Cicero Musicus Author(s): P. R. Coleman-Norton Source: Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Summer, 1948), pp.
3-22 Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the American Musicological Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/830169 . Accessed: 18/09/2011 15:29
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
University of California Press and American Musicological Society are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the American Musicological Society.
BY P. R. COLEMAN-NORTON
pre-Christian period SINCE no Latin treatise on music survives, 1 perhaps in the writings of no other Latin author of that era than M. Tullius Cicero (Io6-43) can we expect to find a richer mine of information on music among the Romans. Not only is Cicero now our most voluminous of ante-Christian writers in Latin, but also Cicero's literary efforts still extant cover the widest area, in that he plowed in the fields of oratory, rhetoric, philosophy, epistolography, and poetry.2 At any rate, in the works of Cicero, whose mental interests were not canalized into few literary channels, but were both comprehensive and indeed cyclopaedic in concern, we have, if anywhere, the best chance to find something of importance on almost any subject of culture in which an educated person may be interested. Among such subjects music should find a place. 3 How
Manlius Severinus Boethius (ca. 480-524) each composed treatises on music (De Musica) which are extant. Chapters on music (De Musica) are embedded in the writings of Martianus Minneus Felix Capella (ft. 420), De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, IX, and of Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus (ca. 49o-ca. 583), Institutiones Divinarum et Saecularium Litterarum, II. 5. Beside these much incidental information on musical matters may be gleaned from M. Vitruvius Pollio (ca. 65ca. 5), De Architectura, V. 4-5, 8 and X. 8. 2I do not forget M. Terentius Varro Reatinus different works consisting of 620 volumes. But what of this prodigious production survives is small: some nine books and poetic or semi-poetic fragments totalling some 6oo lines. Of him it may be written: Eius modi homines vix singuli singulis saeculis ttascuntur.
"In his Institutio (i 16-27), who is estimated to have written 74 1Aurelius Augustinus (354-430) and Anicius
well and to what extent Cicero ' may vestigation of which the results follow. 5
help us here is the purposeof the in-
I it is best to clear the ground Perhaps by the traditional negative approach before proceeding to assay what positive contribution Cicero made. First, it should be stated that there are musi'It has been suggested by J. F. Mountford. " Greek Music and its Relations to Modern Times," Journal of Hellenic Studies, XL Poseidonius, whose lectures on philosophy Cicero sems to have heard in 78 (Plutarchus, Cicero, 4. 2 al. 4; cf. Cicero, De Natura Deorum, I. 3. 6), much of what musical knowledge is found in his writings. To support his claim that Poseidonius was "no mean musician" Mountford cites Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, XIV. 635 CD; but I think Mountford reads too much into this locus. Even if we give to the witness of Athenaeus all the weight which Mountford wishes, we still do not know how much in music Cicero learned from Poseidonius. That a knowledge of music was considered a necessity for an orator may be seen from the testimony of Quintilianus (op. cit., I. io. 9-33), where he remarks (?29) that he would have discussed the subject at more length, if there had been anything novel in his insistence on the study of music as part of an orator's training. "It is perhaps unnecessary to preface this inquiry with the statement that I have not the intention to survey sounds produced by Nature and by animals, unless by trope those tones may be considered appropriately musical, when the same or a similar sound can be made by human or instrumental agency, despite the apocalyptic authority of Daniel iii, 6o-8i (Vulgate), which appears in the canticle Benedicite, Omnia Opera, a part of "The Song of the Three Holy Children " (as the translators of the King James Version of the Holy Bible quaintly call it), and notwithstanding the musician's injunctions in Psalms xcvi, I1-12, xcviii, 7-8, cxlviii, 3-1o, and cl, 6, where " Nature with open volume stands/To spread her Maker's praise abroad " (Watts) and is exhorted to "make a joyful noise unto the sing praise " (Psalm xcviii, 4). Suo cuique iudicio utendum est.
Lord . . . make a loud noise, and rejoice, and
22, that Cicero doubtless derived from
anus testifies to the fact that from prehistoric times to his own day music continued to be studied by all who did not have a hatred for any regular course of study.
Oratoria, I. Io0. 30, Quintili-
9.). whether anterior to or contemporary with or posterior to Cicero. adjective.).). succanere (Var.). crotalistria(Propertius). organicus (Lucretius). sambucina (Plaut. III. to Atticus that he is searching during his proconsulate of Cilicia for such a wind instrument below. While he may have known how to play a cithara. And that he happens to write such a word in its non-musical meaning must not be counted to Cicero's discredit." Cf. tendere (Luc.). employ the same word in a musical connotation. sufflare (Plaut. Cicero sometimes uses such a word in a non-musical sense. thymelicus (Vitruvius).).
'When more than one author preserves the word. (2) instruments. V.).
centivus (Var. inaccanere (Var. 330-333) and by trans-
SPhemius was a celebrated Ithacan citharist
. obloqui (Ver. however. II Dismissing. though it is well known. verb) among these categories: (i) performers (whether singers or players). percutere (Ov. Fata sua habent verba. x6. fidicina (Plaut.). (4)
rentius).). it can not be anticipated by even the most prejudiced that Cicero would have had occasion to employ every musical word found in Latin either before or during his generation. 9.
mentioned by Homerus (Odyssea. siticen (Cato).sambucistria (Livius). miscellaneous. text at note 64. XVII. incinere (Prop.). See
according to the meanings given by the latest edition of Lewis and Short. citharizare (Nepos).). (Harper's) A New Latin Dictionary. XXII.). it appears that preciceronian and conciceronian words are outnumbered by postciceronian terms in the proportion of almost one to four.
fer his name is used by Ovidius (Amores. choragus (Plaut. to register those words
61n listing Latin words of musical significance
of which we may suppose most either were known or could have been known to Cicero. it must be observed. since Cicero was neither a professional musician nor an amateur writer on musicology.
for him (Att. I. argutus (Hor. 7
(3) songs and sounds and scales. 61) to mean "a good player on the cithara..).). 2x.). therefore.
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY
cal terms appearing in Latin writings of Cicero's predecessors and contemporaries which seem not to exist in Cicero's extant vocabulary.). psallere (Sal.). x3). who occasionally purchased slaves with musical talents (musici eruditi) and who apparently had expected Caesar's expedition to Britain to procure some (Epistulae ad Atticum. temperare (Hor. occanere (Sallustius).).). queri (Hor. subulo (Ennius).Phemius8 (Ovidius). citharistria (Te-
(i) Performers: cantator (Varro). IV. 7. conspirare (Vergilius).). pulsus (Ov." Atticus. our extravagant encomium for a pianist who finds public favor: "He's a Paderewski. cantrix (Plautus). I. that there are in Latin words susceptible of more than one meaning. 153-155. this Phemius is mentioned as a perfor Cicero thrice writes former on the KipaC. recinere (Hor. modulator (Horatius). Second. Third. even though Cicero seems not to have cared to mention these in what of his works are extant. intercinere (Hor. succentivus (Var). recanere (Ver. ludere (Ver. hymnifer (Ov. 261-263.6 In treating these terms it is convenient to distribute them alphabetically and by the several parts of speech (noun. the second and the third points just made. adverb.). VI. The reason for this ratio is due doubtless in part to the phenomenon noticed in note I and in the text ad loc. the oldest writer only is named.).
(Ov. Obviously. had a slave named Phemius.). it ought not be charged as censure against Cicero that in his works we vainly look for that musical terminology either invented by Latin authors of the imperial period or recorded as of no superior antiquity by such writers. pythaules (Var. while other writers. 7). it is fair. tympanotriba (Plaut. phonascus (Var.).). 20.
57. II.. 57. Or. 74.. 216.. 88. 146. De Or. 173. summissus: Flacc. Pro Cluentio. 56 et 57. biforis (Ver.).
26. 18. cf. xOTakingas a precedent the procedure of the preceding note. 91. 8). flexibilis: De Or. 37.. III.. 33. III. stamen (Luc.. 41. 61. invented by Ctesibus of Alexandria. 8.. 51. 84. 133..).
34. 58. 216. II.. incitatus:
Or.. plenus: De Or.. T. 66. syrinx (Ov. Brut. 25. 58. 57. Caec. 203. 66. 234.. 5.. 58. Or. 56 et 57. D. classicum (Ver. 41. languens: Off.III. 38... III. 216.). VIII. 182. De Or. 146. 58. candidus:
10. 174 B-D)... inflexus: De Or.).
Or. D.. simplex (Hor. Or. 227..
Divinatione. Off. suppressus: 85. Or. III. III. obii.. scissus: De Or. 57. Or. III. 29. 182. III.).. 59. 18. 58. 85. 57.). permanens: Brut. III.
115. V.. tetrachordos (Vit. temperare (Hor.. 66... De Or.. III. cf. intermissus: De Or. 11. 59. cf.). increpere (Ver. This machine.
tardus: De Or. Pro Sulla. V. 77. acerbus: Philippicae. acutus: N. 43. 24. 31. while these can carry a musical or a rhythmical connotation. III. cf. lotos or lotus (Ov. 26. 219. 141. 216. 58. 30. harundineus (Ov. 17. 303. D. III. 18. 216. III. 146. 58. 33. In Senatu. Pro Caecina. 58. III. cit.. 216. I.. which Cicero merely mentions (Tusculanae Disputationes. 25. I8. C.). III. remissus: De Or. 133. 59. III. De Or.
