Tipologia de Intervenção 1.

1 – Sistema de Aprendizagem

MANUAL APONTAMENTOS

Curso: DESIGNAÇÃO Domínio/Unidade de Formação: Módulo: Duração: Formador(a):

TÉCNICO DE APOIO À GESTÃO

COMUNICAR EM LÍNGUA INGLESA CONHECER OS PROBLEMAS DO MUNDO ACTUAL – UFCD 2.2 50 HORAS ALEXANDRA OLIVEIRA

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Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira

Objectivo do Documento: Este Manual foi concebido pelo Formador(a) do Módulo referenciado. Pretende-se que seja usado como elemento de Estudo e de apoio ao tema Abordado. O Manual é um Complemento da Formação e do Módulo, não substitui os objectivos das Sessões de Formação mas sim complementaas.

Condições de utilização: Este Manual não pode ser reproduzido, sob qualquer forma, sem a autorização da ACIB.

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Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios:

Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira

Índice
Referencial.........................................................................................................................5 I. II. III.    IV. V.  VI.  VII. VIII. XIV.  XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. I. SOCIAL EXCLUSION AND SOLIDARITY.....................................................................................6 .....................................................................................6 FILM.........................................................................................................................8 .........................................................................................................................8 POVERTY....................................................................................................................9 ....................................................................................................................9 Poverty and Insecurity in the world............................................................................10 What it Means to Live in Poverty................................................................................11 Poorest of the Poor.....................................................................................................11 THE WORLD’S UNSCHOOLED...........................................................................................11 ...........................................................................................11 HOMELESSNESS...........................................................................................................12 ...........................................................................................................12 Contributing causes of homelessness.........................................................................12 AIDS.......................................................................................................................13 .......................................................................................................................13 AIDS Around the World...............................................................................................13 RUBBER WRISTBANDS...................................................................................................14 ...................................................................................................14 THE UNIVERSAL
DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS......................................................................14 ......................................................................14

ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION.........................................................................................19 .........................................................................................19

Why is atmosphere important?...................................................................................19 CLIMATE CHANGE........................................................................................................22 ........................................................................................................22 POPULATION AND
THE

ENVIRONMENT...................................................................................22 ...................................................................................22

ENVIRONMENT – PLANET DESTRUCTION................................................................................23 ................................................................................23 THE 3 R’S OF RECYCLING................................................................................................24 ................................................................................................24 SIMPLE PRESENT..........................................................................................................25 ..........................................................................................................25

(CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES)......................................................................................................23 ......................................................................................................23 GRAMMAR 25

Questions and negatives..................................................................................................26 II. III.  SIMPLE PAST..............................................................................................................27 ..............................................................................................................27 FUTURE TENSE...........................................................................................................28 ...........................................................................................................28 FUTURO
COM

GOING TO.............................................................................................28 TO.............................................................................................28
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................................2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira  IV.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................30  Type 2........................................................................31 ........................................................................................................28 AND COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE...........................................  FUTURO COM WILL......Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2.........30 BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................29 IF CLAUSES.........................................................................................................................................29 ....................................................................................31 BIBLIOGRAPHY P4 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: .................................. V...28 WILL.............................................................................30 Type I........................................................30 ......................................................................................................................................

2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira REFERENCIAL P5 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: .Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2.

Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira I. Social Exclusion and Solidarity WHAT IS SOCIAL EXCLUSION? Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: P6 .

But you're still fucking peasants as far as I can see. And you think you're so clever and classless and free.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. SONG WORKING CLASS HERO BY GREEN DAY As soon as you’re born they make you feel small By giving you no time instead of it all Till the pain is so big you feel nothing at all A working class hero is something to be A working class hero is something to be They hurt you at home and they hit you at school They hate you if you're clever and they despise a fool Till you're so fucking crazy you can't follow their rules A working class hero is something to be A working class hero is something to be When they've tortured and scared you for twenty odd years Then they expect you to pick a career When you can't really function you're so full of fear A working class hero is something to be A working class hero is something to be Keep you doped with religion and sex and tv. Focusing on social inclusion means emphasizing things like access to services‚ good social networks‚ decent housing‚ adequate information and support‚ and the ability to exercise basic rights.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira Social exclusion means being unable to access the things in life that most of society takes for granted. A working class hero is something to be A working class hero is something to be There's room at the top they are telling you still But first you must learn how to smile as you kill If you want to be like the fools on the hill A working class hero is something to be Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: P7 . It is a build-up of problems across several aspects of people’s lives. I.

