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By Swami Dwiroopanand (Dr. H. K. Gandhi in Past Life)
(All rights reserved by Author).

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By Swami Dwiroopanand

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By Dr. H.K.GANDHI (USA) (Email :


Edition: Year:

1st. 1000 copies. 2008.

(Dr. H. K. Gandhi- in Past life)

C/O Vinod Bhatt Ph: Res. 2630-1891 (Mob: 98246-53043) Ahmedabad-380015.

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Yoga and all Indian Scriptures teach, Know and Unfold your divine Spiritual self within, Purify intellect, believe in equality of all human beings and universal brotherhood of mankind. Let this book Lighten a spark of transcendental living and spiritual understanding in minds of all lost path religious leaders and short sighted egoistic political heads of various countries of the world. This Ashtang Yoga book is really, Brahma Vidya and Yoga Shahtra, described in the Gita. Any one can understand perfect laws of Mother Nature (Prakruti), with known facts of sciences. The laws of motion and gravity govern fine atoms in space and all gross material bodies on globe earth and entire universe in a wonderful and perfect manner. Let this book become instrumental in bringing better understanding about Yoga, God and One religion of Global humanity, in present days of religious fanatism all around. I have suggested a plan of I.G.D.S. God is Truth and Truth is God Mahatma Gandhi has said. I hope this book will prove useful to all Yoga students and all open-minded Yoga teachers of any country or religion, who wish to learn about Eternal Religion in the first two steps of Yoga and how to Know, See and Unite with One God of Universe. (Before Starting this book, Please read Ch. No. 26, Is God Fact or Fiction or Myth? It indicates the final aim of Yoga Study, Self Meditaion and meaning of Samadhi). * * * * * I had closed my medical practice in India in 1981, and immigrated to USA with all my children. During this free period I was reading and writing my notes on Yoga, Vedanta and Gita in Gujarati language. During my interim visits of India, every two years, I used to publish one or two books in Gujarati. I wrote my first English book ABC of Hinduism in 1988, and my next life mission book, Mahatma Gandhi Ambassador of God for Entire Mankind during 21st Century in 1992.


Shri Ishverbhai Mahadevbhai Patel & Mrs. Revaben Ishverbhai Patel,


Naranmama, Dahyamama &

Parshotammama, Keshamama.




Many chapters of this Ashtang Yoga or Raj Yoga of Patanjali book were ready by 1995. During last 14 years I was giving Free talks on Yoga and Gita and one day Yoga workshops to small interested groups in India and USA. I came to India this time in 2008 after 4 years. I was hesitating to publish this book as I wanted someone to read and edit the final manuscript. During last 4 months I could not find anybody even to read it once in India. There was no plan of publishing this book. But at last moment I thought, this book will ever remain unpublished if I do not publish it this time due to my age (84), physical limitations and traveling alone in future. So I quickly edited its final copy myself, rearranged chapters as best as I could and gave it in the press. Thanks and Apologies. I thank, Editor of East-West Times, Orlando, FL, Vyominiben Bhatt, for publishing my articles on Ashtang Yoga regularly, since 2005. This has given me an opportunity to revise my scattered Yoga articles. I also thank Mr. Naresh B Shah of Padmavati Printing Press for giving his full co-operation in printing this book. I also thank, Mr Vinod Bhatt, of Adhiatma Vignan Prakashan for Publishing and marketing this book. Lastly, I ask for forgiveness from all readers and teachers for any mistakes and unwanted repetition of some topics and words in different chapters. My Namaste (salutations) to God dwelling in hearts of all people.


(Refer also Chronology Charts) Short Story of Hinduism. Age of Vedas, Shruties, Smruties and Sanhitas; (7000 B. C. to 2500 B. C.) From the holy Mantra Om, emanate the Vedas, also called Shruties. Shruti means knowledge gained by ears and hearing or Audio-Knowledge. The early nomadic tribe of the Aryans in Eastern Europe, Turkey and NW parts of India had created the first 3 Vedas in Sanskrit, their spoken language. In Veda one observes there is worship of natural objects like, Sun (Surya) Moon (Chandra), Water (Varuna), Air and Wind (Vayu), Rain (Indra), River (Nadi), Mountain (Parvat), Fire (Agni), Land (Pruthvi) and domestic animals like cows, bulls etc., These were worshipped as Gods (Deva) and Goddesses (Devies). The prehistoric Aryans settled in North-Western Indian plains around the great rivers like Indus and other four. This area was called Land of Five Rivers or Punch-aab. The name Punjab means five waters. The first Aryan King Manu dictated earliest socio-political constitution. This was the first political scripture of Manu Smruti. This is known as Indus valley cultural. The name India,, Hindu, Hindi etc. root from name of the river Sindhu (Indus), presently running in Pakistan. King Dasharatha and his son Rama of Ramayana epic are believed to be the 57th generation great grand sons of the first Sun worshipping Aryan King, Manu. Evolution of Upanishads, Darshans, Jainism and Buddhism. (2500 to 600. B. C.) Some independent thinker (Rishies), not happy with rules of Manu, migrated towards planes of the River Ganges. These thinkers created nearly 240 Upanishads and six Hindu Darshans by observing uniform effects of Vedic Gods (Natural Elements) on all creations in an equal and perfect manner. Many Yoga practices had developed for searching the inner Soul or Spirit. The Soul is responsible for Life on the Earth. It was called Brahaman in Vedic texts and Atman in Upanishads. Later it was called nameless THAT (Tat) in Darshans and the Gita. Soul is imperishable Spirit or ones True Self. Later on the moon worshipping dynasties of Non-Aryan kings had started around the banks of river Ganges. One of them, a great King Bharat, established a big empire in North India.

Swami Dwiroopanand.
(Dr. H. K. Gandhi). Naroda, Ahmedabad, India. Date: 30-April, 2008.


