# THERMOWELL VIBRATION

When fluid flows past a thermowell, the change in fluid momentum creates
a turbulent wake behind the well. Vortices form in this wake, and shed from
alternate sides of the well. The vortex shedding frequency (or Wake
frequency) is linear with flow velocity and inversely proportional to
thermowell tip diameter.
These shedding vortices impose on the thermowell, a periodic force
comprising two components – (i) a lift force, normal to direction of flow,
oscillating at the wake frequency, and (ii) a smaller drag force, parallel to
flow, oscillating at twice the wake frequency.
These vortex-induced forces, which cause thermowell vibration, are
normally small with the magnitude of the vibrations generally negligible.
However, as the wake frequency (fw) approaches the natural frequency (fn)
of the thermowell (within 20%), it can shift and lock-in to the natural
frequency. When fw = fn, the thermowell goes into resonance, and
vibrating forces increase rapidly. The resultant vibrations can cause
mechanical failure of the well.
The Murdock calculations (and companion ASME PTC 19.3) consider only
the oscillating lift force as the cause of thermowell vibration. The ratio of
wake to natural frequency is restricted to a maximum of 0.8 to eliminate the
possibility of resonance.
Although the oscillating drag force is small, it can force the thermowell into
resonance at lower velocities because it occurs at twice the wake
frequency. For high-density fluids (liquids and high pressure steam), the
Murdock analysis is not adequate. When the oscillating drag component is
included, the velocity rating can be reduced by up to 50%.
The calculations included herein are modified to include in-line resonance
due to the oscillating drag force, correction for the magnification ratio and
use of the actual natural frequency of the well rather than the estimated
value.
The results of these calculations should only be used as a guide in the
selection of the correct thermowell. Other variables, like corrosion, should
be evaluated and influence the decision.

112 lb/in3 Max Velocity @ U (r=0.32 in Max Stress Velocity Vs 342.01 K1 K2 0.6 0.0 psi x 106 Max Static Pressure Pm 3167 psig 40.01 ft3/lb CALCULATIONS Well Material Natural Frequency @ To Frequency Ratio fn fw r 0.5 v 4.8) Um 10.079 t/A t/B 15. W. and accepts no liability direct or consequential. or due to program misuse.760 in Max Length @ V (r=0.01 0.99 0.679 FB 3.5 K3 2.8) Vm 96 50. 4.7 FA 3.Thermowell Velocity Rating (Program Ver. Murdock. and also meet the requirements of ASME PTC 19.3-1998.00 in Wake Frequency Bore Diameter d 0.8 fps 304 Unsupported Length U 10. Thermo-Kinetics assumes no responsibility for failure of a well based on the results of these calculations.750 in Magnification Factor Fm 1.71 0.2a) Company: Project No: Tag #: Date: Rev: Reference: U B d A FLUID DATA CONSTANTS Fluid Air Operating Temperature To Operating Pressure Po Fluid Velocity V 2200 ºF 200 psig 85 ft/sec WELL DATA Kf 2. in ft/sec .500 in Tip Diameter B Root Diameter Specific Weight @ To A w Mod of Elasticity @ To E Allowable Stress @ To S 3 NOTES Wall thickness is less than recommended Well taper is less than recommended These calculations are performed according to the paper "Power Test Code Thermometer Wells" by J. The program supplies results which should only be used as a guide for thermowell design. arising from error or misinformation supplied herein.0 psi x 10 Max Stress Length Ls 40.586 424 Hz 299 Hz 0.

