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Definition Bio- Life Diversity- variety

Total variety of life on the earth. Richness of organisms. It is a part of nature which includes-

A) The difference among the individuals of a species at different scales ( local national and international level) B) The types of ecosystems aquatic and terrestrial within defined area The variety of living creatures forms a support system which has been used by each civilization for its growth and development. Diversity in wild species forms the gene pool from which our crops and domestic animals have been developed. Today they are used to create new varieties of more productive, disease resistant varieties. Biotechnology also manipulates genes to develop better types of medicine and a variety of industrial products.

Types of Bio-Diversity Genetic diversity Species Diversity Ecosystem Diversity

Genetic Diversity It is a variation of genes within the species. It is due to mutation, natural selection. Causes variation in the genetic material which all organisms possess Genetic material passed on from generation to generation and envt. influences on each individual organisms.

Importance of genetic diversity Healthy breeding population of a species. Agricultural productivity and development. Diversity in wild species forms gene pool. Loss of genetic diversity within the species is known as genetic erosion. It leads to the extinction of particular species. It is important for healthy breeding population of a species. If the number of breeding individuals is reduced , the dissimilarity of genetic makeup is reduced. This leads to genetic erosion and eventually extinction of species. Genetic diversity is important for agricultural productivity and development. Diversity in wild species forms the gene pool from which our crops and domestic animals have been developed .

Species diversity Diversity between the species. Species richness. Species richness varies geographically. It depends on endemism, keystone species. At present 1.8 million species are identified and categorized. Areas rich in species diversity are hotspots of bio-diversity. India is among the15 nations that are exceptionally rich in species diversity. Species richness varies geographically. Warm areas tend to support more species than cold ones. Areas with varied topography and climate support more species than uniform one. Restriction of some species in a particular area is called endemism. Such area specific species are called as endemic species. Within biological communities some species may play an important role in determining the ability of large number of other species to persists in the community. These crucial species are known as keystone species.

Ecosystem Diversity The existence of different kinds of ecosystems in an area. It can be assessed in terms of the global distribution of broadly defined ecosystem types. If the natural ecosystems are overused , ecosystem diversity decreases. Two types of ecosystems : Natural and modified.

Evolution and Genesis of biodiversity The origin of life on earth is 3 billion years ago. As life took hold on planet it begins to diversify. Evolution is related to ability of living organisms to adapt to changes in their envt. This adaptability and interactions with newly formed species produced groups of interlinked organisms. Abiotic changes in nature like continental drift and formation of geographical barriers segregated different communities of plants and animals and led to form new species.. Ancient species became extinct due to geographical conditions. They left behind the empty habitats that stimulated existing species to fill them through formation of new species. Thus when the man appeared on the earth , the earth was rich in species than ever before.

Value of bio-diversity Provides variety of environmental services

- Production of oxygen and reduction of carbon dioxide.

-Maintains water cycle -Soil protection - essential for ecological processes like nutrient recycling. 1.Consumptive use value Direct utilization of timber ,fuel wood, fodder, fish etc. 2. Productive use value Biotechnology, pharmacy, industry, genetic engineering

Biotechnologist uses bio rich areas to prospect and search for genetic properties in plants and animals. It can be used to develop better varieties of crops for use in agriculture. Pharmacist uses the biodiversity as a raw material from which new drugs can be identified from plant or animal products. Industrialist uses Bio diversity as a rich store house to develop new products. Scientist and farmers develop better crops and domestic animals through careful breeding program. Genetic engineering selects gene from one plant and introduces it in another. Thus the new crop varieties are developed. Identifying compounds of great value from wide variety of wild species located in undisturbed natural forests is called as biological prospecting.

Value of bio-diversity Social value - Preservation of bio diversity by traditional societies.

Bio diversity as life supporting resource. People value biodiversity as a part of their livelihood and through cultural and religious sentiments. Ethical and moral value it is based on the importance to protect all forms of life. Most religious and secular creeds believe that all forms of life have the right to exist on Earth.

