This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
G r eek i n a N u t s hel l
An Outline of GREEK GRAMMAR with BRIEF READING LESSONS Designed for Beginners in the New Testament ORIGINALLY BY
JAMES STRONG, S.T.D.,
Professor of Exegetical Theology in Drew Theological Seminary
NEW YORK: PHILLIPS & HUNT CINCINNATI: CRANSTON & STOWE Copyright 1878 by NELSON & PHILLIPS New York
FORMAT AND PRONUNCIATION ENHANCEMENTS BY
TIMOTHY STOUFFER Bible Truth Lion
opyright © 2008 Timothy Stouffer – Bible Truth Lion.org - All Rights Reserved
This little Manual was originally prepared for the NORMAL CLASS, at the request of the editor of that Journal, and was at the same time expected to form an instruction book at the Sunday-School Assembly annually held at Chautauqua. This accounts for its form in twelve series of two pages each. The reading lessons, however, have been made sufficiently full for subsequent study. Of course the simplest elements only of the Greek language can be comprised in such narrow limits; nor can a full vocabulary or ready facility be acquired in so short a course. Nevertheless, a good beginning may be made, and that is “half the battle” in any enterprise. It is believed that a thorough mastery of this small volume will prove a conquest over all the real difficulties of the original tongue of the New Testament. J. S.
Dr. James Strong’s work in the field of Biblical Linguistics has been an invaluable contribution to successive generations of Bible students. I believe, as did he, that mastery of this small Greek study volume will provide adequate resources to further education in the Koine Greek dialect and invariably further understanding of the New Testament Christian Scriptures overall, while even affording insight into the Old Testament Scriptures as well; both of which sometimes have Truth masked behind a veil of a second generation translational language such as English, or any other language for that matter. This small volume has been enhanced through interpreting the shortcut abbreviations which were so often deemed necessary in times past as space saving devices for printing of the text, yet left much confusion for the beginning English reader who has undertaken the task of learning New Testament Greek to further his or her understanding in their walk with GOD. That has hopefully been alleviated through this enhanced edition of "Strong - Stouffer Greek in a Nutshell Nutshell". Strong
GREEK IN A NUTSHELL
1. READING 1. § 1. THE KOINE (NT) GREEK ALPHABET The New Testament Greek (koinh’ - Koine (koy-nayh') = common as we common), know it, has evolved from earlier forms with the following alphabet:– Characters 24 Koine Characters Name and Pronunciation Transliterated Sound al' Aα Alpha - [al'-fah al fah] a - as in man, [arm1] a a bay' Ββ Beta - [bay'-tah bay tah] b gam' Γγ Gamma - [gam'-mah gam mah] g - as in go, [king2] ng del' ∆δ Delta - [del'-tah del tah] d ep' Eε Epsilon - [ep'-see-lahn ep see-lahn] e - as in met e dzay' Ζζ Zeta - [dzay'-tah dzay tah] dze dz - as in adz 3 dz Ηη Θ, ϑ, or θ Ιι Κ, κ, or k Lλ Μμ Νν Ξξ Οο Ππ Ρρ Σ, σ, or final ς Ττ Uυ Fφ Χχ Ψψ ω ay' Eta - [ay'-tah ay tah] thay' Theta - [thay'-tah thay tah] eeIota - [ee-oh'-tah ee oh' tah] cap' Kappa - [cap'-pah cap pah] lamb' Lambda - [lamb'-dah lamb dah] Mu - [moo moo] moo noo] Nu - [noo noo ksee] Xi - [ksee ksee Omic om' Omicron - [om'-ee-krahn om ee-krahn] pee] Pi - [pee pee Rho - [hroh hroh] hroh sig' Sigma - [sig'-mah sig mah] Tau - [tow - pronounced like now] tow uh' Upsilon - [uh'-psee-lahn uh psee-lahn] fee] Phi - [fee fee khee] Chi - [khee khee psee] Psi - [psee psee oh' Omega - [oh'-meg-ah oh meg-ah] e - as in they ey thin th - as in th 4 i - as in tin, [machine5] i k l m n ks) x (ks ks ο - as in not o p r s - as in this s t - as in it6 t u - as in full u ph) f (ph) kh - as German ch7 ps ο - as in no o
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
or breathing else. ETC. or ξ (xi adze. machine). 6. 3. § 6. (except a very few monosyllables .[khee] ). ACCENT 3. stands on one of the last three syllables. with the exception of certain forms. which still has the principal stress). is placed on a syllable formed by the combination of two.2. this ϑ (theta) never has the guttural sound. (upsilon) always take the rough breathing. 4. 2. Every letter is sounded. which has no appreciable sound. κ (kappa). generally throw their accent. § 2. except as required by these rules. A few small words. and with the above exceptions. like th in this. to show the absence of that. wherever possible. Each word. man. χ (chi . (that given in the lexicon).called Atonics . 2 [ksee] ). When the last syllable has a long vowel or diphthong it stands on the syllable before the last. . In other parts of speech it stands on the same syllable as in the ground-form. ζ (zeta) always sounds like dz in adze. is only written in place of the acute on the last syllable when not before a pause. BREATHINGS. or next to the last syllable. go. on the last syllable of the preceding word (in addition to its own accent. like i in amiable or imbecile. in other situations a more consonant. . like t in nation or nature. BREATHINGS. the smooth breathing ( ’ ). ι (iota) has the long sound of ee (like i in machine when it ends an accented syllable. and only on a long vowel or a diphthong. § 7. as an acute. § 5. ( ` ). if accented. DIPHTHONGS. 3 4 5 obscure sound. The acute ( ʹ ). it stands as far toward the beginning of the word as the rules below allow. . takes the circumflex. it is generally sounded like k. which marks the place of the spoken tone. τ (tau) never has a sibilant sound. like a in arm at the end of a word and before ρ (rho) final or ρ followed by a different γ (gamma) has the nasal sound like ng in king when followed by γ (gamma). When the last syllable has a short vowel. The circumflex ( æ or ˜ ). 5. invariably the same. The grave accent. Otherwise it sounds like a in man. which is pronounced like the English h. called Enclitics nclitics. § 4. 6 7 nature. and the rough breathing ( ̔) on the second. Initial ρ (rho) and υ breathing. VOWELS.unaccented). Atonics § 3. has one of the following accents written over a vowel in it. ee. such a penult (next to last syllable). ( ̔) . hence only on the last. or when unemphatic. the first of which had an acute and the second a grave. Notes on the Alphabet 1 α (alpha) sounds broad. DIPHTHONGS. and double ρ (rho) in the middle of a word takes the smooth breathing ( ’ ) on the first. acute. In verbs. circumflex. It is understood to belong to all other syllables. χ (chi) from the difficulty of producing the true sound of χ. Otherwise it sounds like g in go. A vowel beginning a word takes either the rough breathing. which is the foundation of all the accents. imbecile.
§ 8. or doubtful. When two consonants come together the first is made homogeneous with the second. A smooth final mute is roughened before a vowel with the rough breathing. ( ; ). the semicolon. η (eta) and ω (omega). § 10. . and always before κ (kappa). § 11. § 15. Before μ (mu) a kappa-mute is changed into γ (gamma). are sometimes lengthened by derivation. the period. § 13.[dzay’-tah] tah] 14. and υ (upsilon). α (alpha).8.[fee] ψ (psi) . ( .[psee] ϑ (theta) – [thay’ζ (zeta) . In diphthongs the breathing and accent are written over the second vowel. although naturally short. ( .[pee] τ (tau) . 9.[khee] Sibilant (with “s”) ξ (xi) . § 9. The diphthongs are as follows:– Proper With Iota Subscript αι [ah’hee] sounds like [ă (ah) + ē (ee) ] ă ᾳ=α (spoken as one syllable = ay ay) ει sounds like eye ῃ=η ῳ=ω οι sounds like oy (as in oil) et) υι sounds like we (as in sweet αυ sounds like ow (as in now) ευ sounds like you (or eu as in feud) gh) ου sounds like oo (or ou as in through 10. which last. ι (iota). long. nor can successive syllables begin with an aspirate (a consonant pronounced with aspiration). The vowels are short.[gam’mah] β (beta) .[ksee] φ (phi) . ε (epsilon) and ο (omicron). ( · ). Mutes of a different class must have the same degree of hardness according to the following classification:– Smooth Kappamutes Pi-mutes Tau-mutes κ (kappa) – [cap’pah] π (pi) . A rough mute is not doubled. ). A capital (initial) letter in other cases takes them before it. and the interrogation point. Improper ηυ = η and υ ωυ = ω and υ LESSON II EUPHONIC CHANGES § 12. § 14. as follows:– 13. a pi-mute into μ (mu). The punctuation marks are the comma. and a tau-mute into σ (sigma). before a different tau-mute it is changed into σ.[bay’-tah] δ (delta) Rough χ (chi) .[tow] Middle γ (gamma) . A tau-mute is sometimes dropped before σ (sigma). ).
rivers. clauses.16. to. sometimes for both. ( ' o r ’ ). § 16. are almost invariably masculine those of females. 19. μ (mu). The singular and plural are used as in English. infinitives. common that “common Greek dialect. three genders. nations. and winds. indeclinable words. and 3). before a pi-mute μ (mu). position. 27.Koine . into. and never occurs in the New Testament. etc. or as a compensation for the omission of a consonant. Compensation is not always thus made for the omission of a consonant. common” common NOUNS Nouns are of three declensions (descents). cities. § 19. The three declensions (descents). 17. § 27. or ρ (rho). by. They are readily learned by practice. or diphthongs respectively. countries. dialects. In the third declension (descent) especially the (grammatical) gender in many instances is arbitrary. etc. are only different modes of inflection (deviated suffixes). O! . A long vowel or diphthong is used as an equivalent for two (usually short) vowels in immediate succession. (like provincial pronunciation). the months. The cases express the relations of words to each other in a sentence. and its place indicated by the apostrophe. and plants.(koy-nayh') = “common to which the New Testament Greek belongs) they were merged in common”. for. the Attic being the pre-dominating dialect. depending upon their comparative strength. § 24. 2. 18. § 20. and some exceptions to most of the above. etc. A final vowel is sometimes elided (omitted) before another vowel. There are several other less important rules. all indicated by changes of termination (suffix). § 25. of. 25. (numbered 1. ν (nu) is appended to certain endings in σι [see] or ε (epsilon) before a pause or a vowel. it is changed into the same liquid. islands. The changes in the union of two vowels are various. but in later Greek (koinh’ . 20. it is comparatively rare. Toward. masculine. are usually feminine of the neuter gender are most feminine. three numbers. § 23. § 26. § 17. § 22. In. and words used as the symbol of a sound. trees. and always the names of the letters. ν (nu) before a kappa-mute becomes γ (gamma). 22. names of fruits and diminutives. and five cases. before σ (sigma) or ζ (zeta) it is dropped. § 21. before a liquid λ (lambda). Sometimes the omission occurs too far back in the derivation to be easily traced. There are several dialects which chiefly affect the vowels. ν (nu). and relation to the long vowels. The dual denotes two or a pair. § 18. as follows:– Names CASE Names Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative Use Subject of a finite verb Origin or Ownership Position or Manner Direction or Object Address Equivalent (Simple form) From. Names and designations of males.
The following are the terminations of the Second Declension CASES Singular Plural Masc.. Neut.. Fem. and in the Nominative. Voc. α α α .. precedes it. and Vocative when λ (lambda) or σ (sigma). The α (alpha) in the terminations (suffixes) of the singular is mostly used when ρ (rho). οιν Neut.. οιν 31. Neut. Accusative.Nom... Dat. Acc.Nom. Masc. The Vocative masculine singular is occasionally ος. Dat. or ι (iota) precedes it. ε ~ Gen. § 32. Dat.. and frequently when ν (nu). Nominative ς (or long vowel before final letter) (naked stem) ες Genitive ος ων Dative σι(ν ι σι ν) (naked stem) Accusative ν or α ας (like Nom.Nom. The following are the terminations (suffixes / endings) of the First Declension (descent):– CASES Singular Plural Masc. The following are the terminations of the Third Declension:– 32. LESSON III NOUNS– NOUNS–Continued 30. or Neut..) (naked stem) Vocative ες DualDual. Acc. ω ~ Gen.. Masc. Acc... § 31.. Neut. Masc.. The few feminine nouns of this declension take the masculine terminations.. and Fem. § 28. and Fem. α ~ Gen.. and Fem. Declension:– § 30. ος ον Nominative οι α Genitive ων ου Dative ῳ οις Accusative ους ον α Vocative ε ον οι α DualDual. Voc. Voc. § 29.28. ε (epsilon). Declension CASES Singular Plural Masc. αιν 29. A few nouns have α in the Genitive singular. Nominative ας or ης α or η αι Genitive ον ας or ης ῶν ᾳ or ῃ Dative αις Accusative αν or ην ας Vocative α or η αι DualDual.
