This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
a
r
X
i
v
:
0
9
1
1
.
0
9
4
0
v
2
[
h
e
p

t
h
]
9
N
o
v
2
0
0
9
Lie Theory and Its Applications in Physics VII
eds. H.D. Doebner and V.K. Dobrev, Heron Press, Soﬁa, 2008
Asymmetric Wormholes via Electrically
Charged Lightlike Branes
E. Guendelman
∗1
, A. Kaganovich
†1
, E. Nissimov
‡2
,
S. Pacheva
§2
1
Department of Physics, BenGurion University of the Negev, P.O.Box 653,
IL84105 BeerSheva, Israel
2
Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of
Sciences, Boul. Tsarigradsko Chausee 72, BG1784 Soﬁa, Bulgaria
Abstract
We consider a selfconsistent EinsteinMaxwellKalbRamond system in
the bulk D = 4 spacetime interacting with a variabletension electri
cally charged lightlike brane. The latter serves both as a material and
charge source for gravity and electromagnetism, as well as it dynam
ically generates a bulk space varying cosmological constant. We ﬁnd
an asymmetric wormhole solution describing two “universes” with differ
ent spherically symmetric blackholetype geometries connected through
a “throat” occupied by the lightlike brane. The electrically neutral “left
universe” comprises the exterior region of SchwarzschilddeSitter (or pure
Schwarzschild) spacetime above the inner (Schwarzschildtype) horizon,
whereas the electrically charged “right universe” consists of the exterior
ReissnerNordstr¨ om (or ReissnerNordstr¨ omdeSitter) black hole region
beyond the outer ReissnerNordstr¨ om horizon. All physical parameters of
the wormhole are uniquely determined by two free parameters – the electric
charge and KalbRamond coupling of the lightlike brane.
1 Introduction
Lightlike brane (LLbranes for short) play an important role in general relativity
as they enter the description of various physically important cosmological and
astrophysical phenomena such as: (i) impulsive lightlike signals arising in cata
clysmic astrophysical events [1]; (ii) the “membrane paradigm” [2] of black hole
physics; (iii) the thinwall approach to domain walls coupled to gravity [3–5].
∗
guendel@bgu.ac.il
†
alexk@bgu.ac.il
§
nissimov@inrne.bas.bg, svetlana@inrne.bas.bg
1
2 Asymmetric Wormholes via Electrically Charged Lightlike Branes
More recently, LLbranes became signiﬁcant also in the context of modern non
perturbative string theory, in particular, as the so called Hbranes describing
quantum horizons (black hole and cosmological) [6], as Penrose limits of bary
onic Dbranes [7], etc (see also Refs. [8]).
In the pioneering papers [3–5] LLbranes in the context of gravity and cos
mology have been extensively studied from a phenomenological point of view,
i.e., by introducing them without specifying the Lagrangian dynamics from
which they may originate
1
. On the other hand, we have proposed in a series
of recent papers [10–13] a new class of concise Lagrangian actions, providing a
derivation from ﬁrst principles of the LLbrane dynamics.
There are several characteristic features of LLbranes which drastically dis
tinguish them from ordinary NambuGoto branes:
(i) They describe intrinsically lightlike modes, whereas NambuGoto branes
describe massive ones.
(ii) The tension of the LLbrane arises as an additional dynamical degree
of freedom, whereas NambuGoto brane tension is a given ad hoc constant.
The latter characteristic feature signiﬁcantly distinguishes our LLbrane mod
els from the previously proposed tensionless pbranes (for a review, see Ref.
[14]) which rather resemble a pdimensional continuous distribution of massless
pointparticles.
(iii) Consistency of LLbrane dynamics in a spherically or axially symmetric
gravitational background of codimension one requires the presence of an event
horizon which is automatically occupied by the LLbrane (“horizon straddling”
according to the terminology of Ref. [4]).
(iv) When the LLbrane moves as a test brane in spherically or axially sym
metric gravitational backgrounds its dynamical tension exhibits exponential “in
ﬂation/deﬂation” time behaviour [11] – an effect similar to the “mass inﬂation”
effect around black hole horizons [15].
In a series of recent papers [12, 13, 16] we have explored the novel possi
bility of employing LLbranes as natural selfconsistent gravitational sources
for wormhole spacetimes, in other words, generating wormhole solutions in
selfconsistent bulk gravitymatter systems coupled to LLbranes through dy
namically derived worldvolume LLbrane stress energy tensors. For a review
of wormhole spacetimes, see Refs. [17, 18].
The possibility of a “wormhole spacetime” was ﬁrst hinted at in the work of
Einstein and Rosen [19], where they considered matching at the horizon of two
identical copies of the exterior Schwarzschild spacetime region (subsequently
called EinsteinRosen “bridge”). The original EinsteinRosen “bridge” mani
fold appears as a particular case of the construction of spherically symmetric
wormholes produced by LLbranes as gravitational sources (Refs. [13, 16]; see
also Section 5 below). The main lesson here is that consistency of Einstein equa
tions of motion yielding the original EinsteinRosen “bridge” as welldeﬁned so
lution necessarily requires the presence of LLbrane energymomentum tensor
1
In a more recent paper [9] brane actions in terms of their pertinent extrinsic geometry have been
proposed which generically describe nonlightlike branes, whereas the lightlike branes are treated as
a limiting case.
Guendelman, Kaganovich, Nissimov and Pacheva 3
as a source on the right hand side. Thus, the introduction of LLbrane cou
pling to gravity brings the original EinsteinRosen construction in Ref. [19] to a
consistent completion
2
.
More complicated examples of spherically and axially symmetric worm
holes with ReissnerNordstr¨ om and rotating cylindrical geometry, respectively,
have also been presented in Refs. [12, 13]. Namely, two copies of the outer
spacetime region of a ReissnerNordstr¨ om or rotating cylindrical black hole,
respectively, are matched via LLbrane along what used to be the outer horizon
of the respective full black hole spacetime manifold. In this way we obtain a
wormhole solution which combines the features of the EinsteinRosen “bridge”
on the one hand (with wormhole throat at horizon), and the features of Misner
Wheeler wormholes [21], i.e., exhibiting the so called “charge without charge”
phenomenon
1
, on the other hand.
