The future five represent the most ultimate technologies that are useful for the mankind relating

the IT methodologies. These technologies are currently under research; however some of them are invented and are undergoing test drives. Let us have a glance of these.

K. Naga Sumanth
08KG1A1224 NIT - IT

January 7, 2012

[THE FUTURE FIVE]

Abstract:The future five represent the most ultimate technologies that are useful for the mankind relating the IT methodologies. These technologies are currently under research; however some of them are invented and are undergoing test drives. Let us have a glance of these.

Dell froot Computer: - With the environment and sustainability firmly in mind the Dell
Froot concept saves the planet courtesy two projectors: One for the virtual keyboard, and another for the monitor.

Swivel Technology: - It’s a helpful solution for a tricky situation. The situation being: you
running out of juice on your mobile phone. So what do you do? Remove the battery from the back of the phone; give it a few good turns around your index finger and its gathered enough power to last you a conversation or a safe trip to your charger and electric point.

Holographic versatile disc: - The Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc
technology developed can store up to six terabytes of data on an optical disc the same size as a CD, DVD or Blu-ray disc. It employs a technique known as collinear holography, whereby a green and red laser beam are collimated in a single beam.

Machine Translation: - Machine translation can use a method based on linguistic rules,
which means that words will be translated in a linguistic way — the most suitable (orally speaking) words of the target language will replace the ones in the source language.

Integrated AI organs: - An AI organ is a man-made device that is implanted or integrated
into a human to replace a natural organ, for the purpose of restoring a specific function or a group of related functions so the patient may return to as normal a life as possible.

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INDEX
 Introduction.  Dell froot Computer.  Swivel Technology.  Holographic versatile disc.  Machine Translation.  Integrated AI organs.  Conclusion.  References.

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Introduction:Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. The word technology comes from Greek τεχνολογία (technología); from τέχνη (téchnē), meaning "art, skill, craft", and -λογία (logía), meaning "study of-".The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons. Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms. Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.

High-Tech:High tech is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology currently available. It is often used in reference to microelectronics, rather than other technologies. The adjective form is hyphenated: high-tech or hightechnology. (There is also an architectural style known as high tech.) There is no specific class of technology that is high tech — the definition shifts over time — so
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[THE FUTURE FIVE]        Software Electrical Engineering Photonics Nanotechnology Nuclear Physics Robotics Telecommunications

products hyped as high tech in the 1960s would now be considered, if not exactly low tech, then at least somewhat obsolete. This fuzzy definition has led to marketing departments describing nearly all new products as high tech. Because the high-tech sector of the economy develops or uses the most advanced technology known, it is often seen as having the most potential for future growth. This perception has led to high investment in high-tech sectors of the economy. High-tech startup enterprises receive a large portion of venture capital; however, if investment exceeds actual potential, as has happened in the past, then investors can lose all or most of their investment. High tech is often viewed as high risk, but offering the opportunity for high profits. Like Big Science, high technology is an international phenomenon, spanning continents, epitomized by the worldwide communication of the Internet. Thus a multinational corporation might work on a project 24 hours a day, with teams waking and working with the advance of the sun across the globe; such projects might be in software development or in the development of an integrated circuit. The help desks of a multinational corporation might thus employ, successively, teams in Kenya, Brazil, the Philippines, or India, with the only requirement fluency in the mother tongue, be it Spanish, Portuguese or English.

So as such on the line of evolution the future is going to see some awesome technologies relating  Computing, Holography – Dell Froot Concept.  Power and Emergencies – Swivel Technology.  Very large scale mass storage of data – Holographic versatile disc.  Communication throughout the world – Machine translation.  Medical Advancements – AI Organs. These five are considered to be the greatest technologies of the future. Hence the name “Future Five” for this Documentary. Let us now see One by One in a detailed view.

High-tech sectors:The sector approach classifies industries according their technology intensity, product approach according to finished products.    Aerospace Artificial Intelligence Biotechnology
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[THE FUTURE FIVE] Probably, such a machine would be interesting for many different types of users. Instead of connecting to a traditional monitor or USB keyboard, the Froot features a pair of projectors - one that casts the keyboard on a tabletop, and the other one that projects the computer screen on the wall. Besides the small projection hump in the middle, the left-hand side contains the ports, and the right has a slotloading DVD drive.