Inspired by these scriptures and Yoga practices, two royal princes Mahavira and Buddha (Siddhartha) started newer trends in religions. They declared that Non-violence must be the most important doctrine in all religious practices and rituals. Yoga Darshan of Patanjali. This is only one Darshan out of six main Hindu Darshans. Infinite God can only be visualized (Seen) in an indirect manner by correct understanding of Self and mastering 8 steps of Yoga. By Self Meditation (Adhiatma-Chintan) on Eternal imperishable Soul, ever changing perishable material body and world of material Objects, spiritual understanding and vision of formless God is possible. Yoga has always remained a popular way of religious and spiritual search in all religious subdivisions of India. Scientific study of Yoga imparts a worriless, tensionless long life of great joy and inner happiness. Today Yoga has become very popular in the West and also in India. Its physical and mental benefits can be immediately perceived by any individual or patient of psychosomatic diseases like blood pressure, insomnia, acidity, joint pains, backaches, etc.. Many such ailments get cured in a short time by simple Yoga practices. Cures of asthma, heart diseases and diseases like cancer are also claimed. Rishi Patanjai perhaps lived during the 2nd cent. BC(?). about 300 years after Lord Buddha. He perfected earlier Yoga practices into a science and art of 8 steps (Ashtang-Yoga). It brings a life of great joy, achievements and successes (Siddhies). In the Gita 18 different Yogas are described. The Gita discusses merits and limitations of 3 Veda, Upanishads and Six Hindu Darshans. Gita also preaches eternal (Sanatan) religion (real name of Hinduism), One God and art of Self knowledge. SUMMARY:1. Vedas are the earliest scriptures of Hinduism. They are scriptures of worldly knowledge. In Vedas, there is worship of natural elements like SUN, MOON, WATER, AIR, EARTH, FIRE, etc., Veda arise from OM, the root (mool) mantra or sound of human speech. 2. The 4 class socio-political system of first Aryan King Manu dictates privileges and punishments for four classes. The word Dharma or Religion means Duty of a class of people in the 4 class system of Manu. 3. The Soul and body are to be understood as separate elements by art of meditation in Yoga.

Audio CDs By Swami Dwiroopanad:

Dr. H. K. Gandhi in Past Life.
10 Audio CDs for Youth Education CD No 1 to 10 --(10,000 years of Hinduism Overview, Different 8 meanings of Dharma (religion), What is Spirituality? Be Your self. 6 Cds on What is OM ? (Set-of 10 Cds of Youth Education. $. 40/- with S & H.) 4 Audio CDs of Isha Vasya Upanishad. CD No 1, 2, 3, 4. Isha Vasya Upanishad. (Set-of 4 CDs of Isha Vasya Upanishad. $. 16/- with S & H.) 8 Audio CDs on THEORY OF KARMA in Eastern Religions. Introduction, Different meanings of Karma, Basic Human Rights in Gita, Jainism, Buddhism & Hinduism on Karma, Moksha, Nirvana and Kaivalya, Universal Space-Time, Time & Karma Bondage. (Einsteins Theory), Hindu Trinity, Gita on Universal Time Space, Successes and Long Survival with Karma Yoga, Karma Yoga-Ch. 3 Gita, Self Realization By Writing Autobiography: Sample of Dr. H. K. Gandhi, Is God a fact or fiction? My Divine Experience. (Set of 8 CDs of Karma Theory. Cost. $ 32/- with S & H). Miscellaneous Audio Cds Introduction to Ashtang Yoga, Sankhya Darshan. (Prakruti & Purush), Vedant Darshan, Introduction to Gita, Comparative world religions (5 CDs) (Single CD costs $ 4/ + S&H) 10. Cds On Ashtang Yoga 6 Hours Work Shops Discourses. Gujarati Audio-CDs. 5-CDs Nos, 1,2,3,4,5. on Ashtang Yoga (Patanjali Yoga) (1995). 3-CDs on Gita Ch-III- Karma Yoga. 3-CDs on Gita Ch-IX. Raj Yoga 2-CDs on Gita Ch-XII. Bhakti Yoga, 2-CDs on Gita Ch-XV. Purushottama Yoga (Set of 5 CDs on Yoga Cost. $. 20 /. & Set of 10 CDs on Gitas 4 Chapters Cost. $. 40/ & with S.& H). CDs Provide Sat-Sang in small groups with Sloka, Bhajans & Arti.) More details in



Swami Sachchidanandji.

Age periods of evolution of world religions & thought streams in Hinduism. Rig, Yajur and Sam Veda Develop. Later Atharva Veda was added. Aur, Dhanur, Gandharva Artha Veda Develop in later ages. In final portions of Vedas we see start of Upanishad

Dr. Gandhi practiced medicine in Naroda, Ahmedabad, India. For last fifteen years he resides in USA with his children. I have noted one important aspect of his nature. He will always try to reach to the bottom of the subject he will get interested into. He prepares notes, graphs, charts and try to summarize the subject into few pages. Recently tries to correlate religion with sciences, politics, sociology and economics. A mystical type of religious philosophy has been prevalent in India. There is a neglect of practical problems of daily life. This has made us poor, ignorant and illiterate. We are worshipping mortal hypocrite human individuals instead of God. Dr. Gandhi has a positive and practical approach to problems in day to day life. He is trying to link religion with science. His science does not lead to atheism, nor he ignores the element of faith (Shraddha) required in religion. Religion is also a science. He has beautifully tried to inter mix diverse subjects. May it be the Gita, Upanishads, or any other subject. The clarity of his thinking, truth coupled with reason, and the fearlessness of his presentation are all obvious to the reader. Sometimes he is bitter and harsh in his criticism, when he is flashing red signals towards some age-old wrong beliefs, false rituals and rigid traditions of religions. It is but natural that unintelligent religious heads and their blind followers may start boiling with anger at such remarks. It is good that an individual and society be religious, but when this crosses a limit, it leads to foolish fanatic behavior, myth propagation and fruitless imaginations. Society and individuals get misguided, live in false hopes, blind faiths, false fears and become worshippers of human beings. In the name of religion, the wealth of people gets locked into temples and a few hands, and people forget the basic issues leading to poverty, slavery and grief. They are taught to bear whatever comes as fate or fortune designed by God. This is a painful situation artfully created by unwise priests in the name of religions and God. More and more individuals like Dr. Gandhi should come forward to catch the bull by horns. I am pleased to note that Dr. Gandhi has taken a bold, determined, useful, praiseworthy and worth welcoming step in this direction, in the interest of the people and the future generations. I pray God that our society may receive many useful and inspiring books, booklets and literature from him. Hari Om Tat Sat. Bhakti Niketan Ashram. Dantali. P O. Box-19, PETLAD. Dist. Kaira. Gujarat, INDIA.