216. cf. III. cithara (Var. D. 78. Or.. dulcis: Or. 239.). lenis: De Or. cf. 43. cf. 26. 289. 227. De Oficiis. 233.. 216. 54.. foramen (Hor.. 17. III. tibinus (Var. 14....). splendidus: Brut. 59. 251. Off. 224 et 225. 58. aelinos (Ov. 219. Brut. (Ov. 289. Granger's edition and translation of Vitruvius's book in the Loeb None of these nouns appears in Cicero's works. III. N. cf.). Or. III. 91. 25. III..(Ver.). 261. 219.. imminens: De Or. inclinatus:
Classical Library (London & New York.. Pro Caelio.). 58. 51. 24. who flourished in the reign of Ptolemaeus VII to Athenaeus (op. 58. 38. T. X. N. 216.. harundo(Ver. intentus: De Or. 58. argutus(Ver.
(I45-II6). 217.). D. 133. 216. 141.. 268. 75. 58. 5-7). 133. 57. 48.). I. 58. 41. 8. III. 10.. cit. grandis: Brut. III. 235. flebilis: De
57. I9.. 64. 68.. 35. 58. gravis: Sull. III. 217. yet do not indicate a singer's tones in these loci: abiectus: De Oratore. 259. 58. Ii. II.).. 43). is described fully by Cicero's younger contemporary Vitruvius (op. 213. citus: De Or.). D. I.
Or. 37.. 58..). suavis: Off. 219. 59. queri (Ov..barbitos
(2) Instruments:9 aes (Enn. peracutus: III.. sistrum (Ver. 146. 146. 56. 8. III. 57.). I.). I. 31. 66. 6).. 45. 44. cf. 5... 58.. Brut.)..
56.. De I.. 216. 193. 134. II.). calamus (Luc. 58. III. obductus: De Or. duratus: De Or. 28. 66.. 58. 233. 57. orthopsalticus(Var. X. 55. 32.. III. II. 41. 57.). 55. 58. cf. 57. 217. 213. I. None of these terms appears in a musical connotation amid Cicero's writings.. III. 17. 216. I. III. De Re Publica. 37. 8. cicuta (Luc. II. absonus: De Or.). 13. 34.. organicus (Cato). 7. Io. Orator. 173.). 261. Sull. ca. 57. 218.).. T.). 182. De Or. 28. 133. 1i. 219. II.. Off. 241..). consonus (Ov. Brut. 57. 25.). 58. 6. contractus: De Or. D.. continens: De Or. clarus: Or.... Sull. Pro Archia.). who discovered the task of description to be difficult and not easy to the general comprehension except of those with experience in such matters (op. 203. I. 36. Brut. 31. 58. Brut. lyricus (Hor. I omit Vitruvius's transliteration of the eighteen names for sound. pecten (Ver.). III.. filum (Ov. summus: De Or. 303. Or.Or. cantatio (Var. 216. I. 132. magnus: De Or. 218.
38. 92.). tener: De Or.). 18. III. ii. IV.). Cato Maior. 24. 57. octachordos(Vit.. Pro Flacco. III.CICERO MUSICUS
or buxum (Prop.). canna (Ov. 58. I. 57.). 146. I. 22. hilaratus: De Or. surdus (Prop. 37. I.). II. 217 et 219.. 58... 219.
De Or..)..). 158. 84. 38. canorus: Brutus. 146. 37. D. 261. inflatus: De Or. 218. II.. 250.). 55. N.. 216.).. 146. cf. taureus (Ov. The following adjectives applied to vox by Cicero. 247. 58. crepitacillum (Luc. 23.). 18. sambuca (Plaut. III. 146. III.). 150. 58..
(Hor. 58. attenuatus: De Or. 29. III. 71. 56. T. 234. 17.. concha (Ver..).. 66. 68. canor attenuatus (Ov.). Brut. D.).). buxus(Ver.). 57. nablium (Ov. II. 57. III. III. stomis (Lucilius). Epistulae ad Familiares. 27. 61. demissus: De
216.. tubus (Var. II.
57. I. Phil. D. 136. I. 219. 216.. 219. 18.. II. D. D. fuscus: N.. D. 61. III. 61. cit. 58. 216. parvus: De Or. 115. asper: De Or. 58. 18.
. 15. interruptus: De Or. I. III. 12. I2.). 46. 14.fractus:De Or. 17. 57. strepere (Ver. III. 16.. 203. Brut. 4. acer (Hor. bucinare (Var. bombus (Luc.). cit..).
'This category would be enlarged excessively if I should include in it all the technical terms found in a description of the hydraulus or water-organ... 251. multiforus (Ov. III. 235. chelys (Ov. 57. Or. 80. 193i).). tendere
316. III. 88. testudineus (Tibullus).
70. 30. tympanum (3) Songs and soundsand scales:1' (Plaut. 313. mollis: De Or. recurvus (Ver. cf. and of the six kinds of concords (op. II. 8. 14. 57. 219.. of the five types of tetrachords. 57. Brut. II. 28. The notes of the scales are illustrated in Plate F at the end of the first volume of F. De Or. De Or. 54. 241 . nervia (Var.
De Or.. diffusus:De Or. N. 56. haesitans: De Or. durus: Pro Plancio. 66. cf. hydraulicus (Vit. surraucus: Brut. M.. 219. 60. III. 56 . cantio norus (Ver. 121.. contentus: Or.. vehemens: De Or. 41. 68. 5.
217. 146. 61.).). fidicinius (Plaut. 132. 146. 9. 8.). N. I.. merulus (Vit. 43.. 58. levis: N. 17. 217. 217.. 57. I. avena
5 hexachordos (Vit.) (Ver. effusus: De Or. 55.). cf. 17.
).13 cantor (Pro Sestio. insonare (Ov.)." American Journal of Philology. 236). qualitas11 (Vit. 22. style. I.). 29. II. 19. dissonare(Vit.). querela (Luc. 22 [bis]. phthongus (Vit. Marchesi. 45. strepitus (Hor. in Cicero's works). so far as I can discover. suavisonus (Naevius).). comes from Pro Additional corroboration Murena.). chromaticus (Vit. chroma (Vit. The second passage describes the famous statue of the Citharist of Aspendus in Pamphylia. among whom are mentioned the citharistae. 13. (1900-1901) tores Euphorionis.). melodina (Var." Atene e Roima.). hemitonium(Vit. querulus (Hor. Cicero quotes the saying
.). T. sonorus (Tib. 7. Apparently the sculpture was so lifelike that the performer seemed to be enjoying his own music. Brugnola. De Or.). A.).
On this phrase see V.). are intended. V. pecten (Ov. same title in same periodical. includes the musician. Messer. 3. I. Gandiglio. raucisonus(Luc.). 6.). raucus (Ver. 28.). D. 15). circumsonare (Liv. which itself had 7rot6vgo"C 182 A).
Malorum. 7).). 25).). which the Greeks applied to one who does things for one's own pleasure. reboare (Luc.). V. 94). have a disparaging connotation. tonus (Vit. 1'In the first place it seems that chanters of a claque.).). diesis (Vit. 37. I.). XL (1919) 396-415. i18 [bis]..).).).7." Bollettino di Filologia Classica. His five other uses of chorus are metaphorical and of these two. these passages will be mentioned later.). III. praesonare (Ov.). liquidus (Luc. W. murmur (Hor. clangor (Ver. suavis (Plaut.. tetrachordonor tetrachordum (Vit. At any rate the figure occasioned a proverb (the only one on music.. "Ad Cic. 24 . concordare (Ov.
nAlthough Cicero coined qualitas to represent (Academia. 20. 15.. 53). II. "I Can205-208. tubulustrium (Var. XLV (1917) 78-92.). 4.). mortualia (Plaut. " Cicero and the Poetae Novi." Mnemosyne. 40). sonabilis (Ov. consonare (Plaut. remugire(Cat.thusmaking room for the more importantaspects. sibila (Luc.7 liticen (Rep.
This list totals about 200 musical
terms not used by Cicero. modulatus(Hor. II. as here. been invented by Plato (Theaetetus.). I.).. 4). In the last locus Cicero describes a
musical sense seems to have been made by Vitruvius (op. These words will be arranged as in the preceding list.) or tubilustrium(Ov. tonare (Luc. S.. yet its first use in a
iurisconsultus as a cantor formularum. which will be noted.
Before drawing conclusions about Cicero's knowledge of music it will be best to eliminate by collection those termswhich carry only a casual significancefor the subject. discors (Hor.). Frank.).).).
'SThe context in each locus shows that artifex.). diatonon (Vit. II.).). T.).'4 chorus (Phil. taratantara (Enn. melicus (Luc. In Verrem. 55. choragium (Plaut. consonanter (Vit. resultare (Ver. whether theoretical or practical.). 3. 6.. IV (1901) 183-191. and used it six times (Acad.).). we have in Cicero's works some I25 words which can be considered descriptive of the several departments of music. 6.." " Cicerone ed i poetae novi.'2 though these by his time were in the Latin language.). VII C. Tusc. musice (Plaut.. recrepare (Cat. stridere(Cat.). The second passage refers to the celebrated phrase cantores Euphorianis and apparently of jingles in Euphorion's means "writers
"1This is the only Ciceronian passage in which this word includes musicians. (4) Miscellaneous:amusia (Var.). harmonice (Vit. imus (Hor. V.). a passage reserved for later and from Cicero's use of artificium.).).). "'Allusion to the first passage is made in the preceding note. tener (Ov. amusos (Vit.