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9 21.0 9.9 19.283 0.1 23.285 0.3 28.6 27.285 310 SS 310 0.3 H2SO4 (20%) 71.3 16.290 0.0 DENSITY of GASES at STP (60 ºF & 14.3 14.0 800ºF 9.5 14.6 19.4 25.4 26.9 24.0 17.3 27.0 500ºF 27.7 18.7 psia) Density (@ STP) To (ºF) Po (psig) Dens (@To/Po) 0.290 0.314 0.8 30.6 16.103 m3/kg 0.1 28.8 29.1 28.7 22.5 13.1 1.1 25.7 17.7 27.6 24.04 Gasoline 42.8 29.162 0.9 800ºF 24.Steel 105 0.04 Titanium TIT 0.5 1100ºF 18.5 6.02 0.2 24.4 26.11 .5 15.311 0.9 20.296 Monel MON 0.309 ID 2.9 17.3 18.6 26.9 7.3 12.290 0.5 27.5 700ºF 11.9 26.4 25.311 0.12 He 0.8 1.7 29.0 11.4 21.328 0.4 24.3 21.3 24.3 18.8 22.8 7.1 27.1 6.4 25.6 10.7 20.6 26.02 0.1 27.7 27.1 27.284 0.4 18.286 0.0 27.3 400ºF 14.299 0.0 13.2 22.4 23.6 28.6 26.184 Ethane C2H6 Ethylene USGPM IGPM 0.2 1.0 300ºF 28.280 0.04 Water Sea Water Amyl Alcohol 62.6 26.8 23.0 27.0 25.1 1200ºF 1300ºF 1400ºF 1500ºF 24.4 22.6 26.5 18.1 25.1 24.3 0.1 24.3 600ºF 26.281 0.1 26.3 27.1 26.263 F22 0.286 0.1 28.6 10.1 18.3 28.06 Chlorine CO Cl2 0.264 0.291 0.4 31.290 0.3 28.9 30.0 25.6 900ºF 5.284 0.000 in Hast B-3 Flow Rate Q 10.3 15.5 21.313 0.0 15.7 27.4 27.6 17.319 0.9 23.7 18.284 0.1 20.3 15.3 13.5 12.306 0.0 7.8 19.0 20.2 27.3 21.6 15.6 2.314 0.9 22.284 0.4 28.6 26.3 20.7 20.6 23.6 19.6 700ºF 25.1 14.3 23.7 27.313 Hast C-276 HSC-276 0.148 Nitrogen Kpa psi 0.5 10.0 9.4 22.6 31.3 29.3 24.3 11.3 21.163 0.2 30.3 19.095 0.6 23.0 20.05 CH3Cl 0.5 18.324 Hast C-22 HSC-22 0.5 30.1 25.5 24.285 316 SS 316 0.9 24.7 27.2 16.0 19.8 27.283 0.316 0.9 27.3 18.8 24.5 26.4 23.8 26.4 3.2 20.1 27.1 26.4 19.0 Caustic Soda (30%) Caustic Soda (50%) H2SO4 (100%) 82.5 200ºF 28.319 0.7 28.TABLES SPECIFIC WEIGHT (lb/in3) Material FLUID VELOCITY CALCULATED from FLOW DATA Fluid Air V = 3.4 29.4 28.323 0.081 Pentane C5H12 0.1 20.2 19.162 Methyl Chloride Mpa psi 145.7 28.3 28.4 25.8 24.8 12.6 17.2 10.0 16.6 29.8 16.5 Butane Ar C4H10 0.308 0.7 22.7 18.3 23.28 0.3 18.9 27.4 29.313 Hast X HSX 0.287 Inconel INC 0.314 0.7 21.3 20.1 13.7 3.1 5.3 13.0 10.07 Hydrogen Chloride 0.6 23.3 15.7 29.7 20.7 19.1 3.010 Sulphur Dioxide SO2 0.9 29.D.3 26.4 26.8 500ºF 13.285 0.4 28.1 29.7 20.319 0.1 14.044 Hydrogen Sulphide m/s ft/s 3.0 22.5 1.3 24.0 28.8 14.6 9.0 Nitric Acid (95%) 93.4 31.2 22.9 21.8 29.9 26.0 Nitric Acid (7%) 64.4 26.1 25.5 25.9 21.9 11.286 321 SS 321 0.285 0.9 23.8 24.326 0.0764 Hydrogen 0.4 24.283 0.7 15.08 0.4 64.0 18.7 23.4 300ºF 14.2 21.6 27.7 24.4 30.3 24.3 22.1 24.2 25.7 22.1 27.315 0.0 23.11 60 0 0.113 Helium CH4 0.4 70ºF 14.83 Gas Density Calculation (STP = 60ºF & 14.281 0.286 0.8 H2 HCl H2S 0.0 21.0 6.6 24.6 28.4 13.266 