ERA of 2500 BC of Aryans

Upnishd ERA 2000 BC Age of Rishies 1000 BC


MANU SMRUTI AND SAMHITAS DEVELOP. The 4 CLASS SYSTEM IN HINDUISM STARTED 240 UPANISHAD DEVELOP-ISHA, KATH AND OTHERS SANKHYA, NYAYA, YOGA. VAISHASHIK PURVA MIMAMSA & UTTAR MIMANSA VEDANTA DEVELOP RAMAYANA BY VALMIKI AND GITA & MAHABHARAT BY VEDA VYASA who lived during (mostly) the 500. BC period. Era of 18 Hindu PURANAS of Brahma Vishnu and Shiva -6 for each Mystic Deity. Islamic Rule in India Four Acharyas, & Saints & Bhaktas start many secular religions, only in last 8 centuries. British Rule Start in 1758. Ends in 1947 thru leadership of Gandhiji. (He is forgotten by the politicians & Indian people)

H E B R SIX-Hindu Darshans E W Develop

600 BC 500 BC 2 to 300 BC 00000

Roots of Jainism & Buddhism lie in Upanishads and 6 Hindu Darshans

R +++++++++++----+++++--+++++++------E C H R I S T I A N I T Y H I N D U I S M

L I G ----------------++ 700 AD I O N
1000 AD 1200 AD 1500 AD




1800 AD

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1999 = (No Copy Right Charts by Swami Dwiroopanand)=1999.


OM IS SYMBOL OF KNOWLEDGE & ROOT OF ALL SPOKEN LANGUAGES. 7000 BC EARLY HINDUISM OF THE VEDIC ARYANS. SEARCH OF KNOWLEDGE. Vedas were also called SHRUTIES or AUDIO-knowledge. Rig, Yajur and Sam Vedas develop. In early 3 Vedas there is worship of Natural Elements like sun, Fire, Rain, Air, Water, Land etc.. These were refereed to as Devas and Devies. First 3 Vedas took nearly 3 to 4 thousand years to develop. VEDIC PERIOD. 5000 BC. The Aryans were the earliest tribe to develop Vedas. Fire (Agni) and Rain Gods (Indra) were worshipped as Gods. After settling in N-W Parts of Indian sub-continent, their King Manu dictated the doctrines of a four class socio-political system, the Varna Dharmas (Dharma= Duties). SMRUTI PERIOD. 4500. BC. After the Vedas one observes development of Smruties, which dictate the class laws of King Manu called Manu Smruti. Development of early Upanishads like Ishavasya and Kathopanishad. 3000. BC. Special privileges are given to higher classes of Brahmins and Kshatriyas.

500. BC. GITA AND MAHABHARAT. BY VED VYASA WRITTEN IN THIS PERIOD, MOSTLY AFTER BUDDHA AND MAHAVIRA. VEDANTA DARSHANA WRITTEN IN THIS AGE ALSO. PURANIC PERIOD.- 300. BC. Mythology enters Hinduism. 18 Puranas(Mythology)scriptures develop during 2nd BC. To 3rd AD. IMAGINARY GODS LIKE SHIVA, VISHNU, AND BRAHAMA ARE DESCRIBED IN THESE PURANAS. Their mystic stories symbolize divine love between husbands and wives. .Bhagavatum became a popular Vishnu PURANA after 15th century A. D. It describes 10 major incarnations of VISHNU. RAMA & KRISHNA are the 7th & 8th.

0000- + Christ is born. + + + + + + + + + + + + +

He preaches LOVE and forgiveness in the West. 500 AD. Roman Church in West. Arya Bhatta invents Zero in Math. 700 AD. SHANKARACHARYA (preaches Adwaita theory) IN EAST MOHAMMAD IN WEST. 1000 AD. PERIOD Era of Islamic invasions in Europe and India start. 1200 AD. Islamic rule in India For next 600 years.: Ghori, Lodi, and Mogal dynesties rule India. Era of SAMPRADAYAS OF ACHARYAS. MADHAVA, RAMANUJA, KABIR, SURDAS preach BHAKTI PATH.(All preach Dwaita Philosophy) 1492 AD. COLUMBUS DISCOVERS AMERICA AND VASCODE GAMA A SEA ROUTE TO INDIA. 1500 AD. Rule of King Akbar Mira & Tulsidas. Vallabhacharya starts Vaishnivism. Chaitanya, Narsinha Mehta (in Gujarat); Guru Nanak starts Shikh Religion 1757 AD. END OF ISLAMIC EMPIRE AND START OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA. 1800 AD. Swami Sahajananda Swaminarayana Religion in Gujarat. 1900 AD. Vivekananda in America. Gandhi leads INDIA to freedom. 1947 AD. India Independent. 40 Years Rule of Nehru Dynasty in Democratic India. GURUS build palatious temples, only at one place, Haridwara. They have forgotten their duty of educating the poor people in villages of India. THE 21st CENTURY NEEDS NEW LIGHT IN THE RELIGIOUS FIELD. VIEWS OF MAHATMA GANDHI WILL GIVE IT.


Search of self (soul) and its relationship with the Vedic Gods is studied in the Upanishads. Aryans and original residents of India fight. Stories of Devas (deities) and Asuras (demons) are seen in scriptures. They suggest conflicts or wars between more civilized and less civilized people.


WONDERFUL SPIRITUAL HINDU SCRIPTURES DEVELOP. These include the famous Six Hindu Darshans. By this time in the Ganges regions, Sun worshipping and moon worshipping royal dynasties were established. (1). POORVA MIMANSA, by Jaimini, (2) NYAYA, by Gautama, (3). YOGA BY PATANJALI, (4). SANKHYA by Kapil, (5) VAISHASHIK by Kanad, AND (6) VEDANT by Ved Vyasa, DEVELOP. (7) Charvak's Darshan denies the theory of rebirths of souls propagated by selfish ritual minded Brahmins. ? VALMIKI RAMAYANA written in this age. Rama was the 58th son in the dynasty of Manu. ? Krishna, in human form after Rama, who perhaps lived in the 12th cent. BC.