how could a street kid know so much? Desperate to prove his innocence. the girl he loved and lost. well just follow me If you want to be a hero. an 18 year-old orphan from the slums of Mumbai. Written by Fox Searchlight Pictures Eighteen year old Jamal Malik is having an amazing answering streak on "Kaun Banega Crorepati?" (2000). well just follow me II. Jamal tells the story of his life in the slum where he and his brother grew up. Film SLUMDOG MILLIONAIRE Plot Summary (2008) The story of Jamal Malik. of their adventures together on the road.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. the Indian version of the television game show "Who Wants to Be a P8 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . Each chapter of his story reveals the key to the answer to one of the game show's questions. of vicious encounters with local gangs. he is just one question away from winning a staggering 20 million rupees on India's "Kaun Banega Crorepati?" (2000) (Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?) But when the show breaks for the night. and of Latika.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira A working class hero is something to be A working class hero is something to be A working class hero is something to be If you want to be a hero. Each chapter of Jamal's increasingly layered story reveals where he learned the answers to the show's seemingly impossible quizzes. But one question remains a mystery: what is this young man with no apparent desire for riches really doing on the game show? When the new day dawns and Jamal returns to answer the final question. who is about to experience the biggest day of his life. With the whole nation watching. police arrest him on suspicion of cheating. At the heart of its storytelling lies the question of how anyone comes to know the things they know about life and love. the Inspector and sixty million viewers are about to find out.

The police inspector shows the videotape and after each question. such as modern P9 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . Is Jamal cheating? Is it purely luck that they have asked him the questions to which he knows the answers? Seeing Jamal's life journey to this point ultimately answers these questions. Jamal.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira Millionaire" (1998). a self confessed non-genius who grew up in the slums of Mumbai. clothing and shelter. and prove his innocence. Perhaps it was all just meant to be. including those associated with the game show. They have evidence that Jamal has had no formal education and has been a career-thief as a youngster. his crush for Latika and their fight to survive on the streets to justify each correct answer. His motivation for being on the show also may provide some answers to his success. Poverty reduction has historically been a result of economic growth as increased levels of production. is close to wining twenty million rupees in the show "Kaun Banega Crorepati?" (2000) (Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?) hosted by Prem Kumar. However. the eighteen year-old orphan from the slums Jamal Malik is tortured by the policemen in a precinct accused of cheating a game show.com) III. Written by Claudio Carvalho. and are determined to question him using any method to find out how he even came close to winning anything.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. Relative poverty is the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country. can be doing so well on the show when others who are brighter. more educated and wealthier than him have failed. who they suspect of cheating a popular Indian TV game show "Kaun Banega Crorepati?" (2000). Rio de Janeiro. This is also referred to as absolute poverty or destitution. who has no education and works in a call center serving tea. question how someone like Jamal. or compared to worldwide averages. poverty had mostly been the norm.Poverty Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean water. who was both his guardian/protector and antagonist. health care. Before the industrial revolution. Jamal tells parts of his childhood with his brother Salim. and having a relationship since childhood with another orphaned child. nutrition. some. guided by his common sense and past experience. giving precise answers to the questions and raising suspicion of fraud. Written by rAjOo (gunwanti@hotmail. He's only one correct question away from the big prize. Brazil Mumbai's Police Sergeant Srinivas and his Superior detain and interrogate a suspect by the name of Jamal Malik. Salim. a girl named Latika. Written by Huggo In Mumbai. growing up with an older brother. His life journey includes being orphaned at an early age.

Inefficient institutions. it is in a state of perpetual war. There are no public systems of social security in the event of unemployment. And because there is so much sickness in the world today. We are more educated than our ancestors ever dreamed of. Electricity is a luxury. In western countries. underemployment and low income closes off the avenues of escape. Health services are thinly spread and in rural areas only rarely within walking distance. the same question: “what is wrong with the world?” The world today is richer than it has ever been before. Everyday. Today. Homes are constructed of impermanent materials and have neither piped water nor sanitation. given three-quarters of the world's poor are rural farmers. I ask myself. instability and insecurity. outside the reach of normal trade and communication. but children are needed for work and cannot be easily spared for schooling.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira industrial technology. education and infrastructure helps growth by increasing human and physical capital. pay is low and conditions often barely tolerable. Of the 4 billion people who live in our planet. notably savings. Just look at the contrast. It is sick with fear. In some developed countries. drought or disease affecting people or livestock can destroy livelihoods without hope of compensation. whereas in poor countries thousands of children starve to death in the desert sun. Permanent insecurity is the condition of the poor. when it is. everyday. will remain . Sick with power. they have mountains of butter melting to waste while in Asia and Latin America. and making financial services. where they exist. For them work is frequently not available or. Many hundreds of millions of people in the poorer countries are preoccupied solely with survival and elementary needs. sickness or death of a wage earner in the family. may be free and not too far away. . high birth rates. continued economic development is constrained by the lack of economic freedoms. . greed and even with its own richness. • Poverty and Insecurity in the world “When I wake up each morning and read the newspaper. they burn crops to keep up their prices. a peasant often has to pay half a day’s wage for cooking oil. corruption and political instability can also discourage investment. made more wealth available for those who were otherwise too poor to afford them. to the poor. Aid and government support in health. We have access to more knowledge. I ask myself everyday what. . The combination of malnutrition. I see nations at war with each other. Primary schools. then. we are now able to use the wealth of our world to our maximum benefit. Also. as I read the news. Sick with tension and terrorism. In the rich P10 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . nearly three quarters are undernourished and one quarter is overfed. illiteracy. investments in modernizing agriculture is considered the core of the antipoverty effort. With the help of science. accessible. especially to land. disease. is wrong with our world? I can answer that question with three words: it is sick. Economic liberalization includes extending property rights.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. The poorest of the poor . . Flood.