0.8 3.7 28.4 10.302 0.6 15.7 28.3 29.8 12.Steel HR160 304 SS 310 SS 316 SS 321 SS 446 SS F22 SS Hast B-3 Hast C-22 Hast C-276 Hast C-4 Hast X Inconel Monel Nickel Titanium UNS# 105 N12160 160 S30400 304 S31008 310 S31600 316 S32100 321 S44627 To ft in 446 K21590 F22 N10675 HSB-3 N06022 HSC-22 N10276 HSC-276 N06455 HSC-4 N06002 HSX N06690 INC N04400 MON N02200 NIK R50400 TIT CONVERSION FACTORS From m mm Code SA-675 DENSITY of LIQUIDS (lb/ft3) 14.161 70ºF 29.3 20.3 20.8 15.317 0.4 9.09 C2H4 0.0 23.18 0.2 27.6 11.3 19.317 0.2 29.1 15.6 26.0 15.9 13.1 10.0 12.286 0.5 11.3 200ºF 14.8 17.3 19.02 0.8 19.1 1000ºF 20.3 26.283 0.5 25.3 12.8 7.6 27.02 0.290 0.13 N2 0.7 25.5 8.2 25.02 0.0 22.9 17.0 25.0 20.0 22.3 24.330 0.7 23.8 24.6 22.3 0.7 11.0 23.9 20.267 0.1 13.3 22.0 30.0 27.1 MODULUS of ELASTICITY (x 106 psi) Material C.3 21.7 17.5 19.6 27.3 29.1 25.3 95.2 24.9 11.316 0.4 21.323 0.3 28.297 0.5 25.3 23.2 24.5 17.5 16.7 23.5 11.02 Benzine 56.281 0.9 24.4 22.6 28.7 26.7 25.7 13. Specific Volume of Water (ft3/lb) 1300ºF 1 60 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Nickel NIK 0.3 28.0558×Q/ID² Code 70ºF 700ºF 900ºF 1100ºF C.2 900ºF 22.5 18.9 17.1 24.2 12.7 29.8 24.6 28.7 23.283 0.1 27.0 18.0 24.6 13.289 0.6 26.334 0.0 14.04 Carbon Monoxide 0.2 23.7 10.073 Propane C3H8 0.8 14.02 0.4 114.317 0.3 16.3 12.3 25.8 12.0 Argon Methane ft3/lb 16.6 13.Stl HR160 304 SS 310 SS 316 SS 321 SS 446 SS F22 SS Hast B-3 Hast C-22 Hast C-276 Hast C-4 Hast X Inconel Monel Nickel Titanium UNS# Code SA-675 105 N12160 160 S30400 304 S31008 310 S31600 316 S32100 321 S44627 446 K21590 F22 N10675 HSB-3 N06022 HSC-22 N10276 HSC-276 N06455 HSC-4 N06002 HSX N06690 INC N04400 MON N02200 NIK R50400 TIT ALLOWABLE STRESS (x 103 psi) Material C.08 Oxygen O2 0.5 Carbon Dioxide CO2 0.6 4.322 0.0 20.8 24.8 29.313 0.02 0.3 26.6 27.28 Butyl Alcohol 45.2 55.316 0.6 21.3 29.0 28.1 27.0 17.2 22.7 22.279 0.1 14.284 0.3 2.9 25.3 19.6 27.1 28.9 21.4 11.307 0.1 23.0 23.020 0.1 19.6 23.3 1000ºF 1100ºF 1200ºF 1300ºF 1400ºF 1500ºF 13.8 28.7 18.9 13.6 21.313 HSC-4 0.293 0.4 27.281 0.3 25.3 20.3 20.4 13.0 8.113 Nitric Oxide g/cc lb/in3 0.7 Air Acetylene Ammonia C2H2 NH3 0.8 22.281 0.0 22.1 26.316 0.284 0.5 HCl (10%) 66.325 0.8 27.6 400ºF 27.1 15.2 18.270 0.278 304 SS 304 0.0 22.6 ft/sec Hast C-4 (T in ºF) 1500ºF HSB-3 Pipe I.3 21.0 SCFM Velocity V 7.08 NO N2O 0.319 0.15 Kerosine 50.6 600ºF 12.7 psia) (lb/ft3) X 3.7 2.323 0.7 Butylene C4H8 0.1 26.6 16.5 27.300 0.6 24.1 26.4 26.8 28.297 0.0 12.7 25.078 Nitrous Oxide kg/m3 lb/ft3 0.4 23.1 13.2 13.9 14.3 28.4 29.5 30.006 0.7 28.290 446 SS 446 F22 SS 0.0 12.7 12.1 12.5 10.