In the present note the results of Refs. [12, 13] will be extended to the case
of asymmetric wormholes, describing two “universes” with different spherically
symmetric geometries of black hole type connected via a “throat” occupied by
the pertinent gravitational source – an electrically charged LLbrane. As a result
of the welldeﬁned worldvolume LLbrane dynamics coupled selfconsistently
to gravity and bulk spacetime gauge ﬁelds, it creates a “left universe” with
SchwarzschilddeSitter geometry where the cosmological constant is dynami
cally generated, and a “right universe” with ReissnerNordstr¨ om geometry with
dynamically generated Coulomb ﬁeldstrength. Similarly, the LLbrane can dy
namically generate a nonzero cosmological constant in the “right universe”, in
which case it connects a purely Schwarzschild “left universe” with a Reissner
Nordstr¨ omdeSitter “right universe”.
The presentation of the material goes as follows. In Section 2 we brieﬂy re
view the reparametrizationinvariant worldvolume Lagrangian formulation of
LLbranes in both the Polyakovtype and NambuGototype forms. In Sec
tion 3 we brieﬂy describe the main properties of LLbrane dynamics in spher
ically symmetric gravitational backgrounds stressing particularly on the “hori
zon straddling” phenomenon and the dynamical cosmological constant gener
ation. Section 4 contains our principal result – the explicit construction of
2
Let us particularly emphasize that here and in what follows we consider the EinsteinRosen
“bridge” in its original formulation in Ref. [19] as a fourdimensional spacetime manifold con
sisting of two copies of the exterior Schwarzschild spacetime region matched along the horizon.
On the other hand, the nomenclature of “EinsteinRosen bridge” in several standard textbooks (e.g.
Ref. [20]) uses the KruskalSzekeres manifold. The latter notion of “EinsteinRosen bridge” is not
equivalent to the original construction in Ref. [19]. Namely, the two regions in KruskalSzekeres
spacetime corresponding to the outer Schwarzschild spacetime region (r > 2m) and labeled (I)
and (III) in Refs. [20] are generally disconnected and share only a twosphere (the angular part)
as a common border (U = 0, V = 0 in KruskalSzekeres coordinates), whereas in the original
EinsteinRosen “bridge” construction the boundary between the two identical copies of the outer
Schwarzschild spacetime region (r > 2m) is a threedimensional hypersurface (r = 2m).
1
Misner and Wheeler [21] realized that wormholes connecting two asymptotically ﬂat space
times provide the possibility of “charge without charge”, i.e., electromagnetically nontrivial solu
tions where the lines of force of the electric ﬁeld ﬂow from one universe to the other without a source
and giving the impression of being positively charged in one universe and negatively charged in the
other universe.
4 Asymmetric Wormholes via Electrically Charged Lightlike Branes
an asymmetric wormhole solution of selfconsistent EinsteinMaxwellKalb
Ramond system interacting with an electrically charged LLbrane. The worm
hole spacetime consists of two “universes” with different spherically symmetric
geometries connected through a “throat” occupied by the LLbrane: (a) electri
cally neutral “left universe” comprising the exterior region of Schwarzschild
deSitter (or pure Schwarzschild) spacetime above the inner (Schwarzschild
type) horizon; (b) electrically charged “right universe” consisting of the exte
rior ReissnerNordstr¨ om (or ReissnerNordstr¨ omdeSitter) black hole region
beyond the outer ReissnerNordstr¨ om horizon. In Section 5 we brieﬂy con
sider the simple special case of the above construction with vanishing charge
and KalbRamond coupling of the LLbranes. It consistently describes the fa
mous EinsteinRosen “bridge” wormhole solution [19]. On the way we explain
the crucial role of the presence of the LLbrane gravitational source produc
ing the EinsteinRosen “bridge” – an observation missing in the original classic
paper [19].
2 EinsteinMaxwellKalbRamond System Interacting With Light
like Brane: Lagrangian Formulation
Selfconsistent bulk EinsteinMaxwellKalbRamond system coupled to a
charged codimensionone lightlike pbrane (i.e., D = (p + 1) + 1) is described
by the following action:
S =
_
d
D
x
√
−G
_
R(G)
16π
−
1
4
F
µν
F
µν
−
1
D!2
F
µ1...µD
F
µ1...µD
_
+
¯
S
LL
.
(1)
Here F
µν
= ∂
µ
A
ν
−∂
ν
A
µ
and
F
µ1...µD
= D∂
[µ1
A
µ2...µD]
= F
√
−Gε
µ1...µD
(2)
are the ﬁeldstrengths of the electromagnetic A
µ
and KalbRamond A
µ1...µD−1
gauge potentials [22]. The last term on the r.h.s. of (1) indicates the
reparametrization invariant worldvolume action of the LLbrane coupled to the
bulk gauge ﬁelds, proposed in our previous papers [10–12]:
¯
S
LL
= S
LL
−q
_
d
p+1
σ ε
ab1...bp
F
b1...bp
∂
a
X
µ
A
µ
−
β
(p + 1)!
_
d
p+1
σ ε
a1...ap+1
∂
a1
X
µ1
. . . ∂
ap+1
X
µp+1
A
µ1...µp+1
. (3)
where:
S
LL
=
_
d
p+1
σ Φ
_
−
1
2
γ
ab
g
ab
+L
_
F
2
_
_
. (4)
In Eqs.(3)–(4) the following notions and notations are used:
• Φ is alternative nonRiemannian integration measure density (volume
Guendelman, Kaganovich, Nissimov and Pacheva 5
form) on the pbrane worldvolume manifold:
Φ ≡
1
(p + 1)!