τά ~ Gen. Fem. Those from one to four inclusive. ταῖν .33. always of the first. feminine η (eta).. (the units. but. Many irregularities and some anomalies occur. short The α (alpha) of the Accusative singular is usually after a consonant. Neut. Some euphonic changes occur in making these additions. which may generally be learned from the lexicon. Masc. PRONOUNS 38. which then take the regular declensional endings. Genitive τινος. They may all be learned from the lexicon. neuter ο (omicron). respective genders. Acc. one or both parts being declined. the article (definite only) and the demonstrative alone are very peculiar in declension. τώ. indefinite τὶς). and ότατος or ιστος for the superlative. ADJECTIVES § 34. (masculine and feminine alike). The masculine and neuter are always of the same declension. and a few others). neuter τι. Nouns in ις. The rest are declined as adjectives–masculine ος. § 39.. Adjectives are compared either by using an adverb expressive of degree. 35. § 38. The Nominative singular is so often changed by the euphonic rules that the stem of the noun is best seen in the Genitive case. rarely but one. The cardinal numbers are either simple. § 35. υς. are declined like adjectives. or compound. These are declined (descended) like nouns.Nom. tens. with the exception of τις. being declined as nouns irregularly:– CASES Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative I or Me ἐγώ (ἐ)μοῦ μοῦ ἐ μο (ἐ)μοί ἐ μοί (ἐ)μέ ἐ μέ We or Us μεῖ ἡμεῖς ἡμ ῶ ν ἡμ ῖν ἡμ ᾶ ς Thou or Thee σύ σοῦ σοῦ σοί σέ Ye or You μεῖ ὑμεῖς ὑ μῶν ὑ μ ῖν ὑμᾶ ς 39. ὁ τό ἡ Nominative οἱ τά αἱ τοῦ Genitive τοῦ τ ῆς τῶν τῶν Dative τοῖ ταῖ τῷ τῇ τοῖς ταῖς τόν τό τήν Accusative -ούς τά τάς Dual τοῖ ταῖ Dual. § 36. and ευς take the (earlier Attic Greek) Genitive εως.omega regarded as short). NUMERALS 36. those of the 1st and 2nd persons only are specially noteworthy. by adding to the stem of the positive the syllables ότερος or ίων for the comparative. Participles are declined like adjectives. and the feminine. often compounded. (interrogative τίς. Dat. (second or third). (ω . more regularly. Fem. Neut. sometimes two. § 37. of the third declension. when different. and the hundreds and thousands. § 33. as follows:– Singular The Plural CASES Masc. τοῖν. having sometimes three sets of terminations (suffixes) for the 34. The ordinals are mostly formed from the cardinals by adjective endings. Of the personal pronouns.. Voc. (intermediate numbers). or.. (all genders alike)..
the former has a long union-vowel. The Middle is properly reflexive Some of its tenses have an active meaning. They represent time as compared with the present and never date from that of a preceding verb. deponent. and the two Aorist (see § 45 below) tense’s passive voices. Imperative. § 42. § 47.. The Imperative has but two persons. There are five MOODS in each voice. ταύταιν This. Subjunctive. These Singular Masc. Fem. τούτοιν. Active. or ει). The TENSES are nine the Present Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect two Aorists (1st and 2nd. The Imperfect denotes an act as going on. Present. τοῦ οὗτος τοῦτο αὕτη τού τούτου ταύτης τούτῳ τούτῳ -αύτῃ αύτῃ LESSON IV VERBS 40. Infinitive. inserted. 48. (η or ω). This. The Aorist tenses indicate a single act at a definite time. The Indicative. Neut.. Dat. and the latter a diphthong. and Participles correspond to the English. Middle. throughout passive in form. Nominative οὗτοι ταῦτα ταῦ αὗται Genitive τούτων τούτων Dative τούτοις ταύταις τούτου τοῦ τοῦ ταῦ τοῦτον τοῦτο ταυτην Accusative ταῦτα ταύτας ς Dualταῦ Dual. Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative Infinitive may be added the Participles they are mostly known by means of the union-vowel Participles. Voc. equivalent to each other. Fem. (past in the Indicative. Pluperfect. Imperative. and 3rd. Neut. certain letters prefixed. § 40. 2nd and 3rd.. and three Futures (1st and 2nd. union-vowel–that which immediately precedes the termination.Plural CASES Masc. Perfect. Imperfect.. The Present. or added to the stem or root of the verb. etc. (οι. but incomplete or habitual at some time past: “was doing etc. ο (omicron). Active Middle and Passive generally distinguished by the termination (suffix / ending).Nom. § 44. The Subjunctive and Optative Moods are used in certain dependent relations. and Future tenses answer very nearly to the same tenses in English. nine. present. which have no unionvowel. called deponent are reflexive. Pluperfect. very rarely used). The former generally represents an act as contingent upon outward circumstances. αι. . Acc. Perfect. but active or middle in meaning. and have a short unionvowel. but undetermined in the others moods). Aorists. § 41. § 43. 42. Optative.. they are distinguished by Futures. and Infinitive. to which 41. A few verbs. yet retaining its construction as a verb. like the English subjunctive and potential. equivalent in sense). § 45. the Pluperfect active and middle voices. 44. with the article. or α (alpha). § 46. 47. and is very often used as a neuter noun. § 48. τούτω. ταῦτα ~ Gen. ε (epsilon). was doing”. which have η (eta) or its equivalent. The Infinitive has but one termination for all numbers and persons.. the Indicative. which have ει [eye]. except the Perfect and Pluperfect passive. Passive. There are three VOICES. and the latter upon a will will.
and Fut. τω (passive σϑω). I. 52. the ο (omicron) of the 1st person singular active voice is contracted (with the union-vowel) into ω (omega).middle voice.μεϑον μεϑ 2nd person . and the σαι of the 2nd person singular passive voice into ῃ (eta) or ει [eye]. § 49. τον (σϑον). II. 3rd person. The terminations of the Imperative Mood are analogous to the secondary in the active voice.σϑην ντο μην (σ)ο σο το Middle and Passive II I Pres. 3rd person. 3rd person. ι] or σο). ο ις ι Notes Notes on the Table of Verb Endings § 50.τον 3rd person . Signification limits the primary terminations to the Indicative and Subjunctive Moods. thus:– Singular Singular 2nd person. – [Aorist passive. strengthened.σϑον 3rd person . and the Aorists tenses’ passive voice. 53. In the Present and Future tenses.49. Secondary. τωσαν [or contracted ντων] (passive σϑωσαν [Dual 2nd Plural person. § 51. 51. All the tenses with respect to form may be classed thus:– Primary. § 53. § 52.middle voice. Plural 2nd person. and the secondary to the Indicative and Optative Moods: likewise the Imperfect and Pluperfect tenses to the Indicative Mood. or Historical Present Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Futures Aorists Table of Verb Endings These classes usually have the following endings respectively:– Active Form II Perfect – ν ς – μεν τε (ντ σι (ν) ντ) ντ ν 2nd person . των (σϑων) ].την (σα ν σα)ν σα Optative μι Persons I Singular Singular 1st 2nd 3rd Plural Plural 1st 2nd 3rd μαι σαι ται μεϑ μεϑα σϑε νται Dual 1st person . Aorists and (rarely) the Perfect tenses. or Absolute Secondary. . 1st Aorist active (σ)ov (passive ο [1st Aorist . τε (passive σϑε). Primary. The active voice terminations are assumed throughout by the Perfect and Pluperfect tense . and in the middle and passive voices they are merely the same. ϑι. and the Imperative Mood to the Present.
Active and Middle voices Perfect and Pluperfect tenses . or (oftener) by changing the root vowel into the corresponding long one or into a diphthong. § 61. or ναι. αι.Active voice of pure and liquid verbs Perfect and Pluperfect tenses . The Infinitive Mood in the active voice form. In the Participles the stem ends in ντ in the active voice forms. do not. Tenses expressing past time (Imperfect and Aorists tenses’ Indicative mood) prefix ε (“syllabic augment to syllabic augment”) the root. Initial ρ (rho). this coalesces with an initial vowel (“temporal augment into the corresponding long vowel or temporal augment”) diphthong. 58. which have ότ). the rest take μεν. consisting of a short vowel (α.Passive voice 1st Future tense . The following tenses add certain characteristic letters to the root:– 1st Future and 1st Aorist tenses' Active and Middle voices. except in a few cases. ends in εν. γλ. (sometimes more than one). § 60.Passive voice 2nd (in liquid verbs 1st) Future tense . (of verbs not liquid). and 2nd Aorist tenses). but also prefix to the syllabic augment the initial consonant of the root (“reduplication when this is a simple consonant reduplication”) reduplication or a mute followed by a liquid. 55. § 55. § 58. subject only to euphonic changes. Pluperfect.. 59. either by adding a hard consonant. The Pluperfect tense prefixes a second syllabic augment to the reduplication. ε. the others of the third declension. The Present and Imperfect tenses commonly strengthen the root. (except the Perfect active and middle voices.or kappa-mute σ ϑ ϑησ ησ ε κ (῾ ) 60. with a single vowel never long. between it and the primitive. and vary in a few other terminations. Future. chiefly by contraction. (1st Aorist tense). and 3rd Future tense 1st Aorist tense . and neut. etc.active voice. or υ) between two (usually simple) consonants. (Perfect active and middle voice and both Aorist passive voices): elsewhere in σϑαι.Active voice ending in a pi. ο. The root of every primitive verb is a monosyllable. Verbs in μι [mee] insert σ (sigma) before the final ι (iota) of the 3rd person singular Present tense Indicative mood . LESSON V VERBS–Continued VERBS 57. [contracted with union-vowel into ειν] (Present. . Verbs compounded with a preposition generally take the augment. These latter are [masc. § 57. (Perfect passive voice = μέν). βλ. but this may be somewhat different from the true root. ι. Primitive verbs only have a 2nd Aorist tense. A few other irregularities occur. and 3rd Future tenses not only do the same throughout the moods.54.Passive voice 2nd Future tense . The Perfect. § 54. (which is doubled after the syllabic augment). allow the reduplication. § 59. § 56. The 2nd Aorist tense always has a monosyllabic root. This root is most readily found in the 1st Future tense. 61. Sometimes one or the other of the latter has been dropped far back in the etymology.] of the second declension. and γν.
