKE SOME TEA. fewer. In order to express graded amounts there are the following quantifiers: many. while some is used when the answer is expected to be positive. . least are used with uncountable nouns I earned too little money to repair the car. Fewer and fewer wild animals remained in the woods. less. some is used in positive sentences and any in negative ones In questions any is used when there is no particular expectation about the answer. more the most used plural count nouns with graded quantities of plural count nouns: How many children are in a classroom? We need more people to understand.

next. DISTRIBUTIVES The distributives are each. last and another can ber considered as ordinal numbers. Each child is worth having a family. every can be used in front of ordinal numers Every fourth soldier was killed in that war.two cars. last and another can be used together with a cardinal number The last time we met was on Christmas holiday. the second and the third and their combinations. every. They are mostly formed by adding -th to a carinal number. Cardinal numbers can be used at the beginning of a noun phrase. neither excludes bothe of the items that are being referred to: Neither dress is elegant enough for this party. some is added to a cardinal number to show approximation: Some two hundred people gethered at the airport to see the star.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE Everyone needs a little encouragement. . Neither plan was successful. The words next and last come ususlly after the or a possessive My next favourite subject is mathematics. The first boat in the row has won the contest. Ordinal numbers are used after the definite article or after a possessive. like pronouns. ten thousand dollars Ordinal numbersgive the place of something in an ordered sequence. the words next. either refers to one of two: Either plates would suit me. NUMBERS Cardinal numbers are used in all forms of counting . or on their own. One of them came down to meet me. Exceptions are the first. like determiners.used with a singular noun. The next runner was declared the winner. either neither.

enough. your. less.can go before the noun . Every move was carefully prepared. I have few friends. any. half.go after the verb. a(n). these.the books are interesting . They can be used on their own before a noun or before the group a determiners. d) every. They can introduce a noun phrase alone: What a party! Such a dress! A noun phrase in acomplete clause: HE IS SUCH A NICE MAN! What a pleasant surprise! NOUN PHRASES WITH SEVERAL DETERMINERS Determiners are represented by four groups depending on what other determiners they can be used with and the order that they follow: There are two main groups: a) the. that. this. many. a little The two groups can not be used together but with the following exceptions: if of is placed between the two Some of those apples Neither of my brothers a group words may be used with words in groups c and d c) all. Adjectives are attributive . each. and the ordinal numbers.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE EXCLAMATIVES The exclamations are what. twice. ADJECTIVES Adjectives make the meaning of the noun more specific. much. most. They can be used on their own before a noun or after the a group words. his. It is possible to insert of between all. such. some. All the turists left the resort because of the storm. a few. those. little. both. My few real friends visited me after the accident. either. few. and tje possessives: my. both.no. double. more.a large street predicative . several.or half and a central determiner. neither. etc b) another. her.

than is present My son is taller than yours. as or not so . but it can be omitted in predicative position. present. alike. alone. Two forms of cpomparative: a) the adjective has -er or -est as endings bright . it usually adds -er and -est (y changes to -i before adding the ending. ashamed. there are adjectives changing their meaning when having the position before or after the noun: absent.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE ADJECTIVE ORDER In English more than four adjectives is most uncommon: .a pale young Eastern girl adjectives before a noun are not usually separated by and. The superlative when a quality exceeds all the others. they usually begin with -a : afloat. If the adjective ends in -e. as in the negative are present in comparing the equality of the features of the adjective. unless they are adjectives of colour. asleep.. When the second part of the comparison is mentioned.. It normally has the in front of it. alive. involved.the brightest if the adjective ends already in -er or -ry. afraid.brighter . I will choose for you the apple which is (the) ripest. they may have to be followed by a particular preposition if the phrase continues He was glad He was glad to come. The present leadership has been in power for three years.. as.an extremely intelligent person some adjectives can only be used predicatively.. COMPARISON The comparative form is used to compare two features nominated by adjectives.as in the affirmative and not as.a blue and white flag adjectives can be preceeded by adverbs of degree . I was afraid I was afraid for his life. this case. My son is as tall as yours.. awake We go abroad again.. this must be left off) clever cleverer the cleverest . concerned The people present were given some coffee.