ε
a1...ap+1
H
a1...ap+1
(B) , (5)
H
a1...ap+1
(B) = (p + 1)∂
[a1
B
a2...ap+1]
, (6)
instead of the usual
√
−γ. Here ε
a1...ap+1
is the alternating symbol
(ε
01...p
= 1), γ
ab
(a, b = 0, 1, . . ., p) indicates the intrinsic Riemannian
metric on the worldvolume, and γ = det γ
ab
. H
a1...ap+1
(B) de
notes the ﬁeldstrength of an auxiliary worldvolume antisymmetric tensor
gauge ﬁeld B
a1...ap
of rank p. As a special case one can build H
a1...ap+1
(6) in terms of p + 1 auxiliary worldvolume scalar ﬁelds
_
ϕ
I
_
p+1
I=1
:
H
a1...ap+1
= ε
I1...Ip+1
∂
a1
ϕ
I1
. . . ∂
ap+1
ϕ
Ip+1
. (7)
Note that γ
ab
is independent of the auxiliary worldvolume ﬁelds B
a1...ap
or ϕ
I
. The alternative nonRiemannian volume form (5) has been ﬁrst
introduced in the context of modiﬁed standard (nonlightlike) string and
pbrane models in Refs. [23].
• X
µ
(σ) are the pbrane embedding coordinates in the bulk Ddimensional
space time with bulk Riemannian metric G
µν
(X) with µ, ν =
0, 1, . . . , D−1; (σ) ≡
_
σ
0
≡ τ, σ
i
_
with i = 1, . . . , p; ∂
a
≡
∂
∂σ
a
.
• g
ab
is the induced metric on worldvolume:
g
ab
≡ ∂
a
X
µ
∂
b
X
ν
G
µν
(X) , (8)
which becomes singular onshell (manifestation of the lightlike nature, cf.
second Eq.(25) below).
• L
_
F
2
_
is the Lagrangian density of another auxiliary (p − 1)rank anti
symmetric tensor gauge ﬁeld A
a1...ap−1
on the worldvolume with prank
ﬁeldstrength and its dual:
F
a1...ap
= p∂
[a1
A
a2...ap]
, F
∗a
=
1
p!
ε
aa1...ap
√
−γ
F
a1...ap
. (9)
L
_
F
2
_
is arbitrary function of F
2
with the shorthand notation:
F
2
≡ F
a1...ap
F
b1...bp
γ
a1b1
. . . γ
apbp
. (10)
Rewriting the action (4) in the following equivalent form:
S = −
_
d
p+1
σ χ
√
−γ
_
1
2
γ
ab
∂
a
X
µ
∂
b
X
ν
G
µν
(X) −L
_
F
2
_
_
, χ ≡
Φ
√
−γ
(11)
with Φ the same as in (5), we ﬁnd that the composite ﬁeld χ plays the role of a
dynamical (variable) brane tension. The notion of dynamical brane tension has
previously appeared in different contexts in Refs. [24].
6 Asymmetric Wormholes via Electrically Charged Lightlike Branes
Let us also remark that, as it has been shown in Refs. [12, 28], the LLbrane
equations of motion corresponding to the Polyakovtype action (4) (or (11)) can
be equivalently obtained from the following dual NambuGototype action:
S
NG
= −
_
d
p+1
σ T
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
det g
ab
−ǫ
1
T
2
∂
a
u∂
b
u
¸
¸
¸
¸
, ǫ = ±1 . (12)
Here T is dynamical tension simply proportional to the dynamical tension in
the Polyakovtype formulation (4) (T ∼ χ =
Φ
√
−γ
), and u denotes the dual
potential w.r.t. A
a1...ap−1
:
F
∗
a
(A) = const
1
χ
∂
a
u . (13)
It what follows we will consider the original Polyakovtype action (4).
The pertinent EinsteinMaxwellKalbRamond equations of motion derived
from the action (1) read:
R
µν
−
1
2
G
µν
R = 8π
_
T
(EM)
µν
+T
(KR)
µν
+T
(brane)
µν
_
, (14)
∂
ν
_
√
−GF
µν
_
+q
_
d
p+1
σ δ
(D)
_
x −X(σ)
_
ε
ab1...bp
F
b1...bp
∂
a
X
µ
= 0 ,
(15)
ε
νµ1...µp+1
∂
ν
F −
β
_
d
p+1
σ δ
(D)
(x −X(σ))ε
a1...ap+1
∂
a1
X
µ1
. . . ∂
ap+1
X
µp+1
= 0 , (16)
where in the last equation we have used relation (2). The explicit form of the
energymomentumtensors read:
T
(EM)
µν
= F
µκ
F
νλ
G
κλ
−G
µν
1
4
F
ρκ
F
σλ
G
ρσ
G
κλ
, (17)
T
(KR)
µν
=
1
(D −1)!
_
F
µλ1...λD−1
F
ν
λ1...λD−1
−
1
2D
G
µν
F
λ1...λD
F
λ1...λD
_
= −
1
2
F
2
G
µν
(18)
T
(brane)
µν
= −G
µκ
G
νλ
_
d
p+1
σ
δ
(D)
_
x −X(σ)
_
√
−G
χ
√
−γγ
ab
∂
a
X
κ
∂
b
X
λ
,
(19)
where the brane stressenergy tensor is straightforwardly derived from the
worldvolume action (4) (or, equivalently, (11); recall χ ≡
Φ
√
−γ
is the variable
brane tension).
Eqs.(15)–(16) show that:
(i) the LLbrane is charged source for the bulk electromagnetism;
(ii) the LLbrane uniquely determines the value of F
2
in Eq.(18) through its
coupling to the bulk KalbRamond gauge ﬁeld (Eq.(16)) which implies dynami
cal generation of bulk cosmological constant Λ = 4πF
2
.
Guendelman, Kaganovich, Nissimov and Pacheva 7
3 Lightlike Brane Dynamics in Spherically Symmetric Gravita
tional Backgrounds
The equations of motion of the LLbrane are discussed at length in our previous
papers [10–13]. Their explicit form reads:
∂
a
_
1
2
γ
cd
g
cd
−L(F
2
)
_
= 0 −→
1
2
γ
cd
g
cd
−L(F
2
) = M , (20)
where M is an arbitrary integration constant;
1
2
g
ab
−F
2
L
′
(F
2
)
_
γ
ab
−
F
∗
a
F
∗
b
F
∗ 2
_
= 0 , (21)
where F
∗ a
is the dual worldvolume ﬁeld strength (9);
∂
[a
_
F
∗
b]
χL
′
(F
2
)
_
+
q
4
∂
a
X
µ
∂
b
X
ν
F
µν
= 0 ; (22)
∂
a
_
χ
√
−γγ
ab
∂
b
X
µ
_
+χ
√
−γγ
ab
∂
a
X
ν
∂
b
X
λ
Γ
µ
νλ
−qε
ab1...bp
F
b1...bp
∂
a
X
ν
F
λν
G
λµ
−
β
(p + 1)!