I hope that one ay all the people of the world will work together rather than fight each other. and for those who do. yet numbers don’t shine a light on the human tragedies. Many don’t have steady work.” says Vickie Coromac. she says. they may not have money to eat for a week. understanding. Yet the one thing that remains – and unites them – is their universal struggle. the only choice is to live with extended family… so sometimes as many as 15 people are crowded into a one-room shack. Another 150 million drop out with less than four years of education because of their parents’ poverty. says Kristi. says Connie Keyser. or clothes to wear. Many can’t get regular work.” states Kristi Barten Siwajek. based on mutual respect.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira countries. the poorest people are the single mothers. and the stench is unbearable. They would be considered somewhat prosperous in certain communities. At present. That’s how poor they are. “But they may not have beds.” • What it Means to Live in Poverty Statistics speak volumes about the extent of poverty that exists around the world. others have running water. And maybe they can’t even afford school supplies. enough to eat. or expose the pain and hopelessness of constant deprivation. and acceptance of the other. poverty continues to be complex. Children International’s regional director for South America. people are living next to a garbage dump. Rich or poor. and impoverished families have widely varying standards of living. and many live just a few dollars away from being homeless”. “It’s common for them to have trouble feeding their children. the reality we see over the world is the same: the world is sick. “But often. “In one Quezon City community. The World’s Unschooled Basic education is a powerful development tool – every extra year of school in very poor countries can raise earnings by 10 to 20 percent. life isn’t quite as difficult”. about 130 million boys and girls between the ages of 6 and 11 are not enrolled in school. they don’t chronicle the personal struggles that occur. But I am a dreamer. people die not of hunger but of over eating.” “For families who have steady incomes and homes built of better materials. they still won’t have access to medical care. and if they save money for a school uniform. electricity and indoor plumbing.” I. which represent some of the worst poverty imaginable. These children are virtually condemned to stay poor and rear their own children in poverty. The problem is most acute for girls. Children International’s regional director for Asia.” “While some families struggle with the smallest of needs.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. • Poorest of the Poor In South America. Fewer than P11 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . families live in homes built of trash. For many. Regardless of what the facts and figures reveal. “In the urban slums of the Philippines. they earn less than men. it is at war. They will establish a firm and lasting peace which promotes the unity and brotherhood.

The World Bank estimates it would take around $5 billion a year from all aid donors. and adequate housing. Nicaragua and Vietnam. Mozambique. They need increased international help so that they can meet the standards and qualify for international assistance. The New York Times.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira half of Africa’s girls finish primary school. where mental health services are unavailable or difficult to access. caused by many factors including unemployment and underemployment. The World Bank has identified 18 countries whose efforts to improve education qualify them for outside help. including lower birth rates. Those that do were promised sustained financial help from the developed world. especially when one considers that educating girls has dramatically positive effects. Poverty. 180 countries have agreed to send all children to primary school by 2015. ✔ ✔ Inavailability of employment opportunities. or are otherwise unable to maintain regular. Governments are expected to increase their own education spending and improve school quality. or in a public or private place not designed for use as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings. Education is the road to economic growth. reduced infant mortality and higher incomes. or they lack. The actual legal definition varies from country to country. But that has not yet been provided even though the amounts needed are not impossibly large. India. Five others. 1 July 2002. Nigeria and Congo.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. Pakistan. That is a huge loss. or among different entities or institutions in the same country or region. These include Ethiopia. regular. have more than a third of their children not in school. pay for. which do not yet qualify. in an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized. and adequate nighttime residence". P12 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: • Contributing causes of homelessness . Bangladesh. II. safe. Those countries already able to make good use of aid should not be left waiting. It is a basic human right. The major reasons and lack of causes for homelessness as documented by many reports and studies include: ✔ ✔ Substance abuse Mental disorder . The term homelessness may also include people whose primary nighttime residence is in a homeless shelter. "fixed. Homelessness Homelessness is the condition of and social category of people who don't have a regular house or dwelling because they cannot afford. Uganda.