§ 66. the Perfect and Pluperfect tenses’ active and passive voices. 63.active voice. lexicon form: in “liquid verbs (not derivatives in άνω. The radical ν is often dropped in Perfect and Pluperfect tenses. The 2nd Aorist tense (those in υμι being factitious have not this tense) has in the υμι active voice a long vowel or diphthong throughout. and some insert σ (sigma) instead. also in the Perfect tense and Pluperfect tenses’ passive voice. in all which tenses the union-vowel coalesces with the root vowel. they lengthen it in the 1st Aorist tenses’ active and middle voices by changing the root vowel. in “pure verbs it is liquid” liquid pure” liquid pure absent. § 67. chiefly by reason of the Imperfect tense and 2nd Aorist tenses’ active voice taking throughout the terminations of the Aorists tenses’ passive voice. in the 1st person singular Present tense . The Present and Imperfect tenses reduplicate with ι the initial consonant. Verbs with ε followed by a pi. pi. and 2nd Aorist tenses. while ι (iota) and υ (upsilon) merely become long. τίϑ § 68. usually change it into α and ο (omicron) in the same tenses as liquid verbs. δίδωμι (didomi [dee’-doh-mee] ) = [to give has. and verbs with ε in the root. and ο into ω (omega). in the Active voice.or kappa-mute in the root frequently neglect to strengthen it in the Present and Imperfect tenses. 64. § 62.alpha. Very many verbs seem to be anomalous in some of their forms in consequence of deriving these from an obsolete kindred root. Verbs are classified in conjugation (the inflection of verbs) according to the radical letter following the root vowel. annexing ν (nu) to μ (mu). Imperfect. α or ε into η (eta). 65. εἰμί (eimi [eye-mee’] ) = [to be] is inflected thus:– to be εἶ (ei [eye] ) = [thou art ei thou art] esti(n is] ἐστί(ν) (esti n) [ess-tee(n)’ ] ) = [is esti is ἐσμέν (esmen [ess-mehn’] ) = [we are esmen we are] ἐστί (esti [ess-tee’] ) = [ye are esti ye are] εἰσί(ν) (eisi n) [eye-see(n)’ ] ) = [they are] eisi(n they are eisi ἴσϑι (isthi [iss’-thee] ) = [be thou] isthi be thou .omicron) in the Present. τέϑ tetheika d to give] 1st Aorist tense. or o . etc. § 64. and sometimes adopting other modes of strengthening). except the Imperative mood ε or o. and the 2nd Aorist and 2nd Future tenses throughout. if ε (epsilon) into ει [eye]. and again into ο in the Perfect and Pluperfect tenses’ middle voice. except in the 1st Aorist tense and the Future tenses’ passive voice. The verb τίϑημι (tithemi [tee’-thay-mee] ) = [to put has.Indicative mood . Verbs in μι – mee (lexicon form instead of ω . or lengthening ι or υ.omega) are but another mode of conjugating pure verbs (being the only primitives of that class whose root ends in α .62. 66. and in the active voice they lengthen the root in the Indicative mood. preceded by a liquid. so that the root appears to end in a vowel. They have a peculiar inflection. The above strengthening in the Present and Imperfect tenses consists in doubling λ (lambda). (prefixing simply ἱ (iota) if that cannot be done. Pure verbs lengthen the root vowel before a tense characteristic. A few occasionally neglect this.kappa§ 65. The lexicon gives most of these peculiarities. ε . § 63. εἰ eimi § 69. or diphthong. Liquid verbs almost always strengthen their root in the Present and Imperfect tenses. 67. which is merely strengthened for άω) this is a liquid. ε as a root vowel is generally changed into α in the 1st Aorist and 1st Future tenses’ passive voice. and the Participle.epsilon. in case of ν or ρ (rho). or. Notes on Certain Verbs ending in μι 68. in adding ι to a preceding α (alpha) or ε (epsilon). edoka 69. Perfect tense τέϑεικα (tetheika [teth’-eye-kah] ). 1st Aorist tense ἔϑηκα (etheka tithemi to put] etheka [eth’-ay-kah] ). if α (alpha) into η (eta). ἔδωκα (edoka [eh’-doh-kah] ).
82. either in a literal or a figurative sense. This includes relations of source.being]. generally with a preposition. Active either direct. ek. § 81. “Local involving external relations of space. 78. “Apposition occurs as in English. 73. Neuters plural generally have a singular verb. (ἀπό – apo ἐκ – ek or παρά – para [pa-ra'] ). § 77. All words placed under the same construction agree together in all the accidents which they possess in common. ίνω. usually with verbs compounded with a preposition. the rest mostly regular. possession. partial relations). things”). § 73. etc.. [often with an Infinitive] ) partitive use. § 82.g. and commencement commencement. origin. and for ἵημι (hiemi [hee’-ay-mee]) o being h = [to send and εἰμι (eimi [eye’-mee] ) = [to go to send]. direct authorship with ὐπό (upo [oo-pah’] ). inferential. things 75. derivation. § 70. See the lexicon for these. in the Present and Imperfect tenses. Any word may govern another (or others) which in sense is dependent upon it in the case appropriate for expressing such relation either with or without a preposition. or metaphysical. Sometimes a relative is “attracted into the case of the omitted antecedent (that which is previous or past). ek apo upo property. separation from it.g. (“things 74. (in the course of which). Apposition Apposition” § 72. § 74. νω LESSON VI SYNTAX–Concordance SYNTAX Concordance Concord 71. Several verbs annex σκω. 70. separa paration motion from an object. A verb agrees with its subject nominative in number and person. eimi to go]. ὤν (on [ohn] ) = [being etc. 72. especially the “ Genitive Absolute with a Participle. Active.. § 78. § 83. “Causal denoting a more internal relation. etc. The noun is often understood. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender.. § 76. as affording occasion. (ν)νυμι. The case of the subject of the Infinitive mood depends upon other relations.. Causal Causal”. Local Local”. and case.. . This includes actual apo. Whence? from. attracted 76. |-----> Genitive >>>----|-----> Dative >>>---| Accusative ENITIVE. instead of μι. [commonly with ἐκ (ek sometimes ἀπό (apo [ap-ah’] ). GOVERNMENT § 79. bsolute”. (e. and the Genitive of time. material. GENITIVE denoting origin answering to Whence? and expressed by from 81. as follows:– 83. a class.. attracted” § 75. ek). § 80. especially if neut. number. as if the outgoing of some agency or property. § 71. (e.
operation adjectives.. upon. generally with ἐν (en ἐπί (epi παρά (para etc. § 96. and finally (“Attributive Accusative with any verb or adjective (sometimes other Attributive Accusative”) words) to define its application more closely. midst of . This is usually not. § 97. § 95.Passive”.g. etc..e. the act being for the sake of the Genitive. epi). § 88. etc.g. as in English. position. “Causal involving an influence. the time. § 84. 91. near. association. The effect either the thing effected. Instrumental. as impressed upon the object. Instrumental as the mediate cause. especially with εἰς. The object acted upon e. Mutual Mutual”. Causal as follows:– Personal. also the space or way after a verb of motion. thought. as community. effect. that of grammatical dependence. or the effect intended. euphony”) euphony LESSON VII 1Exercise on John 1: 1-5 . reference. comparison and price or penalty 86.. Dative ive” § 92. 85. The “Attributive Genitive is a comprehensive relation. indirect. Genitive” § 86. § 85. Causal”. swearing. likeness. 92. Causal”. ORDER OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE 98.. “Local involving the boundary. that one which completes the idea of the other and defines it more fully is put in the “Genitive Genitive Genitive”. § 89. those expressing a good or bad influence. denoting direction. “Passive that is. which may be thus expressed: When two nouns are connected with each other. “Causal denoting the object upon which the act or state appears. § 94. an attribute of the effect. and other words denoting skill and the Genitive of crime or purpose (the last mostly an Infinitive with the article). after the connecting particles. In comprehensive phrase the “Attributive Dative expresses many indirect relations of an object to or for A which an act is performed or a condition sustained. thus conceived as sharing in producing it.g. place. at. and weight.). This includes the place (i. especially if of kindred signification. between A two nouns designating different objects. association accompaniment (frequently with σύν). patience. in the en). (throughout throughout which). arising under several of the above heads. e. place. § 87. ATIVE. the means. with directly transitive verbs. DATIVE denoting position answering to Where? and expressed by at 88. purpose. penalty. answering to Whither? and expressed by toward. at. measure. Local Local”. accompaniment. § 90. “Local involving the more palpable relations of position. This includes words expressing a correlative idea. prepositions and the article precede their nouns. agency. or object of motion. § 91. but rather the order of thought important or emphatic words come first. or result. § 93. sometimes a mental affection. the instrument. skill. 97. para). ACCUSATIVE. “Mutual e. change. Personal either actually or so imagined. by. This includes verbs implying a mental Passive operation. (in varied relations). Local Local”. CCUSATIVE direction toward 94. as follows:– Causal 96. possession. manner. and qualifying terms are grouped in a harmonious balance (“euphony around the principal ones.. § 98. en epi para and the time (as a date) or circumstances of a transaction. . the ground or reason. and the measure of excess or deficiency.
Ὁ (Ho [Hah] )–article.stems. Be careful to put the spoken accent where it is written. giving the English equivalents of the consonants. one must refer back to the actual words which are used in the Scripture lesson sections. were made. stands first. καὶ6 Θεὸς10 ἦν3 Ὁ4 was The GOD. Ἐν (En [ehn] )–preposition atonic (unaccented). ἦν (en [ane] )–verb. σκοτίᾳ29 darkness φαίνει30. Confusion can result by not doing so. (as in § 1). 3rd person singular imperfect tense . . etc. καὶ6 σκοτία31 Aὐτὸ32 οὐ33 darkness 1Notes on the above Scriptures from John 1: 1-5 1. whereby all references in the following notes are based thereon. These hyperlinks are provided to take you back and forth easily should you so choose. ἀρχῇ (arche [ar-khay’] )–noun. § 69. § 98.. καὶ6 Ἡ23 Ζωὴ22 ἦν3 Τὸ24 has been made. § 88. long vowel. in the notes following each lesson of Scripture passages. local dative. § 3. Λόγος5. 5 καὶ6 Τὸ24 ἡ23 the Fως25 ἐν1 τῇ28 κατέλαβεν34. § 73. to the examples illustrating each point. 1st declension feminine. ν (nu) appended irregularly as ending. Continue this practice through all the passages given in the following lessons. Familiarize yourself with the forms of the letters by writing them. 1John 1: 1-5 1 Ἐν1 ἀρχῇ2 ἦν3 Ὁ4 Λόγος5. § 39. and GOD [The] Him In Τὸν8 Θεόν9. 2 Οὗτος11 ἦν3 ἐν1 in [the] This [One] was Him ἀρχῇ2 πρὸς7 Τὸν8 Θεόν9. such as below. by was with In [the] beginning was The [The] GOD. of [the] and ἀνϑρώπων27. When viewing the various word forms . § 6. beginning with and without καὶ 6 χωρὶς16 Aὐτοῦ14 ἐγένετο15 was made Him men. while the passage at the head of the reading lessons is pronounced. irregular in μι (mi [mee] ). and The The not Light Life in the was The γέγονεν20. § 47. admitted.indicative mood en mi active voice. . from nominative ἀρχή (arche [ar-khay’] ). The links are designed to put the cursor in the proper place so you will remember what section you came from.. and The Word Word.Directions:–Spell the Greek. nominative masculine sing. 3. § 98. E ρχῇ arche 2. as they occur–by way of paradigm. 4 Ἐν1 Aὐτῷ21 Ζωὴ22 ἦν3. 3 Πάντα12 All [things] διʼ13 Aὐτοῦ14 ἐγένετο15. 4. and after the recitation of each of them let the teacher direct attention. Let the pupil do this while learning the foregoing grammatical lessons. § 67. § 98. until the words can be pronounced readily and accurately. emphatic position. Call the rough breathing h. and the exact phonetic Directions value or sound of the vowels. agrees with its noun. arche circumflex. § 49. § 28. Fῶς25 τῶν26 Light shines. roots. Life And it οὐδὲ17 ἓν18 ὃ19 not even one [thing] which was. following. καὶ6 Ὁ4 Λόγος5 ἦν3 πρὸς7 Word. H .