ε
a1...ap+1
∂
a1
X
µ1
. . . ∂
ap+1
X
µp+1
F
λµ1...µp+1
G
λµ
= 0 . (23)
Here χ is the dynamical brane tension as in (11), F
λµ1...µp+1
is the Kalb
Ramond ﬁeldstrength (2),
Γ
µ
νλ
=
1
2
G
µκ
(∂
ν
G
κλ
+∂
λ
G
κν
−∂
κ
G
νλ
) (24)
is the Christoffel connection for the external metric, and L
′
(F
2
) denotes deriva
tive of L(F
2
) w.r.t. the argument F
2
.
Eqs.(20)–(21) imply the following important consequences:
F
2
= F
2
(M) = const , g
ab
F
∗ b
= 0 , (25)
where the second equation is the manifestation of the lightlike nature of the
pbrane model (4), i.e., the tangent vector to the worldvolume F
∗ a
∂
a
X
µ
is
lightlike w.r.t. metric of the embedding spacetime.
Worldvolume reparametrization invariance allows us to introduce the stan
dard synchronous gaugeﬁxing conditions:
γ
0i
= 0 (i = 1, . . . , p) , γ
00
= −1 . (26)
Also, we will use a natural ansatz for the “electric” part of the auxiliary world
volume gauge ﬁeldstrength (9):
F
∗i
= 0 (i = 1, . . ., p) , i.e. F
0i1...ip−1
= 0 , (27)
meaning that we choose the lightlike direction in Eq.(25) to coincide with the
brane propertime direction on the worldvolume (F
∗ a
∂
a
∼ ∂
τ
). The Bianchi
8 Asymmetric Wormholes via Electrically Charged Lightlike Branes
identity (∇
a
F
∗ a
= 0) together with (26)–(27) and the deﬁnition for the dual
ﬁeldstrength in (9) imply:
∂
0
γ
(p)
= 0 where γ
(p)
≡ det γ
ij
. (28)
Taking into account (26)–(27), Eqs.(21) acquire the following gaugeﬁxed
form (recall deﬁnition of the induced metric g
ab
(8)):
g
00
≡
.
X
µ
G
µν
.
X
ν
= 0 , g
0i
= 0 , g
ij
−2a
0
γ
ij
= 0 , (29)
where a
0
is a Mdependent constant:
a
0
≡ F
2
L
′
(F
2
)
¸
¸
F
2
=F
2
(M)
. (30)
Eqs.(29) are analogs of the Virasoro constraints in standard string theory.
In what follows we will be interested in static spherically symmetric so
lutions of EinsteinMaxwellKalbRamond equations (14)–(16). The generic
form of spherically symmetric metric in EddingtonFinkelstein coordinates [25]
reads:
ds
2
= −A(r)dv
2
+ 2dv dr +C(r)h
ij
(θ)dθ
i
dθ
j
, (31)
where h
ij
indicates the standard metric on S
p
. We will consider the simplest
ansatz for the LLbrane embedding coordinates:
X
0
≡ v = τ , X
1
≡ r = r(τ) , X
i
≡ θ
i
= σ
i
(i = 1, . . . , p) (32)
Now, the LLbrane equations (29) together with (28) yield:
−A(r) + 2
.
r= 0 , ∂
τ
C =
.
r ∂
r
C
¸
¸
r=r(τ)
= 0 , (33)
implying:
.
r= 0 → r = r
0
= const , A(r
0
) = 0 . (34)
Eq.(34) tells us that consistency of LLbrane dynamics in a spherically symmet
ric gravitational background of codimension one requires the latter to possess
a horizon (at some r = r
0
), which is automatically occupied by the LLbrane
(“horizon straddling” according to the terminology of Ref. [4]). Similar property
– “horizon straddling”, has been found also for LLbranes moving in rotating
axially symmetric (Kerr or KerrNewman) and rotating cylindrically symmetric
black hole backgrounds [12, 13].