roadways. In 2007. The most recent UNAIDS/WHO estimates show that. in which case the former occupants cannot find appropriate new housing and become homeless. with some of them living in containers. War or armed conflict. ✔ Forced eviction . especially in the Nea Ionia earthquake survivors container city provided by the government.5 million people were newly infected with HIV. • AIDS Around the World When AIDS first emerged. and most of these are likely to die over the next decade or so. and other governmental needs.1 million men. around 2. because they have seen and known people who have been killed by AIDS. Natural disaster. and in most cases their only property that survived the quake was their car. in 2007 alone. Such people are known in Greece as seismopathis meaning earthquake-struck. It is disappointing that the global numbers of people infected with HIV continue to rise. People are beginning to change risky behavior patterns. An example is the 1999 Athens earthquake in Greece in which many middle class people became homeless and are still without a home as of 2009. Aids Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Fear is the worst and last way of changing people's behavior and by the time this happens it is usually too late to save a huge number of that country's population. 33 million people around the world are now living with HIV. no one could have predicted how the epidemic would spread across the world and how many millions of lives it would change. communities and whole continents. Domestic violence. people lose their homes by government order to make way for newer upscale high rise buildings. 2. despite the fact that effective prevention strategies already exist. Now we know from experience that AIDS is caused by the virus HIV. I. women and children lost their lives. P13 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . and that it can devastate families.In many countries.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Lack of affordable healthcare. The compensation may be minimal.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. including but not limited to earthquakes and hurricanes.

2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira Late morning. If you buy one in the UK. Which one do you wear? P14 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . crossing her skinny legs. The yellow Live Strong wristband supports people who have or have had cancer. I'd have to get high before I could go see him. The first person to wear them was the footballer Thierry Henry. Its slogan is Make Poverty History. Rubber Wristbands Rubber wristbands are not just decorative . Rashan fought a combat he did not understand. pulls her thin robe across her narrow. These bands have an important part to play in the sporting world. especially in schools. There are many other bands: pink supports breast cancer sufferers. Medical experts warn that unless urgent actions are taken. about the same time Doris was diagnosed as having the disease and two months later after the boy's father succumbed to the illness. she says. particularly in football. For the next years. The boy's father. I. "Mostly my mother took care of him". The colours all come with a different message. a drug addict. your money will contribute to anti-racism campaigns all over Europe. Harlem Hospital. He had white spots on his lips and tongue." Rashan died a year ago with AIDS. while red is for people with heart diseases.. The boy was listless. Black and white bands with the slogan Stand up Speak up represent anti-racism. Heart Breast Cancer Awareness Stand up Speak up Make Poverty History Beat Bullying Live Strong Every day someone else is getting sick. She is here for the seventh time in two years.. losing weight. Her dark arms are riddled with small. round scars. 32. But the future may tell a different story. AIDS may become a predominantly minority disease.people wear them to show that they support a cause and that they feel strongly about it. He won the 1999 Tour de France and has won it seven times in a row! If you wear a blue band with the slogan Beat Bullying. Doris says the disease has changed her. had recently come out of prison and was not at all well himself. bony chest and lights a cigarette. And so are their lovers and their children. His brave fight against cancer was successful and he started a foundation to collect money to support other people in similar situations. you are against aggressive behaviour. "It was hard. A white band shows solidarity with countries suffering from poverty. In 1998 she brought her four-year-old son Rashan to the same hospital. A month ago Doris's five-year-old daughter Jamile received the deadly diagnosis. Doris White. So far only her eldest daughter has been spared. The American Cyclist Lance Armstrong was diagnosed with the illness when he was 25. “I will feel the guilt for the rest of my life".Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. says Doris. the hieroglyphs of chronic heroin abuse.

property. Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind. Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge. 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. justice and peace in the world.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira II. language. the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms. that human rights should be protected by the rule of law. Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures. political or other opinion. without distinction of any kind. • Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration. Furthermore. sex. Now. PREAMBLE Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom. as a last resort. The universal declaration of human rights On December 10. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. in co-operation with the United Nations. Article 2. colour. religion. and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people. birth or other status. national and international. P15 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights. Whereas it is essential. to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance. to the end that every individual and every organ of society. such as race. no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political. Article 1. keeping this Declaration constantly in mind. national or social origin. Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve. if man is not to be compelled to have recourse. • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. to rebellion against tyranny and oppression. both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations. in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.

Article 3.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs. • • Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. • • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence. Article 10. P16 • Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . Article 7. Article 11. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. Article 12. home or correspondence. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal. • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy. Article 5. Article 13. • Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. and to return to his country. Article 4. detention or exile. • • Everyone has the right to life. Article 6. Everyone has the right to leave any country. slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. family. liberty and security of person. Article 9.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. at the time when it was committed. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. under national or international law. including his own. nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. • • Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. • No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel. Article 8. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. trust. whether it be independent. • Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought. have the right to marry and to found a family. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality. Article 16. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. practice. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. Article 19. and freedom. Article 17. • Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. either alone or in community with others and in public or private. worship and observance. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. • • Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. nationality or religion. • • • • • Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. Article 21. • • • Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. directly or through freely chosen representatives. • • P17 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government. • • Everyone has the right to a nationality. No one may be compelled to belong to an association. this shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. conscience and religion. this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief. Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. • Men and women of full age. to manifest his religion or belief in teaching. without any limitation due to race.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira Article 14. Article 18. during marriage and at its dissolution. Article 15. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage. this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek. Article 20.