§ 71. (perfect tense) active voice. § 32. agreement. § 74. agreement with the subject. pant). § 98. case after. T deity. καί (kai [ka-hee’] )–conjunction. and then contracted for γιγεν . position. § 5. διʼ di di-[a dia). from πάς (pas [pahss] ). genitive case masculine sing. indefinite. § 81. 6. apart accent. πάντ . § 39. γε (ge [geh] ) is reduplication. § 98. § 78. § 98. true root γεν (gen [ghehn] ). § 82. kai towards. 13. § 32. § 5. accent. pros 8.sing. § 52. third ε is mood-vowel. § 98. dia τοῦ A 14. § 6. Πάντα (Panta [Pan’-tah] )–adjective pronoun. . position. § 42. c 17.5. χωρίς (choris [khoh-rhiss’] )–preposition. changed accent. [our kin § kin]. διʼ (di a’] . § 60). subject of ἦν (en [ane] ). 3rd declension nominative case sing.gignomai [ghee’-gnahm-ahee]. accusative case . § 42. § 39. (hence the verb is in the indicative mood. ho subject of γέγονε (gegone [ge’-gah-neh] ). no ge additional ending. Αόγος (Logos [Lahg’-ahss] )–noun. § 5. en subject of ἐγένετο (egeneto [eh-ghehn’-et-ah] ). literal.[dee-[ah’] )–preposition for δια (dia with final letter elided (omitted). deponent. same as 15 above. oude ou de 18. 7. § 25. emphatic position. causal. without Theos the article because the predicate. § L en 76.gigen [ghee’-ghehn] ). πρός (pros [prahss] )–preposition. Aὐτοῦ (Autou [Ow-too’] )–adjective pronoun used as a personal pronoun. was born from γίνομαι (ginomai egeneto ginomai [ghin’-ahm-ahee] ). hence 3rd person sing. literal. last ε (epsilon) is mood-vowel of indicative mood. root-vowel changed in perfect tense . balances clause. literal. born. 12. strengthened [§ 63] by reduplication. 2nd declension nominative case sing. § 49. § 48. 2nd declension nominative sing. ὅ (ho [hah] )–relative adjective. agreement. § 44. § 39. § 34. accusative case sing. final ν (nu) added before pause. το [tah] is 3rd person sing. 9. from οὐ (ou [oo] ) and δε (de [deh] ).. § 30. [the] deity 2nd declension masculine.middle gegonen gegone voice. Οὗτος (Houtos [Hoo’-tahss] )–pronoun. § Theon 30. Genitive and dative cases of 1st and 2nd declension are always circumflex when accented on the last syllable. here appearing in 2nd aorist tense . towards government accusative case. government. (for γίγνομαι . Θεόν (Theon [Theh-ahn’] )–noun. understood (§ 73) as Houtos Logos subject of sentence. ἐγένετο (egeneto [eh-ghehn’-et-ah] )–verb (aorist tense). emphatic position.. οὐδέ (oude [oo-deh’] )–compound negative particle. § 36.middle voice. neut. § 30. middle voice. gegone 20. gen 57. came to be literal. be. § 40. indefinite without noun expressed. § 17. § 27. deity. 11. § 73. § 22. neuter.(pant 3rd declension P p pant nominative case plur. first as connective. ἐ (epsilon) is simple augment. apart. Θεός (Theos [Theh-ahss’] )–noun. agrees with Lόγος (Logos [Lahg’-ahss] ). [§ 67]. § 60. § 63. 10. masculine. neut. 15. Τόν (Ton [Tahn] )–article. § 73. § 94. egeneto egene 19. § 74. [the] deity nominative case agreeing with the subject. § 10. (stem.. 16.. masculine. literal. accent. ἕv (en [hehn] )–numeral adjective. § 98. subject of sentence. γέγονεν (gegonen [ge’-gahn-ehn] )–verb. and breathing.
fem. 1st declension fem. § 29. accent. § 86. Ἡ (He [Hay] )–article. . § 88. § 4. ι (iota) subscript. τῇ (te [tay] )–article. agrees with φῶς (phos [foce] ). φαίνει (phainei [fahee’-ni] )–verb. strengthened. kata lambano simple verb is λαβ (lab here appearing in the 2nd Aorist tense. root.phot [foht] for φάοτ P phaot [fah’-aht] ). Fῶς (Phos [Foce] )–noun. § 57. as 21 above. atonic (unaccented). active voice secondary. § 39. § 73. τῶν (ton [tone] )–article. § 60. masculine. § 17. neut. predicate nominative.. οὐ (ou [oo] )–simple negative adverb.. § 71. κατέλαβεν (katelaben [kah-teh’-lab-ehn] )–verb. σκοτίᾳ (skotia [skah-tee’-ah] )–noun from σκοτία (skotia [skah-tee’-ah] ). § 28. § 42. Aὐτό (Auto [Ow-tah’] )–pronoun. The tense expresses the act of the Jews in rejecting Christ. katelaben kata compound of κατά. § 29. skotia 32. § 39. government. § 73. masc. § 73. agrees with Fῶς (Phos [Foce] ). φαν (phan [fan] ). from καταλαμβάνω (katalambano [kat-a-lam-ban’-oh] ). agreement. phos 31.. from ἄνϑρωπος (anthropos [anth’-roh-pahss] ). agrees with Ζωή (Zoe [Dzoh-ay’] ). same as 14 above. fem. nominative case sing. 28. § 39. § 39. final ι (iota) is tense-ending of present tense 3rd person sing. 24. ou katalambano 34. final α (alpha). last α likewise shows indicative. § 32. Aὐτῳ (Auto [Ow’-toh] )–pronoun. 2nd anthropon anthropos declension genitive case plur. subject of the clause. § 30.. augment. atonic H Z (unaccented). § 9. object of κατέλαβε (katelabe [kahA katelabe teh’-lab-eh] ). genitive plur. ε (epsilon) is mood-vowel of indicative mood.21. receive. 1st declension dative case sing. te σκοτί skotia τίᾳ σκοτία skot skotia 29. § 97. § 42. (kata [kat-ah’] ) = down and λαμβάνω (lambano [lam-ban’-oh] ). nominative sing. accusative neut. (stem φῶτ . ς (sigma final) here added (as some neut. sing. § 76. from φαίνω (phaino [fahee’-noh] ). lab preposition. subject of verb following. agreement.. government. no tense-ending in 3rd person sing. 3rd declension nominative case sing. dative case sing. dative case sing.. nominative case sing. Z 23. nominative case sing. 30. excluding final α (alpha) of lab). T P 25. neut. σκοτία (skotia [skah-tee’-ah] )–noun. § 61. phainei phaino phan § 64. as 2 A above. § 3..active voice. as 29 above. § 49 ν (nu) appended. ton 27. Lesson VIII 6Exercise on John 1: 6-11 . nouns have) and τ (tau) dropped. masc. = I receive the root of the down. § 49. Τό (To [Tah] )–article. 22. fem.. government. 28.. 26. § 39.. ἀνϑρώπων (anthropon [an-throh’-pone] )–noun. 33. § 3. Ζωή (Zoe [Dzoh-ay’] )–noun. § 14.
καὶ39 was made.8 7 Οὗτος9 ἦλϑεν10 εἰς11 μαρτυρίαν12. καὶ39 ὁ40 the τὸν34 κόσμον35. near with genitive case. = I away. all Light. literal. § 63. ἵνα13 πάντες18 πιστεύσωσι19 Light. 8 Οὐκ22 ἦν23 ἐκεῖνος24 Τὸ25 Φῶς26. Aὐτοῦ21 ἐγένετο1. the augment cuts off the final ο (omicron) of the preposition. Θεοῦ (Theou [Theh-oo’] )–See vii. every world and the that The might believe but The coming that [he] Aὐτοῦ21. 11 Εἰς11 τὰ44 ἴδια45 Aὐτὸν42 οὐ22 παρέλαβαν48. literal. ἀλλ'27 ἵνα13 Him. § 42. no stel reduplication.. anthropos near. § 81. § 73. accent. 27. ἐρχόμενον33 εἰς11 ἦv23. = off and στέλλω (stello [stel’-loh] ). § 60. 15. ἧλϑε10. I send away compound of the preposition. παρά (para [pa-ra’] )–preposition. ἀπεσταλμένος (apestalmenos [ap-es-tal-men’-ahss] )–participle from ἀποστέλλω (apostello [ap-os-tel’-loh] apestalmenos apostello ). § 34. Ἐγένετο (egeneto [eg-ehn’-et-ah] )–See vii. Ἀληϑινόν28. 4. ος (os is nominative masc. stel). μαρτυρήσῃ 14 might testify περὶ15 ὃ29 Τοῦ16 Φωτός17. and no union-vowel. vii. [There] was a man John. μαρτυρήσῃ14 δἰ20 through περὶ15 concerning Not Τοῦ16 Φωτός17. εοῦ Theou . subject of sentence. send root στελ (stel vowel changed.6 Ἐγένετο1 ἄνϑρωπος2 ἀπεσταλμένος3 παρὰ4 Θεοῦ5. the world. (§ 55). near. here genitive case. True [one]. ἀπό (apo [ap-ah’] ). § 60. apo stello send. own [things] received. anthropos 3. 10. 9 Ἦν23 Τὸ25 Φῶς26 Light into concerning The which In lights the [There] was man. ὄνομα6 [the] name that [he] αὐτῷ7 to him [was] might testify Ἰωάννης. off. sing. ἄνϑρωπος (anthropos [anth’-roh-pahss] )–See vii. Him the not φωτίζει30 πάντα31 ἄνϑρωπον32. 10 Ἐν36 τῷ37 κόσμῳ38 δἰ20 through To Him κόσμος41 [He] was. sent This [one] The was came from for GOD. egeneto 2. world and the and Him world not knew. perfect tense because the augment is beyond the indicative mood. ἵνα13 testimony. καὶ39 οἱ46 ἴδιοι47 [He] came. own [persons] Notes on the above Scriptures from John 1: 6-11 61. ὁ40 κόσμος41 Aὐτὸν42 οὐκ22 ἔγνω43. § 61. os) men os agrees with ἄνϑρωπος (anthropos [anth’-roh-pahss] ). that [one] Light. passive participle ending μεν (men [mehn] ). §30. 9. = from near para 5.
di τοῦ A 21. περῖ (peri [peh-ree’] )–preposition. first η is martureo root-vowel. for the purpose of atonic (unaccented). 9. from μαρτυρέω (martureo [mar-too-reh’-oh] ). predicate Ioannes after neut. with euphonic κ (kappa) before a vowel. § 4. § 49. § 42.. 15. subjunctive to was understood. 1st declension masc. ἵνα (hina [hee’-nah] )–conjunction. [ε+ε=η]. genitive case . § 28. active s voice. simple root 2nd aorist tense. from αὐτός (autos [ow-tahss’] ). from μαρτυρία marturian (marturia [mar-too-ree’-ah] ). § 28. 10. § 60. = all pantes subject of the clause. hence no tense ending in 3rd person sing. to. accent. Φωτός (Photos [Foh-tahss’] )–noun. accent. ονo?ματ (onomat [ahnonoma ahm’-at] ). (§ 66). around governs genitive case. § 17. agreeing with subject. eis μαρτυρία 12. Genitive case (sing. § 44. 33). Οὐκ (Ouk [Ook] )–negative adverb. εἰς (eis [ice] )–preposition. masc. which is σ (sigma) of 1st future tense. 12.. the subscribed ι (iota) being 3rd person sing. assigned to ἔρχομαι (erchomai [ehr’-khahm-ahee] ). marturia that. § 92. neut. § 74.) of Photos monosyllables of 3rd declension accent the ultimate. 19. from πιστεύω (pisteuo [pis-tyoo’-oh] ). δἰ (di [dee] )–See vii. same as οὐ (ou [oo] ). 14. πάντες (pantes [pan’-tehss] ).sing. μαρτυρίαν (marturian [mar-too-ree’-an] )–noun. ὄνομα (onoma [ahn’-ah-mah] )–noun. governed. 13. Τοῦ (Tou [Too] )–article. αὐτῷ (auto [ow-toh’] )–personal adjective pronoun. vii. § 82.. T 17. ἠλϑεν (elthen [ayl’-thehn] )–verb. root. § 57. lengthened before tense-sign. in order that introducing dependent clause. active voice. 1st declension fem. 11... all [men] being understood. πιστεύσωσι (pisteusosi [pis-tyoo’-soh-see] )–verb. nominative sing. § 39. Aὐτοῦ (Autou [Ow-too’] )–See vii. 11. § 6. 16. see vii. § 49. 25. active voice. neut. final mute always dropped for euphony). (stem. 14. auto autos governed. (copula may freely be supplied. plur. of.ονoματ onom onomat 6. as union-vowel (ε) following also shows.masc. nominative case . ε mood. 18. 3rd declension nominative sing. hina μαρτυρήσῃ marturese 14. σι (si [see] ) 3rd person plur. ν (nu) appended. ελϑ (elth temporal augment. verb. (understood). § 59. 8. 13. § 96. Ouk ou . here. (§ 44). Ἰωάννης (Ioannes [EE-oh-an’-nace] )–proper noun. to that is. Οὗτος (Houtos [Hoo’-tahss] )–See vii. περῖ peri around. all–See vii.) 7. (see vii. hence indicative λεύϑ eleutho ελϑ elth elth). dative sing. § 59.) and dative case (sing. 22. and plur. § 3. literal. 20. § 49. § 71. meaning. second σ (sigma) pisteusosi pisteuo is sign of 1st future tense. ω (omega) sign of subjunctive mood. accusative sing. literal. but really from elthen erchomai defective ἐλεύϑω (eleutho [el-yoo’-thoh] ). ῃ (eta [ῃ pronounced: ay] ) is union-vowel of the subjunctive mood. μαρτυρήσῃ (marturese [mar-too-ray’-say] )–verb.