Next, the Maxwell coupling of the LLbrane produces via Eq.(15) static
Coulomb ﬁeld in the outer region beyond the horizon (for r > r
0
). Namely,
inserting in Eq.(15) the embedding ansatz (32) together with (34) and accounting
for (26)–(29) we obtain;
∂
r
_
C
p/2
(r)F
vr
(r)
_
−q
_
p!F
2
(2a
0
)
p/2
C
p/2
(r
0
)δ(r −r
0
) = 0 , (35)
which yields for the Maxwell ﬁeldstrength:
F
vr
(r) =
_
C(r
0
)
C(r)
_
p/2
q
_
p!F
2
(2a
0
)
p/2
θ(r −r
0
) . (36)
Guendelman, Kaganovich, Nissimov and Pacheva 9
Using again the embedding ansatz (32) together with (34) as well as (26)–
(29), the KalbRamond equations of motion (16) reduce to:
∂
r
F +βδ(r −r
0
) = 0 → F = F
(+)
θ(r −r
0
) +F
(−)
θ(r
0
−r) (37)
F
(±)
= const , F
(−)
−F
(+)
= β (38)
Therefore, a spacetime varying nonnegative cosmological constant is dynami
cally generated in both exterior and interior regions w.r.t. the horizon at r = r
0
(cf. Eq.(18)):
Λ
(±)
= 4πF
2
(±)
. (39)
Finally, it remains to consider the second order (w.r.t. proper time deriva
tive) X
µ
equations of motion (23). Upon inserting the embedding ansatz (32)
together with (34) and taking into account (29), (36) and (38), we ﬁnd that the
only nontrivial equations is for µ = v. Before proceeding let us note that
the “force” terms in the X
µ
equations of motion (23) (the geodesic ones con
taining the Christoffel connection coefﬁcients as well as those coming from the
LLbrane coupling to the bulk Maxwell and KalbRamond gauge ﬁelds) contain
discontinuities across the horizon occupied by the LLbrane. The discontinuity
problem is resolved following the approach in Ref. [3] (see also the regulariza
tion approach in Ref. [26], Appendix A) by taking mean values of the “force”
terms across the discontinuity at r = r
0
. Thus, we obtain from Eq.(23) with
µ = v:
∂
τ
χ +χ
_
1
4
_
∂
r
A
(+)
+∂
r
A
(−)
_
+
1
2
pa
0
_
∂
r
ln C
(+)
+∂
r
ln C
(−)
_
_
r=r0
+
1
2
_
−q
2
p!F
2
(2a
0
)
p/2
+β(2a
0
)
p/2
_
F
(−)
+F
(+)
_
_
= 0 . (40)
4 Asymmetric Wormhole Solution
The LLbrane energymomentumtensor (19) on the r.h.s. of the Einstein equa
tions of motion (14), upon inserting the expressions for X
µ
(σ) from (32) and
(34), and taking into account the gaugeﬁxing conditions (26) and the ansatz
(27), acquires the form:
T
µν
(brane)
= S
µν
δ(r −r
0
) (41)
with surface energymomentumtensor:
S
µν
≡
χ
(2a
0
)
p/2
_
∂
τ
X
µ
∂
τ
X
ν
−2a
0
G
ij
∂
i
X
µ
∂
j
X
ν
¸
v=τ, r=r0, θ
i
=σ
i
. (42)
Here a
0
is the integration constant parameter appearing in the LLbrane dynam
ics (30) and G
ij
= C(r)h
ij
(θ). For the nonzero components of S
µν
(with
lower indices) and its trace we ﬁnd:
S
rr
=
χ
(2a
0
)
p/2
, S
ij
= −
χ
(2a
0
)
p/2−1
G
ij
, S
λ
λ
= −
pχ
(2a
0
)
p/2−1
(43)
10 Asymmetric Wormholes via Electrically Charged Lightlike Branes
The solution of the other bulk spacetime equations of motion (the Maxwell (15)
and KalbRamond (16)) with spherically symmetric geometry have already been
given in the previous Section, see Eqs.(35)–(38).
For the sake of simplicity we will consider in what follows the case of D =
4dimensional bulk spacetime and, correspondingly, p = 2 for the LLbrane.
The generalization to arbitrary D is straightforward. For further simpliﬁcation
of the numerical constant factors we will choose the following speciﬁc (“wrong
sign” Maxwell) form for the Lagrangian of the auxiliary nondynamical world
volume gauge ﬁeld (cf. Eqs.(9)–(10)):
L(F
2
) =
1
4
F
2
→ a
0
= M , (44)
where again a
0
is the constant deﬁned in (30) and M denotes the original inte
gration constant in Eqs.(20).
We will show that there exists an asymmetric wormhole solution of the Ein
stein equations of motion (14) with LLbrane energymomentum tensor on the
r.h.s. given by (42)–(43) – systematically derived from the reparametrization
invariant LLbrane worldvolume action (4), which describes two “universes”
with different spherically symmetric geometries (31) matched along a LLbrane.
More speciﬁcally, this solution describes an overall spacetime manifold con
taining two separate spherically symmetric spacetime regions:
(i) a “left universe” consisting of the exterior region of Schwarzschildde
Sitter spacetime above the inner (Schwarzschildtype) horizon, i.e., with metric
(31) where C(r) = r
2
and:
A(r) ≡ A
(−)
(r) = 1 −
2m
1
r
−Kr
2
for r > r
0
, (45)
A
(−)
(r
0
) = 0 , ∂
r
A
(−)
¸
¸
r=r0
> 0 ; (46)
(ii) a “right universe” comprising the exterior ReissnerNordstr¨ omblack hole
region beyond the outer ReissnerNordstr¨ om horizon with metric (31) where
C(r) = r
2
and:
A(r) ≡ A
(+)
(r) = 1 −
2m
2
r
+
Q
2
r
2
for r > r
0
, (47)
A
(+)
(r
0
) = 0 , ∂
r
A
(+)
¸
¸
r=r0
> 0 . (48)
The “throat” connecting the above two “universes” with metrics (45) and
(47) is the lightlike worldvolume hypersurface of the LLbrane which is located
on the common horizon (r = r
0
) of both “universes” – a Schwarzschildtype
horizon fromthe “left universe” side (46) and an outer ReissnerNordstr¨ omhori
zon fromthe “right universe” side (48). As already pointed out above (Eqs.(33)–
(34)), the common horizon at r = r
0
is automatically occupied by the LLbrane
(“horizon straddling”) as a result of its worldvolume dynamics.
The asymmetric wormhole solution under consideration is explicitly given
in EddingtonFinkelsteintype coordinates as:
ds
2
= −
¯
A(η)dv
2
+ 2dv dη + ¯ r
2
(η)
_
dθ
2
+ sin
2
θdϕ
2
¸
, (49)
Guendelman, Kaganovich, Nissimov and Pacheva 11
where the original radial coordinate r (r > 0) is replaced by η (−∞< η < ∞)
upon substituting:
r → ¯ r(η) = r
0
+η (50)
with r
0
– the common horizon of (45) and (47) as follows:
¯
A(η) ≡ A
(−)
_
¯ r(η)
_
= 1 −
2m
1
¯ r(η)
−K¯ r
2
(η) , K ≡
4π
3
β
2
, for η < 0 , (51)
¯
A(η) ≡ A
(+)
_
¯ r(η)
_
= 1 −
2m
2
¯ r(η)
+
Q
2
¯ r
2
(η)
, Q
2
≡
8π
a
0
q
2
r
4
0
, for η > 0 . (52)
The new radiallike coordinate η describes a continuous interpolation between
the left (η < 0) and the right (η > 0) “universes” through the “throat” at η =
0. As shown in Eqs.(37)–(39), the LLbrane through its coupling to the bulk
KalbRamond ﬁeld (cf. (3) and (16)) dynamically generates spacetime varying
nonnegative cosmological constant with a jump across the horizon (r = r
0
).