Education shall be free. without any discrimination. It shall promote understanding. housing and medical care and necessary social services. • Everyone has the right to education. clothing. to free choice of employment. Elementary education shall be compulsory. • Everyone.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira Article 22. of the economic. sickness. • Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and of his family. shall enjoy the same social protection. widowhood. if necessary. and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. • • Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community. and supplemented. to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. • Everyone has the right to rest and leisure. through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State. old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. Article 24. by other means of social protection. Article 27. All children. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity. as a member of society. Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific. • • • Everyone has the right to work. to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. Article 26. has the right to equal pay for equal work. at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. disability. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. including food.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. P18 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: • • • . tolerance and friendship among all nations. including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Everyone. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. literary or artistic production of which he is the author. Article 23. whether born in or out of wedlock. • Article 25. has the right to social security and is entitled to realization. and the right to security in the event of unemployment. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. racial or religious groups. social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

running factories and making the products we buy in shops. smoke. It is damaging crops. The one nearest the Earth – the troposphere – is where clouds and weather occur. The process of burning fossil fuels produce air pollution. Air pollution is being generated at an unprecedented rate nowadays. or soil by materials that interfere with human health. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms. wildlife and buildings. • Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. However. Article 30. oil. It is affecting humans’ health particularly that of children and the elderly. From about 15km to about 50km above sea level is the stratosphere. air pollution is threatening the stability of the climate on which life on Earth depends. gas and oil – which releases CO2 when they are burned. or the natural functioning of the ecosystems. noise. These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. The atmosphere is constantly circulating and together with the action of the sun and the oceans. and affects the processes of life from conception and growth to health and disease. Human beings’ use of energy was altered dramatically during the Industrial Revolution. chemicals and litter. This contains the ozone layer. Cos plays an important role in trapping heat in the world’s atmosphere. Humans have been increasing the quantities of some trace gases ever since the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. Most alarmingly. As Cos level rise. it generates the Earth’s climate. the quality of life. POLLUTION This may be defined as contamination of air. group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein. This problem is known as climate change. which protects the Earth from the sun’s harmful rays. the world’s climate heats up. Article 29. Pollution of the environment can be caused by many different things. It has only recently been realised that the reverse is also true: humans can affect climate. • • Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. Energy is the basis of industrial civilisation: it is what drives modern life. for example. the energy which human beings rely on comes primarily from fossil fuels – coal. public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. • • XIV. water. Climate has a vital role to play in animal and plant life. all requires energy. Keeping our homes warm and lit. everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira Article 28. Pollution of the atmosphere is the result P19 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . Environmental Preservation Why is atmosphere important? The atmosphere is made up of layers. • Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State. powering machines like motor cars.

Apart from the wealth pf products they provide. which may then be carried long distances from their source before they are deposited by rain. Contamination of water.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira of emissions from industrial plants. The dry form of such precipitation is just as damaging in the environment as the liquid forms. internal combustion engines. they are an essential part of the Earth’s metabolism. Exhaust fumes contain a cocktail of gases which may trigger asthma attacks and other serious health problems. AIR POLLUTION This may be defined as contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous. There’s also a big threat from chemicals used by industry and farmers which damage the ozone layer. Farmers use fertilizers and pesticides on their crops to help them grow. industry and power stations all contribute to air pollution. WATER POLLUTION Factories. Virgin temperate forests such as those in Siberia. and other sources. agricultural and industrial waste products. municipal. If forms when oxides of sulphur and nitrogen combine with atmospheric moisture to yield sulphuric and nitric acids. and new products are still being discovered. Canada. or can attack materials. RAINFORESTS Apart from their intrinsic splendour. WASTE P20 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . lakes and seas is caused by domestic. Many of the world’s major food plants originate in the rainforests. Some industries release a large number of chemicals into our waterways and sewers. farms and individuals can all help t cause water pollution. rivers. USA. currently a subject of great controversy because of the widespread environmental damage for which it has been blamed. The se chemicals get washed away and many eventually end up polluting our water supply. over half the world’s tropical forests have disappeared. Among air pollutants emitted by natural resources. nuclear. Reduce visibility. some parts of the country are still affected by industrial air pollution. incinerators. Sewage is also discharged into rivers and seas and can threaten human health. liquid or solid waste or by products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals. the rainforests are the source of products vital to our society. and have been used by forest people for millennia. Sometimes liquid manure (slurry) leaks from farms into our rivers and streams polluting them and sometimes killing fish. Since the Second World War. only the radioactive gas radon is recognized as a major health threat. Finland and Poland are also coming under increasing pressure for timber and pulp production. tropical forests have been called the world’s air conditioners.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. Cars and lorries are clogging up our towns and polluting the air we breathe. ACID RAIN Form of air pollution. But it isn’t just cars! Although factories now have strict controls. And even today an area the size of the United Kingdom is cut and burnt each year. Power stations also emit gases which may cause acid rain. Other plants are invaluable medicines. or produce undesirable odours. The pollution may also take the form of snow or fog or be precipitated in dry forms. Cars.

