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ABSTRACT Today more and more softwares are developing and people aregetting more and more options

in their present softwares. But many are notaware that they are being hacked without their knowledge. Oner e a c t i o n t o t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i s a b e h a v i o r t e r m e d E t h i c a l H a c k i n g " which attempts to pro-actively increase security protection by identifyinga n d p a t c h i n g k n o w n s e c u r i t y v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s o n s y s t e m s o w n e d b y o t h e r parties.A good ethical hacker should know themethodology chosen by the hacker like reconnaissance, host or targetscanning, gaining access, maintaining access and clearing tracks. For ethical hacking we should know about the various tools and methods thatcan be used by a black hat hacker apart from the methodology used by him.From the point of view of the user ones h o u l d k n o w a t l e a s t s o m e o f these because some hackers make use of those who are not aware o f t h e v a r i o u s h a c k i n g m e t h o d s t o h a c k i n t o a system. Also when thinking from the point of view of the developer, he alsos h o u l d b e a w a r e o f t h e s e s i n c e h e s h o u l d b e a b l e t o c l o s e h o l e s i n h i s software even with the usage of the various tools. With the advent of newtools the hackers may make new tactics. But at least the software will beresistant to some of the tools.

INTRODUCTION Ethical hacking also known as penetrationt e s t i n g o r w h i t e - h a t h a c k i n g , involves the same tools, tricks, andtechniques that hackers use, b u t w i t h o n e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e t h a t E t h i c a l hacking is legal. Ethical hacking is performed with the targets permission.The intent of ethical hacking is to discover vulnerabilities from a hackersv i e w p o i n t s o s y s t e m s c a n b e b e t t e r s e c u r e d . I t s p a r t o f a n o v e r a l l information risk management program that allows for ongoing securityimprovements. Ethical hacking can also ensure that vendors claims aboutthe security of their products are legitimate. Security: Security is the condition of being protected against danger or loss. In the general sense, security is a concept similar to safety. Inthe case of networks the security is also called the information security.Information security means protecting information and informationsystems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption,modification, or destruction

Need for Security: Computer security is required because most organizations can be damaged by hostile software or intruders.

There may be several formsof damage which are obviously interrelated which are produced bythe intruders. These include: lose of confidential data Damage or destruction of data Damage or destruction of computer system Loss of reputation of a company

Hacking Eric Raymond, compiler of The NewHacker's Dictionary, defines a hacker as a clever programmer. A "goodhack" is a clever solution to a programming problem and "hacking" is theact of doing it. Raymond lists five possible characteristics that qualify oneas a hacker, which we paraphrase here: A p e r s o n w h o e n j o y s l e a r n i n g d e t a i l s o f a p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e o r system A person who enjoys actually doing the programming rather than just theorizing about it A person capable of appreciating someone else's hacking A person who picks up programming quickly A person who is an expert at a particular programming language or system Types of Hackers: Hackers can be broadly classified on the basis of why they are h a c k i n g system or why the are indulging hacking. There are mainly three types of hacker on this basis Black-Hat Hacker A black hat hackers or crackers are individuals withextraordinary computing skills, resorting to malicious or destructiveactivities. That is black hat hackers use their knowledge and skill for their own personal gains probably by hurting others. White-Hat Hacker White hat hackers are those individuals professing hacker skills and using them for defensive purposes. This means that the white hath a c k e r s use their knowledge and skill for the good of others and for t h e common good.

Grey-Hat HackersThese are individuals who work both offensively and defensively atvarious times. We cannot predict their behaviour. Sometimes they use their skills

for the common good while in some other times he uses them for their personal gains.Different kinds of system attacksGeneral hacking Viruses, Trojan Horses,and Worms SocialEngineering AutomatedAttacks Accidental Breachesin Security Denial of Service (DoS) OrganizationalAttacks Restric

ETHICAL HACKING n Ethical hacking d e f i n e d a s a m e t h o d o l o g y a d o p t e d b y e t h i c a l hackers to discover the vulnerabilities existing in information systemsoperating environments. n

With the growth of the Internet, computer security has become a major concern for businesses and governments. n In their search for a way to approach the problem, organizations cameto realize that one of the best ways to evaluate the intruder threat tot h e i r interests would be to have independent computer s e c u r i t y professionals attempt to break into their computer systems. What do an Ethical Hacker do?

An ethical hacker is a person doing ethical hacking that is he is asecurity personal who tries to penetrate in to a network to find if there issome vulnerability in the system. An ethical hacker will always have the permission to enter into the target network. An ethical hacker will first think with a mindset of a hacker who tries to get in to the system.He will first find out what an intruder cansee or what others can see. Finding these an ethical hacker will try to get intothe system with that information in whatever method he can. If he succeedsin penetrating into the system then he will report to the company with adetailed report about the particular vulnerability exploiting which heg o t i n t o t h e s y s t e m . H e m a y a l s o s o m e t i m e s m a k e p a t c h e s f o r t h a t particular vulnerability or he may suggest some methods to prevent the vulnerability.

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