Sacred grooves (Deorais) Act as gene bank for wild plants. Bishnoi people. Aesthetic value biodiversity is the wonderful aspect of nature, important assets of nation. Important tourist attraction. Symbols from wild species . Lion (Hinduism), Elephant(Buddhism), Botanical garden, national parks, zoo etc. are use for education and conservation purposes. Option value Keeping future possibilities open for the use is the option value Study and research must be done to find out which of our species / traditional varieties of crops and domestic animals will be of greatest use in the future.

Bio-diversity of global, national levels. The no. of flora and fauna could vary from 2-20 billion

At present 1.8 million species are known and documented in the world. Developing nations are the most bio rich nations Economically developed nations are bio diversity exploiting nations. South east Asia, Brazil are most bio diversity rich . Biodiversity is a major economic resource. Thus world heritage convention attempt to protect and support such area. Manas , Kaziranga, Bharatpur, Nandadevi, Sunderbans. CITES convention in the trade of endangered species. Aim is to reduce the utilization of endangered plants and animals by controlling trade in their products.

Total animal species recorded In the world 11,96,903 In India 86,874 Total number of plant species recorded in the world 2,50,000 species In India 45,000 species 33% of the above are native. There are 15,000 flowering plant species which is 6% of the worlds total. Areas rich in endemism are the Northeast, the Western Ghats and the Northwestern and Eastern Himalayas. Andaman & Nicobar Islands contribute at least 200 endemic species to the endemic flora.

Biogeographical classification of India

It is based on Geography Climate pattern Pattern of vegetation Communities of birds, mammals ,reptiles, insects etc. Each region contains variety of ecosystems.

Biogeographic classification of India

Trans himalayan region- Ladakh Valley of kashmir, Himachal pradesh ,Utter pradesh, Assam

Terai Ganga bramhaputra plains Thar desert of Rajasthan Semi arid deccan plateau, Gujrat, Maharashtra , A.P, karnataka, NE India Western ghats Andaman and Nicobar islands Eastern and western coastal belts.

Marco polo sheep - ratio of horn length to body weight exceeds that of any animal in the world

Trans Himalayan region

This area is very cold and arid. The only vegetation is a sparse alpine steppe. Extensive areas consist of bare rock and glaciers.

The faunal groups best sheep and goats, snow

represented here are wild leopard .

Himalayan ranges
Tropical rainforests in the Eastern Himalayas and dense subtropical and alpine forests in the Central and Western Himalayas. The lower levels of the mountain range support many types of orchids. Monal

Animals of Himalayas show several behavioural and physiological adaptations bird of 9 colours

Terai , Ganga, Bramhaputra plains

Lowland where himalayan rivers flow into the plains. The fauna includes elephants, black buck, gazelle, rhinoceros, crocodile, freshwater turtle.

Thar desert
Sandy deserts with seasonal salt marshes Sewan grass covers extensive areas called pali Nilgai the largest antelope of India and the wild ass, distinct subspecies, is now confined to the Rann of Kutch which is also the only breeding site in the Indian subcontinent for the flamingoes. Other species like desert fox, great Indian bustard, chinkara and desert cat are also found. Last surviving wild Ass. a

Semi Arid region of Gujarat, Deccan plateau

The natural vegetation consists of tropical thorn forests and tropical dry deciduous forests The lion of Gir is the endemic species in this zone The Deccan Peninsula is a large area of raised land covering about 43% of India's total land surface Fauna like tiger, sloth bear, wild boar, gaur, sambar and chital are found throughout the zone along with small relict populations of wild buffaloes, elephants and barasingha

North East India

Biological resources are rich in this zone Mammalian fauna includes 390 species of which 63% are found in Assam. The area is rich in smaller carnivores. The country's highest population of elephants are found here.

Hoolock gibbon - the only ape found in India

Western Ghats
They cover only 5% of India's land surface but are home to more than about 4,000 of the country's plant species of which 1800 are endemic The Nilgiri langur, lion tailed macaque,Malabar grey hornbill and species are endemic to the Western Most amphibian Ghats.