Dell Froot Computer

How’d you like a desktop computer that works without any physical keyboard or monitor? The company Dell has announced a contest Dell Regeneration Green Computing Technology Contest, dedicated to, as the name implies, the development of concepts of environmentally friendly computers. One of the participants in the contest has become a Mexican designer Paulina Carlos, presented a work called Froot. Computer Froot is a car made from bio-friendly materials, and is responsible for the high-tech pair of projectors, one of which laser is more interactive. This decision is justified by a fairly simple reasons: there is no need to use the monitor and keyboard that can adversely affect the environment. Building a computer is made of easily processed materials such as polymers based on starch.
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The design uses a colorful case that would be made out of biodegradable starch-based polymer. There isn’t any mention of a mouse though, so you might need to get that on your own. Perhaps we get a doubt here that it will need walls to project the images and a smooth surface for keyboard. The concept is being under improvement to use the holographic projections to make it a best in the Computing , Virtually real world in the future.

Let us see how holography works here,

January 7, 2012

[THE FUTURE FIVE] can be precisely controlled and have a fixed wavelength, unlike white light, which contains many different wavelengths. A shutter is required when taking a photograph to limit the time in which the film is exposed to light. Holography also requires a specific exposure time, and this can be done using a shutter, or by electronic timing of the laser. This laser beam is generally aimed through a series of elements that change it in different ways - see following Figure. The first element is a beam splitter, which divides the beam into two identical beams, each aimed in different directions:

Holography:Holography (from the Greek ὅλος hólos, "whole" + γραφή grafē, "writing, drawing") is a technique that allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed so that when an imaging system (a camera or an eye) is placed in the reconstructed beam, an image of the object will be seen even when the object is no longer present. The image changes as the position and orientation of the viewing system changes in exactly the same way as if the object were still present, thus making the image appear three-dimensional. This effect can be seen in the figure on the right where the orientation of the mouse is significantly different in the two images and its position relative to other parts of the scene has changed. The holographic recording itself is not an image – it consists of an apparently random structure of either varying intensity, density or profile.

Working:Holography is a technique which enables a light field, which is generally the product of a light source scattering off objects, to be recorded and later reconstructed when the original light field is no longer present (due to the absence of the original objects. Holography can be thought of as somewhat similar to sound recording, whereby a sound field created by vibrating matter, like musical instruments or vocal chords, is encoded in such a way that it can be reproduced later without the presence of the original vibrating matter. Holograms are recorded using a flash of light that illuminates a scene and then imprints on a recording medium, much in the way a photograph is recorded. A hologram, however, requires a laser as the light source, since lasers

 One beam, known as the illumination or object beam, is spread using lenses and directed onto the scene using mirrors, in order to illuminate it. Some of the light scattered (reflected) from this illumination falls onto the recording medium.  The second beam, known as the reference beam, is also spread through the use of lenses, but is directed so that it doesn't come in contact with the scene, and instead travels directly onto the recording medium.

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There are several different materials which can be used as the recording medium. One of the most common is silver halide photographic emulsion which uses the same materials as photographic film but with much higher grain density, i.e. of much higher resolution. A layer of the recording medium is attached to a transparent substrate which is normally glass, but may be plastic. On the recording medium, the light waves of the two beams intersect and interfere with each other. It is this interference pattern that is imprinted on the holographic medium. The pattern itself is seemingly random, as this pattern represents the way in which the scene's light interfered with the original light source, but not the original light source itself. The interference pattern can be said to be an encoded version of the scene, requiring a particular key, that is, the original light source, in order to view its contents. This missing key is provided later by shining a laser, identical to the one used to record the hologram, onto the developed film which then recreates a range of the scene's original light.

When the original reference beam illuminates the hologram, it is diffracted by the recorded hologram to produce a light field which is identical to the light field which was originally scattered by the object or objects onto the hologram - see above Figure. When the object is removed, an observer who looks into the hologram "sees" the same image on his retina as he would have seen when looking at the original scene. This image is known as a virtual image.