599 0.834 4.688 17.710 0.438 13.626 12.376 33.126 11.635 3.300 3.438 16.000 21.000 41.124 19.750 40 0.295 6.312 16.814 22.500 15.157 2.260 5.252 0.065 7.376 29.000 17.548 4.750 13.126 17.750 41.inches Size O.062 10.622 0.688 16.500 1.750 20.742 0.000 19.312 11.563 6.065 7.345 6.500 1.624 4.750 33.047 6.000 80 0.026 5.250 12.097 1.187 9.000 25.624 34.624 21.687 2.813 9.709 3.750 31.815 1.981 10.068 3.000 16.380 1.125 2.900 2.812 14.000 29.067 2.376 31.124 14.100 1.750 30.625 9.000 36.000 27.826 4.000 34.876 22.376 27.189 6.250 17.125 10.250 15.469 3.957 1.064 XH 0.546 0.064 17.376 35.900 3.826 4.760 4.376 10 0.376 15.188 12.278 1.813 5.250 19.376 20.500 21.624 23.000 31.546 0.097 1.897 6.260 3.500 29.000 30.315 1.000 31.000 33.938 15.920 1.610 2. 1/2" 3/4" 1" 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 3-1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 0.884 1.500 25.407 8.624 15.020 11.434 0.323 2.334 5.500 18.500 11.250 13.329 10.000 24.250 19.750 27.020 12.750 10.500 21.760 4.939 2.674 0.000 26.500 60 7.000 18.000 20.250 23.000 28.503 1.090 13.390 13.750 STD 0.750 35.500 13.938 19.090 12.742 0.674 0.500 19.357 8.938 13.469 3.750 11.625 9.050 1.560 11.670 17.572 10S 0.157 2.124 14.548 4.626 30.313 5.329 10.420 12.670 19.750 11.500 10.338 1.812 13.000 35.750 19.364 3.500 15.562 11.612 0.938 120 3.000 18.884 1.875 3.250 25.813 5.250 21.688 15.564 100 7.067 2.939 2.000 (Welded & Seamless Steel Pipe) SCHEDULE 5S 0.160 1.840 1.068 3.260 3.374 12.500 19.000 22.750 12.466 0.563 5.PIPE DIMENSIONS Pipe Inside Diameter .295 6.530 1.875 9.364 3.407 10.750 .750 32.824 1.026 5.420 12.376 20 8.323 2.357 8.250 23.071 10.250 20.000 32.250 17.185 1.624 17.876 16.000 22.334 3.625 8.957 1.482 12.000 15.250 25.876 18.000 23.500 29.813 8.750 29.750 28.390 13.750 11.438 4.500 4.000 29.624 32.062 12.876 26.250 22.376 29.000 33.250 21.049 1.622 0.260 5.314 3.750 14.567 19.375 2.761 7.500 14.981 10.761 7.624 XXH 0.000 27.812 14.442 1.500 18.500 5.380 1.900 3.624 23.750 34.562 15.376 140 7.376 17.124 15.771 2.250 15.770 2.047 6.000 4.001 8.682 2.152 4.000 16.610 2.660 1.824 1.000 30 8.682 2.000 21.500 23.876 160 0.D.896 1.442 1.625 10.376 19.000 42.245 2.000 13.437 9.278 1.063 4.501 7.750 21.500 17.635 3.000 35.049 1.

233 0.45 12.016 0.131 0.70 16.04 9.016 0.019 0.241 0.17 25.716 0.016 0.456 0.936 3.66 5.95 53.050 0.016 0.421 3.018 0.85 0.568 0.361 1.221 0.491 0.290 1.016 0.240 0.016 0.645 4.952 1.207 0.01 24.55 8.19 13.21 14.562 0.34 11.613 0.016 200 38.623 1.908 0.61 22.55 11.256 0.016 0.018 0.761 0.394 0.016 0.321 1.017 0.016 0.75 8.570 0.95 31.529 0.692 3.018 0.993 0.820 0.86 52.107 0.016 0.93 16.978 1.62 18.130 1.016 0.62 11.300 0.91 46.446 1.353 0.073 0.143 1.600 2.016 0.03 41.023 0.350 0.017 0.016 0.468 0.208 0.029 0.484 0.18 8.011 0.020 0.62 14.016 0.017 0.518 1.454 0.387 1.017 0.95 19.022 0.86 14.84 65.211 1.017 0.018 0.020 0.862 4.41 39.830 1.059 0.016 0.017 0.39 41.681 0.89 14.017 0.017 0.51 23.017 0.33 17.017 0.399 0.016 0.018 0.21 10.701 1.016 0.19 20.036 0.36 9.092 0.023 0.016 0.024 900 80.635 0.016 0.016 0.175 0.019 0.420 0.42 37.072 0.076 1.651 1.634 0.172 0.017 0.016 0.95 11.592 0.021 0.028 0.019 0.442 1.357 0.020 0.693 2.017 0.04 37.087 0.76 73.307 0.68 24.96 16.027 0.28 20.677 0.946 0. 