9 and io ad init. not bona fide singers. II. On the other hand.). mugire (Ver.6" cornicen (Rep. odeum (Vit.). 7. V. 45.). 2"Including the exceptions mentioned in notes
N. 55.). cit. sonor (Luc.). classicum (Caesar).). chromatice (Vit. which signifies the master of an ars. vocalis (Ov. tinnulus (Catullus). D. discussion.6
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY
(Plaut. V (1898-1899) i6-18. De Finibus Bonorum et
( i) Performers: artifex (Acad.). modulatio (Vit.). Disp.diagramma (Vit. 19.).15 citharista (Phil.
discrepare (De Or. As he had all his playing to himself. Verr. '"Here Cicero castigates one qui in foro cantet as guilty of multa ab humanitate discrepantia... 81)...
Div. Fin. writings.
II... 36. 19. 57.
12. 49. V. F. 104.. i.20
pellere (Div.19 In Catilinam. 22).. meditari (De Or. IV. II. Philos. 59. I. 19. II.
"'The last locus is cited from C. D. 85).. 313). 33. 20). 9. III. V. Nay more. Tullii Ciceronis Orationes.
.22 crotalum (Pis.crepundia (Brut. 14. 55). D.. II. io... in foro cantare is only one phase of alia magna perversitas.78. II. 22. 59. 4. i i6. 5. 14. 196). D. 325). there is no reason to reject its insertion here on the ground that it cannot produce what some connoisseurs may consider a musical tone. The latter adjective in appears to be &ira E)y'6. 2. 44. 1861).21 cornu (N.
58.II. II.. II.uevov Latin. pellere (Div. 46. 5.27 nervus (Div. V.. II. 122. 55.
"4From the context perhaps I should record this word later. concinere (T.
14. inflare (Acad. 40). Pro Milone.28 scabellum (Cael. I07). Probably we should follow Zumpt's suggestion that the statue was sculptured with such skill that the citharist his music within seemed to be "feeling" himself. when I reserve for another category a recurrence of it.. 91..7. fidicula (N. V. 26. Frag. N. This volume of Mueller's stereotyped edition will be used for following fragments. 65). 8. so Verres played for himself alone and so Rullus worked in his father-in-law's interest. i22. 2 1. 80Only occurrence in Cicero's writings.CICERO MUSICUS 22. 146. 190o4). no matter from what class of Cicero's writing these come. 43)..I. 7... II. II. III.use it.25 fistula (Att. II. 33. 144).
22. 8. 80. 325). Asconius explains the expression to mean that a citharist holds the plectrum in his right hand (foris canere) and has his left hand on And so in that the strings (intus canere). 91. T.49. 9. 254. note 9. and to some ears it provides a discordant note in the most solemn section of the Mass (whether Roman It occurs only here in Cicero's or Anglican)..18 tibicen (Or. i8. 36. temperare
D. where he comments on the Rullan passage. text at note 74) Cicero applies to the instrument the adjective eburneola. 68. III. evidently a more expensive example. Div. D. Certainly our modern orchestras -at least those which cater to dancers ... de-
Philos. 50. psalterium (De Haruspicum Responsis. V. II. F. III.. II. 23. "'Although this was one of the typical means of identification or of recognition in the New Comedy. Frag. 44.
(2) Instruments: bucina (Verr. 60. 35. uti (A cad.. 150).24 fides (Acad. 23Most editors bracket this word. 56). II. T. II. D. 36.. V. io6). 83. 58. II. 5. 44. 7. 8. Tullii Ciceronis Orationes Tres de Lege Agraria (Berlin. 31.. I50. I. I. 10.17
musicus (Rep.. II ). 27.. 3. D. II. "TOnly occurrence in Cicero's works. III (Leipzig. I.. Sest. N. 144.. D. canere (Div. "Only occurrence in Cicero's writings. 62). but it hardly elucidates the proverb. 3. 122). 8. 12).
23). 57. 8. 212. In another passage for additional discussion (see below... II.
D. 22). 19o). but that no other person could hear it. This information Asconius gives in his Commentationes in aliquot M. Mueller's M. "See above. I. Pt. 86). F. I44). 44.29 numerose (N. I. 16. 64. Zumpt inserts this interpretation in his M. 55. D. canere (N. D. T. 23. 28. De Or.
33). 145. Servilius Rullus. meditari (De Or. 10o.. 2"Only occurrence in Cicero's works.
"1This is the only place in Cicero's works where this noun can not be interpreted as used for military purposes.
22. 22.26 hydraulus (T.. 20)..23 cymbalum (Pis. 40. 18. D. II. where he transto vocal music fers it from instrumental (carmen) and applies it to P.
(Frag. 25. I. A. 44 96).. 21. Verr. 53). psaltria(T.. II. 34. of which other expressions are in faro saltare (Off. II. late (N. III. 9 1).
26Here with the adjective pastoricia. II.occentare (Rep. XIII. Tulli Ciceronis Scripta Quae Manserunt Omnia. 60. in
2"Apparently i~rra? tey64evov in the sense which it is used here. II. II. T. 54.
I. II. D. T.. 34.28 testudo
III. Vol.. 27. III. D.. This explanation may be true... VI. N. which in
D. IO. 57.
(T. 9. 59. 5. cantare (Off. In Pisonem. 60. 80. 73.. 17. D.. 174. 75) and in foro alea ludere (Phil. Cicero's works occurs only here. W.. D. 25.. way the statue must have been made. 44). 33). 104.
cantare (T. Io4). De Or.. 3.
in a Latin dress (intus canere) here and in De Lege Agraria. II. 272. where he comments on the Verrine locus. IV.
4. symphoniacus (Divinatio in Caecilium. i84. II. T. 22). albeit with hideous effect.... D. 22). Orat. Att. I.
(N. D. 31. 14.
i8.. 174. meaningless manuscriptal munionem (or some kindred corruption).. Verr. . 35.. II. describes an ip/6lOqtov as an intercalary song In this passage Cicero uses the (intermezzo).. De Or. even in English. 98. only what I consider incontrovertibly musical meanings are indicated. cognate form embolium in the same sense and in his Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem. V. 7. despite the close connection between music and mathematics. yet Cicero failed to give the readers of his version a clear idea of what Plato meant. Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo. 12.3 mintervallum (N. io. Rep. 16 (epic).. 18. note 43) merely may constitute a periphrasis for here. of which the IV. 8. 22. 57. Div. III.. Div. III. II.. 4. 4 (bis: second probably was didactic). if they care to search the references. but the juxtaposition of catervae and concentus. 56 (didactic).33 146). its Greek original kypdiXtovto mean an addendum to a poem.. above. I. Nomio apparently is a critical chip from Talon's atelier. for the neri. in restricted sense either epic or lyric poetry. II. II. 13.. T. gradus (De Or.
55. 57. 18 (dramatic) . an emendation conjectured by Ritschl. in his description of how the demiurge constructs the world-soul from the three elements of sameness. 51. 254.... II. may be set with the union of caterva and concentio in Sest. II. 19. II. 43.
I46).. 14. 10. II. III. 104. 50o. I3.. 352 [bis]). 23-25. 34: Qui Also carmen is enim cantus .9. III. 16). (didactic).. 2. 2. if not accidental.. 25. for a prophecy. otherness. 3 (didactic). i. 6. 36. 34Distinctio with intervallum (below. I. XI. 57. 59. 7 26. 54.. 11. Iunius Brutus
flexio (De Or.. But in my opinion the interpretation of intervallum there is mathematical rather than musical. 22). 57. D. De Or. II.. aptius? found more frequently in poetry in the sense of a song. 8).. 40. Mil. 23.. 104. Prophecy: Laelius. 31. 36. 118 for what it is worth. T. IV. hymnus (De Or. note 38) and varietas (below. Inscription : C. for a religious or a legal That cantus refers chiefly to the formula. for an inscription... 3.. 5. Consequently the exact significance of carmen must be determined from the context .Fam. 27. But that others may judge. Arch. 71. tune and carmen principally alludes to the words is seen from De Or. V. 5. 104 (didactic). contests the field chiefly with nomioa lection attributed to Talon. therefore.. Hymnus is as old as Lucilius. 27. Other proposals include nomum (Orelli). II.30 Att. 16. 17. I83 [bis]. D. essence.. 5. 20. 3. here are Cicero's other uses of carmen: Legal Formula: Mur. moreover it is used for an oracular response. 59 (dramatic). it is one of the most difficult to understand. 49. II. 86. 8. while he knew what Plato wrote.. 55. Pro Rabirio Postumo. 55. Or. 8. 111 et 112. Cael. . III. i). perhaps a nomio could be chanted to 'A7r6?rdwv N6oFtoc.. .