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[THE FUTURE FIVE] This technology is developed to help us in the emergency situations for getting a little power back up. Various models are developed and this is one successful model. However there are two theories to support this. 1. Theory 1:- This theory states that due to the static electricity produced while rotating, the charge is collected and routed to recharge. 2. Theory:- Now this states that there are electrodes placed inside around the turner which is attached to fractionate items. So while rotating they collide producing charge to reroute. This is currently under development and the experiments are going on to increase the recharge rate per revolution.

Swivel Technology
Mind you, this is not a “Green” concept and neither does it claim to be “Eco Friendly”. It’s just a helpful solution for a tricky situation. The situation being: you running out of juice on your mobile phone. So what do you do? Remove the battery from the back of the phone; give it a few good turns around your index finger and its gathered enough power to last you a conversation or a safe trip to your charger and electric point.

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[THE FUTURE FIVE] 500 μm diameter at the top. High densities are possible by moving these closer on the tracks: 100 GB at 18 μm separation, 200 GB at 13 μm, 500 GB at 8 μm, and most demonstrated of 5 TB for 3 μm on a 10 cm disc. The system uses a green laser, with an output power of 1 watt which is high power for a consumer device laser. Possible solutions include improving the sensitivity of the polymer used, or developing and commoditizing a laser capable of higher power output while being suitable for a consumer unit.

Holographic Versatile Disc
The Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology developed between April 2004 and mid-2008 that can store up to several terabytes of data on an optical disc the same size as a CD, DVD or Blu-ray disc. It employs a technique known as collinear holography, whereby a green and red laser beam are collimated in a single beam. The green laser reads data encoded as laser interference fringes from a holographic layer near the top of the disc. A red laser is used as the reference beam to read servoinformation from a regular CD-style aluminium layer near the bottom. Servoinformation is used to monitor the position of the read head over the disc, similar to the head, track, and sector information on a conventional hard disk drive. On a CD or DVD this servoinformation is interspersed amongst the data. A dichroic mirror layer between the holographic data and the servo data reflects the green laser while letting the red laser pass through. This prevents interference from refraction of the green laser off the servo data pits and is an advance over past holographic storage media, which either experienced too much interference, or lacked the servo data entirely, making them incompatible with current CD and DVD drive technology. Standards for 100 GB read-only holographic discs and 200 GB recordable cartridges were published by ECMA in 2007, but no holographic disc product has appeared in the market. A number of release dates were announced, all since passed. Current optical storage saves one bit per pulse, and the HVD alliance hopes to improve this efficiency with capabilities of around 60,000 bits per pulse in an inverted, truncated cone shape that has a 200 μm diameter at the bottom and a

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[THE FUTURE FIVE] a rapidly growing field that is leading to better translations, handling differences in linguistic typology, translation of idioms, and the isolation of anomalies. Current machine translation software often allows for customisation by domain or profession (such as weather reports), improving output by limiting the scope of allowable substitutions. This technique is particularly effective in domains where formal or formulaic language is used. It follows that machine translation of government and legal documents more readily produces usable output than conversation or less standardised text. Improved output quality can also be achieved by human intervention: for example, some systems are able to translate more accurately if the user has unambiguously identified which words in the text are names. With the assistance of these techniques, MT has proven useful as a tool to assist human translators and, in a very limited number of cases, can even produce output that can be used as is (e.g., weather reports). The progress and potential of machine translation has been debated much through its history. Since the 1950s, a number of scholars have questioned the possibility of achieving fully automatic machine translation of high quality. Some critics claim that there are in-principle obstacles to automatizing the translation process.

