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Master’s Degree in Visual Communication Birmingham Institute of Art & Design University of Central England July 2005
Research 3 Master’s Degree .
4 Pictorial Writing and Illustration .
but the thing I’ve learned is that everyone has their blinders on and are involved in their own areas. for example. shutting themselves off from the entire Western visual tradition. advertising.Pervasive Art. and have a strong sense of meaning. ‘as is poetry. and we don’t expect.) Preceding pages The Mesmerist (detail from p. it needs to be open to the influence of the history of popular and fine art. at best. with ‘poetry’ standing in for literature generally. should represent idealised figures in historical settings . Illustration is part of a popular visual tradition that is built into the fabric of Western culture and continues to flourish. However. I have actually created a term for this . which is a loose translation of the term ut pictura poesis. from the gallery show in New York City. (Strangeco.’ We take it for granted that there are different media and art forms. it was resurrected in the Renaissance and ultimately used to justify an laundry-list of tiresome rules . Image from personal diary (showing a trip to Norwich Cathedral). the illustrator and designer Gary Baseman (fig 2) brought up a term he invented to describe his way of working across different media. are likely to become even more tedious than they already are. The notion is that as long as you stay true to your aesthetic. like poetry.com. should a painter be lionised for enlarging images from comic books. There’s this nagging question when you look at a political cartoon in the newspaper or watch a particularly inventive sitcom: ‘But is it art?’ And why. ‘paraliterature’? As an artist working in the field of illustration. it’s worth looking at these questions. television. after all. each sectioned off from the others. A quote from Horace. fine artists who limit themselves to the stale confines of conceptual art. the theory represented an underlying assumption in Europe about all kinds of visual art. I always have to introduce myself to a new audience. I think a lot of artists are doing this. The theory that I’ve found useful as a way of approaching this problem is what I call pictorial writing.Research In a recent interview. up until the end of the second world war. 13).in what became known as academic painting. when comic books themselves are considered. This can be very frustrating. there are the occasional reminders that maybe these boundaries a little arbitrary. so is the picture’. film and paintings intended for gallery exhibition. and it’s my goal. then the work can be appropriate in almost any medium . that they only reinforce conventional ways of thinking and act as a barrier to originality. which was as a kind of literature 2 A Gary Baseman creation. dogma aside. On the other hand. But he acknowledged that this way of working is unusual and can be difficult: ‘Even though I’ve been around for a while.such as that pictures. For illustration to have vitality and meaning.from print to TV to film to paintings to commerce. including editorial illustration. games and toy design. conceptual artists to write television screenplays. 5 Master’s Degree . Likewise. but is usually ignored by critics because it doesn’t fit into conventional arguments about fine art.
mythology. roof bosses. the tepid religious art in the Vatican Museum’s modern section couldn’t be greater. When we look at the medieval world. following the age of the great crusades and the decline of the aristocratic taste of verse romance. roof carving from Norwich Cathedral (photo by the author). Die Brücke and the later Expressionists drew on the spirit of medieval art in order to inject new life and relevance into art. science. magic and religion. sayings and conventional wisdom that still informs Western visual art. 3). folklore. Joseph Campbell argues that the thirteenth century. even now. Dada and Surrealism drew on ideas that were sweeping through all levels of society. and is the source of much of the iconography. What makes this period such an inspiration to artists. For later artists. 4 The Unjust Alewife. it was long taken for granted that all kinds of visual and literary art influenced each other. folklore. novels. the Symbolists. art still functions in this way. but it has been shown that just the opposite is true . such as Picasso. is the richness and vitality of its art and the fact that it seems to spring from a culture shared by the illiterate peasant and the lord in his castle alike. misericords and the like.early 20th century avant-garde movements such as Expressionism. All this is just to make the point that the idea of pictures as something essentially different from other kinds of ‘literature’ is relatively new. roof carving from Norwich Cathedral. customs. and return to the popular culture transformed. the intellectual barriers we take for granted today disappear: it is suddenly impossible to draw clear distinctions between art. films and comic books. movements like the preRaphaelites. soulless modern world. the period came to represent everything that was opposed to the cold. One current progressive group combines protests against the invasion of Iraq with the collective authorship of popular thrillers. 3 Figure of a saint being boiled alive. One example is the carvings found in medieval cathedral corbels. See note 9. . flowed across borders. Instead. Comic strips and animated films serve the same function in society now that woodcuts and copperplate engravings did in the centuries between the invention of printing and the advent of electronic media. Even the most experimental artists before that. We might think of modernism as the invention of an intellectual elite which inevitably separated itself more and more from the realities of the day. The contrast with. Though society and culture are increasingly atomised. To a modern eye it is astonishing to see bawdy jokes carved into the ceiling of a holy sanctuary alongside grotesque images of saints being boiled alive (fig.that communicated something. saw ‘the first major flourishing in Europe of a literature of the people’. say. and was part of an international culture that was common to different classes of society across Europe. ideas bubble up from the population into television. The Middle Ages The middle ages is the starting point for European pictorial writing. calculating. a literature that wasn’t confined to parchment. never strayed into purely abstract art.