Hinduism is a non-prophet philosophy of attaining wisdom by search of self (Atma). This subject is discussed in great details in Upanishads, Darshans, and the Gita. Innumerable Prophets in Hinduism are seen only in recent centuries. They have started many secular Guru worshipping cults (sampradayas). They are also called religions. Search of God Starts with SELF, and Ends in SELF by understanding the fixed laws of Mother nature.






FOUR VARNAS (CLASSES); FOUR ASHRAMAS, (AGE QUARTERS) & FOUR GOALS FOR A HINDU. 4 goals DHARMA ARTHA KAMA MOKSHA 4 Ashramas Brahm Chary Grahastha Vanprastha Sanyasa Ashrama Ashrama Ashrama Ashrama 4 Varnas (1 to 25 Yrs) (25 to 50 Yrs) (50 to 75 Yrs) (75 to 100.) \I/ BHRAMINS Saintly life Learn Vedas Simple life. Desire to get fame in some in isolation, Teachers High morals Live on gifts Celibacy. Give from students branch of liberty from Doctors benefit of & donations of knowledge, all family Judges & search of God bondages & Lawyers etc. knowledge to lower three classes. and religion attachments others KSHATRIYAS Retire. Fight criminal, Earn good Learn use of name & fame Become a weapons and protect border Kings, Army as a noble Rajarshi, laws of the of country, state. Protect And good king caring for a Saintly police, King ; guide Government land, people people. law, people, and equal young kings servants etc. and trade Sacrifice life justice in morals on battle field and justice VAISHYAS Earn money, Care for state, Saintly life/ Learn Maths, agriculture, be rich and serve other give good rain fall, stars help state classes, social advice / tell Business & Farmers cattle care, /employee work and give history of Class. economics give donations donations. heroism seeds etc. to Brahmins. SHUDRAS Try to uplift No saintly Learn family Earn money by serving into a higher retirement till skills, respect Skilled workers, and serve 3 higher class class end of life ; teach family manual higher class give donation Vaishyas by money and love & unity. servants and to Brahmins gaining skills laborers.
The classes were Job Oriented and not birth-rights giving in early times. But with passage of time they turned into hiraretic, privilege preaching classes. Brahmins (men of knowledge) guided other three classes in all moral codes, laws, sociology, economics and political matters. Knowledge was preserved by creating short sentences (Mantras, proverbs) and musical verses (See Sam Veda Hymns). A woman was looked upon as property of her husband. A man could marry more than one woman, but a widow could not remarry.. Wives were burnt alive upon the death of husbands (Sati system). Inter-class marriages were forbidden; but a Brahmin could marry any girl from lower three classes, a Kshatriya could marry a girl from lower two classes, and a Vaishya could marry a Shudra girl, but not from the higher classes. The stories of Ramayan and Mahabharat indicate such practices. Birth as a Female, a Vaishya or a Shudra class was believed to be due to sins committed in previous lives. The majority class of Shudras had no right to study, Vedas, learn weapons or trade. They were supposed to remain life long servants or employees of the upper three classes. Such verses were added in Manu Smruti by the Brahmins of the later ages so that their sons might enjoy all privileges and class rights created in name of religion. The Shudras were not untouchables to start with. The Bhagavat Gita redefines this class privileges and affirms that all human beings are equal in eye and laws of God. Hinduism was a Veda (knowledge) oriented culture and a male privileged society.

There was no idol worship in the earlyVeda, Upanishd and Gita age periods.


Preface: Place Of Yoga And The Gita In Hinduism. Blessings: Swami Sachchidanandji. Ages Of Evolution Of World Religions- Chart-1 Chronology Of Hindu Scriptures. Ashram Dharma (Chart 1) Ashram Dharma (Chart 2)


14. 15. 16. Pg No.


Section : I Introduction:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Yoga Is A Big Business In USA. Why Study Yoga? Brief History Of Patanjali Yoga. Guru Search For Yoga Study. Peace Invocations Shanti Path Eight Steps Of Yoga In Brief. 1 4. 8 11 14 16


Step no 7. Dhyan. 76 Dhyan = Fullest (100%) Attention, Awareness and Concentration in Present Activity only. Part-1. Part-2. Step no 8. Samadhi 83 What is Hath Yoga? 88 What is Kundalini and Aagna Chakra? 92 Part-1. Kundalini power means a three-tense Time and Place sense (Tri-kal-Gyana). Perfect Awareness of Time-Place. Part-2. Scientific meanings of Kundalini & Agna Chakra. Diet and Yoga 99

Section : III
Additional Informative Articles.
18. Sanatan Dharm in Yama Niyama Lesson 1. Yama Niyama & Sanatan Dharm Lesson 2. Ten practical points for a happy life. Lesson 3. Yoga is science of Self study AtmaGyana, Swadhyay and Art of living a Perfect Divine Life. Art and Science of Meditation Article 1.. & Article 2. Self-Realization Write your Autobiography. Part 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5. (Who am I?) Sample by Author: Dr. H. K. Gandhi. Begger of Knowledge (Upanishad Story). One infinite God of Universe (prayer-1) Jesus & Mahatma Gandhi are Immortal souls (prayer-2) SANKHYA DARSHAN OF KAPIL VEDANTA DARSHAN OF VED VYAS IS GOD FACT OR FICTION OR MYTH? What is I.G.D.S ? Dictionary of Common Sanskrit Words 101

Section : II Ashtang Yoga.

7. 8. 9. Step no. 1. Yama. 20 Step no 2 Niyama 23 Step no. 3 Asana (Static Postural Exercises) 26 Part-i. Seven golden rules of asana and pranayama. Part-ii. Savasan, Padmasana, & Surya Namaskara. Part-iii. (A) Asana for limbs. Part-iv. (B) (i) Asana for backward bending of spine & neck (ii) Asana for forward bending of spine (iii) Side bending and rotation of spine Part-iv. (C). Asana for vital systems Step no. 4 Pranayama. 48 Breathing exercises. Pranayama cures Blood Pressurein 90 % of cases. Step no. 5. Pratyahara. 61 Part-1. Third eye of Shiva is within you. Part-2. Knowledge is Highest Wealth of Individual. Step no 6. Dharana. 68 Part-1. Four goals- Dharm, Artha, Kama And Moksha Part-2. Sanyasa. Search of Self, God and Yoga with God is only Desire of remaining Life. 19.