Holographic Versatile Disc structure 1. Green writing/reading laser (532 nm) 2. Red positioning/addressing laser (650 nm) 3. Hologram (data)(shown here as brown) 4. Polycarbonate layer 5. Photopolymeric layer (data-containing layer) 6. Distance layers 7. Dichroic layer (reflecting green light) 8. Aluminium reflective layer (reflecting red light) 9. Transparent base P. Pit pattern HVD is not the only technology in high-capacity, optical storage media. InPhase Technologies was developing a rival holographic format called Tapestry Media, which they claim will eventually store 1.6 TB with a data transfer rate of 120 MB/s, and several companies are developing TBlevel discs based on 3D optical data storage technology. Such large optical storage capacities compete favourably with the Blu-ray Disc format. However, holographic drives are projected to initially cost around US$15,000, and a single disc around US$120–180, although prices are expected to fall steadily.

Machine Translation
Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT (not to be confused with computer-aided translation, machine-aided human translation MAHT and interactive translation) is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. On a basic level, MT performs simple substitution of words in one natural language for words in another, but that alone usually cannot produce a good translation of a text, because recognition of whole phrases and their closest counterparts in the target language is needed. Solving this problem with corpus and statistical techniques is

Translation Process:The human translation process may be described as: 1. Decoding the meaning of the source text; and 2. Re-encoding this meaning in the target language.
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[THE FUTURE FIVE] Given enough data, machine translation programs often work well enough for a native speaker of one language to get the approximate meaning of what is written by the other native speaker. The difficulty is getting enough data of the right kind to support the particular method. For example, the large multilingual corpus of data needed for statistical methods to work is not necessary for the grammar-based methods. But then, the grammar methods need a skilled linguist to carefully design the grammar that they use. To translate between closely related languages, a technique referred to as shallow-transfer machine translation may be used.

Behind this ostensibly simple procedure lies a complex cognitive operation. To decode the meaning of the source text in its entirety, the translator must interpret and analyses all the features of the text, a process that requires indepth knowledge of the grammar, semantics, syntax, idioms, etc., of the source language, as well as the culture of its speakers. The translator needs the same in-depth knowledge to re-encode the meaning in the target language. Therein lies the challenge in machine translation: how to program a computer that will "understand" a text as a person does, and that will "create" a new text in the target language that "sounds" as if it has been written by a person. This problem may be approached in a number of ways.

Rule-based
The rule-based machine translation paradigm includes transfer-based machine translation, interlingual machine translation and dictionarybased machine translation paradigms.

Approaches:Machine translation can use a method based on linguistic rules, which means that words will be translated in a linguistic way — the most suitable (orally speaking) words of the target language will replace the ones in the source language. It is often argued that the success of machine translation requires the problem of natural language understanding to be solved first. Generally, rule-based methods parse a text, usually creating an intermediary, symbolic representation, from which the text in the target language is generated. According to the nature of the intermediary representation, an approach is described as interlingual machine translation or transfer-based machine translation. These methods require extensive lexicons with morphological, syntactic, and semantic information, and large sets of rules.

Transfer-based machine translation Interlingual
Interlingual machine translation is one instance of rule-based machine-translation approaches. In this approach, the source language, i.e. the text to be translated, is transformed into an interlingual, i.e. source-/target-languageindependent representation. The target language is then generated out of the interlingua.

Dictionary-based
Machine translation can use a method based on dictionary entries, which means that the words will be translated as they are by a dictionary.

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Statistical
Statistical machine translation tries to generate translations using statistical methods based on bilingual text corpora, such as the Canadian Hansard corpus, the English-French record of the Canadian parliament and EUROPARL, the record of the European Parliament. Where such corpora are available, impressive results can be achieved translating texts of a similar kind, but such corpora are still very rare. The first statistical machine translation software was CANDIDE from IBM. Google used SYSTRAN for several years, but switched to a statistical translation method in October 2007. Recently, they improved their translation capabilities by inputting approximately 200 billion words from United Nations materials to train their system. Accuracy of the translation has improved.

Integrated AI Organs
An artificial organ is a man-made device that is implanted or integrated into a human to replace a natural organ, for the purpose of restoring a specific function or a group of related functions so the patient may return to as normal a life as possible. The replaced function doesn't necessarily have to be related to life support, but often is. Implied by this definition is the fact that the device must not be continuously tethered to a stationary power supply, or other stationary resources, such as filters or chemical processing units. (Periodic rapid recharging of batteries, refilling of chemicals, and/or cleaning/replacing of filters, would exclude a device from being called an artificial organ.) Thus a dialysis machine, while a very successful and critically important life support device that completely replaces the duties of a kidney, is not an artificial organ. At this time an efficient, self-contained artificial kidney has not become available.