1997 Edition) Specific Volume (ft3/lb) Temperature (ºF) Pressure (psia) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 65 75 100 200 250 300 400 500 600 675 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1550 1600 1800 2000 2500 3000 3100 3500 4000 5000 7500 10000 15000 100 0.798 0.105 0.861 2.368 1.477 1.28 13.318 0.36 46.199 0.379 2.29 17.793 0.016 0.023 0.654 1.503 0.217 3.017 0.587 0.728 0.016 0.017 0.92 57.37 36.503 0.477 1.548 0.017 0.678 0.99 28.95 10.94 26.609 0.94 12.95 40.514 0.055 1400 1500 110.292 1.20 17.573 1.740 0.019 700 69.94 24.272 0.588 2.260 0.018 0.159 0.95 15.58 32.926 0.725 2.017 0.94 15.06 7.96 37.198 2.446 3.964 0.016 0.829 0.272 0.831 0.473 0.66 17.599 0.016 0.8 69.017 0.105 0.THERMOWELL VELOCITY RATING STEAM TABLES (extracted from ASME Steam Tables for Industrial Use.653 1.524 0.19 30.72 77.93 28.019 0.99 29.034 1100 92.016 0.022 0.38 18.020 0.329 0.220 0.45 32.019 0.347 1.205 0.494 5.121 0.018 0.95 17.718 1.411 1.75 15.699 0.35 13.430 2.017 0.02 0.019 0.016 0.020 0.92 29.34 29.53 10.199 1.017 0.743 0.153 0.474 2.018 0.136 1.686 0.78 18.769 6.291 0.063 0.154 1.268 0.098 0.216 0.020 0.016 0.906 0.020 0.93 26.771 0.096 0.028 (w) 1000 86.20 20.878 2.154 1.017 0.019 0.698 6.582 0.364 0.016 0.016 0.566 1.31 8.522 4.017 0.017 0.277 0.342 0.023 0.227 1.340 0.936 2.020 0.446 2.020 0.963 0.93 43.230 0.021 0.249 0.898 0.109 0.017 0.285 0.304 1.688 0.051 0.341 0.017 0.658 4.169 0.018 0.693 2.443 0.144 0.017 0.016 0.136 0.353 0.053 4.167 0.023 0.020 0.048 0.154 0.031 0.74 10.018 0.15 12.017 500 57.020 0.55 9.190 1.959 0.019 0.686 0.946 0.017 0.945 7.09 20.34 16.059 2.017 400 51.179 3.693 0.016 0.020 0.432 0.017 0.823 4.65 11.017 0.074 0.022 800 74.537 0.308 0.676 2.133 0.189 0.99 31.827 1.304 0.016 0.017 0.076 0.062 116.850 0.017 0.46 22.017 0.016 0.017 0.016 0.834 3.249 0.80 28.663 3.03 14.75 11.94 23.96 25.104 0.302 1.017 0.626 0.427 0.522 0.204 1.472 0.88 61.221 4.406 0.58 11.017 0.49 9.60 22.402 0.403 0.14 17.020 0.04 33.656 0.795 0.20 15.918 3.853 0.95 23.861 0.020 0.091 0.627 1.678 0.320 0.135 6.270 2.016 0.817 1.279 0.94 16.066 2.016 0.016 0.017 0.016 0.318 0.048 1300 104.41 10.562 0.296 1.783 0.016 0.019 0.37 44.81 12.36 17.017 0.667 7.016 0.017 0.005 1.69 21.092 0.252 1.95 19.016 300 44.399 0.017 0.782 8.81 58.47 25.016 0.000 0.213 1.40 26.017 0.767 1.017 0.905 2.016 0.88 49.003 3.017 0.932 1.017 0.018 0.310 3.17 12.017 0.632 0.016 0.019 0.017 0.446 1.06 5.018 0.47 27.76 38.948 2.55 14.146 0.376 0.032 0.017 0.98 34.11 13.877 0.019 0.44 34.017 0.176 0.069 .46 30.016 0.018 0.020 0.18 23.80 21.023 0.024 0.027 0.053 1.83 55.70 19.283 1.260 4.90 33.017 0.441 1.017 0.98 49.023 0.176 0.16 9.018 0.726 1.615 3.441 1.320 6.774 0.017 0.017 0.278 0.018 600 63.26 12.67 13.46 5.017 0.753 2.22 24.90 22.016 0.95 21.025 0.98 34.041 1200 98.020 0.01 45.43 20.370 0.63 27.293 0.534 1.016 0.016 0.