see 35 above.) nominative case neut.. § 22. § 39. (and then agreeing with φῶς (phos [foce] ). from ἀληϑινός (alethinos [al-ay-thee-nahss’] ). τῷ (to [toh] )–article. § 58.. κόσμῳ (kosmo [kahss’-moh] )–noun.sing. § 73. § 39. ὃ (ho [hah] )–See vii. 19. 42. masc.. ε photizei photizo (epsilon) union vowel of indicative mood. § 73. see 18 above. Ἐν (En [Ehn] )–See vii. § 97. ἦν (en [ane] )–See vii.active voice. see 7 above.. anthropon erchomenon 33.. final vowel elided (omitted). φωτίζει (photizei [foh-teedz’-eye] )–verb. 36. to κόσμῳ kosmo 38. agreeing with Φῶς (Phos [Foce] ). § 30. see erchomen erchomai 10 above. 8. final ι (iota) indicates 3rd person sing. τόν (ton [than] )–See vii. 2nd alethinon alethinos declension. ὁ (ho [hah] )–See vii. § 55. § 30. ekeinos sing. § 27. § 34. governed. ho κόσμος kosmos 41. = He. accent. neut. E σμῳ 37. adjective pronoun. ἀληϑινόν (alethinon [al-ay-thee-non’] )–adjective. A . sing. deponent. Φῶς (Phos [Foce] )–See vii. 6. accusative case .passive voice.. 3. 25. dative case sing. Phos λλ' 27. as is better.sing. see 2 above. § 6.. ἐρχόμενον (erchomenon [er-khah’-men-ahn] )–participle from ἔρχομαι (erchomai [er’-khahm-ahee] ). anthropon 32. ton 35. § 40. P 29. 19. κόσμος (kosmos [kahss’-mahss] )–noun. phos 34. accusative case . masc. ἐκεῖνος (ekeinos [ek-eye’-nahss] )–demonstrative. either accusative case masc. § 30.sing. or. accusative case .sing. strengthened root. accusative case . ho photiz 30.23. πάντα (panta [pan’-tah] )–indefinite adjective. καί (kai [ka-hee’] )–See vii. ἀλλ'–conjunction for ἀλλά (alla [al-lah’] ). 25. (present tense) . § 97. subject of sentence. 31.sing. subject of the sentence. masc.. from φωτίζω (photizo [foh-teedz’-oh] ). (and then agreeing with ἄνϑρωπον). agrees with κόσμῳ. (see John iii. § 8. Τὸ (To [Tah] )–See vii. § 30. nominative case . agreeing with panta ἄνϑρωπον (anthropon [anth’-roh-pahn] ). 24. § 27. § 73. § 42. 1. T 26. nominative case . § 94. from κόσμος (kosmos [kahss’-mahss] ). kai 40. en κεῖ 24. Aὐτόν (Auton [Ow-tahn’] )–pronoun. alla ληϑ ληϑ 28. 2nd kosmon kosmos declension. κόσμον (kosmon [kahss’-mahn] )–noun. present tense . ἄνϑρωπον (anthropon [anth’-roh-pahn] )–noun. dative case sing. § 49. 4.. see 35 above.masc. 39. governed.
(strengthened [§ 70] from root egno gignosko know. καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν30 and And The (and ἐν31 among ἡμῖν32. who τέκνα8 Θεοῦ9 γενέσϑαι10. § 57. § 30. received children of GOD Name of flesh. . indicative near. accusative case. 46. gno). of Grace Ὄνομα15 Aὐτοῦ16· 13 οἳ17 οὐκ18 ἐξ19 αἱμάτων20. of man. agreement. plur. § 44.43. § 30. LESSON IX John 12Exercise on John 1: 12-18 12 Ὅσοι1 δὲ2 ἔλαβον3 Aὐτόν4. no other ending.. He gave to them privilege to out out The of will Whoever. I said. § 67. οὐδὲ21 ἐκ19 ϑελήματος22 ἀνδρός24. καὶ κέκραγε45. masc. meaning home here. to 45. of Him. meaning family here. ἔδωκεν5 αὐτοῖς6 ἐξσυσίαν7 Him. λέγων46· Οὗτος47 testifies about and has cried. compounded with παρά (para [pa-ra’] ) = near (see 4 above). nominative case . § 39. ἴδια (idia [id’-ee-ah] )–adjective. nominative case . οἱ (oi [oyh] )–article. 15 Ἰωάννης42 μαρτυρεῖ43 περὶ44 Aὐτοῦ16. hence 3rd person sing. 2nd aorist tense. τοῖς11 to the [ones] not of will Word The out πιστεύουσιν12 εἰς13 Τὸ14 believing nor but became. ἔγνω (egno [ehg’-noh] )–verb. from ἴδιος (idios [id’-ee-ahss] ).. idioi the subject of the clause. 3rd person plur. para mood. flesh σαρκός23. masc. see 45 above. plur. § 49. § 27. Ὁ14 Λόγος27 σὰρξ28 ἐγένετο29. ε (epsilon) is augment of indicative mood. from γιγνώσκω (gignosko [gee-gnoh’-skoh] ).. 44. §49. we beheld Glory full Glory and saying: μονογενοῦς36 of [an] only-born John παρὰ37 near from Πατρός38).plur. ἀλλ'25 ἐκ19 Θεοῦ9 of GOD tented as Truth. ω (omega) is root and union-vowel. accusative case. = our know or known of us 2nd aorist tense. ἔμπροσϑέν54 coming. paralam 48. γνω (gno [§ 67]. idia idios § 74. Ὁ14 ὀπίσω51 μοῦ52 ἐρχόμενος53. neut. 14 Καὶ were born. was [He] whom The [one] behind . παρέλαβον (parelabon [pah-reh’-lab-ahn] )–verb from παραλαμβάνω (paralam-bano [pah-rah-lam-bahn’parelabon paralamoh] ). τά (to [tah] )–article. [a] Father). πλήρης39 Χάριτος40 καὶ Ἀληϑείας41. as in vii.active voice. us). ∆όξαν34 ὡς35 us. § 39. the own things of him). (literal. § 57. § gno 60. ἴδιοι (idioi [id’-ee-oy] )–adjective. (καὶ ἐϑεασάμεϑα33 Τὴν14 ∆όξαν34 Aὐτοῦ16. § 74. me ἦν48 ὃν49 εἶπον50. 34.plur. oi 47. This before ἐγεννήϑησαν26. however. of Him: nor out to become. § 42. οὐδὲ21 ἐκ19 ϑελήματος22 of bloods. neut. government. Him.
§ 55. strengthened present tense. onts) 12. didomi 6. genitive case sing. dative case . § 97.. § 86. was given. Ὁ14 has seen bosom μονογενὴς75 Υἱός76. See vii. masc. § 39. ν. § 42. 34. § 30. 3. Not first. accusative case . e τέκν γενέσϑ genesth genesthai 8. lambano 4.μου52 γέγονεν55. νόμος65 law διὰ Μωϋσέως66 ἐδόϑη67.. § 54. and of the for πληρώματος58 Aὐτοῦ16 ἡμεῖς59 πάντες60 ἐλάβομεν61.. The Ἡ14 through Χάρις63 καὶ Grace no-one into the and Ἡ14 The Ἀλήϑεια41 διὰ Ἰησοῦ68 Χριστοῦ69 ἐγένετο70.sing. 3rd person sing.middle voice . accusative case sing. τοῖ autois ous [ow-toyce’] ). 2nd aorist tense . § 68. § 49. § 39.. See vii. § 72.. accent peculiar. 10. masc.infinitive mood. 9. 5. nominative case . me has become. ὅτι56 because we πρῶτός57 μου52 first all of me ἦν48. § 60. 13. See vii. καὶ62 Χάριν63 ἀντὶ64 fullness compare 63 of Him received. 13. τέκνον (tekuon [teh’-koo-ahn) ). § 55. § 16. union. See viii. Father. οντς (onts pisteuo onts (§ 42) becomes ους (ous § 14. 15. 18 Θεὸν71 GOD through Jesus The only-born οὐδεὶς72 ἐώρακε73 πώποτε74. 11. § 92. vii. accusative case sing. masc. § 58. masc. δίδωμι (didomi [dee’-doh-mee] ).2nd aorist tense . 7.plur. § 73. dative case plur. 3rd person plur. § 19. government.. See vii. § 17. 10. Ὁ14 ὢν77 The [One] being explained [Him]. 16 Καὶ And ἐκ19 out τοῦ14 He was.. augment. as if a noun. dative case . λαμβάνω (lambano [lam-bahn’-oh] ). See 4 above. became. 4. ἐξονσία (exonsia [eks-ahn-see’-ah] ). 14. mood-vowel. verb γενέσϑαι (genesthai [gehn-ess’tekuon thahee] ). § 28. 9. § 97. 11.plur. 12. εἰς78 τὸν14 κόλπον79 Τοῦ14 of The Πατρός38. Grace Χάριτος· 17 ὅτι56 Grace: because ὁ14 the Truth ever. ἐκεῖνος80 ἐξηγήσατο81. . 9. § 72. denotes close union . § 74. that [one] 12Notes on the above Scriptures from John 1: 12-18 1.plur. Moses Christ Son. H 2. § 98. § 30. πιστεύω (pisteuo [pis-tyoo’-oh] ). § 32. 3rd declension. after neut. Compare Ὅσος (Hosos [Hahss’-ahss] ). active voice participle. agrees with αὐτοῖς (autois ous)..active voice.
32. 33. § 86. irreg.. deponent. 15. 21. 1. § 88. unemphatic μεῖ hemeis unemphatic. government. . § 32. government. See vii. 16. = a tent 1st aorist tense . mat). 8. 14. ϑεάομαι (theaomai [theh-ah’-ahm-ahee] ). a 25. 15. 30. 17. § 97. § 73. 29.. 18. 15. neut. 15.1st person plur. atonic (unaccented). 23.. 5. agreement. 3rd declension. thea (analyze). § 29. beget. ἀνήρ (aner [an-ayer’] ). § 40. 27. § 27. 31.. 25. 33. § 30. 30. (analyze). See vii. § 86. § 32. nominative case . 19. § 4. D 35. γεννήϑησαν egennethesan 17. of aima natural descent. 21. Neut. thelema 23. γεννάω (gennao [gehn-nah’-oh] ). 34.active voice sken skenos .14. See vii. accent special. § 38. § 94. 26. 31. genitive case here. § 39. government. 24. σκηνόω (skenoo [skay-nah’-oh] ). § 81. subject ἡμεῖς (hemeis [hay-mice’] ) understood. 19. accent. § 18.3rd person sing.plur. τ dropped in stem ματ (mat § 18. ἐξ (ex [eks] ) substituted for ἐκ (ek before a vowel. accusative case sing. § 13. 3rd declension accusative case sing. e ek 20. ∆όξα (Doxa [Dah’-ksah] ). strictly. 28. § 3. subject of ἐγεννήϑησαν (egennethesan [eg-en-nay’-thaysahn] ).... 34. 16. sarx 24. used as a conjunction. 28. ϑέλημα (thelema [thel’-ay-mah] ). masc.3rd gennao person plur. plur. 3rd declension. 22. xi 29. 35. § 86. § 81. government. § 3. fem. See viii. See vii. government. nominative case sing. (analyze). skeno σκῆ tent. See viii. genitive case sing. I beget same root as vii. σάρξ (sarx [sarks] ). ek) 19. 18. αἷμα (aima [ahee’-mah] ). § 32. 22. See vii. 32. See 23 above. ξ (xi [ksee] ). 17. 27. 2nd aorist tense . As 6 above. from σκῆνος (skenos [skay’-nahss] ). 1st aorist tense . is Hebraistic.middle voice .. like 15 above. 20. 26.passive voice . 27. 3rd declension like 15 above. atonic (unaccented).