Everyone adds to the problem of waste. Today. When they produce these things. which may be useful. Climate Change For more than a century. This will produce heat. people have relied on fossil fuels such as oil. they produce waste too. of abandoned objects. your dirty bath water. we live in a “throw away” world. an old car. metal and clothes can be sold to leaders for recycling. Most of them need to heat their homes as well. worldwide. which are another kind of waste. One of the unsightly aspects of our society is the amount of unauthorized dumping. If you want to do something better than dumping. depending on the colour of the glass which can then be sold to the glass manufacturers. dress and travel about. because you can not really dispose of waste. These objects will only rot away very slowly. They produce waste too. you can change waste into something different. They buy things. but you have not disposed of it. they use them and they throw their old things away. just by being there. ships and planes carry people from place to place. people and the environment are P21 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . For example you can burn it. This kind of waste is called toxic waste. Now.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. Cars. Waste can be many things. There are five billion people in the world. Some waste id dangerous because it contains poisons. Farms ands factories produce the things that people need. DUMPING OR DISPOSAL We often talk about waste disposal. You have dumped it. In other towns the householders are asked by the local authority to sort their refuse into separate sacks so that paper. trains and buses. All living things. This is why energy conservation is so vital. coal and gas for their energy needs. especially people make waste. Another example of recycling is a ‘bottle tank’: this is a scheme in which householders deposit old bottles in containers. CONSERVATION Recycling and reclamation are both examples of conservation. RECYCLING In some places tin cans are removed from household waste and converted back into steel and tin which an then be sold for reuse. This includes an understanding of the need of conservation in today’s technological society. Any measures we can take to cut down the use of fossil fuels are a contribution towards conserving precious resources. Conservation is important because our civilisation is using up natural resources and fossil fuels at an alarming rate – resources which can not be replaced. and it is the problem of toxic waste which is worrying many governments today.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira The main reason for pollution is waste – something which is no longer needed. It can be yesterday’s newspaper. or smoke from a factory chimney. but it may also produce poisonous smoke and gases. but disposal is really the wrong word. Consumer education in its widest sense means being aware of our responsibility to the community as a whole. XIV. creating an eyesore for many years if not removed. They all need to eat. often in rural areas. Suppose that you put your waste on a rubbish dump or a controlled tip or even a sanitary landfill.

its impact and the predictions of what is to come. is a crucial first step in this process. disruption of water supplies. immediate international action must be taken to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (the gases that cause global warming). is the worst environmental problem we face today. People are changing the climate that made life on earth possible and the results are disastrous – extreme weather events. A very small proportion of the population consumes the majority of the world’s resources. The richest fifth consumes 86% of all goods and services and produces 53% of all carbon dioxide emissions. At the same time. Spreading deserts and declining water tables in a third of the planet are contributing to famine. Major investments must be made in renewable energy. sustainable energy solutions and phase out fossil fuels. However. and destruction of prime fish nurseries.3% of goods and services and accounts for 3% of CO2 output.500 human lives but loses one or more entire species of animal or plant life – a least 27. such as droughts and floods. XV. Two thirds of the world’s population lives within 100 miles of an ocean. loss of coral reefs and much more. governments and individuals must begin now to phase in clean. melting Polar regions. or the world may soon face irreversible global climate damage. while the poorest fifth consumes 1. P22 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . We have lost more than one-quarter of the planet’s birds. they increase consumption. social unrest and migration. over-exploited or depleted. Ratifying the Kyoto Protocol.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira experiencing the consequences. the climate treaty finally agreed at Marrakech in November 2001. damage more of the earth and generate more waste. particularly in developing economies. The solutions already exist. the drainage of wetlands and development of beaches. the greenhouse gas reduction targets agreed at Marrakech are only a fraction of what is needed to stop dangerous climate change. Human action has transformed between one-third and one-half of the entire land surface of the earth. As nations develop. the world adds another 3. Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar offer abundant clean energy that is safe for the environment and good for the economy. caused by burning fossil fuels. inland sea or freshwater lake: 14 of the world’s 15 largest megacities (10 million or more people) are coastal. It is not too late to slow global warming and avoid the climate catastrophe that scientists predict. Scientists and governments worldwide agree on the latest and starkest evidence of human-induced climate change. rising sea levels.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. Every 20 minutes. but the larger picture is more complex. This simple reasoning is true as far as it goes. Corporations. Global warming. Their impacts include growing loads of sewage and other waste.000 species per year. Population and the Environment The link between population growth and environmental impact seems obvious at first glance: more people consume more resources. and twothirds of the major marine fisheries are fully exploited.