Alexander’s flight into heaven in his basket. inexhaustible flood of popular merry tales. Medieval Art. pious allegories and popular ballads burst abruptly into manuscript. c. grinned from the stained glass. References like these fill works we would today treat as objective and scientific.. English. 1292. A tumbling. hero. riddles. appeared in tapestries. on trinketcaskets.) Pictorial Writing and Illustration 6 Anatomical illustration. Compounded with themes from the Cloister and the Castle.. as well as the deep pre-Christian past... (Sekules. saint and devil legends. filled with every kind of gathered anecdote and history of wonder. whether it is a scene of two women plucking a fowl.) 8 Such material made up a common culture in the Middle Ages that was widely recognised wherever it appeared. broad. on saddles and weapons. like descriptions of animals or the workings of the human body. Medieval Art. Misericords.Prose compendiums of traditional lore began appearing. mixed with elements from the Bible and from the heathenness of the Orient. mock heroics. 4) or the monkey holding a flask of urine. a bestiary page of a lion gives it characteristics from . 5 One of the lion’s characteristics is a fear of cockerels. the wonderful hurly-burly broke into the stonework of the cathedrals. the owl in his ignorance. animal fables.. were just an extension of the sorts of things people might mention in conversation. slap-stick jokes. the unjust alewife (fig. with their often bizarre imagery. twisted and curled in humourous grotesque in and out of the letters of illuminated manuscripts. mirrors and combs.. (Sekules.
Arabic and Hebrew. Hans Sachs and others.inspired in part by Antoine Galland’s French translation of the Thousand and One Nights .produced new tales which were again assimilated into popular culture.a fable. 9 Master’s Degree . All this material had acquired such a genuine local flavour by the time of the Brothers Grimm that it was thought to have emerged from an aboriginal German soul.produced through a long process of cultural ‘digestion’. Many of the tales and legends of the Middle Ages originated from quite foreign sources. like the Hindu Panchatantra. In the late eighteenth century the fashion of literary fairy tales . which in the thirteenth century made its way into German and Italian from the original Sanskrit via Persian. and a diagram of the human body becomes an opportunity for artistic expression (figs 5 and 6). ‘Anonymous’ tales as collected in compilations made their way into the literary works of Chaucer.like the rest of European culture . and certain tales from these authors became popular and entered back into the body of oral literature. Dante’s fourteenthcentury Divine Comedy is full of references to medieval beliefs and legends. Boccaccio. This literature was .
. absorbed. to enter into a dialogue with his or her sources. . popular prints came to be Pictorial Writing and Illustration 8 One of Picasso’s minotaurs. Artists didn’t see themselves as isolated individuals challenging tradition. gags and and imagery that sometimes seems to have been taken directly from medieval sources. Just as tales moved back and forth between the oral and literary worlds. which could later become the source of a cheap print. Popular prints drew on all sorts of folklore and were addressed not to ‘the masses’ but to all levels of society. There were a vast range of intermediate levels within the world of prints between the two poles of academic and popular art.7 Bruegel’s Triumph of Death. Mannerism. but ‘contrary to what is often suggested. place. when one print is based on another it is usually not a slavish or clumsy imitation but a new creation’. social level and technical aspects of manufacture. Popular prints Alongside the revolutions of the Renaissance.’ Seen in this light. ‘It was more common than not for an artist to look first to a prototype or series of exemplars. but rather as bringing tradition up to date. In art the achievements of the past were continually being consulted. Romanticism. purveying tales. and to innovate in terms of style or iconography by careful degrees of departure from tradition and authority. Like medieval art. one can think of Picasso with his minotaurs (fig 8) as taking part in the same process as the artists of the Middle Ages. popular prints continued to proliferate across Europe. 10 The same process applied to the way medieval visual art was created. and all borrowed from one another. a particular legend might be drawn from popular lore to be represented in a Bruegel painting. etc. the word ‘popular’ has been defined in this sense as ‘read or seen by almost everybody (and therefore) part of the consciousness of the educated as well as the uneducated’. according to time. reinterpreted and brought to new relevance in the works of the present.