as if from the center. μονογενής (monogenes [mah-nah-gheh-nace’] ). lego ων (on [ohn] ) for οντς (onts [ahnts] ). masc. 39. 45. § 6. (§ 58) for κραγ (krag § 57. § 59. present tense . 53. 52. § 19.. § 28. 38.... § 81.active voice. 53. P 39. 54. Genitive § 86. See vii. 50. § 65. λέγω (lego [leh’-goh] ). present tense participle. 56. government genitive comparison. § 39. and on onts viii. § 86. § 40. Ἀλήϑεια (Aletheia [Al-ay’-thigh-ah] ). contraction like 24 above. § 73. 54. 49.active voice. accent. 43. 3rd declension fem. See vii. § 3. § 81. λήϑ 41. 38. 44. 40... like 36 above. 37. 52. accusative case sing. accent from “enclitic”. § 49. μαρτυρέω (martureo [mar-tuh-reh’-oh] ). (§ 85). 49. 37. 3rd declension. 57. § 29. 48.indicative mood . Takes the genitive. two terminations. 48. 5. A 42. genitive case sing. § 49. sing. 45.. § 4. 50. § 35. for εεπ. 42. § 14). deponent. § 20. (τ dropped.36. See vii. 3rd krazo krag person sing. 3. erchomai sing. thusly έος becomes οῦς. or accusative case.participle . § 55. 57. 46. sing. 40. dative. present tense . . 55. government. irreg. 51. 43. 51. § 30. nominative case masc. (analyze). 19. nominative case masc. Attributive Accusative”. § 83.active voice. κράξω (krazo [krah’-dzoh] ). 1st declension masc. έει becomes εῖ. § 62.. § 34. 3rd martureo person sing. 47. For πρότατος (protatos [prah’-ta-tahss] ). masc.. Genitive case. 20. See 51 above.active voice . perfect tense . 3rd declension.indicative mood. 2nd aorist tense . § 83. § 60. Χάρις (Charis [Khah’-reese] ). § 32. 44. ἔρχομαι (erchomai [ehr’-khah-mahee] ). 3rd person sing. 46. 47. Conjunction. krag). Πατήρ (Pater [Pah-tayr’] ).. § 38. § 42. 36. § 55. monogenes masc. 55. “Attributive Accusative § 97. C 41. Definitive verb. or “Attributive protatos Attributive Genitive”.. 3rd declension. nominative case sing. genitive case sing. 56. Government genitive like 44 above.
77. § 42. 15. § 30. Μωϋσῆ Mouseos 66.active voice. § 18. § 52. irreg. 1st person plur. 69. 78. government. 19. § 30. like 22 above. Χριστός (Christos [Khreess-tahss’] ). § 32. § 30. 76. See 36 above. nominative case plur. . § 67. 3rd person sing. § 69. 62. 60.58. eimi 78. 58. § 59. 60. depends upon ἐλάβομεν (elabomen [eh-lab’-ahm-ehn] ). § 30.middle voice. like 46 above. § 73. 68. See vii.. § 82. § 49. 59. government. πλήρωμα (pleroma [play’-roh-mah] ).. 67. 64. 12. 70. long union-vowel. irreg. Government genitive. Compound adverb. 72. Irreg. § 38. 66. § 42. masc. Christos 70. horao 74. 79. oude eis 73. 3rd person sing. δίδωμι (didomi [dee’-doh-mee] ). see 33 above. 81. Attic Greek genitive. emphatic. 77. See 13 above. pleroma 59. 75. 73. 72. 1st aorist tense . Even. εἰμί (eimi [eye-mee’] ). Μωϋσῆς (Mouseos [Mohoo’-sace] ). short root vowel. 80. 9. didomi § 66. See vii. § 40. 65. exegeomai augment merged in first η. vii. Deponent ἐξηγήομαι (exegeomai [eks-ay-gay’-ahm-ahee] ). ὁράω (horao [hah-rah’-oh] ). 63. reduplication. 74. § 32. § 61. 76. 75. 61. accusative case sing. 3rd person sing. 67. ησοῦ Iesous 68. 79. § 81. See 40 above. τ of elabomen stem dropped. 81. 61.. § 85. 62. Compound of οὐδέ (oude [oo-deh’] ). numeral.. § 49. § 33. genitive case sing. 17. Even 63. 80. 65. § 60. and εἷς (eis [ice] ). indicative mood. regular in 1st aorist tense . § 97. See viii. 71. 64. See 3 above. § 59. irreg. 71. from Ἰησοῦς (Iesous [EE-ay-soose’] ). perfect tense . § 59. See vii.. § 40. 69.passive voice.
§ 40. ἀλλὰ [ὅτι Σοῦ deliver Thou τοῦ from the Power. καὶ ἡ ∆όξα36 εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας37. pray towards deponent. Luke 11: 2-4) Remark–The words below in parentheses are the variations in the passage of Luke. (and [this do]. τὸν ἐπιούσιον15. of us. § proseuchomai 58. ὡς ἐν Oὐρανῷ12. Luke 11: 2-4 towards. Ἁγιασϑήτω6 Σου. § 49. γενηϑήτω10 τὸ the Τὸ Ὄνομά7 The Name Σου. give of Thee. ὀφελοντι29 ἡμῖν). and not γὰρ for αὐτοὶ27 ourselves [we] ἀφίεμεν παντὶ28 to every [one] trial. καὶ μὴ ῥῦσαι32 ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ us away εἰσενέγκῃς30 mayest Thou lead ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν31. πονηροῦ33· evil: ἐστὶν34 ἡ βασιλεία. § 42. let be done Θέλημά11 Will Σου.] ἡ [because of Thee to the ∆ύναμις35. Ἀμήν38. Subjunctive mood. the by day). to us the bread ἡμῶν. as in needful.] and the Glory Scriptures 92Notes on the above Scriptures from Matthew 6: 9-13. . § 42. (καὶ. present tense.middle voice. Οὕτως Thus say): οὖν therefore Father προσεύχεσϑε1 ὑμεῖς· pray ye: (Ὅταν προσεύχησϑε2. let be Hallowed (Whenever the Heavens. ye pray. προσεύχομαι (proseuchomai [prah-syoo’-khahm-ahee] ). λέγετε3)· Πάτερ4 ἡμῶν. τὸν ἄρτον14 of Thee. ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφίεμεν25 τοῖς ὀφειλέταις26 ἡμῶν. and is probably spurious. The [One] in ἐν τοῖς Οὐρανοῖς5. ἡμῶν. 92Exercise on our LORD'S Prayer. indicative mood. Ὁ of us. also upon the earth. to us). (give) to us the to the (τὸ19 to-day. (Matthew 6: 9-13. [as to] (the [time] (the sins) καϑ᾽20 ἡμέραν21). καὶ the Kingdom. The concluding doxology in brackets is not found in the oldest manuscripts. as also of us. καὶ ἄφες22 ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα23 (τὰς ἁμαρτίας24) and forgive we forgive forgive us into debts debtors owing but is ages. § 44. ἐλϑέτω8 ἡ βασιλεία9 of Thee. required by conditional particle preceding. literal. . 2nd person plur.LESSON X our Prayer. of us. καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς13. and the Amen. δὸς16 (δίδου17) ἡμῖν σήμερον18. 2. let come the Kingdom Heaven. 1.
1st aorist tense .. 13. § 30. for. Πατήρ (Pater [Pat-ayr’] ). imperative mood. over. § 42. For κατά (kata [kat-ah’] ). . § 97.3. genitive case sing. irreg..active voice. § 32. § 30. from ἅγιος (hagios [hag’-ee-ahss] ) = H hagiad holy. artos 15. § 59. ge 14. accent.. ἐπιούσιος (epiousios [eh-pee-oo’-see-ahss] ). 16. 2nd aorist tense. 9. § 88. here distributive. § 3.passive voice. 11. 15 reference). § 69. accusative case sing. as if active voice.. 22. See §3 for accent as 7 above. Elliptical.. . Nominative case sing. 19. 18. . 10. dative case plur. 15. § 22. cannot take the enclitic's accent (§ 3) like 7 above. § 65. λέγω (lego [leh’-goh] ). 6 above. subsistence. γῆ (ge [gay] ). present tense. σ for δ. § 88. . like 16 above.. η in imperative mood. ousia 16. masc. of place all over like time. 2nd person plur. From ἀφίημι (aphiemi [ah-fee’-ay-mee] ) = send away compound from ἀπό (apo [ap-ah’] ) and ἵημι (hiemi apo hiemi [hee’-ay-mee] ). 11. vocative case sing. 21. first η assumed ginomai irreg. away. See viii. Attributive Accusative” 20. § 53. only used here as accusative case plural. 2nd aorist tense . 3rd person sing. imperative mood. irreg.active voice. See 5 above. 15. From ἡμέρα (hemera [hay-meh’-ra]. Same verb as 16 above. § 52. 12.Imperative mood . § 42. § 14.Imperative mood . daily. Compound adverb. . 3rd declension. as No. 15.active voice. γίνομαι (ginomai [ghee’-nah-mahee] ). = subsistence used only here. of time. § 29. § 53. ἄρτος (artos [ar’-tahss] ).Imperative mood . as if a derivative.2nd person sing. 14. 17. irreg. 23. § 67.. Οὐρανός (Ouranos [Oo-ran-ahss’] ). § 29. accusative case sing. § 74.2nd person sing. as another acute immediately precedes it. fem. probably compound of ἐπί (epi [ep-ee’] ). 13. 19. 10. root ἁγιαδ (hagiad [hag’-ee-ad] ). § 27. 17. didomi active voice. daily hemera 22. “Attributive Accusative § 97. § 32. O 6. § 42..active voice. Ἁγιάζω (Hagiazo [Hag-ee-adz’-oh] ).2nd person sing. lego 4. 8. vii. = for and οὐσία epiousios epi (ousia [oo-see’-ah] ). § 14. dative case sing. compare ὀφειλήματα / ὀφείλημα (suffixes) and case to opheilema 7 above (Lesson ix. (accent irregularly shifted). 10. § 49. 2nd aorist tense . 23. From ὀφείλημα (opheilema [ah-figh’-lay-mah] ).. neut. P 5. holy 1st aorist tense . § 34. § 28. accusative case sing. 18. 7.. § 83. § 48. From δίδωμι (didomi [dee’-doh-mee] ).passive voice. § 97. present tense . 3rd person sing. 12. See ix. kata 21.
24. 3 ἔδοξε16 Word. imperative mood unionruomai vowel α. but really belonging to the defective cognate. § 28. From ῥύομαι (ruomai [hruh’-ahm-ahee] ). present tense indicative mood .middle voice. = into and an obsolete into. (for ενκω (enko § 16). from εἰς (eis [ice] ). opheilo 30. § 42. § 81. § 92.. 2 καϑὼς9 ἀρχῆς12 αὐτόπται13 eye-witnesses παρέδοσαν10 ὑπηρέται14 τοῦ ministers of The ἡμῖν οἱ ἀπ'11 καὶ and transmitted [them] to us the from [the] beginning Lόγου15. . 33. verily. 34. § 69. 37. 1st aorist tense. eisenegka eis enko). . 36.1st person plural . genitive case sing. § 41. Definite adjective pronoun. hama 25. 12. § 28. Assigned to εἰσφέρω (eisphero [ice-feh’-roh] ). deponent. § 40. irreg. Present participle (active voice) of ὀφείλω (opheilo [ah-fi’=loh] ). 36. From εἰμί (eimi [i-mee’] ). 37. 28. Adverb from the Hebrew. 27. § 32. reduplicate. hamartia 24. ἔγκω (egko [ehng’-koh] ). (dependent end upon an implied verb egko enko of wishing or deprecating § 44). pas 29. opheiletes 27. See ix.active voice. Noun implied. 34. § 59. § 92. § 30. 2nd declension. accusative case plural. 31. aion 38. § 94. eimi 35. From πειρασμός (peirasmos [pie-rass-mahss’] ). 12. § 53. 29.. neut. verily LESSON XI 1Exercise on Luke 1: 1-4 1 Ἐπειδήπερ1 πολλοὶ2 ἐπεχείρησαν3 ἀνατάξασϑαι4 διήγησιν5 περὶ Inasmuch as the many undertook among us to arrange transactions. 26. masc. 25. dative case sing. § 39. 33. 38. § 51. 1st aorist tense. § 94.. It seemed [good] κἀμοί17. § 74. masc. παρηκολουϑηκότι18 having followed close . § 49. used as persons or all persons. See § 33. like ix. subjunctive mood. From ὀφειλέτης (opheiletes [ah-figh-leh’-tace] ). 26. 2nd person sing. dative case sing. § 32. dative case plural. § 62. 32. εἰσήνεγκα eisphero (eisenegka [eye-say’-nehng-kah] ). 35. From ἁμαρτία (hamartia [ham-ar-tee’-ah] ). accusative case sing. 28. From πᾶς (pas [pahss] ). 2nd person sing. a narrative just as about τῶν πεπληροφορημένων6 ἐν fully believed ἡμῖν7 πραγμάτων8. § 34. peirasmos 32. From same as 22 above. see vii. From αἰών (aion [ahee-ohn’] ). 31. 34..active voice. 30. to me also.