Andaman & Nicobar islands

It is a group of 325 islands About 2,200 species of higher plants are found here of which 200 are endemic The Narcondam hornbill is a large forest bird with a big beak. Coral reefs are stretched over an area of 11,000 in the Andamans and 2,700 in Nicobar Eastern and western coastal Belts The highest tiger population is found in the Sunderbans along the east coast adjoining the Bay of Bengal. The natural vegetation consists of mangroves Lakshadweep consists of 36 major islands The fauna consists mainly of turtles, 36 species of crabs, 41 species of sponges including typical coral.

Hotspots of bio-diversity 200 major eco regions in the world which are rich and rare natural areas. These are called as Global 200. In India globally accepted hotspots are Andaman and Nicobar islands- Coral reefs,2200 species of flowering plants. North east India- 135 species of land mammals, 1500 endemic plant species. Western ghats- around 4000 of countrys plant species of which 1800 are endemic. reptiles and amphibians.

Threats to Bio-Diversity At the present rate of extinction, about 25% of worlds species will undergo extinction within 20-25 years. This mega extinction is related to human population growth, industrialization and changes in landuse patterns. Major part of these extinctions occur in bio rich areas such as tropical forest, wetlands and coral reefs.

Loss of wild habitats due to rapid human population growth and short term economic development are the main contributors to the rapid destruction of biodiversity. IUCN Categories International Union for the conservation of Nature To highlight the status of rare species for conservation purposes, the International union for the conservation of nature (IUCN) has established main categories. Extinct Species that are no longer to exist in the wild. Endangered species that have a high likelihood of going extinct in the near future. Species whose numbers have been reduced to the point that the survival is not possible in present trend. Vulnerable species that may become endangered in the near future as populations of the species are decreasing in size throughout its range. Rare species that have small total number of individuals due to limited geographical range or low population densities. Critically endangered Himalayan wolf, Indian vulture Endangered Asiatic lion, Asiatic bear, Ganges dolphin Vulnerable Barasingha, Indian giant squirrel Threatened Wild ass , leopard Rare Golden eyed frog( discovered in 1999)Brown Arunachal macaque - first new monkey species discovered across globe over past 100 years. Critical species have a 50% or more probability extinction within 5 years or 2 generations. Endangered species have 20% probability of extinction within 20 years or 10 generations. Vulnerable species have 10% probability of extinction within 100 years. Vulnerability to extinction When environment is damaged by human activity, the population size of many species will be reduced and some species will go extinct. Species with narrow geographical range such species may occur only one or a few sites in a restricted geographical range. e.g. Bird species on oceanic island. Species with small population size Small populations are more likely to go locally extinct than large one . of

e.g.Tiger Species with low population density Low individuals per unit area will tend to have only small populations remaining. If its range is fragmented by human activities species may become extinct. Species that need a large home range Species in which individual animals or groups need to move over a wide area are prone to die when part of their range is damaged or fragmented by human activity. e.g. Tiger, wolf Species that have large body size Large animals require more food and are more easily hunted out. E.g. top carnivores, elephants. Species with low rates of population increase Certain species that live in stable habitats produce only few young ones. Such species are more vulnerable to extinction. e.g Great Indian Bustard. Species that migrate Species that migrate seasonally depend on two or more habitat types. If any one habitat is damaged they are unable to persist. E.g. turtles, Siberian crane Species with little genetic variability Genetic variability within population can allow species to adapt changing environment. Species that form permanent or temporary aggregations Species that group together in specific places are highly vulnerable to local extinction. E.g. bats Species that are hunted or harvested by people. Threats to Bio-Diversity Species and the communities are adapted to local environmental conditions. Human activity has disrupted the slow pattern of change in biological communities. Sometimes the population size of species may become so small that the species is no longer viable and may eventually go extinct. Major threats to biological diversity from human activity are Habitat destruction Habitat fragmentation Habitat degradation Habitat Destruction It is a major threat to biological diversity.