21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

139 144 146 148 155 161 164 167




Section: I

Yoga books on Hath-Yoga describe more difficult postural exercises and a few higher steps of meditation. But the real Hath Yoga is quite a different and difficult subject. Definition: The noun Yoga roots from a verb YUJ. The word Yoga can be traced to ancient Vedas like Yajur-Veda, five millenniums BC (approx). YUJ means to unite with, to join, to meet, to live together, to get welded to, to merge with etc. Yoga is an art of uniting with people and living together in harmony and co-operation in family, society and the State. The word Yoga is better understood by its opposite word - Viyoga. Viyoga means separation, divorce, staying away from, etc.,. Instead of teaching noble attitudes of family unity and love, respect towards elderly and women, fellow human beings, friends and relatives, most Indian Gurus teach total detachment from family life and family members (Viyoga), isolation, idleness, inaction, apathy towards wealth, neglect of socio-political events and rejection of progress of science. They live a sort of idle life and have negative attitudes. This is very wrong according to the Gita and Ashtang Yoga. Buddhi-Yoga. (Nyaya-Darshan) Human body is equipped with a unique gift of God- Intellect (Buddhi) or common sense. It is not found in other mammals, animals and plant kingdom. It is with INTELLECT that we Think, Judge and Reason. When real curiosity (Jignasa) arises in intellect of a Scientist, he tries to find Root Causes of Effects observed in the world of material things. A Yogi by Self-meditation tries to find the Root causes of events occurring in daily life. He searches Self or Who am I?, conscious mind, intellect and God hidden within as Soul and Universal Love. Healthy Mind dwells in Healthy Body; and Healthy Mind keeps Body Healthy. Yoga is a perfect science of physical and mental health. Mind, Intellect, Ego, Desires and Knowledge are different aspects (areas) of human brain. Mind is called the sixth sense organ in the Gita. Different levels of consciousness in mind are studied in last five steps of selfmeditation in Ashtang Yoga. Yoga study is an important part of Hinduism (Sanatan Dharm). It teaches search of own Self (Atma), Soul (Bhraman) and Creator God of Universe.


The April, 23, 2001 issue of TIME weekly presents a fair picture of Yoga practices in USA. Nearly 15 million Americans Practice Yoga. There are Eight major schools of Yoga, from Bhakti, which is mostly about prayers and mantra chanting, to Tantra, which is largely about sex. Most Yoga studios and fitness centers in America teach some type of Hatha yoga, the Yoga of activity. Hatha comes in hundreds of different flavors - each emphasizing different body postures and breathing techniques. These are some of the most popular:. Easy: (1)Iyanger; (2) Kripalu; (3) Kundalini & (4) ViniYoga. Moderately Difficult:- (5) Shivanad Yoga Challenging:- (6) ASHTANG YOGA (Power Yoga); (7) Jivanmukti; (8) Bikram or Chaudhury (Hot Yoga). (Shoppers Guide - page 63) * * * * * One observes in above list names of teachers attached with Yoga Schools. These Yoga schools are of popular Yoga business teachers. There is vague or only partial knowledge of ASHTANG YOGA in USA and India also. To refer to an age old Art and Science of Patanjalis Ashtang Yoga as Power Yoga by a magazine like TIME is very wrong. Similarly understanding of word, Hath is incorresct. (Ref Chapter on What is Hath Yoga? in this book). There is unimaginable interest and curiosity about Yoga in Western countries. In many libraries of Western countries one finds 50 to 100 books on Yoga. All Yoga books describe some postural exercises (Asana), breathing exercises (Pranayama - the 4th step of Ashtang Yoga), relaxing techniques, and age old tricks of Chanting OM mantra and a few well-known tricks of meditation.

Yoga is useful at all places and at all times for every individual of global mankind. It is applicable to all, living in any part of the world, speaking any language and believing- or even not believing - in any secular religion, faith or God. Yoga is useful for all, but one has to learn Yoga with interest and real curiosity. Yoga is Wisdom of Sages of India since Ages. We speak and hear sentences like 'Be Yourself', 'Help yourself', 'God helps those who help themselves' etc. The roots of all such sentences could be traced to spiritual scriptures of India, called Upanishads and six Hindu Darshans. A Yoga student has to study other Darshans like Sankhya and Vedanta, and a few chapters of the Gita after Yoga study. All above spiritual scriptures deal with a common subject of Self-Knowledge (Adhiatma Vidya). The Gita describes nearly 18 types of Yoga, like Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Dhyan Yoga, Sankhya Yoga Etc. Yoga and Gita teach true religion. It leads to Vision of One Universal God (Vishva- Roop Darshan). Yoga study removes inferiority complex and creates selfrespect (Swa-maan), Self-confidence (Atma-Shraddha), mental courage and true pride or self-esteem (Gaurav). Theoretical knowledge of Ashtang Yoga is needed for its practical application in daily life. A Yogi inspires others to do divine benevolent deeds. This brings good name and joy for all. Yoga gives power of positive thinking and creates compassion towards all living creations of Mother Nature. First Introductory Theoretical course of Ashtang Yoga is like an entry step for sailing into ocean of great psychic powers, hidden within human Mind. Most psychiatrists, psychics, Spiritual healers and Indian Yoga Gurus do understand Mind, Subconscious Mind (Chitta), Intellect (Buddhi) and Ego-Self (Ahamkar) filled Selfish Desires (VAsana) but vaguely. Yoga students and teachers will notice a scientific approach to Yoga in this book. Any open minded reader will learn some new points about Ashtang Yoga, which will benefit him/her in lifes journey.

Section: I

Introduction: 2. WHY STUDY YOGA?