indifferent to the illusionistic degree of finish and the idealised figures that characterised his contemporaries. Roberts notes. who was obsessed with depicting the ideal human form. These prints filled a place in the culture later taken over by newspaper cartoons. the passion for endless detail.his whole way of seeing things belonged to the dying Middle Ages. Dürer. cheap illustrated novels (feuilleton)[19. the history of Western art began to pivot around individual art ‘geniuses’ and intellectual progress. realistic novelists like Champfleur and painters like Courbet opposed the naïve vigour of the popular print to the blandness of academic art. if they were not plagiarised by printmakers. Bruegel was. whose vision of the world belonged essentially to the Middle Ages. licentiousness and guilt . Even the seemingly straightforward seasonal landscapes belong to a systematised.the suggestion of a world in miniature. Bruegel With the advent of the Renaissance and humanism. but these artists often took an active part in producing prints for popular consumption. which belongs to the same tradition as the depiction of the month of September in the fourteenth-century ‘Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry’. In France. the abrupt contrasts between the literal and the fantastic.5]. In such paintings . the mixture of brutality. Bruegel’s vision . produced copperplate engravings of a finer workmanship than had ever been seen.seen by some as a way of revitalising official art. comic books and television. descriptive tradition that had its direct roots in medieval illuminated manuscripts.as well as in his famous depictions of peasant festivals and 11 Master’s Degree . penny dreadfuls. His medieval approach can be clearly seen in paintings such as ‘The Triumph of Death’ (fig 7) and in ‘The Harvesters’. movie serials. The theoretical concerns that motivated Dürer were lost on Pieter Bruegel the Elder. a near-contemporary. where popular prints are known as imagerie populaire. chapbooks.
from a medieval misericord. 10 From Gary Baseman’s gallery show ‘The Happy Idiot’ .the figure of The Happy Idiot and his sinister alter ego.9 From Masereel’s Passionate Journey. . Pictorial Writing and Illustration 12 11 A mermaid.
13 Master’s Degree .
15 Below right.Bruegel depicted themes familiar to the general populace. worked in woodcuts that have some of the simplicity and expressive power of medieval prints. The prints themselves became the subject of references. James Ensor. as in a contemporary adaptation of Samuel Richardson’s novel. drawing upon a long tradition of imagery. ‘grotesque’ school. beginning with A Harlot’s Progress (fig 14).sayings . His print series. 14 Right. down to the heroine’s state of partial undress. Baseman’s figure ‘Dumb Luck’. too. from an illustrated version of Richardson’s Pamela. an Expressionist. adapted medieval motifs such as the Dance of Death and the second coming of Christ to an ironic modern context. Death Pursuing the Human Herd and The Entry of Christ into Brussels use a characteristic motif of the reclusive artist. The late-nineteenth century Symbolists and the early twentieth century Expressionists were among the other groups of artists drawing on the medieval visual tradition as an antidote to the modern world. Frans Masereel. Pamela: Or Virtue Rewarded (fig 15). But Hogarth. His Passionate Journey (fig 9) is a story of social injustice and spiritual renewal told in 165 sequential images. Hogarth was one of the first English artists to compete in his own country with the more fashionable imports. is pointed. 13 Below right. the ambivalent depiction of the mass of humanity. 14 . a Belgian Symbolist who lived most of his life above his parents’ gift shop in Ostende. Pictorial Writing and Illustration 12 Below left. Hieronymous Bosch and other Netherlandish painters came to be seen as a distinct. in paintings and prints from the theatre for example. drew on and was imitated by sources from popular culture. and he was able to raise the tone of English printmaking with engravings from his own paintings. the ‘Wheel of Fortune’ from a medieval Tarot deck. from Hogarth’s A Harlot’s Progress. Hogarth and other artists Bruegel. including prints such as The Cully Flaug’d and The London Curtezan. are richly allusive to contemporary iconography. The print’s nearparody of Hogarth’s image. which set itself up as a genteel answer to Hogarth’s supposed vulgarity. and William Hogarth was initially seen as a sort of English exponent of this art.