More than 50% of the wildlife habitat has been destroyed in tropical countries. Many species have lost the great majority of their habitat and are protected in only a tiny percentage of their original range. In tropical Asia 65% of wildlife habitat has been lost. Threatened rain forest Rain forest occupy 7% of earths land surface but consists of 50% of world species. These are degraded due to 1. conversion in farmlands, pastures 2. demand in developed countries for agricultural products like rubber, palm oil etc. 3.Soils are thin and eroded by heavy rainfall. 4. Small scale cultivation of crops by farmers. Tropical dry forests Land of tropical dry forest is suitable for agriculture and cattle ranching. Wetlands and aquatic habitats wetlands are of critical importance as habitats for fish, aquatic invertebrates and birds. isolated specialized aquatic habitats e.g saline ponds , support many endemic species. Many habitats are destroyed due to water pollution. Mangroves These are special forest type occupies shallow intertidal coastal areas with saline or brackish water. Important for preventing erosion and storm damage in coastal areas, serves as breeding grounds and feeding areas for shrimp and fish. Mangroves Destroyed for rice cultivation (Africa), aquaculture, collection of fuel wood, construction. Grasslands These are damaged by overgrazing, unsuitable agriculture, burning leading to erosion and desertification. Habitat Fragmentation Habitat fragmentation is the process whereby a large continuous area of habitat is reduced in area and divided into 2 or more fragments. These fragments are often isolated from one another by modified or degraded landscape. It creates barriers to the normal process of dispersal, colonization. Many birds , mammals and insect species of forest interior will not cross even very short distance of open area.

Altered envt. conditions are less suitable for original inhabitants. All these factors can lead to rapid loss of species. Habitat fragmentation reduces the foraging ability of animals. Many animals need to move freely to feed on widely scattered resources. Fragmentation results into population decline and extinction by dividing an existing widespread population into two or more populations in a restricted area. Microclimatic changes in light and temperature. Increased incidence of fire Fires may get spread into habitats from nearby agricultural fields which are burnt regularly. Habitat Degradation Degradation of habitats is due to Human activities Environmental pollution Global climate patterns Habitat Degradation Shifting cultivation Boating and driving in coral reef areas. Environmental pollution Pesticide pollution remain one of the most dangerous forms of environmental degradation. It eliminates many species from biological communities . It become concentrated in the bodies of birds of prey leading to decline in populations. Water pollution Eutrophication. Petroleum products ,sewage, industrial waste can kill species or eliminate them gradually. Air pollution Acid rain . Global climate pattern Acid rain, ozone depletion , global warming are the major aspects of air pollution that damage communities. Global warming is due to the increase in carbon dioxide concentration. Increase in temperature can not be adjusted by many species. Low lying coastal communities may be submerged by rise in sea level. Island flora and fauna are highly endemic. They have been seriously affected by human activity. It resulted into extinction of many plants and animals. Introduction of one exotic species may cause extinction of local species.

e.g. Brown tree snake has been introduced to pacific islands devastates the populations of endemic birds. water hyacinth Destruction of natural ecosystem and over extraction of resources resulted into loss of species. Human encroachment in natural ecosystem and protected areas. Overharvesting of fish, wild plants (medicinal value) Poaching for large economic benefits.

Conservation of Bio- diversity In situ conservation To protect the habitats, conserve the species in their own habitats. Bio diversity at all levels can be preserved by 1. Protected Areas- National parks , sanctuaries. 2. Habitats of endemic species must be carefully protected. 3. Protected areas must be large enough and include diverse habitat types. 4. Integrated protected area systems by establishing corridors between adjacent areas possible so that wild life can move between them 5. Eco development along with local people . 6. Community conserved areas . 7. Environmental education program on protection of bio diversity. Ex situ conservation 8. Conserving species outside its natural habitat in a carefully controlled situation. (botanical garden, zoological park) 9. Expertise to multiply the species under artificially managed conditions , for rare plants and animals. 10.Preserving its germplasm in a gene bank for the future. 11.Conservation of livestock breeds 12.Reintroduction of species in its original wild habitat. IUCN Categories for PAs. Protected Area Management Categories IUCN has defined a series of six protected area management categories, based on primary management objective. In summary, these are: CATEGORY Ia: Strict Nature Reserve: protected area managed mainly for science Definition Area of land and/or sea possessing some outstanding or representative ecosystems, geological or physiological features and/or species, available primarily for scientific research and/or environmental monitoring.