Yoga study is an important part of Hinduism (Sanatan Dharm), Buddhism and Jainism in India. Yoga is a perfect Science of Spirituality, art of health of body, blissful mind and true religious life. To remember the purpose and scope of Yoga, Remember Alphabets of YOGA. Y. YourSelf. This is a study of Self knowledge or Who am I? Search God by self-realization and changeless soul within. I am Brahman, Immortal Soul is the final point to be reached by meditation. O. Find Zero of Time and Space. This brings an understanding that Perfect Laws of Mother Nature (Prakruti) govern universe and all living beings in a perfect and equal manner. G. Good thoughts and actions (Karma), for living a perfect divine life. A. Achieve Four Goals of 100 years of life; Dharm, Arth, Kama, & Moksha. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------We start this study with a nice Prayer of a Western Philosopher. Oh God, give me the Serenity of mind, to understand things that I can Change; Oh God, give me the Intellect to understand things that I Cant Change, But above all give me the Wisdom to understand the Difference between the two." If this philosopher had studied the Gita and Ashtang Yoga, he would have got his answers. In outer world we see many man made objects like clothes, books, utensils, houses, furniture, temples and churches, roads and dams, cars, T.Vs and computers etc.,. These are non-living (Jad) man-made material things, valued by man-made money. 2

We also see living beings like insects, animals, birds, snakes, fishes and many aquatic creatures, trees and plants etc,. These are God made living beings. They are not man made. We can know and understand with spoken human words, man made political rules, religious beliefs, preachings, traditions, social customs, etc.,. All man made physical objects, laws and living animal bodies change with the passage of TIME. There are non-living objects like land, water, air, light, heat or fire, sun, moon, space, millions of stars and galaxies in the universe. These are not man made. They appear more or less constant, but they constantly change their relative positions in this Dynamic Universe. The above prayer could be answered like this. Man can change man made laws and man made things, but a man cannot change God made things and God made laws. Any great king or a highest military power cannot change the laws of Mother Nature (Prakruti or God). But any average man can change laws of countries made by politicians or kings. A man can alter or destroy roads, houses and any man made thing. Constitutions, social customs and religious beliefs of the past can be changed, and must be revised with progress of science and passage of time. (From Mahatma Gandhi -book By Dr. H. K. Gandhi)). A physical scientist discovers the eternal laws of Mother Nature (or God) which govern all non-living objects. A biologist discovers biological laws governing all living creatures. By meditating upon Self and Death, a Yoga student learns that some invisible but perfect laws govern all material objects (Jad) and all living creatures (Chetan) in an equal manner. Then he feels the presence of God at all places, at all times. This Vision of God comes by knowing ever-changing body, mind, intellect, knowledge, and various beliefs, but the changeless Soul (Spirit, Brahman, Atma) within. Only a few individuals like Jesus, Buddha, Mahavira, Mohammad and Mahatma Gandhi get divine vision of God. They declare God Is One. They revise old religious beliefs and wrong customs. Dharm Sanstapanaarthaya Sambhavami Yuge Yuge(Gita Ch-4 V-7,8). God assumes human forms, at intervals of some centuries, to revise religions The study of 8 steps of Ashtang brings this wisdom (Pragna) and leads to NIRVANA. The last five steps of Yoga meditation teach 3

different levels of conscious and dreaming mind. Mind, Intellect, Ego, Desires and Knowledge are different aspects (areas) of human brain. Mind is called the sixth sense in the Gita (Ch-15). Yoga has universal application. It means that the principles work at all times, at all places for all individuals of either sex, at any age period in any religion or a nation. Hence Yoga is becoming a popular business in recent times in America and Western countries. * * * * *

Special Note: Shri Aurobindo defines Yoga as methodological effort towards self-perfection and development of an individual's latent potential. Yoga is an art and science of living in harmony with Mother Nature and Universe. Yoga has been appreciated in prevention of diseases and promotion of health by developing a perfect balance between body, mind, Ego-centric desires (Vasana), Divine Soul within and finally uniting with God of Universe. Pranayam practices of Yoga improve oxygenation, rejuvenate brain cells and all organs, cultivate immunity to environmental pressures and thus impart vigor and vitality. Psycho-Somatic Healing: Cures and heals many Psycho-somatic diseases like blood pressure, acidity, digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems, prevents and cures heart diseases, bones and joints, excretory systems and bladder problems, diabetes, headeaches etc.,. Yoga has great application in the modern times when depression, neurosis, frustrations, etc, have seeped into our daily life. Helps in mental tensions, worries, and loss of sleep (insomnia); depressions, suicidal thoughts, frustrations etc,. Develops art of making quick decisions and correct actions and Will power in Mind to control wrong habits like Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs etc, and food habbits responsible for over weight. Removes Inferiority and Superiority complexes. Controls Passions, Angers and sensual Temptations: Creates Self-Confidence, Courage & ability of Reading Thoughts of all People. Unfolds Holy Spirit (Self, Atman) and creats a sense of Human Equality. Explains true and false Religious Beliefs and need of a true Religion in life.

Karm Yoga teaches noble behavior. It brings worldly Fame & Material Successes. Preaches Universal Religion. It is a path of knowing Relationship between Self and God. Removes fear of Death.

Section: I


Prior to the period of Lord Buddha (6th Cent BC.), and Saint Patanjali (? 2nd Cent BC), many Yoga practices were going on in India since Vedic times. There was a Chatus-Pad (4 step) Yoga, with about 200 verses (yog-sutras). Its four sections were known as SamadhiPada (51 Verses), Sadhan Pada (55 verses), Vibhooti Pada (56 verses) and Kaivalya Pada (38 Verses). All these sections were jointly called Yoga Sutra* It appears that Saint Patanjali has revised above Yoga study. He had developed it into a perfect art and science. From the above Yoga Sutra, Patanjali had picked up important 8 Sanskrit words Yama, Niyama, Asans, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhayana and Samadhi, and arranged them into a ladder of 8 steps of Morals, Yoga Postures and self-meditation. This revised 8 step Yoga is the Real Astanga-Yoga. It is also called Raj Yoga, or Patanjali Yoga or ASHTANG YOGA. A Yoga student learns each step slowly under the guidance and supervision of a well-read, self-realized and non-greedy Guru. Yog-Sadhna (study) is a part and parcel of religious and cultural heritage of India. In the Ten Words of first two steps, there is root and perfect science of world religions. There is similar message in Old Testaments, New Testaments of Christianity, Jainism, etc., and these first two steps of Ashtang Yoga. In USA and India a rare Yoga teacher may be teaching these Ten Yoga Words of Eternal Religion of Humanity (Sanatan Dharm) to his students.