. so that his designs are passing back into popular culture. Warner Bros. is ‘a really happy rabbit that is thrilled to have a lucky rabbit’s foot and yet has a peg leg. of working as hard as you can.Conclusion Artists continue to draw on striking symbolic imagery from the general culture. Baseman builds a highly personal allegory. the Mexican art of Day of the Dead. longing.) Unlike the work of Pop Artists. the acceptance of man’s attraction to unattainable beauty.’  It is worth noting that while Baseman is influenced by old toy design. A figure called Dumb Luck (fig 13). This character embodies my philosophy in life. Nowadays the imagery of mythology comes with a psychoanalytic veneer. as with illustrator Baseman’s 2003 gallery show. sex. like the Mexican tradition of Day of the Dead (fig 16) or mermaids (fig 11).. ‘When people see it they think it’s very child-like. cartoons. (Some of this iconography.com.’ he said in an interview with the Web site Strangeco. . he is also an active designer of board games and toys. 17 The figure of the Empress (Hello Kitty herself) from Joe Rosales’ card deck. for example. early twentieth century painting. three-headed snowmen and skeletons (fig 10). Baseman’s work has a personal symbolism that is in contrast to its outwardly commercial form. in the modern world there may be more than ever a need for visual symbolism that stimulates the imagination. Hello Tarot. and going after your dream and ultimately it’s all still up to dumb luck and there’s always a price to pay. can be traced directly back to medieval sources. But it’s really an adult allegory about desire.. it communicates rather than commenting on itself. ‘Happy Idiot and Other Paintings of Unattainable Beauty’. Baseman says he’s inspired by toys and advertising statues from the 20s and 30s. Charles Addams and many other influences. In a series of paintings using dreamlike images such as mermaids. 16 A Mexican Day of the Dead figure.
is part of the general culture. 849.  For example the legend of Trajan and the poor widow. commemorating the justice of the Trajan.Notes  Baseman.html  During their more neoclassical moods Picasso and other modernists explicitly related their art to the Western tradition. conquered in succession by Caesar Augustus. Germany. the Netherlands and Italy. Guilbaut argues that a combination of American financial and military might. Joseph. dealers. Most of their books have been bestsellers in translation across Europe but so far only one. naked and gleefully brandishing a huge tankard. Evidently British people’s obsession with the amount of foam in beer is not a new thing.com). However the point is clear enough in countries like France. New York.) See: http://www. “genius” does not exist. 2001. the language adopted by the EZLN. (Interview with illustrator Gary Baseman.  ibid. which sort of speaks for itself. February 1999. Charlemagne and Napoleon. whose members prefer a collective name such as Wu Ming (Chinese for ‘nameless’). But her history looks at modern art from the point of view of patrons. 1998. p. fauns. figures like Jackson Pollock and Edward Hopper. who begged him for justice against the murderer of her son. Giap/digest #11. London: Routledge. rather than artists. ideas are nobody’s property. coincidentally.com. minotaurs and the like. and equate their role to that of oral historians in an African village. now renamed Wu Ming. the same countries that were. Hogarth saw the founding of the first British Academy of Art in the early 18th century. with images of nymphs. p. and indeed ultimately turning much of its medieval figurative art into rubble. Serge Guilbaut’s argument that ‘art. has been published in the UK. by Annie Cohen-Solal (translated by the author with Laurie Hurwitz-Attias. The Complete Grimm’s Fairy Tales (folkloristic commentary). 2001). The group.com/news/events_baseman. All this turmoil and bloodshed seems to have had a stimulating effect on visual culture.strangeco. claim to have been inspired by ‘ancient legends regarding folk heroes. 848-9  Harding. grew out of a progressive Italian political movement and has authored a string of thrillers that promote an anarchistic world view. tells how the emperor was once leaving Rome at the head of his army and was stopped by a poor widow. Knopf. Paris 1867-New York 1948. according to a review in the New York Times Book Review. Mike. So what happened after the second world war? In his book.  Campbell. implicitly refutes Guilbaut’s thesis. Wu Ming give a radical interpretation to the process of collective cultural production I will explore further on. The unjust alewife is a figure often depicted as a denizen of Hell. as well as the manifold experiences of media pranksters and communication guerillas since the 1920s’ (Wu Ming. p. The emperor wanted to put her off.note the absence of actual new ideas in this equation. Alfred A. even the art of the avant-garde.  In How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art (see bibliography). This legend.  England isn’t the best example of this to look at. 2004. 13.Pollock and the Abstract Expressionists via the avant-garde who took refuge in New York City during the war. Q. ‘Gary Baseman’s Happy Idiot’. being a bit remote and aloof from developments elsewhere in Europe. were formed by an exposure to ideas developed in Europe . arguing that ‘writing is always a collective process. Painting American: The Rise of American Artists. genre cinema and Western pop culture in general. London: Aurum Press. 