In the present case this yields dynamically generated de Sitter parameter K =
1
3
Λ
(−)
≡
4π
3
F
2
(−)
=
4π
3
β
2
in the “left universe” as given in (51), whereas
F
(+)
= 0. On the other hand, the surface charge density q of the LLbrane (cf.
(15) and (35)) explicitly determines the nonzero Coulomb ﬁeldstrength in the
“right universe” with Q
2
as given in (52).
Now, substituting the metric (49) with (51)–(52) into the Einstein equations
(14) and taking into account that outside the “throat” (η = 0) it obviously
solves the “vacuum” equations (with the LLbrane absent), the only nontrivial
δfunction contribution on the l.h.s. of (14) arises because of nonsmoothness of
the metric (49) with (51)–(52) at η = 0 (it is continuous but not differentiable
there). Thus, inserting the worldvolume Lagrangianderived expression (41)–
(42) for the LLbrane stressenergy tensor on the r.h.s. of Einstein Eqs.(14)
yields (for D = 4, p = 2) two relations matching the coefﬁcients in front of
δ(η):
_
∂
η
¯
A
(+)
−∂
η
¯
A
(−)
_
η=0
= −16πχ , r
0
= −
a
0
πχ
, (53)
The second relation (53) implies that the dynamical LLbrane tension χ must
be constant (independent of the LLbrane proper time τ) and it must be nega
tive. Substituting the explicit form (51)–(52) of
¯
A
±
in (53) gives the following
expressions for the mass parameters:
m
1
=
a
0
2πχ
_
1 −
4a
2
0
β
2
3πχ
2
_
, m
2
=
a
0
2πχ
_
1 +
8a
0
q
2
πχ
2
_
, (54)
as well as the relation between a
0
and χ:
χ
2
=
2a
0
(2q
2
+a
0
β
2
)
π(1 −8a
0
)
. (55)
Next, the LLbrane equation of motion (40), where we set χ = const, yields in
the case under consideration a third matching relation at the “throat”:
χ
4
_
∂
η
¯
A
(+)
+∂
η
¯
A
(−)
_
η=0
+ 2q
2
−a
0
β
2
= 0 , (56)
12 Asymmetric Wormholes via Electrically Charged Lightlike Branes
which upon using (54)–(55) reduces to the second relation (53), i.e., Eq.(56)
does not carry any new information.
From relations (54)–(55) we conclude that all physical parameters of the
asymmetric wormhole (51)–(52) are explicitly determined by the two free pa
rameters (q, β) – the surface electric charge density q and the KalbRamond
charge β of the LLbrane.
It remains to check that:
∂
η
¯
A
¸
¸
η→+0
≡ ∂
r
A
(+)
¸
¸
r=r0
> 0 , −∂
η
¯
A
¸
¸
η→−0
≡ ∂
r
A
(−)
¸
¸
r=r0
> 0 , (57)
i.e., the “throat” at η = 0 must be the outer ReissnerNordstr¨ om horizon from
the point of view of the “right” ReissnerNordstr¨ om “universe” (η > 0, cf. (48))
and simultaneously be the inner Schwarzschildtype horizon from the point of
view of the “left” SchwarzschilddeSitter “universe”(η < 0, cf. (46)). From
(54)–(55) we ﬁnd:
∂
η
¯
A
¸
¸
η→+0
=
π χ
a
0
(2q
2
+a
0
β
2
)
_
2q
2
(16a
0
−1) +a
0
β
2
¸
> 0 (58)
−∂
η
¯
A
¸
¸
η→−0
=
π χ
a
0
(2q
2
+a
0
β
2
)
_
2q
2
+a
0
β
2
(16a
0
−1)
¸
> 0 . (59)
Inequalities (58)–(59) together with Eq.(55) imply the following restriction on
the integration constant a
0
from the LLbrane dynamics (30):
1/16 < a
0
< 1/8 . (60)
In complete analogy one can construct another asymmetric wormhole solu
tion where the LLbrane connects the “left” universe, which is now the exte
rior region of the standard Schwarzschild spacetime (r > r
0
= 2m
1
), with
the “right” universe, which is the exterior region of the ReissnerNordstr¨ omde
Sitter spacetime (r > r
0
) beyond the outer ReissnerNordstr¨ omhorizon r = r
0
:
¯
A(η) ≡ A
(−)
_
¯ r(η)
_
= 1 −
2m
1
¯ r(η)
for η < 0 , (61)
¯ r(η) = r
0
−η , r
0
= 2m
1
,
¯
A(η) ≡ A
(+)
_
¯ r(η)
_
= 1 −
2m
2
¯ r(η)
+
Q
2
¯ r
2
(η)
−K¯ r
2
(η) for η > 0 , (62)
¯ r(η) = r
0
+η , Q
2
≡
8π
a
0
q
2
r
4
0
, K ≡
4π
3
β
2
.
In this case the physical parameters of the asymmetric wormhole read:
m
1
=
r
0
2
=
a
0
2πχ
, m
2
=
a
0
2πχ
_
1 +
2(1 −8a
0
)
2q
2
+a
0
β
2
_
2q
2
−
1
3
a
0
β
2
__
, (63)
for χ
2
we get the same relation (55) and the same restriction (60) holds for the
LLbrane integration constant a
0
.