= full pleroph pleres and φορέω (phoreo [fah-reh’-oh] ). phoreo passive voice participle. = upon and χείρ epicheireo epi (cheir [khire] ). § 59. = arrange deponent. = up i. § 61. 13. 6. § 40. 1. masc. = as kata os 10. Compound of ἐπεί (epei [ep-eye’] ).e..ἄνωϑεν19 from [the] first πᾶσιν20 to all [things] ἀκριβῶς21. From διήγησις (diegesis [dee-ay’-gay-seess] ). dependent on ἀνατ (anat § 97.active voice. as. § 58. 20).. = a hand augment.. § 54. See vii. mind. upon. (see x. no tense sign. one to another and δίδωμι (didomi [dee’-doh-mee] ). now and the intensive particle. ταγ (tag tasso tag strengthened in present tense by σσ. = if ). tag). § 13). 3. 1st aorist tense. § 59. From αὐτόπτης (autoptes [ow-top’-tace] ). (§ 25). in the accusative upon ἐπεχ (epech [ep’-ekh] ). 2. δή (de [day] ). = lay hand upon from ἐπὶ (epi [ep. from para para another. depends.ee’] ). § 34. genitive case plural. persons understood. η. § 57. (ξ = γσ.. § 49. (like πόλις (polis [pah’. compound of παρά (para [pa-ra’] ). 1Notes on the above Scriptures from Luke 1: 1-4 since. Infinitive mood . § 74. 2nd aorist tense. epech 5. § 30. 10.leess] ) in the paradigm). Indicative mood. See § 38.. like a nominative case. anat). πιχει upon. Irreg. = near i. § 33. paradidomi near. § 66. (compound of ἀνά (ana [an-ah’] ). 13. per 2. nominative case plur. anatassomai ana thoroughly. anat plerophoreo full. κράτιστε24 most excellent to thee to write. Θεόφιλε25. exactly and ὡς (os [hohss] ).middle voice. indicative mood. didomi § 60. which excludes the γ).. 3rd person plur. 11. perfect bear.e. soma down. ἐπιγνῷς26 thou mayest recognize περὶ ὧν27 κατηχήϑης28 thou wast instructed about what λόγων τὴν ἀσφάλειαν29. genitive case plur. compound of αὐτός (autos [ow-tahss’] ). = upon εἴ (ei [eye] ). 3rd person plural hand. optomai . § 28. See § 22. § 42. pragm 7. περ (per [pehr] ).e. really an old πολλός (pollos [pahl-lahss’] ). From παραδίδωμι (paradidomi [pa-ra-dee’-doh-mee] ). § 60. = I see nominative case plur. up. 12. 12. § 68. = down i. 8. in mind reduplication. καϑεξῆς22 carefully. also § 42. (δο . arrange). see viii. 11. 4.. η. pragm). Like σῶμα (soma [soh’-mah] ) in the paradigm. From πληροφορέω (plerophoreo [play-rah-fah-reh’-oh] ). upon. § 59. compound of πλήρης (pleres [play’-race] ). polus pollos masc. Compound of κατά (kata [kat-ah’] ). § 97. from πολύς (polus [pahl-ooss’] ). exactly. = epei epi ei de now. Theophilus. cheir active voice. 1st aorist tense. From ἀνατάσσομαι (anatassomai [an-ah-tas’-sam-ahee] ). self. diegesis p accusative case sing. § 55. = since (from ἐπί (epi [ep.e.ee’] ). 9. thoroughly and τάσσω (tasso [tas’-soh] ). (root. see. . 13. words the 4 ἵνα In order that certainty. § 49. agrees with πραγμ (pragm § 73. From ἐπιχειρέω (epicheireo [eh-pee-khi-reh’-oh] ). § 66. = self and ὄπτομαι autoptes autos (optomai [opt’-ahm-ahee] ). regularly σοι γράψαι23.do [dah] ). = bear i.
§ 97. case.. from above i. augment. subject of ἔδοξε (edoxe [eh’-dahks-eh] ). (compound of κατά (kata [kat-ah’] ). § 30. and ἐμοί (emoi [eh-moy’] ). 2nd aorist tense. § 31. subjunctive mood. 27. § 34.. From ἀσφάλεια (asphaleia [ass-fa’-lie-ah] ). § 75. Adverbial comp.. From κατηχέω (katecheo [ka-tay-kheh'-oh] ). § 59. dative case sing. literal. rower. and γινώσκω (ginosko [ghi-noh’-skoh] ). dokeo doko indicative mood. Compound of καί (kai [ka-hee’] ). § 60. § 34. orderly. From δοκέω (dokeo [dah-keh’-oh] ). perfect tense . infinitive mood grapho not active voice. 1st aorist tense. agrees with ἐμοί (emoi [eh-moy’] ). second η. § 49. = strong assigned to ἀγαϑός (agathos [ag-ath-ahss’] ). compound of ἐπί (epi = upon i. 19. compound of παρά (para [pa-ra’] ). From ὑπηρέτης (huperetes [hoop-ay-reh’-tace] ). § 58). genitive case plural. 18. § 30. 20. = near parakoloutheo para and ἀκολουϑέω (akoloutheo [ah-kah-loo-theh’-oh] ). Adverb from ἀκριβής (akribes [ah-kree-base’] ). = under and ἐρέτης huperetes hupo (eretes [eh-reh’-tace] ). 27. (not strengthened. § 60. § 91. = I echo whence our catechize 1st aorist tense . = down as in 9 and 22 katecheo kata above. (§ 32). § 39. upon. epi). (root: γνο (gno = know contracted like γίνομαι (ginomai [ghin’-ahm-ahee] ). § 44. really an obsolete δόκω (doko [dah’-koh] ). § 54. xact. § 42. § 66. superlative. = rower § 28. non-tottering. non-tottering accusative case sing. agrees with λόγων (logon [lah’-gohn] ). 24. 18. 15. = orderly an old genitive kata h case use. masc.. of an obsolete κρατύς (kratus kratus [krah-tooss’] ). 29. See paradigm below †. 23.) ginomai vii. 17. depends upon asphaleia ἐπιγ (epig [ep’-ig] ). dative case plur. § 52. 14. Relative pronoun. 15. catechize.. 20. strong. 17.passive voice. as 4 above.e. (§ 35). echo). See viii. gno). 2nd person sing. From κράτιστος (kratistos [krah’-teess-tahss] ). kai emoi 18. third η. = good vocative case sing. Nominative case. Theophilos 26. § 73. compound of ὑπό (hupo [hoo-pah’) ).. 2nd person sing. § 92. παρακολουϑ near. 25. § 59. . § 51. ois 28. = I know for γίγνωσκω γινώσκω ginosko know. epig of Paradigms of Nouns of the First Declension . (gignosko [ghi’-gnoh-skoh] ). from top to bottom. Derivative adverb. (α+ε=η). (as 9 above). § 30.. 1st aorist tense. 25. 28. participle. gignosko gno know. emoi 19.e. = exact akribes 22.active voice. From παρακολουϑέω (parakoloutheo [pa-ra-ka-loo-theh’-oh] ). From γράφω (grapho [grah’-foh] ). § 88.active voice. 16. of κατά (kata [kat-ah’] ). for τῶν logon Words. . Θεόφιλος (Theophilos [Theh-ah’-fee-lahss] ). echeo exception to § 14. 16. From ἐπιγινώκω (epiginoko [eh-pee-ghin-noh’-koh] ). by means of some epiginoko epi reminding or determining circumstance. under. masc. edoxe 24. § 59. λόγων (ton logon [tone lah’-gohn] ) = of the Words ton (§ 75). § 66. (§ 22). § 55.. 21. down. 23. 3rd person sing. § 70. κολου akolou akolo second η. 29. above. § 29. 21. 22. οἷς (ois [hoyss] ). literal. and ἑξῆς (hexes [heks-ace’] ). 26. γαϑ agathos good.active voice.14. § 57. § 38. and ἠχέω (echeo [ay-kheh’-oh] ). 15.
English: CASES Shadow σκιά σκιᾶς σκιᾶ σκιᾷ σκιᾷ σκιάν σκιά Feminine Door Root ϑύρα ϑύρας ύρᾳ ϑύρᾳ ϑύραν ϑύρα ῥίζα ῥίζης ίζῃ ῥίζῃ ῥίζαν ῥίζα Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative CASES Honor Singular Singular τιμή τιλῆς τιλῆ τιμῇ τιμῇ τιμήν τιμή Masculine Youth Judge νεανίας νεανίου νεανίᾳ νεανίᾳ νεανίαν νεανία κριτής κριτοῦ κριτοῦ κριτῇ κριτῇ κριτήν κριτά Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative σκιαί σκιῶ σκιῶν σκιαῖ σκιαῖς σκιάς σκιαί ϑύραι υρῶ ϑυρῶν ϑύραις ϑύρας ϑύραι Plural ῥίζαι τιμαί ιζῶ τιμῶ ῥιζῶν τιμῶν τιμαῖ ῥίζαις τιμαῖς ῥίζας τιμάς ῥίζαι τιμαί νεανίαι νεανιῶ νεανιῶν νεανίαις νεανίας νεανίαι κριταί κριτῶ κριτῶν κριταῖ κριταῖς κριτάς κριταί English: CASES Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative Paradigms Second Paradigms of Nouns of the Second Declension † Masculine Neuter Word Jesus Fig Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural ησοῦ λόγος λόγοι Ἰησοῦς σῦκον σῦκα ησοῦ λόγου λόγων Ἰησοῦ σύκου σύκων λόγῳ ησοῦ σύκῳ λόγῳ λόγοις Ἰησοῦ σύκῳ σύκοις λόγον ησοῦ λόγον λόγους Ἰησοῦν σῦκον σῦκα ησοῦ λόγε λόγοι Ἰησοῦ σῦκον σῦκα Paradigms of Nouns of the Third Declension Masculine and Feminine Neuter English: Shepherd Lion Hair City Body Light Wall CASES Singular Nominative ποιμήν τεῖ λέων ϑρίξ πόλις σῶμα φ ῶς τεῖχος Genitive ποιμένος λέοντος τρίχός πόλεως σώματος φωτός τείχους Dative ποιμένι λέοντι τριχί πόλει σώματι φωατί τείχει Accusative ποιμένα λέοντα τεῖ τρίχα πόλιν σῶμα φ ῶς τεῖχος Vocative φ ῶς τεῖ ποιμήν λέον ϑρίξ πόλι σῶμα τεῖχος Plural Nominative ποιμένες λέοντες τρίχες πόλεις ποιμένες σώματα φ ῶτα τείχη Genitive ποιμένων λεόντων τριχῶυ πόλεων σωμάτων φωτῶν τειχῶν τριχῶ φωτῶ τειχῶ Dative ποιμέσι λέονσι ϑριξί πόλεσι σώμασι φωσί τείχεσι Accusative ποιμένας λέοντας τρίχας πόλεις σώματα φῶτα τείχη Vocative ποιμένες λέοντες τρίχες πόλεις τρίχες σώματα φῶτα τείχη CASES .