. II. Acad. unless it be the real reading here. De Legibus. D. 16. 283). 58. cantus (Or. I.II.36 harmonia (Rep. I5). 80.. though Cicero seems not to have used it. carmen (Acad. 24. 38. 146. De Or. I13. 16. IV. i8. II. (3) Songs and sounds and scales: canticum (Or.. D.. 197. I. 25. 34. 3"Cicero uses intervallum seven times in Timaeus.. 7. II.92.. above. 24. whereas in prose is substituted for it cantus. Fin. 89. of
"8Aristoteles in his Ars Poetica.. 17. 144.. This judgment is justified by St. 37 (dramatic). D. 197.. at any rate autobiographical)."2 concentus (De Or. IV.. Leg. (Commentarii in Amos.). 2. munychiam (Reid). 7. 59 (the locus classicus for the statement that in Cicero's boyhood schoolboys committed to memory the Twelve Tables as a carmen necessarium). I16). . distinctio (N.and even then there is doubt. I2. M. since munionem is preceded by paeanem aut and since a paean could be addressed to 'Air623. cantilena (De Or. 12. 33. I96). 32This appears to be the abusive chanting claqueurs (cf. D. V. II. III. III. II. D.8
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY
resonare (N. I18). 58. 59 251). i8. 10. 36..3 modus (Div. 1456 A ad fin.. 4. 57. 36Sonorum gradus (the phrase here) is applied to the range of an orator's voice in Or.. Mil. 29. Jerome (Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus).. III. uti (T. 6i.. 54.. D. We can claim with confidence that Cicero knew Greek better than any modern scholar and. 227). 105. 22 (dramatic) . 29. 245. 11. 51. 5.33). I. I. but. 41. 107. 8. II.. 55. Fin.31 concentio (Sest. 23.. 58. In the text. 7. 8o).
30This is in a letter Albinus to Cicero. 22). sonare (N. D. 46 (dramatic). I. 61. neniam (Owen). who calls the Timaeus an obscurissimus . it especially means a composition in verse or a poem. 98). Cf. 26. While the Timaeus may be one of the most significant of Plato's dialogues. II. 60. V. M. .. 8. 25. 86..4 embolium (Sest.. IX. De Or. 64. E37ymnum. note 14 ad init. liber . 71 (perhaps lyric. 27. 3 (dramatic) : Rep. T.(vIat6uv. I. II. Poem: N. 34. Fam. 58. qui ne Ciceranis quidem aureo are fit planior . 35. N.. from D. IV. Cicero himself may have considered his translation a failure.. i. because in telling us that obscurity may be due to abstruseness of subject and not of style he proffers as evidence Plato's Timaeus (Fin. Div. I."
31While carmen is in general an air or a note or a song or a sound or a strain or a tune. 33. C. for an incantation.. 44. 2..
a3This reference may refer to speaking and not to singing. though it is extended to dramatic poetry. 19. D. note 34. II.
48. 43) a ludus fidicinius. described by Diomedes in his De Arte Grammatica.. 54. II. 98). 51. 8. II. 89). Other suggested readings include: e sponde illa (Hermann). 67. 39-54." especially when we compare what Cicero wrote in Brut. 42. I. ut sua sponte aliena (Jeep). III. 26. De Or. 2. 60.. musicus (De Or. 192. II. De Or. 25. XII. 7TWithtalarius here. 187. is spondaulia. D. 4. 15. 44. 40. III.5? In commenting on the Homeric account (Od.. 5. 'The most popular emendation for this word. T.. P). III. 472 fin. note 33. note 34. 227.. II. 'The first two passages present musica as feminine singular. tibicinium (Or. 20.. 43. 91. I3. 3. vocula (De Or. IV. auris (T.46 distinguere (De Or. 79. II. 39).42 symphonia ( Verr.. D.89. which may mean a school for flutists. I02). 58. inflare (De Or. 150). acutus (Or. 122. ludus (Off. I02). Plautus mentions (Rudens. D. II. 58. cycneus (De Or. in his 8th ed. 80. I50). [Cambridge. vox (Div.. 58. the remaining references give musica as neuter plural. Not until the fifth century does admatio make its final reappearance in ancient Latin. D. 10o.. II. 44. 17. III. 17. 46. i De Or. 25. 44. 26.92).. augere (De Or. D. i i6. III. 18 et 19 [bis]. 60. V. 60.. III. 80. 7. I.43 T. 254. I46. 35. 5. 174). Brut. where it is airaf Xley6dzevov. 89). V.. 7. e suo aliena (Harnecker). D..
Or. by which in its singular form De Saumaise corrected spondalium. 22. 2. 17. it is applied to the lyre and to the flute: what we may term " fingering. i8.31.. Acad. 3. 27. 26. i93). D.A spondaulium seems to have been a sacrificial hymn sung to the accompaniment of a flute. III. Acad.. 158-200) of the Sirens' songs (cantus) Cicero claims (Fin. translation I construe as hendiadys. for kviyi6d: Or. yet the earliest association of the swan's song with death apparently is made by Aeschylus (Agamemnon. I.... II. 57).... I.. spondallum (De Or. 25.. 42. D. 187.
. III. 146. V. 26. Or. 18. 50. 42. 57). The ludus talarius " was a kind of play in which loose songs were sung and dances exhibited to the accompaniment of cymbals and castanets " (Holden. N. 86). Rep.
9 Miscellaneous: admotio (N. 59.46 artificium (T... paean (De Or. De Or. 62. 187. 102).. 57). 62. I. 146.. D.49
A few of the musical terms in Cicero's writings are embedded in quotations from either Greek or Latin authors. I02). inflexus (Or. 185). splendida illa (Ribbeck and Sandys). 58. N. Or. 58. sponte aliena illa (Madvig). D. 22). 17. D. 25. II. above. auditus (N. 200 : animis iudicum admovere orationem tamquam fidibus manum.. 6).. ad lac. II. 7). 96). In the former case it is Cicero's practice to turn these into Latin. I04
39). 5. extenuare (De Or. not by the sweetness of their voices (vocum suavitas) or by a certain novelty and variety of singing (varietas cantandi).. 16. II. audientia (De Or. which is written as spondalli in the codices.. 44.. 17. Leg. numerosus (De Or.
42.. Acad.. i8. III. note 36. 17. 1899] of this treatise). 18. II.23. 174). 57. above. D. V. 198). I.. 35.. (4) II. 26. sonus (De Partitione Oratoria. III. Acad.. 25. 174). 196). D.. I5.. II. 235). 20.. 66. T. "Adjective. VI. 35. 251). 57). 170.. 61.
102.35. III. 187.. 'Cf.. III. D. ad init. I02). are mentioned by swan-songs "Although Homerus (Ilias. II.. III... 40. i6. II.CICERO MUSICUS
198. 49) that these singers seemed to restrain those who passed..
Stoicorum. 62.. (p.. III. audire (T.
42.48 percussio (Or.. 62. II. 28. Or.. III. 36. variare (De Or. 146 [bis]. 102). T. 26. II.. discrepare (De Or. when it then is used as a medical term. 198. N.41 N. III.. D. varietas (N. III.
41Cf. summittere (De Or.. 59.... 26. but that it was be4"Taking after it digitorum. a3Cf. which will be discussed presently. 8.. I.. I. Att. I. 21.. III. I.41 De Or. 150).
"3Cantus numerosque "Cicero's 51. numerus (Paradoxa 22..II. N. 43. above. 57. III. I444-1446).47 musica (Fin. D. N.. II. 459-463). 58."44 gravis (Or. "The notable exception is a Sophoclean couplet.40
signum (Verr. II.
II. 50. "The first passage is from his Ilept Tekov?.. 94). 46). 2. Pompeius Magnus in an untranslated Sophoclean couplet 52 (Att. in which appear the musical phrases auribus agnoscere cantus and vocum dulcedine captari and wherein they assert that whoever stayed his course to hear them reached his native shores a wiser man. a work on the summum bonum and in 37 books. D. 20. Alexander the Great. 280 A. I6. His interpretation seems to be original. 41. 50.
reference carries the connotation of prophesying in verse. where by it is castigated historian of the contemporary Cleitarchus. II. VII.. gives us the word Two Epicurean dicta on the pleasures which songs (cantus) 53 afford are quoted by Cicero (T. I. 114. for
for music (musica). text at note 96. To the Antiope of Pacuvius is assigned Amphion's description of the tortoise (testudo)...d. Tragicorum znd ed. 546 E). replies that he refers to a tortoise (Div. which contains these words of musical uwav. preserves more of the context than either Diogenes or Athenaeus retains of the original. 9. until Amphion. Cicero offers the excerpt as an example of obscurity. "The first locus has auditu et cantibus in hendiadys. X. Part of each line is preserved also by Longinus or whoever wrote De Sublimitate. VII.. A long passage from the Medea of Accius describes (N. 64.. 76). II. 1i7.54 Cicero preserves parts of the same passage from the Annales of Ennius 55 in four places (Div.IO
cause they professed to know many things that men through desire for learning clung to their rocks. which overpowers the Athenians. "I suppose that it is superfluous to say that They Novius is not a misprint for Naevius. are confused frequently in the manuscripts. D. Cicero translates an oft-quoted sentence. whom Cicero characterizes somewhat contemptuously as a citharista.. Cicero concludes that Homerus saw that the story could not be made credible if such a hero as Odysseus were held ensnared by alluring strains (cantiunculae). Antiope Euripides' (De Inventione. Brut. 7.