To Remember Benefits of Yoga Study Remember the spelling of P A T A N J A L I

P eace of Mind. No angers, no fears and no worries, no tensions, no stress, no depressions, no unwanted elations. Never think of suicide. 4

A waken Kundalini Shakti. This develops wonderful memory power, Three Tense Vision (Tri-kal-gyan). Imparts ability of making correct and quick decisions and actions with self-confidence and courage. Kundalini imparts hopes of bright future. T IME-PLACE Awareness. Desh-Kal Smruti or Chitta-shakti. Memory of past events (Smruti), awareness of present problems, and clear vision of future goals and dreams, with perfect Time-Place Sense. A agna Chakra: Develops Leadership (Gan-pati) qualities, Ability and Wisdom of giving correct commands, Power of Mass Hypnosis and ability of reading thoughts and intentions of people. It is called ParKaya Pravesh. Many intellectuals like teachers, doctors, lawyers, etc, are unaware of such hidden powers of mind. They become blind followers of many Hypnotizing and money minded Indian Gurus. N irvana. The ultimate goal of life is Nirvana, Moksha or Kaivalya. Freedom from all material desires, worldly bondages and true liberty. This is like Salvation. A Yogi gets Moksha, meaning liberation from a birth-death cycle of soul. This is a popular belief in Jainism and many Indian religions. J oining with Good People. Sat-Sang. Company of good learned people brings correct knowledge, name, fame and many material achievements. A rt of finding a way-out in difficult situations with Clear and Firm Mind. Times of unhappiness come to every body, rich or poor, a king or a prisoner. Yoga knowledge helps one to firmly face all adverse situations. He never gets frustrated, depressed or thinks of committing suicide. L earn Moral Duties Dharm. Without knowledge of obligatory duties (DHARMA) towards SELF, family, society, country and entire mankind, and mother nature; any person lives an animal life of sensual joys at mind level and behaves worse than an animal like a devil (Rakshasa). I, who am I? Knowledge is Power and invisible Wealth of a person. This is the general knowledge or education one receives in school and colleges. It is called Veda, Gnyan or Vidya. But there is a second knowledge, Self-knowledge (Atma Gyan). In Yoga one studies this Self knowledge or Who am I? The study of a few early steps like Yoga postures (Asana) and Breathing Exercises (Pranayama), impart immediate peace of mind, good sleep (in cases of insomnia), control and cure of Blood Pressure in many cases. Yoga meditation alleviates anxiety, worries and tensions and creates a sense of well-being, positive thoughts and mental tranquility. 5

After mastering the 7th step of concentration (Dhayan) and the 8th step of Samadhi (Bliss state of mind) one understands perfect rules of Mother Natura and Omnipresence of God. By Yoga study when a student reaches the Samadhi stage, he understands "I am not physical body, not mind or a bundle of endless desires, but pure soul". Then only one gets liberated from all false Egos, like "I am a Hindu, I am a Christian, I am an American or an Indian, or I am a doctor, a lawyer, a king, a military general, a priest, a great scholar, etc,.". True self-realization occurs when one reaches this understanding- "I am a human being just like any other living human being. Cosmic Light of God may be seen when all egos disappear. This is called Spiritual Vision. Yoga study unfolds dormant divine SELF within and leads to conviction of Universal God. Such a person does many humanitarian deeds without any Ego as a true Devotee of God. A Yogi has no fear of death. Yoga is a wonderful Art and Science of Indias heritage and culture. Many right and wrong notions prevail about benefits of Yoga in India and abroad. First introductory class explains the meaning and purpose of Ashtang Yoga study. *(Ref. The Text Book of Yoga, By Swami Brahmanand Saraswati formerly a neuro-physician Dr. Rammurti Mishra M.D. Ashram in Spring vally NY. USA).

Section: I

Saint Kabir (12th Cent. AD), also gives some important tips for judging a true Guru or a Saint. 1. Sant sant sabkoi kahe sant biral sansara,

Sinhanka tola nahi


kanchanka na pahad

Yoga is a religious and spiritual study. It demands life long practice (Sadhana). Personal guidance and supervision of a spiritually enlightened, self-realized, non-greedy, knowledgeable teacher is always needed for learning Yoga up to the seventh step of Dhyan. The word Guru means a teacher. It also means an elderly person and any man of wisdom and experience. Just as one cannot learn music by knowing musical keys and reading a few music books, in same way one cannot learn Yoga by seeing postures and reading Yoga books. All people need Peace of Mind to think well. People also want love, enjoy wealth, and live in good family relations and harmony in society. 'Hurry makes Curry'. 'Patience, Peace of mind and Perseverance are 3 most important Ps in Yoga study. RELATIVES OF A YOGI. A saintly king (Rajarshi) Bhartuhari (8th Cent.AD?), describes in following manner all mental states- as relatives of a Yogi in his following famous verse.
Dhairyam yasya pita, kshama ch janani, shantihi chiram gahini, Satyam sunurayam, daya ch bhagini, bhrata manah sanyamaha; Shayya bhumitalam, dishopi vasanam, gyanamrutam bhojanam Eite yasya kutumbino vada sakhe, kasmad bhayam Yoginaha.

"Every one proclaims, "I am a saint, I am a Yogi", but it is difficult to find a true saint, because lions do not live in herds and mountains of gold are not found in the world." 2. Char chinh hari bhaktake pragat dikhai det, Daya dharma aadhintaa par dukhko har let. "These are four obvious signs to recognize a true devotee of God quickly. He is a man of Compassion, Morality (religion), Devotion to God, and helps other in difficulties without any ego or expectation of rewards". 3. Aash tyaje, maya tyaje moha tyaje, aru mana. Harsha shoka ninda tyaje, kahe Kabir sant jan." A saint is a selfless, desireless person who has conquered 'Maya' (family attachments), is not in illusion (Moha), never feels insulted by criticism nor elated by praise, does not criticize others, has no fear of death, has no anger or jealousy, is simple in life style, and not attached to political position. Summary. 1. Yoga is a subjective study of one's own self- Swa-adhyaya. Yet a Guru is necessary for learning Yoga. He must have basic knowledge of biology and other sciences. 2. Take sufficient time in finding a Guru. Indian Gurus frequently quote sentences like these. "Do not inquire about the past of a Guru or a Sadhu". But this is wrong. Yoga students must try to find the past life and family background of a Guru and judge about his worldly general knowledge. Inquire how he became a spiritual teacher. Also find Gurus greed for money, observe his temperament, food habits, vices like drugs, alcohol, smoking, attitude towards poor, females and untouchability etc,. 3. Beware of disciples talking about wonderful powers of their Guru, doing miracles etc.,. Never get impressed by the number of disciples any Yoga Guru possesses. Simple commonsense says that a bachelor Guru cannot teach good family values to married men or women. 4. Pranayama practices and chanting of OM, and some Mantras immediatedly pacify all minds for a short time. Any agitated mind experiences a wonderful peace by doing any Pranayama. The psycho6