1998. Oct 19.net). The monkey image is ‘a satire on the quack doctors who were held to be as untrustworthy as a monkey’. A book by another French national. A Little Book of Misericords. collectors and museum directors. and Europe destroying itself in the second world war led to the US dominating fine art after 1945 . Gary. Web: Strangeco. lutherblissett. there’s just a Great Recombination’ (Press release for Q. not autonomous or above it’ is so outrageous that it apparently ‘forces us to think differently not only about art and art history but about society itself ’. the idea is barmaids who give you less beer than they should will end up paying for it. a mere few centuries after those on the continent. It is now considered controversial to point out that the greatest American artists. but when she reproached him for neglecting his duty Master’s Degree 17 .. its safety from invaders and Nazis. wumingfoundation.  The Luther Blissett Project. In Hogarth’s time the English well-to-do were still importing continentals for their portraits and public art.
However.  Hallett.5] Nineteenth century France’s trashy illustrated novels. Veronica. London: Arts council of Great Britain. op.’  Alighieri. (Both references from O’Connell. Bruegel.) p. the quality (Dante) admires is not so much realism as a (literally) supernatural expressiveness. not as in England as an antiquarian interest. Keith. Out of the mass of anonymous feuilleton writers and illustrators rose giants like Balzac. 1999. the medieval critic himself tended to rejoice in an almost photographic realism. 6. rather than translated from any Arabic original. V. Mark. 7. p. again today) is triggered by ‘a sudden awakening to the symbolical void produced by electronic civilisation’. They were imported from the Gothic novelists in England. St Gregory is said to have seen this story represented as a bas-relief on Trajan’s Column in the forum of Trajan.)  Roberts. 88. 1955. 1973. 17-18. Sayers has this to say of the Trajan episode in Purgatory: ‘Whereas the modern art critic is apt to praise the art of the middle ages for its symbolism and stylisation. while in England they were overwhelmingly ballads. Dramatist Thomas Holcroft recalled such titles as ‘Death and the Lady’.S. Oxford: Oxford University Press. sexual aberration. and been so impressed that he brought the dead emperor back from Hell by his prayers and baptised him to salvation.S. 148-9  The process wasn’t confined to Europe. Hogarth. p. Purgatory (translation and commentary). p.  O’Connell writes: ‘With his book Histoire de l’imagerie populaire (1869) (Champfleur) hoped to encourage French artists to turn for inspiration to what he saw as the naïve but vigorous work of provincial printmakers rather than the mediocrity of the Salon.  O’Connell.. In 1709 Jonathan Swift wrote of: Pictorial Writing and Illustration Ballads pasted on the wall Of Joan of France and English Moll.and later meets Trajan in the Heaven of the Just. V.. The tale of Aladdin seems now to have been invented by Galland. Medieval Art. Fair Rosamund and Robin Hood. Delevoy argues the interest in symbolically rich art at the time he was writing in the mid-seventies (and. adultery.. Balzac.  Robert L. appealed to popular and sometimes prurient tastes. 145  Sayers.  O’Connell. prints were overwhelmingly of a religious nature. 2002. p. 50.  French Popular Imagery: Five Centuries of Prints. Sheila. London: British Museum Press. but as a vital source for future development. I would argue. 162. Popular prints were seen. Dorothy Leigh. p. Dante sees a sculpture representing this legend in Purgatory .he yielded. sexual license. In continental Europe. p. ‘Margaret’s Ghost’ and ‘King Charles’ Golden Rules’.A new kind of writing was gobbled up by a public that sought its entertainment in cheap novelettes of terror and cruelty.. for with the fall of Napoleon English fashions ruled. (Pritchett. however. p.. Dante. 220.. London: Phaidon Press. cit. cit. 2001. like many popular prints (such as those commemorating executions) and television. Pritchett describes the rise of feuilleton as the result of a collapse of religious faith and the orthodoxy of the eighteenth century.. op. The Popular Print in England. 2000.so vivid that he calls it ‘visible speech’ . The little Children in the Wood. (Catalogue for an exhibition at the Hayward Gallery. thanks to a British tax which made such books affordable only to the middle classes. p. p. a marked distinction between the subject matter of continental prints and those in England.. 1974.. Dorothy L. London: Penguin..  Sekules. London: Chatto & Windus. Purgatory. p. Other symptoms are ‘the expansion 18 .) [19. op.. but the tale went back into Arabic from the famous French version. Dumas and Doré. Now wonder. 56. 1955.. violence and supernatural terrors were exotic subjects. so that a pseudo-Arabic tale has become ‘genuine’. cit.’ (O’Connell. London: Penguin. . 14.  There is. improbable mystery and melodramatic fantasy. They were far more risqué and also far more widely read than Victorian serialised novels. London: Phaidon Press.) O’Connell notes that ‘literacy in Britain was much higher than has often been thought’ in contrast with the continent.