Elimination of thousands of valuable plants. foam packaging. including the world’s largest rainforest in Brazil (Amazon) . . refrigerators. Consequences: – Rise of the earth’s temperature.Demand for products which come from trees. etc. conservation. – Rise the level of the seas. and market mechanisms raise prices for some diminishing resources. – Acid rain. – Animals are forced to leave their natural habitats.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2.Need for more space in order to build more houses. Hole in the ozone layer Causes – man made chemicals (CFC’s) from aerosols. – Droughts.Harms / damages the air because trees and forests as very important filters (they take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen).2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira Technological advances can mitigate some of the impact of population growth. – Melting of polar ice caps. triggering substitution. . (e. . .Agricultural expansion and production.stop protecting the earth against the sun’s ultraviolet rays. Animal and plant extinction Causes: – Man’s expanding need for land. – Hunting of endangered species.: paper) . Consequences: P23 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: .Destruction of many forests. XVI. recycling and technical innovation so as to prevent depletion.Destruction of habitats for people and animals. – Cars without catalytic converters. Consequences: .skin cancer.Burning of forests.Floods.g. Consequences . Greenhouse effect Causes: – Emissions from coal-burning power plants and other pollutants that come from burning carbon based fuels trap the heat in the atmosphere. . Environment – Planet Destruction (Causes and consequences) Deforestation Causes: . .

Dangerous spilling Causes: – Spilling accidents. It means shopping with the environment in mind. You have bought your laundry soap like this for years. either food on energy. mountain gorillas. Remember. Think about what else you can buy in bulk! Avoid buying throw aways that can’t be recycled. Kenya. It is cheaper and eliminates small containers and excess packaging. every time you make a purchase. – People and environment will suffer for generations. – Terrible consequences for the environment. Make a list of what you need before you go shopping. XIV. elephants. you cast your vote to protect the environment. Consequences: – Killing of animal species as well as people.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. China’s giant panda. e. etc) Consequences: – Uncontrolled development. Nuclear plants Causes: – Nuclear accidents. this will reduce impulse buying. Consequences: – Release radioactive gases. – Nuclear waste which is discharged to seas turning it radioactive and killing thousands of fishes and other sea animals.g. – Excess of garbage. Uncontrolled population growth Causes: – Excess of population (Mexico.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira – Animals and plants face extinction. – Excess of consumption. which accounts for 50 percent of our domestic trash. Africa’s black rhinos. The 3 r’s of recycling Reduce Reuse Recycle Reducing waste does not mean you have to reduce what you buy. Buy in Bulk! Buy in bulk. Paper or Plastic? – Use Canvas P24 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . Consider the environment impact of each product before you buy it. – Life-long health problems.

reuse it. Quando falamos sobre acções regulares ou estados permanentes nós usamos o presente simples I work for IBM. They travel a lot. Break down corrugated cardboards boxes.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. Almost all glass. When we talk about regular actions or permanent states we use the simple present tense. she ou it) P25 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . Wipe or lightly rinse all cans and make sure they are dry before recycling them. Reuse shopping bags or buy canvas bags and use them when you shop. Many different materials can be recycled. Although durable goods may cost a little more at first. copper. plastic. plastics. Acrescentamos -s -ies ou –es no final dos verbos nas terceiras pessoas do singular (he. and metal containers can be reused for storage in the kitchen or the garage. they will save you money and help save the environment in the long run. motor oil. Recycling means collecting. if you can’t reduce something. computer paper. and if you can’t reuse it. Motor oil should be collected in no larger than five gallon containers and be free of contaminants. it will become second nature. corrugated cardboard. Separate aluminium. Before throwing away. processing. and ultimately using materials that were once discarded. We speak English and German. think about each item can be reused. car batteries. Buy durable high quality goods for a longer life outside the landfill. brass. she or it). steel cans. Grammar I. We add -s -ies ou –es to the end of the verb in the third person singular (he. steel and tin cans from other metals. B. glass bottles and jars. Here are some great ways to reuse them when you shop. tin cans. recycle it. and appliances to charity. marketing. Hospitals and nursing homes often accept old magazines and schools reuse many items in their art and theatre classes. Reducing is the best way to protect the environment. Prepare glass by rinsing and removing metal or plastic rims and lids. Think before you toss. Simple Present A. However. and tires. You live in London. scrap iron and steel. Prepare newspapers by folding them into brown paper bags or bundle with string into one foot stacks. Among these are aluminium cans. office paper. Donate clothing.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira Learning to reuse is easy and after a little practice. furniture. Be sure to use both sides of a piece of paper before recycling it.

she or it). I don’t. s. What languages does she speak? Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: She speaks Finnish and English. They don’t (do not) work in the Do you live here? Do you speak English? afternoon. ch do→does mix→mixes kisskisses fizz→fizzes finishfinishe s teach→teache s fazer misturar beijar borbulhar terminar ensinar Verbs that end in –y after a consonant (verbos que terminam em –y depois de uma consoante) Verbs that end in –y after a vowel (verbos que terminam em –y depois de uma vogal) Questions and negatives -y -ies studystudies fly→flies estudar voar -s play→plays jogar/brincar A. Yes.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. sh. I don’t (do not) live in Osaka. I do. Para formular perguntas e frases negativas utilizamos o auxiliar do/does. They finish work at 13:00. To make questions and negative sentences we use the auxiliary do/ does. No.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira Most verbs (maioria dos verbos) -s love loves amar -es Verbs that end in: (verbos que terminam em) o. We use does for the third person (he. z. P26 . Where do you live? When do they finish work? I live in Tokyo. x. B.