Hybrid MT
Hybrid machine translation (HMT) leverages the strengths of statistical and rule-based translation methodologies.[ Several MT companies (Asia Online, LinguaSys, Systran, PangeaMT, UPV) are claiming to have a hybrid approach using both rules and statistics. The approaches differ in a number of ways: Rules post-processed by statistics: Translations are performed using a rules based engine. Statistics are then used in an attempt to adjust/correct the output from the rules engine. Statistics guided by rules: Rules are used to preprocess data in an attempt to better guide the statistical engine. Rules are also used to postprocess the statistical output to perform functions such as normalization. This approach has a lot more power, flexibility and control when translating.

Reasons:-

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Reasons construct and install an artificial organ, an extremely expensive process initially, which may entail many years of ongoing maintenance services not needed by a natural organ, might include:  Life support to prevent imminent death while awaiting a transplant (e.g. artificial heart)  Dramatic improvement of the patient's ability for self care (e.g. artificial limb)  Improvement of the patient's ability to interact socially (e.g. cochlear implant)  Cosmetic restoration after cancer surgery or accident The use of any artificial organ by humans is almost always preceded by extensive experiments with animals. Initial testing in humans is frequently limited to those either already facing death, or who have exhausted every other treatment possibility. (Rarely testing may be done on healthy volunteers who are scheduled for execution pertaining to violent crimes.) Although not typically thought of as organs, one might also consider replacement bone, and joints thereof, such as hip replacements, in this context.

Examples:Eye
The most successful function-replacing artificial eye so far is actually an external miniature digital camera with a remote unidirectional electronic interface implanted on the retina, optic nerve, or other related locations inside the brain. The present state of the art yields only very partial functionality, such as recognizing levels of brightness, swatches of color, and/or basic geometric shapes, proving the concept's potential. While the living eye is indeed a camera, it is also much more than that. Various researchers have demonstrated that the retina performs strategic image preprocessing for the brain. The problem of creating a 100% functional artificial electronic eye is even more complex than what is already obvious. Steadily increasing complexity of the artificial connection to the retina, optic nerve or related brain areas advances, combined with ongoing advances in computer science, is expected to dramatically improve the performance of this technology. For the person whose damaged or diseased living eye retains some function, other options superior to the electronic eye may be available.

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[THE FUTURE FIVE] Some current research focuses on restoring inoperative short-term memory in accident victims and lost access to long-term memory in dementia patients. Success here would lead to widespread interest in applications for persons whose memory is considered healthy to dramatically enhance their memory of far beyond what can be achieved with mnemonic techniques. Given that our understanding of how living memory actually works is incomplete, it is unlikely this scenario will become reality in the near future.

Limbs
Artificial arms with semi-functional hands, some even fitted with working opposable "thumbs" plus 2 "fingers", and legs with shock absorbing feet capable of allowing a trained patient to even run, have become available. While the meaning of "full mobility" is debated, steady progress is made.

One area of success was achieved in 2002 when a British Scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet. With this in place he carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, a form of extended sensory input and the first direct electronic communication between the nervous systems of two humans Another idea with significant consequences is that of implanting a Language Translator for diplomatic and military applications. While machine translation does exist, it is presently neither good nor small enough to fulfill its promise. This might also include the existing (and controversial when applied to humans) practice of implanting subcutaneous "chips" (integrated circuits) for identification and location purposes. An example of this is the RFID tags made by VeriChip Corporation.

Beyond Restoration:It is also possible to construct and install an artificial organ to give its possessor abilities which are not naturally occurring. Research is proceeding, particularly in areas of vision, memory, and information processing, however this idea is still in its infancy.

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Conclusion:
Hence as we are in the Digital age the purpose of this document is to explain the top most technologies for the next generation. Hoping that they will be useful to mankind as per all needs.

References;
    www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.futuretechs.com Other resources.

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