)  From ibid.) Below are the words to the Latin lyric Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi (used in Carl Orff ’s Carmina Burana) in a literal English translation. as works of art that happened to be created in the 20s and 30s and 40s. Fate . Japanese artists like Nara and Murakami. old Felix the Cat toys as well. the fashion for science fiction and the occult sciences.. found in innumerable medieval manuscripts and cathedral carvings. the Clayton Brothers. 1978. Robert L. I don’t think he ever had a cartoon. Pete the Pup from the 30s is another obsession of mine. while it didn’t have any particular personal meaning for Rosales.I could see that a living person could accomplish things like that. (Delevoy. See fig 17. Joe Rosales. the fascination exercised by death’. the attraction exercised by clairvoyance.. NY 10019. some of Baseman’s many influences: I love toys.monstrous and empty you whirling wheel. 2003. Freddy Kilowatt. I have a collection of old advertising figures— the Michelin Man. poverty and power it melts them like ice. op. Baseman’s comment on his philosophy of life is pretty much in the same spirit. I don’t see them as toys. hateful life first oppresses and then soothes as fancy takes it.. modern painters like Schnabel and Koons. fig 12). Goth computer art and hippy/New Age Tarot decks. Earl McGrath Gallery. He was responsible for a lot of the Warner Brothers cartoons including Beany & Cecil. as well as in antiquarian Pre-Raphaelite paintings. so I see him as a failed cartoon character and use him as a personal analogy. Symbolists and Symbolism. Mexican art and Day of the Dead. music like Elvis Costello and Leonard Cohen. like the moon you are changeable. Shag. New York. (Baseman. It isn’t a stretch to say that the Dumb Luck figure is in the same spirit as a symbol like the Rota Fortuna (‘Wheel of Fortune’. John Lennon… there are always people who saved your life at different times. I come from an Eastern European heritage. Tim Biskup. I own like 14 or 15 of these guys. which. a lot of painters from the 30s and 40s. 20 W. ever waxing and waning. now through the game I bring my bare back to your villainy. 9)  Ended November 29. once adapted the symbolism of the Tarot deck to the Hello Kitty universe.of psychoanalysis. so I really identity with artists and painters that are very expressive and iconic. and is generally credited with creating Tweety Bird.  ibid. driven on and weighted down. cit. Antoine Francois. the spread of sub-rational ethnological lore. always enslaved. well-being is in vain and always fades to nothing. Fate is against me in health and virtue. the demand for holidays and escape. I went to elementary school with Bob Clampett’s daughter. shadowed and veiled you plague me too. you are malevolent. 57th Street. I see them as sculpture. worked surprisingly well. (A friend of mine from San Antonio. So at this hour without delay 19 Master’s Degree . Meeting him at age 12 was major . Saul Steinberg. London: Macmillan.. p. friends like Mark Ryden. O Fortune. humorists like Charles Adams and James Thurber. The inspiration comes from all over.
everyone weep with me! 20 Pictorial Writing and Illustration .pluck the vibrating strings. since Fate strikes down the strong man.