. 19). fragment numbered 7o01 in A. Or.. but only 51. Cicero criticizes Cn. Varro also quotes part of it in his De Lingua Latina. 133)The fourth of six verses (440-445) from the Eunuchus of Terentius supplies Cicero with the verb cantare (Fam. locus lacks the musical term the last of canere. 36. "Cf. II. which gave its name to any stringed instrument of music with an arched shape and capable of producing sound (sonus) when played. 2). which he summarizes in Fin. Cicero illustrates this interpretation by translating the Sirens' invitation to Odysseus (184-191). The context shows that Cicero signifies that he is counterpoising politically Publius (Vatinius) against Publius (Clodius). op An allusion to•. 71. below. "5Placed in the seventh book.. I. 278 F. XII. To illustrate types of jests Cicero quotes part of a couplet of Novius 57
it is used once by Diogenes Laertius (De Vitis et Dogmatibus et Apophthegmatibus Clarorum Philosophorum.56 The object of Ennius seems to be to pour scorn on primitive songs sung by Fauns and bards...51 Cicero introduces the episode as an example of the passionate desire for knowledge implanted in the minds of eminent men. 3. Nauck. meaning: •~0axo. just as Gnatho advises Thraso to play off Pamphila against Phaedria in the game of love. 1889). t. 9. III. I. Cicero's translation. (Leipzig. 3. "Sophoclean Graecorum Fragmenta. i8. 89) the amazement of a shepherd at seeing the Argo and shows how the singing of the sailors brings to his ears and hearing a song (cantus) similar to the tune (melos) played by Silvanus. 35. 6) and thrice by Athenaeus (op. which only in the first
"'Apparently airar Aey6ye-vovin Latin. cit. 18. in which appears Amphion.
. With reference to him musica appears in two forms: feminine singular (De Or. While he admits that we can recognize melody (harmonia) from the distances in pitch (intervalla) between sounds (soni). D. who are noted for various accomplishments in music: The introduction of Antigenidas. for harmony always has characterized only European and its derived American music. like what in song (cantus) and instrument (fides) is called pppovia. yet his use of it seems metaphorical only. 19). So dppovia to them meant merely " melody. i8. where it has a mathematical meaning and is equivalent to concentio in Cicero's terminology.. who taught Socrates to
has been established that by dp[Lovta (harmonia) the ancients understood what we call " harmony. "The only other occurrence of this Greek word in Cicero's vocabulary appears in Tim. D. Although Aristoxenus applied this word in its musical acceptance to the soul. D. provides Cicero with the words tibicen and canere.CICERO MUSICUS
(De Or. 50. but most histori-
V Cicero mentions more than a score of musicians or students of music. of which the varied arrangement also produces several melodies (harmoniae).. the Fauns (Div. 107 [bis])... 279). Among the former are the Sirens (Fin. 35.. 71). yet Cicero cannot see how the position of the limbs and the attitude of the body can make melody (harmonia) when the body lacks a soul (T. 33. Silvanus (N.
I. D. 18. 187). Orpheus (N. the latter of which is used twice (Brut. 64. 19. and that. the Peripatetic philosopher. II. II. 38. Amphion (Inv. 51. While he thinks that Aristoxenus has not departed from his profession (artificium) in proposing this principle (T. and by suggesting that Aristoxenus leave philosophy to his master Aristoteles and continue to teach singing (canere). who was contemporary with Alexander the Great.
Connus. 114. Brut. The musical importance of all these save Orpheus has been discussed."
. Among the historical musicians are the following personages. Div. 20). Beside naming Orpheus twice Cicero mentions a carmen Orphicum. 94... Cicero later cancels this thought by deciding to ignore his contribution. In any case Cicero claims that the harmony (harmonia) of Aristoxenus is dissolved by death (T. 49).. of course. I. II. but the last line
yields cantare. V. I. just as sounds (soni) in song (cantus) are produced (T.. varied vibrations are caused. 24). whose work seems to Hnpi 'Ap•ovcxi~vGreek treatise on be the oldest 2•0tzoeaio music extant. III. since Aristoxenus (musicus idemque philosophus) held that the soul is a sort of tension (intentio) of the body. 133). I. V. I. 50).. corre59 sponding to the nature and the conformation of the whole body. 69. 132) and neuter plural (Fin. 4i)..
sOnly passages witnessing to their musical ability will be noted. II.. D.. 171. Or. The dramatic situation is unknown.. 8. and that consequently they could produce polyphony. 27. 89). An inspection of a good Greek lexicon will prove that before its reference to music dpfpovia had other applications. may have been merely a poem not necessarily set to music. which. 18..
cal. I. The ancient evidence shows that the classical peoples only played and sang one-part music. D. but it was not until our own century that the idea of harmony became familiar to African and Asiatic peoples. 10. I. Not neglected is Aristoxenus." which is the sounding of several tones together. by chiding Aristoxenus for being so delighted with his own songs (cantus) that he tries to transfer these into philosophical speculation. Despite much discussion it never
But Cicero's chief interest in Aristoxenus is philosophical. harmony.. on which is based This may seem strange to some. io. 50. 50o.
62 " Very devoted to music " (musi. pursues one a performer on the xipaq (Att. III. II.. Cicero states that Diodotus. D. if it does not mean considered music as that the Pythagoreans For a third contributing to moral culture.
Another instructor of Socrates was Damon. the slave of Atticus. that in music 23. 21. 22.12
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY
play the lyre (fides). "What the allusion is in Pythagoreorum mos is not immediately apparent. III. B6So Diogenes Laertius.87). II. 9.67 A certain Valerius (otherwise un(cantare) when it suits him (De Or. both a cero's comments on Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse (T. XXXIII. Vitae Parallelae: Agis et Cleomenes. who lived with him for poem (carmen canere) of his own many years.78. 86).because he was an actor (De Or.64 in music (musica) is only high praise for students of muProficiency attributed to Plato (De Or. also Plutarchus. 72). 49. VI. above. Cicero Fin. II. An anecdote about Simonides of Or. (Dio The mutilated instrument. 3. op.. D. M. "3From the context.. I. skill on the lyre (fides). 352). 212). Instituta Laconica. 86. 21.. ?I7. 4). yet generally Cicero has 9. of the leviora artium studia (De Or.. 129-130) had an established reputation as a singer. 2). V.66 was not kindly Cicero records that Epaminondas disposed toward Cicero (Famn. says that the Greeks considered that the highest education (summa erudi"?Cf. 39.60 was a very famous lyrist (nobilissimus fidicen) in Cicero's judgment (Fam. below. sic and the study of music. Cato the Censor envied Socrates' in the Pythagorean manner (T. 12.. I3). 8. I think that from Cicero's phrase we must conclude that Dionysius had musical talents and was not just a person who liked to hear music. 3. 22. Perhaps it means merely that there was a certain Pythagorean method to play the lyre. "6It appears that Timotheus had the temerity to affront Spartan conservatism by carrying an eleven-stringed lyre to one of their musical festivals Orationes. cantorem is quite clever on the part of Manufor we have evidence from Horatius zio. D. known) used to sing (cantare) daily.. Tigellius Hermogenes. Spartans cut all the strings (nervi) A Roman knight named Numerius on the lyre (fides) of Timotheus beFurius.. Phemius.. which the ephors had confiscated. Cf. 34. Cicero preserves the story that the ment of the lyre (fidibus praeclare canere) (T. below. V. 1-4.61 to whose specialization in music (musica) Cicero testifies (De 31. is said to sing 15. 'The manuscripts give unctorem. note 8 ad fin. 132). cit. 50. 57). 217. and Io0. 33. 20. sang excellently to the accompani. While for the sake of the argument (musica) there was nothing that he did not know (De Or. 81).. III. 39). text at note 60. that Tigellius (Sermones. possibility cf... Cicero mentions the boast of Hip.24. Licini. was still on exhibition at Sparta some 500 years after the event (Pausanias.. "Cf. text at note 65. 32. 5. Io). above.to study (C.. I. us Crassus (i40-9i). OCf... Chrysostomus. IX. 5-
. 31. 2. who was a friend of L.
An unnamed flutist (or flautist. was as opposed to an orator. pias of Elis. I. he asserts that a musician (musicus). Descriptio Graeciae..65 an instruV. the sophist. I. 26). the daughter of the mimic actor Isidorus (Verr.. II.VII. text at note 73.
3). the Ceos tells us that this poet sang a blind Stoic. M. 23. I. 12. in which the tyrant is called a tragic poet. I9.ment (fides) which the ancients used corum perstudiosus) is one of Ci. which may The emendation be due to anagrammatism. as the aficionados favor the term) from Rhodes (Rhodius tibicen) was the man from whom Verres took Tertia. III.63 tibicen and a cantor. III. I. as the bald phrase might persuade us to believe.yond the traditional seven (Leg. 63). 4.113). played the lyre (fides) composition (De Or. 127).
But from Boethius (op. "sCf. II.) we learn that the type of music involved in the initial part of this incident was the Phrygius modus. when sung (concinere) in flatus tibicinis) they can identify the measured and plaintive modes (modi). I. in note 69 above). trates the influence over persons. musicians (musici) came (Fin. I ad fin. V. were about to break a chaste woman's house-door. that Syntonolydian is akin to the places Lydian and Hypolydian. the Ionian. although in briefer measure (Contra lulianum Pelagianum. 3). On these three fundamental modes there were invented later three variations: Hypodorian. Like others engaged in specialized studies. D.