often sometimes.much etc of frequency: rarely. anywhere. His place is really an awful mess.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE easy easier the easiest b) more and most are added to longer adjectives. Two syllable adjectives can use both ways to form comparison: polite politer politest o more polite most politest less polite the least polite There are adjectives with irregular comparison forms: Good better the best Bad worse the worst ADVERBS AND ADVERBIALS They answer to the questions: where?. little. another adverb or even of a whole sentence or a prepositional phrase. when?. what?. less or least is used. b) Some adverbs can only come after the verb Suddenly. Nevertheless we must give him a last chance. to what extent? and they usually modify the meaning of the verb. adjective. after the verb phrase or the object She told the whole story tearfully to her mother. today. etc of time: now. lately of degree: largely. the frighten rabbit ran back in the woods. all over. how?. with care of place: there . Adverbials can be divided in: of manner: slowly. extremenly. c) A few adverbs can come before the main verb barely. hardly. They give a negative meaning to the clause. . last night. If the comparison is negative. rarely. Our manager behaved remarkably stupidly. scrcely. between the auxilliary and the main verb She was tearfully telling everything to her mother.by a whisker. she told her mother what happened. seldom. That is quite silly. daily a) Most adverbs come: before the verb phrase or the subject Tearfully.

When the word is found without an object.especially at the end of as clause. PRONOUN A pronoun is a word that is used in the place of a noun or a whole noun phrase. An adverb placed bettween the to and the base form of the verb represents a "split infinitive". TYPES OF PRONOUN PERSONAL pronoun is used as a subject. I really need to think hard about this. I need to really think hard about this.it will usually be an adverb. or if it relates to a verb or an adjective. the order is normally: . § She hurried over her meal because she was late. Prepositions are used in front of the noun phrase.because preposition must have an object. Some adverbs have the same spelling as a preposition. Some adverbs keep the same spelling as the adjective to which they are related. If it comes before a noun. FORMS OF ADVERBS most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the end of related adjective slow slowly sensible sensibly free freely adjectives ending in -y change it to -i before adding -ly. When more than one personal pronoun is used with a verb. or complement in a clause. Some adverbs have comparative and superlative forms and can be used with submodifiers. and it is a matter of personal preference. There are a few adverbs modifying nouns or indefinite pronouns • the man downstairs • the exemple above • Almost all the children knew the poem by heart. object. § She hurried over. it is probably an adverb.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE She little cared for her problems. a short way He was cut short. it is probably an adjective. § He should behave far more prudently.

REFLEXIVE pronoun is used in object position when the action of a verb is performed on the subject by the subject. if you don't mind. It can also be used as a substitute for the first person singular. The object form is usual in spoken informal language: after the verb be: It's him. One or oneself is to be avoided mixt with I or myself in the same clause. but they are called reciprocals. (informal) § John is taller than he (is). One could easily arrange it all oneself. as usual. § John dressed himself for his wedding. (formal) after than (without be) in comparisons: In formal English the subject form is used when the verb be is present or possible. self = singular selves = plural The reflexive oneself can be used for persons in general. (informal) It is I. Personal pronoun is sometimes used to supply short answers. . One askes oneself whether it is worth to bother. § I will do it myself. It can be left out if it is obvious that the subject performs the action: § I washed and dressed in no time. § Who broke the window? Him. 2nd person. 1st person. One another and each other are not pure reflexive pronouns. § I can be used to make a clause more emphatic. (formal) Than + object pronoun is necessary § Her improvement in English impressed him more than me.in a formal language. § He and I are going to shopping.the subject pronoun being one. § John is taller than him.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE 3rd person. Some verbs are always followed by a reflexive pronoun. It is used to make a verb transitive: § Take care of yourself.