CATEGORY Ib Wilderness Area: protected area managed mainly for wilderness protection Definition Large area of unmodified or slightly modified land, and/or sea, retaining its natural character and influence, without permanent or significant habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural condition. CATEGORY II National Park: protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation Definition Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to (a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations, (b) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area and (c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible. CATEGORY III Natural Monument: protected area managed mainly for conservation of specific natural features Definition Area containing one, or more, specific natural or natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. CATEGORY IV Habitat/Species Management Area: protected area managed mainly for conservation through management intervention Definition Area of land and/or sea subject to active intervention for management purposes so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific species. CATEGORY V Protected Landscape/Seascape: protected area managed mainly for landscape/seascape conservation and recreation Definition Area of land, with coast and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant aesthetic, ecological and/or cultural value, and often with high biological diversity. Safeguarding the integrity of this traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of such an area. CATEGORY VI Managed Resource Protected Area: protected area managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems Definition Area containing predominantly unmodified natural systems, managed to ensure long term protection and maintenance of biological diversity, while providing at the same time a sustainable flow of natural products and services to meet community needs. Bio-diversity conservation in India Project Tiger launched by Govt. of India in 1973. 27 tiger reserves Area 37761 sq km.

Around 1500 tigers Crocodile conservation initiated in 1975 Successful ex situ conservation program Madras crocodile trust bank (8000 crocodiles) Project Elephant launched in 1992 in NE and south India. Implemented in 12 states. Protected areas 605 protected areas 96 national parks , 509 wildlife sanctuaries. Bio diversity Act 2002 Indias biodiversity is severely threatened; wildlife populations, traditional cultures, geological cycles, and a range of other attributes are being destroyed. There are a variety of reasons for this, including increasing exploitation of biological resources for trade both at national and international levels. THE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ACT 2002 The Biological Diversity Act 2002 is a law meant to achieve three main objectives: the conservation of biodiversity; the sustainable use of biological resources; equity in sharing benefits from such use of resources. Its key provisions aimed at achieving the above are: Prohibition on transfer of Indian genetic material outside the country, without specific approval of the Indian Government; Prohibition on anyone claiming an Intellectual Property Right (IPR), such as a patent, over biodiversity or related knowledge, without permission of the Indian Government; Regulation of collection and use of biodiversity by Indian nationals, while exempting local communities from such restrictions; Measures for sharing of benefits from the use of biodiversity, including transfer of technology, joint Research & Development, joint IPR ownership, etc.; Measures to conserve and sustainably use biological resources, including habitat and species protection, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of projects, integration of biodiversity into the plans, programmes, and policies of various departments/sectors Provisions for local communities to have a say in the use of their resources and knowledge, and to charge fees for this; Protection of indigenous or traditional knowledge, through appropriate laws or other measures such as registration of such knowledge; Regulation of the use of genetically modified organisms; Setting up of National, State, and Local Biodiversity Funds, to be used to support conservation and benefit-sharing; Setting up of Biodiversity Management Committees (BMC) at local village level, State Biodiversity Boards (SBB) at state level, and a National Biodiversity Authority (NBA). NBA SBB BMC