Collinson. London: Phaidon Press.. Dorson. 1973. 1882. Gary. Corbett. Hallett. Design for Ballet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1999. 1985. and Robert J. David. Edward P. 1955. Mike. London: JM Dent & Sons Ltd. Death and the Sea. K. Delevoy. Baseman. Netherlands: Time-Life International. Web: Strangeco. London: Penguin. The World of Bruegel. B. Chapbooks of the Eighteenth Century. Gardiner. Richard M. ed. Robert L. A Handbook of English Medieval Scultpure.fr/positions/) Actes Sud. Gibson. London: Penguin Books. Blake. Dante. Paul Klee’s Pictorial Writing. London: Studio Vista. 1974. Campbell. Oxford: Oxford University Press.html Becks-Malorny. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.. Quentin.strangeco. French Popular Imagery: Five Centuries of Prints. London: Jupiter. London: Macmillan. Folklore and Folklife.) See: http:// www. Malcolm. Art profane et religion populaire au moyen age. Michael. 2004. Bruegel. 1978. How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art. London: Barrie & Jenkins. Paris: Puf. Robert. London: Thames & Hudson. c’est de l’écriture. Guilbaut. Ulrike. Joseph. The Story of Street Literature: Forerunner of the Popular Press. tales. ‘Gary Baseman’s Happy Idiot’. 2000. Ashton. Piccadilly. Ensor: Masks.com/news/events_baseman. ed. Ayres..Select bibliography Aichele. Serge. (www. 1971. an Introduction. 1985. 1978. Alighieri. Hogarth. John. 2000.actes-sud. Arthur. Heath. 1996. British Folk Art. Connors. 1977. Penny Dreadfuls and Other Victorian Horrors. 2000. London: Jonathan Cape. Timothy.com. Walter S. London: Aurum Press. London: Taschen. Clarke. interview in Positions. The Complete Grimm’s Fairy Tales (folkloristic commentary). Purgatory. Words and Pictures. London: Routledge. 1998. Anglo. A Little Book of Misericords. Foote. Porter. Aristotle’s Poetics (introduction). Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. (Catalogue for an exhibitioin at the Hayward Gallery. May and Clement Crisp. 2004. 1977.. Jean-Dominique. (Interview with illustrator Gary Baseman. Mark. A virtual encyclopedia of secular beliefs. James. ‘La bande dessinée. 1977. 2003. 21 Master’s Degree .’. London: Chatto & Windus.) Gaignebet. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. J. 1937. London: Arts council of Great Britain. 1998. Symbolists and Symbolism. issue 4. gestures and customs represented in visual form in French sculpture and carvings. Harding. Claude and Lajoux. 1972.
Rachleff. London: Routledge. London: Thames & Hudson. Sekules. 1979. The Popular Print in England. London: Chatto & Windus. Witemeyer. O’Connell. Rensselaer W. London: Cromwell Editions. 1972.Lee. Extract from a speech by Wu Ming at ‘Collective Intelligence’ panel of Wizards of OS #2 conference. 13 Oct. Ut Pictura Poesis. Sculpture in Britain: The Middle Ages. The Occult in art. Spengler. 1999. Owen S. printed in English translation in Giap/digest #116. Keith. Dorothy Leigh. London: Penguin. Roberts. A Human Comedy: Physiognomy and Caricature in 19th Century Paris. 2001. 1982. Sayers. 1973. Oxford: Oxford University Press. London: Phaidon Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002. 1972. Inc. London: British Museum Press. Interview with Wu Ming in Pulp Libri #29. London: Penguin. Wu Ming. Sauerläden. London: Thames & Hudson. . Hugh. Ricoeur. The Decline of the West.S. Gothic Sculpture in France. 1955. Oswald. Paul. Multitudes and the Refusal of Intellectual Property’. Berlin.. 1978. ‘From Multiple Names to Wu Ming’. 2001. Stove. Wechsler. Norton & Co. 1991. Purgatory (translation and commentary). ‘Stories Belong to Everyone: Tale Tellers. Wu Ming. New York: W. Balzac. Medieval Art.com. 1140-1270. Pritchett. W. 1967. Sheila. Laurence. Willibald. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. wumingfoundation. 1990. V. The Humanistic Theory of Painting. Jan-Feb 2001. Judith. Bruegel. Veronica. The Rule of Metaphor. George Eliot and the Visual Arts.
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