§ 34) 2n Declension ension– 1st and 2nd Declension καλός. M. F. = Just 3r Declension ension– 1st and 3rd Declension πᾶς. δικαία. καλά καλῶ καλῶν καλοῖ καλοῖς καλά καλά CASES Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative Masc. (of three terminations. ……… υς υ Gen. N. G. = Fair Singular Plural Masc. & F. καλός καλή καλόν καλοί καλαί καλοῦ καλῆ καλοῦ καλῶ καλῶ καλοῦ καλῆς καλοῦ καλῶν καλῶν καλῷ καλῇ καλῷ καλοῖ καλαῖ καλῷ καλῇς καλῷ καλοῖς καλαῖς καλόν καλήν καλόν καλούς καλάς καλέ καλή καλόν καλοί καλαί Similarly. δίκαιος. Fem. M. αινα εσσα εῖσα εινα N. έντος εν G. F. ῶτος G. N. εντος έν G. ονος ορος ω υος . & N.CASES Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative 34) Paradigms of Adjectives. = All Singular Fem. ώς υῖα ῶς ῶσα ύς εῖα ύς ῦσα N. & F. πᾶσα πᾶν πάντες πάσης παντός πάντων πάσῃ πάσῃ παντί πᾶσι πάσην πᾶν πάντας πᾶσα πᾶν πάντες Similarly those ending in:– : M. Fem. όντος ων ουσα ον G. Gen. οντος ῶν ῶσα ῶν G. δίκαιον. αν εν ές ……… Forms in two terminations are similar. πᾶς παντός παντί πάντα πᾶς Plural Fem. & N. αν G. for example:– : Gen. ενος M. ας ην ής ……… N. ότος G. & F. M. N. ούς οῦσα όν G. οῦντος Neut. ῶντος οῦ ῶν οῦσα οῦν G. ύντος M. Neut. M. έος G. Masc. πάντα πάντων πᾶσι πάντα πάντα M. & N. ας εις είς ην F. ός ῶς ύ ύν M. αντος ις ι ιτος ων ον ενος ος ον ου ωρ ορ έος ους ουν οδος ως ων ……… ……… ……. Similarly. πᾶσαι π ᾶ σων πάσαις πάσας πᾶσαι Neut. ανος εν G. Masc. Neut.
…………. 1st Aor.sing. τύψων τύψας τετυφώς …………. τυπεῖ τυπεῖν τυπεῖ τυπεῖν Participle τύπτων ………….. τετύποιμι τυψαίμην τυψοίμην τυποίμην τυποίμην τετύπω …………. 2nd Aor. τύπε …………. etc. τυψάμενος τυψόμενος τυπόμενος τυπούμενος . τύπτω τύπτοιμι …………. τυποῦ τυποῦ …………. Passive Voice TENSES Present Imperf. 1st Fut. τύψαιμι τύψω …………. τετυμμένος ……… τύφϑ τύφϑητι …………. τύψασϑ τύψασϑαι τύψεσϑ τύψεσϑαι τυπέσϑ τυπέσϑαι τυπεῖ τυπεῖσϑαι τετυπώς …………. τύπωμαι …………. τύψοιμι …………. τετύφω τετύφοιμι …………. τύψον τέτυφε …………. τετυπέναι …………. τυπών τυπῶ τυπῶν …………. τύψαι …………. …………. ………….) of Regular (Mute) Verbs--τύπτω. Perfect Pluperf. Indicative τύπτω ἔτυπτον τύψω ἔτυψα τέτυφα ἐτετύφειν ἔτυπον τυπῶ τυπῶ Imperative τύπτε …………. τύποιμι τύπω τυποῖ τυποῖμι …………. Verbs-Synopsis (1st person sing. …………. 1st Aorist 1st Future 2nd Aorist 2nd Future 3rd Future Indicative τύπτομαι ἐτυπτόμην τέτυμμαι ἐτετύμμην ἐτύφϑην τύφϑ τυφϑήσομαι υφϑ ἐτύπην τυπήσομαι τετύψομαι Imper. τύψωμαι …………. Perfect Pluperf. τυφϑ τυφϑείς τυφϑ τυφϑησόμενος τυπείς τυπησόμενος τετυψόμενος ……… τύπηϑ τύπηϑι …………. Middle Voice TENSES Present Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st Aorist 1st Future 2nd Aorist 2nd Future Indicative Imperative Optative Subjunctive Infinitive Participle Same throughout as the Passive Voice τέτυπα ἐτετύπειν τυψάμην ἐτυψάμην τύψομαι ἐτυπόμην τυποῦ τυποῦμαι τέτυπε …………. τετύφϑ τετύφϑαι …………. τυπτοίμην τυπε τυπεἴην τετυμμένος τυφϑ τυφϑείην τυφϑ τυφϑησοίμην τυπείην τυπησοίμην τετυψοίμην Subjunctive Subjunctive τύπτωμαι τυπὦ τυπὦ τετυμμένος Infinitive τύπτεσϑ τύπτεσϑαι Participle τυπτόμενος ……… τέτυψο …………. 2nd Fut. τύψειν τύψαι τετυφέναι …………. τυπῶ τυπῶ ……… ……… …………. τυφϑῆναι τυφϑῆναι ϑῆ τυφϑήσεσϑ τυφϑήσεσϑαι τυπῆ τυπῆναι τυπήσεσϑ τυπήσεσϑαι τετύψεσϑ τετύψεσϑαι ………….. Infinitive τύπτειν …………. τυφϑὼ τυφϑὼ …………. = Strike Active Voice Optative Subjunctive …………. τύπτου Optative TENSES Present Imperf.
. before ending.. But αν (an in 1st Aorist tense.... Passive.. ετε ης ητε ας ατε ες ετε ης ητε εις ειτε οις οιτε αις αιτε ε ετε ον ατε ηθι ητε ουσι ῃ ωσι ε ασι ασι ε ον η ησαν ει εισαν οι οιεν αι αιεν έτω έτωσαν άτω άτωσαν ήτω ήτωσαν Present and Future Subjunctive throughout (exc.Verbmood-vowel) Regular Verb-Endings. ... and 2nd Aorist Middle Indicative of Perfect Passive Indicative of Pluperfect Passive Opt.. .. & Optative Indicative of Pluperfect Optative. .. Passive) Indicative of 1st Aorist Middle p s p s p s p s p s p s p s p s p s p s p όμεϑα μεϑ ωμαι ώμεϑ ώμεϑα άμην άμεϑ άμεϑα όμην όμεϑ όμεϑα μαι μαι μεϑ μεϑα μην μεϑ μεϑα οίμην οίμεϑ οίμεϑα αίμην αίμεϑα αίμεϑ . Imperative of Perfect Passive VerbReference Notes on the Table of Regular Verb-Endings above an) a. 2nd Aorist... Perf. .. exc. .. (including mood-vowel) 52) Active Voice (including § 52 1 2 Indicative of s ω εις Present and Future Subjunctive throughout Indicative of Perfect and 1st Aorist Indicative of Imperfect and 2nd Aorist Indicative of Aorist.. an b... But ητι in 1st Aorist tense.. see § 14. εσϑ εσϑε ῃ ησϑ ησϑε ω ασϑ ασϑε ου εσϑ εσϑε σαι σϑε σο σϑε οιο οισϑ οισϑε αιο αιο αισϑε αισϑ ου εσϑε εσϑ αι ασϑ ασϑε σο σϑε εται ονται ηται ωνται ατο αντο ετο οντο ται νται το ντο οιτο οιντο αιτο αιντο έσϑ έσϑω έσϑωσαν έσϑ άσϑ άσϑω άσϑ άσϑωσα ν ϑω σϑωσαν Indicative of Imperf.... ει (ei [eye] ). as below (and Perfect Passive) Optative of 1st Aorist Middle Imperative of Present and 2nd Aorist (Middle) Imperative of 1st Aorist Mid... & Perfect Imperative of 1st Aorist Imperative of Aorist Passive s = singular p = plural 52) Middle and Passive Voice (except § 52 3 1 2 s ει ομαι ῃ Indicative of 3 p s p s p s p s p s p s p s p s p s p s p ομεν ω ωμεν α αμεν ον ομεν ην ημεν ειν ειμεν οιμι οιμεν αιμι αιμε ν . ... .... .. . exc... ei c... . .. as above & below Optative of 1st Aorist Imperative of Present.. The Optative mood has an extra mood-diphthong..
ϑέσο δίδοσο ………... ……….. The Perfect and Pluperfect tense . δείκνυσϑ δείκνυσϑαι δεικνύμενοζ ………. ἱστῶ ἱστάναι ἱστάς Imperfect ἵστην ………..... τιϑῶ τιϑῶ ………. ἱστῶμαι ἵστασϑαι Imperfect ἱστάμην ………. διδοίμην δοίμην ………. ϑῆναι ϑῆναι διδόναι ……….. δόσϑ δόσϑαι Participle ἱστάμενος ……….. ………. δόσο ………. δούς δεικνύναι δεικνύς ………... ϑέσϑαι έσϑ δίδοσϑ δίδοσϑαι ………. ἱσταίην ………... ………...Passive voice are often inflected periphrastically (especially in the Optative and Subjunctive moods) by means of an auxiliary (from εἰμί (eimi [eye-mee’] = to be with the participle. τιϑ τιϑείμην ϑείμην ………... δός δέικνυ δέικνυϑι ……….. ………... be). ………... τιϑ τιϑέναι ………. and show show. διδοίην δοίην ……….. δοῦ δοῦναι τιϑ τιϑείς ………. 2nd Aorist στῆϑ ῆϑι σταίην στῶ στῆ ἕστην στῆϑι σταίην στῶ στῆναι στάς Present Imperfect 2nd Aorist Present Imperfect 2nd Aorist Present Imperfect τίϑ τίϑημι τίϑ ἐτίϑην ἔϑην ἔϑην δίδωμι ἐδίδων ἔδων δείκνυμι ἐδείκνυν τίϑ τίϑετι ………. ϑείς δίδούς ………. All the other tenses are regular. τιϑῶμαι τιϑῶμαι ϑῶ ……….. δῶ ………... δόω. ... ϑέω. as if from στάω.. δεικνύω. ϑῶ δίδῶ δίδῶ ………. 2nd στά στῶ στάσϑ ἐστάμην στάσο σταίμην στῶμαι στάσϑαι Aorist Present τίϑεμαι τίϑ Imperfect ἐτιϑέμην τιϑ 2nd ἐϑέμην ἐϑέμην Aorist Present δίδομαι Imperfect ἐδιδόμην 2nd ἐδόμην Aorist τιϑ τιϑεσο ………. ϑῶμαι ϑῶμαι διδῶ διδῶμαι ……….. τιϑ τιϑείην ϑείην ………. στάμενος τιϑ τιϑέμενος ………. ϑές δίδοϑ δίδοϑι ……….. ………. ………... ϑέμενος διδόμενος ……….. ………... δόμενος Present δείκνυμαι δείκνυσο Imperfect ἐδείκυμην ………. eimi Synopsis of Verbs in μι Active Voice Indicative Imperative Optative Subjunctive Infinitive Participle Present σταϑ στῶ ἵστημι ἵσταϑι ………. put. Middle Voice (including Present and Imperfect Passive) Subjunctive Indicative Imperative Optative Subjunctive Infinitive Present ἵσταμαι στῶ στασϑ ἵστασο ………... give.... δῶμαι ……….d.. ………. τίϑεσϑ τίϑεσϑαι ………. ἱσταίμην ………. Voice... meaning respectively to stand put give stand. ……….
All Rights Reserved . -σι δέικνυδέικνυδέικνυδέικνυδίδουσι δέικνυσι ∆ίδωμι (didomi [dee’-doh-mee] ) has ω as a union-vowel throughout the subjunctive mood (present and 2nd d aorist tenses) of both voices. -μι τίϑ τιϑ τίϑητιϑε3. -μεν στησταἵστηἵστα2. -τε 1. and histemi 2nd person plural of the subjunctive mood . ἵστασι 2.present tense.. Copyright © 2008 Timothy Stouffer .org .Peculiar Endings of Verbs in μι Singular Plural 1. and ἵστημι (histemi [hee’-stay-mee] ) has α in the 2nd and 3rd person sing. All the other forms follow the inflection of the regular verb. -ς δίδωδίδοδίδοδίδωτίϑεισι 3.Bible Truth Lion.