International Year of Biodiversity The UN declared 2010 the International Year of Biodiversity (IYB). Throughout the year countless initiatives were organized to disseminate information, promote the protection of biodiversity and encourage organizations, institutions, companies and individuals to take direct action to reduce the constant loss of biological diversity worldwide. Objectives of IYB Raise awareness of the importance of conserving biodiversity for human well-being and promote understanding of the economic value of biodiversity Enhance public knowledge of the threats to biodiversity and means to conserve it Engage an increasing number of people Celebrate the achievements by governments and Countdown 2010 Partners Report on possible failures to achieve the Target Use momentum to trigger even more action for biodiversity Begin to communicate the post-2010 target(s). Seven steps to save Biodiversity Theres an emerging consensus about what needs to be done to save biodiversity : Species and ecosystems need space to develop and recover. At least 10% of all ecosystem types should be under protection to maintain nature and natural landscapes. Without biodiversity there will be no agriculture. Farming practices should not jeopardize species survival: improving farmland diversity and reducing the usage of pesticides and fertilizer are key efforts to saving biodiversity. Organic agriculture practices can serve as an example in many areas. 75% of all fisheries are fully exploited or over-fished. Species like cod, haddock and halibut are already threatened. If we do not move towards sustainable use, there will be no fish left for our grandchildren. Roads, factories and housing destroy habitats for animals and plants. If urban and rural development continues to ignore nature, our surroundings will be dominated by concrete and pollution. Climate change is considered to be the greatest challenge for humanity. With changing conditions, ecosystems and habitats will change as well. It is an obligation to fight climate change and make sure that species can migrate or adapt to new surroundings. If you release a species outside its usual habitat, it might simply die. In other cases, the so-called alien invasive species have thrived and destroyed local flora and fauna. As you never know how things turn out, reducing these invasions is crucial Biodiversity Action Plan Biodiversity is the foundation for sustainable development. Its ecosystem services provide the basis for all economic activity. Biodiversity concerns need thus be integrated into all areas of policy-making. Measures include market incentives, development assistance, biodiversity-friendly trade and international governance processes. A Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems. The original impetus for these plans derives from the 1992

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). As of 2009, 191 countries have ratified the CBD, but only a fraction of these have developed substantive BAP documents. The principal elements of a BAP typically include: (a) preparing inventories of biological information for selected species or habitats; (b) assessing the conservation status of species within specified ecosystems; (c) creation of targets for conservation and restoration; and (d) establishing budgets, timelines and institutional partnerships for implementing the BAP National Biodiversity Action Plan :India, a mega diversity country with only 2.4% of the land area, accounts for 7-8% of the recorded species of the world spread over 45,500 species of plants and 91,000 species of animals that have been documented so far . At the global level, 2,78,900 species of microorganisms have been described so far out of the estimated 3.75 million species. In India, 5,650 microbial species have been described. 1. Strengthening and integration of in situ, on-farm and ex situ conservation In situ conservation Establish self-sustaining monitoring system for overseeing the activities and effectiveness of the PA network. Ensure that human activities on the fringe areas of PAs do not degrade the habitat or otherwise significantly disturb wildlife. Mitigate man-animal conflicts. Expand the PA network of the country including conservation and community reserves, to give fair representation to all biogeographic zones of the country On-farm conservation Identify hotspots of agro-biodiversity under different agro-ecozones and cropping systems and promote on-farm conservation. Develop appropriate models for on-farm conservation of livestock herds maintained by different institutions and local communities. Develop mutually supportive linkages between in situ, on-farm and ex situ conservation programmes. EX situ conservation Promote ex situ conservation of rare, endangered, endemic and insufficiently known floristic and faunal components of natural habitats, through appropriate institutionalization and human resource capacity building. For example, pay immediate attention to conservation and multiplication of rare, endangered and endemic tree species through institutions such as Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding . Focus on conservation of genetic diversity (in situ, ex situ, in vitro) of cultivated plants, domesticated animals and their wild relatives to support breeding programs. 2. Regulation of introduction of invasive alien species and their management. 3. Assessment of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. 4.Integration of biodiversity concerns in economic and social development. 5. Development and integration of biodiversity database.

6. Strengthening implementation of policy, legislative and administrative measures for biodiversity conservation and management. 7. Building of national capacities for biodiversity conservation and appropriate use of new technologies.