. Some support is given to the supposition that Aeolian and Hypodorian
flute (fidibus aut tibiis uti) apply to
To Cicero's fragmentary treatI14). arouse disembodied souls (Div. as such.. o6). From Plato's Academy. cit. the Lesbian. 3. 23). 4). By songs (cantus) men's souls often To recognize a song (carmen are stirred rather violently (Div. others which play it will be (Acad.36. zo). fidesque) was a Pythagorean pracVI tice (T. the Theban. IV. through the sluggishness of the measures (modi) and by the slowness of the singer (canere) their mad wantonness subsided (Frag.. that Ionian and Hypophrygian are similar. 86). cit. Of course. 9). Philos. the Syntonolydian. F. "The only occurrence of this feminine noun in Cicero's works. V. "We look in vain to Cicero for any mention. I.73 In this category perhaps belongs illusIn several passages Cicero which music exerts a tale first told by Cicero (De Or. when Pythagoras 70 advised a female flutist (tibicina) 71 to play a spondaic tune (spondeum canere).lines.CICERO MUSICUS
therefore musicians (musici) flourished in Greece and all used to study the subject. I9). D. When she had done this. Hypolydian. ise De Consiliis Suis is assigned an anecdote about the Phrygian mode.69 It seems that some tipsy youths. No settled agreement among scholars has established the place of a fourth variation.. musicians (musici) speak in their own characteristic way (Fin.. I. when inflict sadness upon have not even a suspicion of (T. III. or to which seven modes can be equated the Aeolian... II. I.. of the several Greek modes of music and their variations. Hypophrygian (i7r6 signifying "lower in pitch "). The traditional theory is that originally there were three main modes: Dorian. 4). 27. for at the vius' Iliona Cicero remarks that such first note of the flutist (primus in. text at note 50) Cicero weakens their power by supposing that voyagers stayed their course not so much because of the Sirens' musical charms as on account of the knowledge which the Sirens professed to impart. 2.
tio) lay in instrumental and vocal
Phrygian songs (Phrygius cantus)
musicians (musici) for their training (Div. Phrygian. I. 8. Persons who want to play on the lyre or on the
music (nervorumvocumque cantus). as from an atelier of artists. "Practically the same thing is said about savage beasts. 80).. Mixolydian.. the Locrian. note 62. of which we also hear. Those who are 3). agnoscere) as soon as a flutist (tibi. above. I. 50. II. which by song (cantus) are influenced and made to stand still (Arch. Lydian. tones and in which occurred intervals of semitones differed from mode to mode. incited by the music of flutes (tibiarum cantus). Augustinus also preserves Cicero's words. X. D. 44... 7).
are the same. above.72 To turn their minds from mental cen) has blown (inflare) a note is the of one who has been trained intensity to tranquillity by means of mark vocal and instrumental music (cantus (Acad.. 2.. all in the theater play about to be presented. 7. In quoting a couplet from Pacutrained in music (cantus) hear more than the ordinary person. 7"Boethiusaccounts for the presence of Pythagoras by telling that he was in the vicinity engaged in nocturnal astronomical pursuits (loc.18
"In the already discussed episode of the Sirens (cf. 3. a man who knew nothing about it was thought not to be completely educated (T.
For it stimulates the listless and it calms the excited. But. and to blow a note (inflare . either because they were depraved by this sweet corruption. But the best or the largest example of the power exercised by music doubtless is Cicero's mention of the Platonic theory that. in their changed ears and hearts there was place also for this alteration.6o. 424 B-E.. especially along ethical and social lines in respect to the power of music. II. Cicero considers that this change should neither be dreaded so greatly nor be entirely disdained. III. above.74 when his master was making an address. of which it scarcely can be told how great is their power both for good and for evil.
ter of commonwealths can be changed (Leg. note 26.. 7oo D-7oi A. and yet he observes that those who were wont once to be satisfied with the agreeable strictness of the tunes (modi) of Livius [Andronicus] and Naevius now jump up and turn their necks and eyes in time with the modulation of [modern] measures (modorum flexiones). their characters degenerated and likewise were changed to effeminacy. for he denies that the laws of music (musicae leges) can be changed without change of the public laws. 225 .6. when their songs (cantus) had become effeminate. 401 D-4o2 D and in Leges. not strictly considered in the class of private entertainment.
. and likewise on the other side there is a deepest point in descent (quiddam in remissione gravissimum) and to it one descends.. but. III. 15. scales] of sounds (tamquam sonorum gradus). then there is an extreme point of elevation (quiddam contentionis extremum). III. the piper (fistulator) 75 you will leave at home and into the forum you will take with you only the instinct derived from this practice. when their strict pattern of life had collapsed because of other vices. Gracchus had a skilled slave. Cicero concurs with Plato that nothing so easily makes its way into youthful and yielding minds as the various notes of song (varii canendi soni).. In explaining the principle on which the pipe (fistula) influenced the speaker Cicero says that in every voice there is a mean pitch (quiddam medium). C. the characC Cf. when the songs of their musicians (musicorum cantus) have been changed. who was wont to stand behind him out of sight with a little ivory pipe (eburneola .. is in op. e. 32). IV. as it were. but each voice has its own: for the voice to rise gradually from this is both pleasant and also salutary for strengthening the voice. Cicero concludes. by steps [i.76 Cicero's elaboration of this thesis occupies some space (Leg. However. beyond which the pipe (fistula) will not let one advance and will recall one from the actual top (ipsa contentio). 14. cit. For many Greek states to preserve their ancient type of tunes (vocum modus) once was a matter of importance. now it restrains men's spirits. sonum) quickly.14
SOCIETY JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL
III.. which nevertheless is lower than the shrillest screech (acutissimus clamor). 227)... For this reason indeed the wisest and by far the most learned man of Greece [Plato] exceedingly feared this catastrophe. as some suppose. that he might rouse him when he had become negligent or that he might recall him from straining his voice. Additional treatment. ""Developedby Plato in his Politeia. now it releases. fistula). Sempronius 60. or because. secure some attention from
""Onlyhere in Cicero's writings. 38-39). VII Musical customs.
were lacking in the case of P. fides et tibiae). At sacrifices. II).
. 2 3. On the lyre (fides) were 197). 47.
Cicero.. S1The flutist played to drown any ill-omened sound (Plinius. since the public games VIII were divided between the theater and the circus.. This song was known as a nenia. I. as was seen when C.CICERO MUSICUS
sociated in one or another way with religious observances. 86). A laudatio funebris..82 played preludes (praecinere) at feasts for gods and at banquets for magistrates (T. 4). customarily was succeeded by a song (cantus) sung to the accompaniment of a flutist (tibicen). III.. 15.-81 The lyre and the flute (fides ac tibiae) were employed at ceremonial banquets as early as the reign of Numa Pompilius (De Or. that this be with moderation.. 62). S0Particularly by members of the collegium epulonum. In explaining this provision.
'The traditional date worth) is 715-672. his political enemy. 123). whether
"7The sweeping statement that all Greeks used to study music (T.
2. and when Clodius had a flutist (tibicen) as witness to his dedication of the site of Cicero's Palatine house to Liberty (Dorm. 49). after he had engineered his exile.79 A preliminary chant (prae. Nenia occurs only here in Cicero's works... which was composed of three at first and afterwards of seven members. D. 125).77 All these appear to be as-
tion of property to the gods. who was a flamen Martialis. The Lentulus to whom Cicero speaks and to whose sacerdotium Cicero says the praecentio pertains seems to have been L. IV. 22.. II. 51. In connection with funerals Cicero preserves a statute from the Twelve Tables which forbade that more than ten flute-players (tibicines) be employed (Leg. 2. Clodius Pulcher (Mil. 48. 2 I). by me10. such as reading or and was supervised by priests (H.. says Cicero. R. music.. a flute-player (tibicen) assisted (Leg. Cornelius Lentulus Niger.. 4. Agr. IV.tainer (Verr. T8What this Greek word was we know not. 34. D. 24. lyres. 2. flutes vate entertainments are found in (cantus . Cicero says that the theater Many references to music at prishall flourish with song. as will A curious word for performer is be prescribed by law (Leg. text after note 76). In compiling laws for his ideal State Cicero proposed that at the public games the public pleasure be provided with moderation in respect to vocal and instrumental music (cantus et fides et tibiae) and that this entertainment be combined with honor to the gods (Leg.7 Funeral rites. where a colony had been established in 83. D.59). 38).93). above. 32. acroama. 9. 3) have been mentioned in the text after note 67 and at note 73 respectively.. which Cicero uses thrice. II. 2. II. Naturalis Historia. II. provided Cicero's writings. XXVIII. II... 4) and the Pythagorean custom of withdrawal from intense cogitation by the use of vocal and instrumental music (T. "Then follows Cicero's agreement with Plato's statement about the influence of music on youth (cf. Atinius Labeo had a flutist (tibicen) attend upon him in devoting the possessions of Q. such as those which Cicero watched at Capua. which included ordinarily singing (cantus). especially at meals. II.Originally meaning something like an centio) was a feature of the games aural gratification. 22). Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus (De Domo Sua. a word which meant mourning songs (cantus lugubres) in Greek (Leg.80 tonymy it seems to mean an enterMusic accompanied the consecra. who superintended sacrificial banquets to the gods..