Guendelman, Kaganovich, Nissimov and Pacheva 13
5 A Note on EinsteinRosen “Bridge”
In the simple special case (q = 0, β = 0) the asymmetric wormhole solution
(49)–(52) reduces to a symmetric wormhole solution:
ds
2
= −
¯
A(η)dv
2
+ 2dv dη + ¯ r
2
(η)
_
dθ
2
+ sin
2
θdϕ
2
¸
,
¯
A(η) = 1 −
2m
¯ r(η)
, ¯ r(η) = 2m+η . (64)
The above metric describes two identical copies of Schwarzschild exterior
spacetime region (r > 2m), which correspond to η > 0 and η < 0, respec
tively, and which are “glued” together at the horizon η = 0 (i.e., r = 2m)
occupied by the LLbrane, where the latter serves as a throat of the overall
wormhole solution. This is precisely the spacetime manifold of the Einstein
Rosen “bridge” solution in its original formulation [19] in terms of Eddington
Finkelstein coordinates. An important consequence of the present construction
is that the EinsteinRosen “bridge” wormhole does not satisfy the vacuum Ein
stein equations since it needs the presence of a nontrivial matter stressenergy
tensor on the r.h.s. (14) which turns out to be the stressenergy tensor of a LL
brane (41)–(42) selfconsistently derived froma welldeﬁned reparametrization
invariant worldvolume LLbrane Lagrangian (4).
To make the connection with the original formulation [19] of the Einstein
Rosen “bridge” more explicit let us recall that Einstein and Rosen start from the
standard Schwarzschild metric:
ds
2
= −A(r)dt
2
+A
−1
(r)dr
2
+r
2
_
dθ
2
+ sin
2
θ dϕ
2
¸
, A(r) = 1 −
2m
r
(65)
and introduce new radiallike coordinate u by deﬁning u
2
= r −2m, so that the
metric (65) becomes:
ds
2
= −
u
2
u
2
+ 2m
dt
2
+ 4(u
2
+ 2m)du
2
+ (u
2
+ 2m)
2
_
dθ
2
+ sin
2
θ dϕ
2
¸
.
(66)
Then Einstein and Rosen take two identical copies of the exterior Schwarzschild
spacetime region (r > 2m) by letting the new coordinate u to vary between
−∞and +∞(i.e., we have the same r ≥ 2m for ±u). The two Schwarzschild
exterior spacetime regions must be matched at the horizon u = 0 (the wormhole
“throat”).
Let us examine whether the original EinsteinRosen solution satisfy the vac
uum Einstein equations everywhere. To this end let us consider the LeviCivita
identity (see e.g. [27]):
R
0
0
= −
1
√
−g
00
∇
2
_√
−g
00
_
(67)
valid for any metric of the form ds
2
= g
00
(r)(dt)
2
+ h
ij
(r, θ, ϕ)dx
i
dx
j
and where ∇
2
is the threedimensional LaplaceBeltrami operator ∇
2
=
14 Asymmetric Wormholes via Electrically Charged Lightlike Branes
1
√
h
∂
∂x
i
_
√
hh
ij ∂
∂x
j
_
. The EinsteinRosen metric (66) solves R
0
0
= 0 for all
u = 0. However, since
√
−g
00
∼ u as u → 0 and since
∂
2
∂u
2
u = 2δ(u),
Eq.(67) tells us that:
R
0
0
∼
1
u
δ(u) ∼ δ(u
2
) , (68)
and similarly for the scalar curvature R ∼
1
u
δ(u) ∼ δ(u
2
). From (68) we
conclude that:
(i) The nonvanishing r.h.s. of (68) exhibits the explicit presence of some
lightlike matter source on the throat – an observation which is missing in the
original formulation [19] of the EinsteinRosen “bridge”. In fact, the problem
with the metric (66) satisfying the vacuum Einstein equations at u = 0 has been
noticed in ref. [19], where in Eq.(3a) the authors multiply Ricci tensor by an
appropriate power of the determinant g of the metric (66) vanishing at u = 0 so
as to enforce fulﬁllment of the vacuumEinstein equations everywhere, including
at u = 0.
(ii) The coordinate u in (66) is inadequate for description of the original
EinsteinRosen “bridge” at the throat due to the illdeﬁniteness as distribution of
the r.h.s. in (68).
As we have seen from our construction above, the proper radiallike coor
dinate for the EinsteinRosen “bridge” wormhole is η which is related to the
EinsteinRosen coordinate u via nonsmooth transformation:
u = sign(η)
_
η , i.e. u
2
= η . (69)
Thus, we conclude that solution (64) is the proper selfconsistent formulation of
the original EinsteinRosen “bridge” wormhole where the presence of LLbrane
matter source at the “throat” plays crucial role for its welldeﬁniteness.
6 Conclusions
I this work we have continued to explore the use of codimensionone LLbranes
for construction of wormhole solutions of Einstein equations, in the present case
– constructing asymmetric wormholes. We have strongly emphasized the crucial
properties of the dynamics of LLbranes interacting with gravity and bulk space
time gauge ﬁelds:
(i) The LLbrane automatically locates itself on (one of) the horizon(s) of
the bulk spacetime geometry (“horizon straddling”);
(ii) The LLbrane tension is an additional dynamical degree of freedom un
like the case of standard NambuGoto pbranes (where it is a given ad hoc con
stant), and which might in particular acquire negative values;
(iii) The LLbrane stressenergy tensor provides the appropriate source term
on the r.h.s. of Einstein equations to enable the existence of consistent nontrivial
wormhole solutions;
(iv) Electrically neutral LLbranes produce symmetric wormholes, i.e.,
where both left and right “universes” are related via reﬂection symmetry and
Guendelman, Kaganovich, Nissimov and Pacheva 15
where, in particular, the MisnerWheeler “charge without charge” [21] phe
nomenon is observed;
(v) The wormhole reﬂection symmetry is broken through the natural cou
plings of the LLbrane to bulk spacetime gauge ﬁelds (Maxwell and 3index
KalbRamond). In this way the LLbrane dynamically generates nonzero
Coulomb ﬁeldstrength in the “right” universe and nonzero cosmological con
stant either in the “left” or in the “right” universe which enable the existence of
asymmetric (with no reﬂection symmetry) wormholes.
We have speciﬁcally stressed the crucial role of LLbranes already in the
case of the “mother of all wormholes” – the classic EinsteinRosen “bridge”
manifold [19].