Yes. he does. I. Simple Past P27 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . No.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira She doesn’t (does not) speak Does he smoke? Does she work with them? Spanish.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. she doesn’t.

Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. Future Tense Se quisermos falar de acções.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira • Forma Positive = I/ you/ he/she/ it /we/they + verb (uma forma) [ Excepto o verbo to be que tem duas formas: was e were] Regular verbs = verb + ed continue – continued phone . com GOING TO ou o Futuro com WILL. que irão decorrer no futuro.phoned be – was/ were have – had do . Geralmente ocorre com expressões como: yesterday. last week/ night/ month/year.did Negative = I/ you/ he/she/ it /we/they + did + not+ verb Question = did + I/ you/ he/she/ it/we/they + verb? Exceptions: verbo TO BE Positive = I / he/she/ it was you/ we/they were Negative = I / he/she/ it was not you/ we/they were not Question = was + I/ he/she/ it? were you/we/they? Irregular verbs = different conjugation (check IRREGULAR VERBS) • Uso Usa-se para falar de acções do passado. poderemos utilizar o Futuro P28 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . a few hours/ minutes/ days ago É o principal tempo verbal em histórias: “Once upon a time there was a little girl called Little Red Ridding Hood…” Examples: She got up at 7 o’clock yesterday. John wasn’t home last night Did they go to the cinema last week? I.

Ex:.-‘ll.  falar sobre intenções e planos futuros definidos. Ex: Next Summer I’ll go to the beach. FORMAÇÃO: GOING TO + INFINITIVE Ex: I am going to go out with some friends. that’s for sure. Ex: When I grow up. I will be a computer operator.  Futuro com WILL O Futuro com Will é usado:  para fazer previsões Ex: Barcelona will win next Sunday. look! It’s going to rain in a minute. you will get good marks.  FORMAÇÃO: Will + INFINITIVE Com orações condicionais Ex:.  Com orações de tempo. Nota: Will também poderá aparecer escrito em short form.I’m going to see my grandma tomorrow.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira  Futuro com GOING TO O Futuro com Going To é usado para:  fazer previsões sobre o futuro próximo. I’m going to spend my holidays in the States.If you study. Ex: Oh. I.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2. One syllable tall nice Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: Comparative and Superlative COMPARATIVE + than + er or + r taller nicer the + SUPERLATIVE + est or + st tallest nicest P29 . I will travel a lot.When I’m rich. Ex:.

Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira double the final consonant when there’s only one vowel preceding it big bigger biggest sad sadder saddest P30 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: .

I wouldn’t go on holiday in October. • Type Two syllables I ending in –er Formation clever cleverer IF Clauses COMPARATIVE + than the + SUPERLATIVE + er +est If + Present If. Bibliography Moda + inf P31 WebPages http://www.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira II. Modal verb + infinitive (without “to”) If she finishes the work early. must.Main Will + Imperative Simple happy happier clause clause Modalending may. worst • Type little 2much far less least more most further/farther furthest/farthest Formation If-clause In the If-clause we can use were instead of was in all persons.asp Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: . If Sheilabad the job. In this case. sheworse gets will move to Paris. in –y might. Use We use the second conditional: • •  To express unreal or imaginary situations in the present or future. she would buy that skirt.uk/AgeConcern/social_inclusion_what. If I were you. common and quiet other In the If-clause we can use Present Perfect if we refer to an action that has already finished.ageconcern.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2.org. she may come with us. I would give a party. polite. you can go out. should…) + infinitive cleverest (-y + ier) happiest (-y + iest) ending in –ow yellow yellower yellowest ending in -le simple simpler simplest ending in –ure secure securer securest and the adjectives: handsome. endings have finished yourboring most boring In the main clause we can use instead of will + infinitive: more+ adjective most + adjective correct more correct most correct • • Imperative (to give instructions or commands) If you miss the train. you could get a job in Italy. If she were thinner. pleasant. If I had a big house. If + Past Simple W In the main clause we can use could / might + infinitive instead of would + infinitive. To give advice. infinitive verb (can. Use Irregular comparatives and superlatives We use the first conditional to express something that it is possible or probable will happen good better best in the present or future. we use the phrase If I were you in the If-clause. If you spoke Italian. If you boring more homework. take the bus.

com P32 Projecto Financiado no âmbito dos Apoios: .html http://en.wikipedia.answers.wikipedia.eslprintables.jrank.org/pages/1314/Poverty.org/en/documents/udhr/ www.com/topic/social-exclusion http://family.Manual de Apontamentos: Conhecer os Problemas do Mundo Actual – UFCD 2.org/wiki/AIDS http://www.org/wiki/Homelessness http://en.2 Domínio /Unidade de Formação: Comunicar em Língua Inglesa Formador(a): Alexandra Oliveira       http://www.un.

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