. x12. 62-99. "It is doubtful that Cicero meant to distinguish where the same statute is mentioned. for the Cicero's writings. because the law in each instance. 19. wishes that the songs were still extant. giving between music by day and feasting by night. 134). M. 22). using canere and tibia. io5)That there were poets before Homerus is clear to Cicero on the ground that songs (carmina) were sung (canere) at the banquets of the Phaeacians and of the suitors for Penelope (Brut. IV. D.). (lyra) at banquets. prove that at that time 1451-4491 it was usual 728).. "Cicero uses Cato's account in two ways: (x) To show the influence of Pythagoreanism upon "'Presumably the flutist of Duilius assisted in the Romans.. D. text at notes 62 and 73). Pythagoreans conveyed precepts in metrical form and quieted their minds by singing to the "But Livius (Periochae. . above. I. 9.. It seems to mean "living luxuriously" to compose songs (carmen). the honor was conferred on Duilius in recognition early Romans at banquets sang about heroic of his victory. VIII. on which but it is unlikely that the banquets featured no musical divertissement. hence I have put here this passage. the words carmen and occentare. 2. IV. 87 . deduces that in those early times songs (cantus) and poems (carmina) had been written in accordance with vocal notes (vocum soni). Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus the former used to dance naked at banquets in his house. 3. (2) To corroborate this statement phorically. 46. D. because in the two relative clauses describing acroama appear first embolium and second psaltria. The devotion of Chrysogonus to music was so great that the entire neighborhood rang (personare) with the daily sound of vocal and instrumental music (cantus vocum et nervorum et tibiarum) and with the noise of nocturnal banquets (Pro Roscio Aimerino. In the first repetition (T. Rep. note 8 ad init. cf. who was the first Roman to conquer the Carthaginians in a naval battle. 2. Mostellaria. attended by a torch-bearer and by a flute-player (tibicen).. The adjective cotidilatter word cf. used need not mean necessarily "during "In the next section (4) of this treatise Cicero acus daylight ". I I6).8s During the consulate of A. as is the sole appearance of the by the testimony of the Twelve Tables. 470-543). returning homeward. because he refused to play the lyre "gFor the former by Demodocus (Homerus.. using cantitare 86 and carmina. o. His reasoning is remarkable: the the musical amenities of the meal. . Gabini-
"There is in my mind no doubt about the meaning in the last locus.
. 20o) or a musician (Sest..a display which without precedent as a private citizen he had assumed (C. II.. above. Lyra occurs only here in Od. 4. therefore the ancient Romans were acquainted with Pythagorean "Here an adjective used apparently metaprinciples. declared that this could not be done to another's injury (T. It was from feasting that the same Cato as a youth used to see in his old age C. latter by Phemius (cf. which resounded (personare) with song and cymbals (cantus et cymbala). IV. Apronius used to feast in public... which adverb musice in Latin (Plautus.91 At dinner in another person's house Simonides of Ceos honored his host by singing a poem (carmen .85 Cicero repeats this statement twice in slightly different words.. 3) Cicero. Duilius. Porcius Cato Censorius in his Origines 84 records that guests at banquets were accustomed to sing (canere) to the accompaniment provided by a flutist (tibicen) the virtues of famous men (T. 0o.16
OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY
a reader (Arch. 3). 44) . deeds to the flute.. above.
us and L. 71). XVII) says that this lyre (cf. while a combination of choral singing and instrumental accompaniment (symphonia) provided music (canere) and wine was served in very large cups (Verr. In the second reiteration (Brut. note 20). while the latter earned from Cicero the epithet of musicus 89 for his participation in a sort of feast of Lapiths and Centaurs (Pis. 75) Cicero. I3. 43-47. "Only occurrence in Cicero's writings. tells that Themistocles was held to be rather uncultured. 2. 18. 44. 54.83 Cicero reports that M.90 Q.
Clodia at Baiae organized recitals (cantus) and concerts (symphoniae) for her guests (Cael. 7. I5). Licinius Murena (Mur..
. which has been ever that of every excellent man.. which sound the retreat (signa . 352). To illustrate that in canvassing for the consulate military distinction brings much more dignity than distinction in jurisprudence. 9. The orator asks why. In an imaginative flight Cicero assures Caesar that the trumpets' sound (tubarum sonus) somehow seems to drown even the reading of the dictator's praises won in war (Pro Marcello.. 14. 15. III. in the second reference cornua and also tubae. which was crooked and at the top slightly curved.. when the senate has sounded the recall (receptui canere). but the latter is aroused by the sound of trumpets (bucinarum cantus).. Reason prohibits payment of observance to vexations. 3). employing this phrase to indicate the inception of a disturbance destructive of the peacetime pursuit of oratory (Mur. which Cicero wished that his faithful freedman had declined because of his delicate health (Fam. claiming inter alia that the former is awakened by the call of cocks. XIII. 15. when it sounds a retreat (canere receptui) from these. 12. 30). took its name from its likeness to the trumpet (lituus) with which was sounded (canere) the charge to battle (Div. and
we should not hear those signals. again impels and incites the soul to perceive and to participate in various pleasures with all one's mental powers (T.. 13. we should maintain that course. Orat. Four times Cicero mentions the signal to retreat. which commonly is accepted for the manuscriptal tubes.. VI. 3). In a noble passage Cicero proclaims that. In an appeal to M. Other references to entertainments not necessarily feasts include these: Tiro had an invitation to Lyso's musical party (symphonia). XVI. the army en route to Mutina should hasten to fight (Phil.93
92Bellicum as a military to be used with canere. characterizing thus Thucydides' description of war (Or. 22). I. A.. quae receptui canunt). This wand. 8). withdraws from crabbed thoughts. 9). I). 6. 35). Bellicum canere 92 (to give the signal for march or for attack) Cicero uses thrice. 5. 3. since we are urged especially to increase the resources of the human race and since we wish by our plans and efforts to make men's life safer and richer and since by the incentives of Nature herself we are impelled to this desire.. Sulpicius Rufus and L. XII. Sull. An example of Cicero's antiquarian interests is his etymology of lituus. VII.. Aemilius Lepidus it is asserted that the weapons of patriotic Romans cannot be wrested from their hands and that the signal for retreat (receptui signum) they cannot hear (Phil.. makes its edge dull in contemplating miseries and. 3. Cicero contrasts the lives of Ser. to recall even those who already have preceded us Rep. II. 3).
Allusions to martial music are not infrequent in Cicero's writings. I. I.CICERO MUSICUS
canere) of his own composition (De Or. signal seems always
'Tubae in the first reference.. 30). 86.. 17). II.33). 9. A brief description of a luxurious banquet provides the phrase symphoniae cantus (Frag. telling that others apply this idiom to himself on account of his activities against Antonius (Phil. the staff marking the augural office. 39). Trumpets (tubae) and bugles (cornua) were sent to Catiline's army (Cat. 2... 17.. D.
which here probably mean the sounds made by a bugle (Att. 50. I. I2. Among such words are the following: Cicero's son in a letter to Tiro XVI. If the last hypothesis be true. 21).vwp2iathree times (Att. but Cicero also uses it in a good sense.i). 5. 26) and virtutes (Off."96 It also means " to compose " verses (Q. F. can there be a common ground between
"This is the only occurrence Cicero's writings. I. 47).. When is seen clearly the range of the theory whereby the causes and the issues of things are understood. The third occurrence of it refers to Cicero's reluctance to make a volte face about his freedman Dionysius. Cat. Cicero writes of her litui. 2 calls him "the (Farm. The second passage has occasioned much discussion as to the form of Cicero's recantation. III.. D. IV. D. of I. . 1. In attacking Stoic syllogisms Cicero complains that by such reasoning it can be shown that the world is a musician (musicus) and he asks whether he must admit that the world is a lyrist (fidicen) and a trumpeter (tubicen). II..... Attributed to Caesar is the expression lituus meae perfectionis (Att... of bucinator in
3). XI.. the communication has not survived. 8. II.
Several musical terms take metaphorical meanings in Cicero's works... VII. D. 27).4) and "to descant " a speech (Or. agreement and harmony (quasi concentus) of all studies is found (De Or. 7. applied by him to Cicero's brother Quintus with reference to Marcus. 5.
a fissure in a liver and a paltry financial profit (Div. III. Perhaps the only place in republican prose where cantare is found in the general meaning of praising a
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY
To the measure of the flute (modus ac tibia) marched the Spartans (T. above. Canere in the sense of "to prophesy " occurs four times (Div. which clearly was an overture to Caesar and a renunciation of the optimate policy espoused by Cicero.
"5Some manuscripts record tibicen for tubicen. others suggest that it was Cicero's oration either De Provinciis Consularibus or Pro Balbo... when he attaches to it philosophi (Fin. III. 8. so to speak. 8. i). which appears only here in Cicero's works. 12. 6. III.
Cicero asks from what symphony. VI. Ampius Balbus (Fam.95 because men of those professions are produced by it (N. when Cicero applies it to Catiline's crew of youths (Mur. In the first place Cicero advises Atticus to expect a brilliant recantation of the superfine orations which he has delivered in favor of Pompeius.
12.23)When Clodia is " on the warpath" for him. II. 37).
. II. I6.9. 14. V. 5-6.98. 2 1. existimationis meae). 24. 2). I. 49) and to idlers at Baiae (Att. III. 115. Some suppose that the palinode was Cicero's poem either De Consulatu Suo or De Temporibus Suis. 2) trumpeter my reputation " (bucinator . a certain wonderful. Sest.... 47. whose character at times displayed a lack of gratitude.94 Chorus carries twice an unfavorable connotation... but whose literary attainments influenced Cicero too much at the time of writing to prevent Cicero from retracting his recommendation of him. if Pompeius can not keep Clodius under control. i8. 33. '3).. Tuba belli civilis is a characterization of T. so to speak (quasi concentus). I 6. 34). Cicero uses wa). text at note 56. XIV.. 8. most favor a formal letter to Caesar. i). 9. II.