or if thre is any possible ambiguity who and whom are to be used. I have found the solution that you'll understand. That is the person that they found guilty. which is not used for human subjects or objects. The girl who he was talking to looked pretty. offered him a permanent job.If the clause is a non-defining relative clause. She is one of the girls that joined the party. We shall see the play which you like best. It can also be used istead of which and it is sometimes used instead of who and whom.. She is one of the girls who joined the party. that as a relative pronoun never has a preposition before it. It has separate forms for the singular and plural Singular mine yours his hers its Plural ours yours theirs theirs theirs 1st 2nd 3rd M 3rd F 3rd N DEMONSTRATIVE pronoun indicates position in space in relation with the speaker or distance in time. The only words allowed to come before a relative pronoun is preposition or conjunction.informal I noticed whom he was calling. The company that he had been working for in he summer. whom is considered very formal. and that is why who is sometimes used instead I noticed who he was calling. . who and whom are restricted to human antecedents. and it refers back to a noun phrase or pronoun that was just mentioned.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE POSSESSIVE pronoun indicates the owner or its associated item.any preposition is placed after the verb phrase instead of before the relative pronoun..formal in informal writing and speech. Singular Plural near this these far that those RELATIVE pronoun has the same form with the interrogative pronoun but it links a subordinate clause to a main clause which is called relative.

It is still used in writing. or a group of persons or things. half. It defines: a) general amounts and quantities: most.informal Whom do you have in mind? . Informal usage places the preposittion at the end of the clause and it is most common. Whose is the car in front? What firm does the car belong to? whom is the object form for who. INTERROGATIVE pronouns are who. avoided in casual conversation. all.informal About what are complaining? . what can also be used with a suitable verb.formal To whom do you speak? .is used to identify a particular person or object in a group. Who do you have in mind? . What did you cook for dinner? Which. neither Neither of them passed the examination. whom.is used to ask about things in general. Which one do you prefer? Whose. enough. many. What are you complaining about? .in which gender and number are not madeclear. whose that are used to refer only to people. noneany.formal? the object forms of the interrogative pronoun are also used after a preposition. They are known under the general heading of Wh words.a thing. what refer to people and things too. some. It can be either a subject or an object. Who.formal INDEFINITE pronoun can refer to a person.is a possessive form and it is addressing to the possesor. . Which.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE the object form of a relative pronoun can be left out entirely if the noun referred to is unambigous. several. each Some of the comission members came and asked about the amendments. b) Choice or alternatives: either. Who is singing? What.is used to ask about people in general. both.Which can be considered as a very formal word. That is the house that I bought recently.

regarding. till. round. off. by. He went in. on. over. during. None of the children has finished their work. prior. pending. near. PREPOSITIONS relate different parts of the clause toeach other. The choice of a preposition changes completely the meaning. of. I went through a bad patch. unto. across. Has anybody finished his or her work for today? Has anybody finished their work for today? pronouns from a and b are often used like partitives. The person (who) we were thinking of. underneath.under the table • an -ing clause:. • Preposition can combine with other words to render new meanings. under.until. inside. beside. upon. outside. from.within. without. to. alongside. top. after. per. together with. some prepositions can be used with more than one meaning according to the time and place for which it is used. on. up. than. • Prepositional phrase is used as an adverbial or a post modifier.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE c) undefined singular or multiple persons and things. re. SOMEONE SOMEBODY SOMETHING no one nobody nothing anyone anybody anything everyone everybody everything Formal usage permits only the use of a following singular form.with of and a noun phrase or a personal pronoun. That's the person of whom we were thinking. out of Prepositions are usually followed by: • a noun phrase:. about.under • complex prepositions: due to. towards. In informal language a preposition may end a relative clause rather than come before it. Here is a list of prepositions. via. in spite of. along. through. since.despite. There are: • prepositions of location that can indicate: . onto. behind.Thank you for taking care of my baby. before. There are: • simple prepositions: in. • relative pronoun (Wh-word). below. He took it through. as. for. on top of. amid. but informal language uses the plural form their or theirs and avoids the awkward his or her. throughout. around. into. opposite. The documents that you can see on the table has been finally concluded. beyond. past. against. like. beneath. in. between. bar. pro. above. at. with. The words in italics can also be used as adeverbs aboard. down.

after. location as a line:along. place as an area: • over.ECONOMIC ENGLISH FOR UPPER INTERMEDIATE 1. in b. on. in. . at. a period or a point of time which marks a change: before. outside 3. unti.on • prepositions of time that can indicate: a. by. across. near 4. something or someone being enclosed: • within. from. off 2. being at a certain point: • on. inside. a point in time or a date: at. on. over. the direction in which somethingis moving • towards. onto 5. since.

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