Finally, let us mention the crucial role of LLbranes in constructing non
trivial examples of nonsingular black holes, i.e., solutions of Einstein equations
with black hole type geometry in the bulk spacetime, in particular possessing
horizons, but with no spacetime singularities in the center of the geometry. For
further details we refer to [28], where a solution of the EinsteinMaxwellKalb
Ramond system coupled to a charged LLbrane has been obtained describing a
regular black hole. The spacetime manifold of the latter consists of de Sitter in
terior region and exterior ReissnerNordstr¨ om region glued together along their
common horizon (it is the inner horizon from the ReissnerNordstr¨ om side).
Acknowledgments
E.N. and S.P. are supported by Bulgarian NSF grant DO 02257. Also, all of
us acknowledge support of our collaboration through the exchange agreement
between the BenGurion University of the Negev (BeerSheva, Israel) and the
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
References
[1] C. Barrab´ es and P. Hogan, “Singular NullHypersurfaces in General Relativity”
(World Scientiﬁc, Singapore, 2004).
[2] K. Thorne, R. Price and D. Macdonald (Eds.), “Black Holes: The Membrane
Paradigm” (Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT, 1986).
[3] W. Israel, Nuovo Cim. B44, 1 (1966); erratum, Nuovo Cim. B48, 463 (1967).
[4] C. Barrab´ es and W. Israel, Phys. Rev. D43, 1129 (1991).
[5] T. Dray and G. ‘t Hooft, Class. Quantum Grav. 3, 825 (1986).
[6] I. Kogan and N. Reis, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A16, 4567 (2001) [hepth/0107163].
[7] D. Mateos and S. Ng, JHEP 0208, 005 (2002) [hepth/0205291].
[8] J. Harvey, P. Kraus and F. Larsen, Phys. Rev. D63, 026002 (2001) [hep
th/0008064];
D. Mateos, T. Mateos and P.K. Townsend, JHEP 0312 (2003) 017 [hep
th/0309114];
A. Bredthauer, U. Lindstr¨ om, J. Persson and L. Wulff, JHEP 0402 (2004) 051 [hep
th/0401159].
[9] C. Barrab´ es and W. Israel, Phys. Rev. D71, 064008 (2005) [grqc/0502108].
16 Asymmetric Wormholes via Electrically Charged Lightlike Branes
[10] E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, Phys. Rev. D72,
0806011 (2005) [hepth/0507193];
E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, Fortschr. der Physik
55, 579 (2007) [hepth/0612091];
E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, in “Fourth Internat.
School on Modern Math. Physics”, eds. B. Dragovich and B. Sazdovich (Belgrade
Inst. Phys. Press, Belgrade, 2007), p. 215 [hepth/0703114];
E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, in “Lie Theory and
Its Applications in Physics 07”, eds. V. Dobrev and H. Doebner (Heron Press, Soﬁa,
2008), p. 79 [arxiv:0711.1841[hepth] ].
[11] E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, Centr. Europ. Journ.
Phys. 7, 668 (2009) [arxiv:0711.2877[hepth] ];
E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, in “Fifth Summer
School in Modern Mathematical Physics”, eds. B. Dragovich and Z. Rakic (Bel
grade Inst. Phys. Press, Belgrade, 2009) [arxiv:0810.5008[hepth] ].
[12] E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, Phys. Lett. 673B,
288 (2009) [arxiv:0811.2882[hepth] ];
E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, Fortschr. der Phys.
57, 566 (2009) [arxiv:0901.4443[hepth] ].
[13] E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, Spherically Symmet
ric and Rotating Wormholes Produced by Lightlike Branes, arxiv:0904.0401[hep
th], to appear in Inter. Journ. Mod. Phys. A.
[14] U. Lindstr¨ om and H. Svendsen, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A16, 1347 (2001) [arxiv:hep
th/0007101].
[15] W. Israel and E. Poisson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1663 (1989);
W. Israel and E. Poisson, Phys. Rev. D41, 1796 (1990).
[16] E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, Phys. Lett. 681B,
457 (2009) [arxiv:0904.3198[hepth] ]
[17] M. Visser, “Lorentzian Wormholes. From Einstein to Hawking” (Springer, Berlin,
1996).
[18] J. Lemos, F. Lobo and S. de Oliveira, Phys. Rev. D68, 064004 (2003) [gr
qc/0302049];
S. Sushkov, Phys. Rev. D71, 043520 (2005) [grqc/0502084];
F. Lobo, Exotic Solutions in General Relativity: Traversable Wormholes and “Warp
Drive” Spacetimes , arxiv:0710.4474[grqc].
[19] A. Einstein and N. Rosen, Phys. Rev. 43, 73 (1935).
[20] Ch. Misner, K. Thorne and J.A. Wheeler, “Gravitation” (W.H. Freeman and Co.,
San Francisco, 1973).
[21] C. Misner and J. Wheeler, Ann. of Phys. 2, 525603 (1957).
[22] A. Aurilia, H. Nicolai and P.K. Townsend, Nucl. Phys. B176, 509 (1980);
A. Aurilia, Y. Takahashi and P.K. Townsend, Phys. Lett. 95B, 265 (1980).
[23] E. Guendelman, Class. Quantum Grav. 17, 3673 (2000); Phys. Rev. D63, 046006
(2001).
[24] P. Townsend, Phys. Lett. 277B, 285 (1992);
E. Bergshoeff, L. London and P. Townsend, Class. Quantum Grav. 9, 2545 (1992)
[hepth/9206026];
J. de Azcarraga, J. Izquierdo and P. Townsend, Phys. Rev. D45, R3321 (1992).
[25] A. Eddington, Nature, 113, 192 (1924);
D. Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. D110, 965 (1958).
Guendelman, Kaganovich, Nissimov and Pacheva 17
[26] S. Blau, E. Guendelman and A. Guth, Phys. Rev. D35, 1747 (1987).
[27] T. Frankel, “Gravitational Curvature, An Introduction to Einstein Theory” (W.H.
Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1979).
[28] E. Guendelman, A. Kaganovich, E. Nissimov and S. Pacheva, NonSingular Black
Holes From GravityMatterBrane Lagrangians, arxiv:0908.4195[hepth], to ap
pear in Inter. Journ. Mod. Phys. A.