Here is the truest touchstone to Cicero's contribution to music as a science and an art. XIII. whereby each subject of comparison is placed. when flutes blown upon (tibiae inflatae) do not return a sound (sonus).CICERO MUSICUS
person without the laudation being in verse is Cicero's statement (Q. so for the orator the ears of the populace are. the flutist (tibicen) reckons that these must be discarded. The only occurrence of praecentare in Cicero's works carries the meaning "to heal by incantation" (Fin. though it is rare elsewhere in the republican period..9" As a prelude (prooemium) of a singer to the lyre (citharoedus) apparently served simply as some kind of an introduction to the main part of the music.... This simile leads to two others like it: In the case of inattentive jurors. 75. who yawn and gossip and inquire what is the time and ask for adjournment. so Cicero warns his readers not to adopt that convention
"'That a citharoedus played on and sang to the cithara seems clear from T. where the opening part should be connected closely with what follows and should be a member of the whole structure (De Or. Att. as it were. but if one sees jurors alert and attentive and agreeing and hanging on the orator's words.. 3. 54.. appears usually in a secondary sense " to repeat often " or " to say over and over again " (Fin. Div. 338). Following the preceding note. 32. fidibus manum). so from the emotion of men's minds is seen what an orator accomplishes in playing upon these (Brut. De Or. 10. before our eyes and is displayed side by side. 140). XI But it is in numerous similes that we see Cicero's knowledge of music at its best and in its widest extent. I3. like a horse. F. II. 105. if not unconventional. does not respond. ii11 . but from Cicero's sweeping statement it seems that an exception was extremely unusual. IV.. 325). if the ears do not receive the breath blown into these (inflatus) or if the hearer. we can say that an auloedus sang to the ai?6c (the word does not occur in Latin dress) and that an (this word is abi-lr?f wanting in Latin) merely played the ai•a6. 79) quotes this simile to illustrate the figure redditio (reciprocal representation). 34..
"Quintilianus (op. as a flutist (tibicen) cannot make music (canere) without a flute (tibiae). one realizes that in that lawsuit there is not present an orator who can make his oration play on the jurors' minds as one can make one's hand play on the lyre (admovere .
in construction of a speech. VIII.100 Just as. V.. 80. where Cicero remarks that deaf persons do not hear the voice of the singer to the lyre (vox A citharista merely played the citharoedi). where it is found frequently. i) that he sings Caesar's praises (cantare Caesarem). 192). x1?How universal was this lack of musical integration we know not. there must be made an end of urging (Brut. I. I8. II.. Rep. II. 199). 55. 4. those who can not become singers to the lyre (citharoedi)97 are singers to the flute (auloedi). cit.
. II. II. 47. II. the only occurrence of this word "Apparently in Cicero's writings. 4o.. cithara.98 so we see that those who cannot become orators turn aside to the study of law (Mur. so an orator can not be eloquent without a listening throng (De Or. Orators and oratory compared with musicians and music furnish these examples: As they say in the case of Greek musicians (artifices)... As from the sound (sonus) of the strings (nervi) on the lyre (fides) one is wont to perceive how skillfully these have been struck (pellere). D. 31. Akin to this statement is this comparison: A crowd has such an effect that. 29. 29). 83.. I16. Decantare in Cicero's writings. so to speak. I. 94). 5-.. flutes (tibiae)..
. like strings (chordae). so we. lest perhaps anything be out of tune (discrepare). though professing the art of living (T. II. because in the duty of which he desires to be a teacher he stumbles and he fails in his conduct of life. as he grows older. 75). 200). 60. text at note 76..41. 8. Cicero concludes that therefore this comparison does not aid the argument (Fin.. or even much more. 27. though only a little out of tune (paulum discrepare). but that it does not follow that all are equally out of tune (incontentus).. 40. 254)Music and morality produce these comparisons: 102 Just as the man wishing to be considered a musician (musicus) but singing out of tune (absurde canere) would be the more disgraced. because he fails in the very subject of which he professes knowledge. Several similes concern the physical side of life. Cicero seems to be guilty of anachronism when he represents him as speaking of his advancing age in 91. so that now your speaking is not much different from the mildness of philosophers (Leg. are set (intendere) so as to answer to each touch (De Or. which is the supposed date of this dialogue. if we wish to be keen and careful observers of failings. ii1). I. 4. 216). To illustrate the correction of our faults is the aim of these two similes: As in lyres or flutes (fides aut tibiae). because the harmony (concentus) of actions is more important and better than that of sounds (soni). above. therefore these are equal.
1'"In Latin this adjective e2y6 Pevov. like strings (nervi) in lyres (fides). so sound (sonare) as these are touched (pulsare) by each emotion of the mind. I46). 1Cf. because these fail to harmonize (discrepare). IV. one recognizes that an orator is engaged in the trial and that the orator's work is in process or already has been accomplished (Brut.. nevertheless the
Q. I7). I. A double illustration from the stage provides another comparison in this category: As Roscius in his old age sang (canere) the rhythms (numeri) in song (cantus) more slowly than previously and made even the flutes (tibiae) play more slowly. if none of these is so strung (contendere) in respect to its strings (nervi) that it can keep its tune (concentus). seems to be airat
. 57. I.. Roscius [Gallus]. For vocal tones (voces). so a philosopher erring in his rule of life is the more disgraced. Here belong these: Man's whole body and his every facial expression and all his vocal tones (voces). the celebrated comedian.20
like a bird lured by some song (cantus). so daily you are mitigating somewhat the terrific tensions (contentiones) which you used to employ. died in 62 when he was senex (Arch. .103 so transgressions. often shall perceive important matters from trifling things (Off. D. I45 In blasting the Stoic paradox that all transgressions are equal Cicero puts into the mouth of a Stoic proponent this comparison: As in the case of several lyres (fides). 12).101he will make the flutist's (tibicen) measures (modi) slower and the songs (cantus) slower (De Or. all are equally out of tune (incontentus). 4. III. are equally discordant (discrepare)... so in life we must watch. Cicero calls this an equivocation and answers that it happens that all the lyres (fides) equally are out of tune (incontentus). And so. 54.
fault is wont to be noticed by an expert. To add to his likeness of an orator Cicero employs this example again: Roscius is wont to say that. as the ears of musicians (musici) discern even the slightest errors in lyres (fides).
I. while others even as dialecticians have created for themselves a new interest and amusement.108 To illustrate choice of avocations to occupy one's spare time Cicero notes (De Or. 15. D. when they are kept from work because of the weather. Cicero says (Mur. D. 12. 63. so it must be admitted that those things which he has mentioned 106 have been provided only for those who use them (N.. when altered or discordant (discrepare). they have spent all their time and their lives. 32. the nostrils like those horns (cornua)105 which echo (resonare) to the strings (nervi) in instrumental music (cantus). 157).. a commonwealth. 1•Cf. others to geometricians. when different measures are advantageous to different persons. our philosophers are accustomed to say (N.109 XII If we adhere to the limitation of this investigation as already determined...CICERO MUSICUS
A more detailed comparison is derived from the Stoic school: That the tongue is like the quill of the lyre (plectrum). D. was intensified. 49) that concord (cancordia) exists most easily in that commonwealth in which the same object is undertaken for the benefit of all and that
. A sustained analogy comes from the field of politics and is rather renowned: As in lyres (fides) or flutes (tibiae) and as in vocal music (cantus ipse ac voces) must be maintained from different tones (distincti soni) a certain concert (concentus). is in accord (concinere) through the agreement of most dissimilar elements. so from highest and lowest and middle classes. II. Since these were hollow. as persons accustomed to constant daily work. just as it must be said that lyres (fides) and flutes (tibiae) have been made for the sake of them who use these. whether or not right is on his side. turn their attention to ball-playing or to dicing or even invent some new game in their leisure. 69). and what by musicians (musici) is called harmony (harmonia) in music (cantus) is concord (concordia)107 in a common"'Only occurrence in Cicero's writings. III.o"0 the teeth like the strings (chordae). 149). which he offers in the so-called Somdiscords (discordiae) are produced from variations of interest. trained ears cannot endure. 156). and as this concert (concentus) from regulation of very unlike tones (voces) still is made to be concordant (concors) and consistent. II. when they alternately recited the cantica. when played.
'1OCornua was applied to the so-called horns of the lyre. 108The tibicen was supposed to have accompanied on the tibia the actors. and without justice this in no way can exist (Rep. 58) that. which were devised to mold children's minds to culture and to virtue. above. the sound of the strings. the closest and greatest -bond of security in every commonwealth.109Cicero's presentation of the doctrine of the music of the spheres. 42. which. some have betaken themselves entirely to poets. when intermingled like tones (soni). II. t10The produce of the earth (N. Two miscellaneous similes conclude this collection: In disparaging lawyers who are ready to advise any litigant. others to musicians (musici). note 5. when systematically regulated. II. 26) that the same jurisconsult deserts the plaintiff for the defendant in the manner of a Latin flutist (tibicen)... 62. and in these pursuits. 59. so of those who either have been debarred from political affairs by the circumstances of the time or have taken a vacation voluntarily. "'Earlier Cicero has said (Rep. Cicero says that..
must be omitted. 7. the celebrated conclusion of his De Re Publica (VI.
assembled to show Cicero's contribution to musical science and art. D.
119. a contribution which appears to be the most extensive extant in Latin of the republican age of Roman antiquity. from his treatment of that theory enough evidence perhaps has been
1'0Cicero has several other references to the music of the spheres in N. 19.
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY
nium Scipionis. 27.