"Patience is his Father, and Forgiveness is his Mother. Eternal Peace (Bliss) of mind is his Wife, and Truthfulness is his Son; Compassion is his Sister and always a well Controlled Mind is his Brother. He sleeps on hard Ground and Ten Directions are his clothes (is completely naked). Contemplation, Meditation and Spiritual divine knowledge is his Food. Oh my friend, tell me how such a Yogi will ever be afraid of anybody, any thing, at any time in the world?

physiological effects of conscious breathing and chanting Mantra are universal. 5. "Matru Devo Bhava". Mothers are living Goddesses. They distribute God's love on earth to all people. This is the preaching of Upanishads. Hinduism places women next to God. "Janani Janmabhumi cha Swargad api Gariyasi". Mother and Mother-land are higher than heaven. "Yatra Naryastu pujyante, ramante tatra devataha". Where ladies are respected as Goddesses, children born from them become deities. They create a heaven in home and that land". 6. Living in family love and harmony, living together is Yoga. Prayers, mantra chanting, diet control and regular scriptural study are integral parts of Yoga study. 7. Patanjalis Ashtang Yoga is only one Hindu Darshan. It needs to be studied with some other Darshans like Sankhya, Vedanta and the Bhagavat Gita. 8. Yoga study creates wonderful ability of reading thoughts of other people. This is called 'Par-Kaya-Pravesh'. Look at the life of Lord Krishna in Mahabharat from above point. Krishna asks to fight and kill Arjuna his own Guru, because the Guru had failed to deliver justice and was on side of evil minded, ego-blinded ruler and his arrogant sons. 9. Krishna preaches, Become a Saintly-King Rajarshi. Try to establish a kingdom of equal justice for all. This must be the final aim and goal of every Yoga student. The study of Yoga brings material happiness (Siddhies), by teaching how to do correct Karma. Later it brings Spiritual Vision and Joy during this very life, and not in next life after death as many Gurus talk and preach in India.

Section: I


We will observe in coming chapters, that the first two steps of Yoga teach Eternal (Sanatan Dharm) morals of Religion, commonly found in all world religions. Peace invocations or Shanti Path is done before starting Yoga classes. Some start with simple Pranayam and Mantra chanting. The following Mantra are recited in morning Yoga classes. Any individual doing meditation practices at home should recite a few long OM chantings at beginning. The Mantra suggest purpose, meaning of prayers and correct attitudes towards all people. All participants join in chanting Shanti Path like a musical chorus. SHANTI PATH (PEACE INVOCATIONS). (1). Do 3 Maha-Pranayam followed by 3 long (OM) Chanting. (Five minutes) Chant following verses in a chorus. (2) Om swasti prajabhyaha paripalayantam Nyayyen margane mahim mahishaha. Go Brahmanebhyo shubham astu nityam Loka samasta sukhino bhavantu. (Samhita Mantra) (3) Kale varshantu parjanyaha, Pruthivi sashya-shalini, Desho ayam kshobha rahitaha, Brahmana santu nirbhayaha. (Samhita Mantra) (4).Om sarvesham swastir bhavatu, Sarvesham shantir bhavatu Sarvesham purnam bhavatu, Sarvesham mangalam bhavat. (Upanishad Mantra) (5).Om sarve bhavantu sukhinaha, Sarve santu niramaya, Sarve bhadrani pashyantu, Ma kashchid dukhabhag bhavet. (Upanishad Mantra) 7



Section: I

(7).Om purnam adaha, purnam eedam purnat purnam udachyate Purnasya purnam adaya purnamev avshishyate. (Isha-vasya Upanishad) Om shantihi shantihi shantihi. MEANING: (2). Let rule of equal justice of a mighty king protecting all people prevail in our land. Let cattle and men of wisdom ever remain happy. Let people of all classes be happy and prosperous in all respects. (3). Let there be timely rainfall, let our mother-land remain ever green and give plenty of food and flowers. Let there be no crimes, riots and unrest in the country, and men of knowledge, wisdom and vision ever remain fearless. (4). Let happiness of all kinds come to everybody; let peace come to all families, let everyone be perfect, prosperous and joyful. (5). Let all be happy and healthy; let all people see good things in life and let unhappiness of any kind not come to anyone. (6). Oh Lord, Lead me to Truth from untruth, lead me to Light from darkness, lead me to Immortality from (by my) death. (7). That (Universe) is perfect; this (my body, mind, intellect and/or soul) is perfect; perfect arises from perfect; but even if any perfect goes out from perfect; still perfect remains. Remember the points expressed in Shanti Path. Yoga study is done to achieve above Goals. The last verse declares that perfect rules of Mother Nature apply to all human beings, plants and animals in a perfect manner. By meditation and study of the Gita one understands one's own limitations of knowledge, time and place. The same limitations apply to all other human beings in exactly same and perfect manner. This understanding comes by Self Meditation, which in turn creates a sense of equality, positive attitudes, self-confidence and removal of all inferiority complexes. OM Shanti Shanti Shanti. OM TAT SAT. Let peace prevail, peace prevail, peace prevail. God is Absolute reality and Ultimate Truth.


Let us have a brief over view of the 8 steps of Yoga. We will learn more about each step in other chapters. The Old-Wine of Self-knowledge (AtmaGyan) is presented in a new bottle of Modern Science. The eight steps of Yoga teach, Eternal Universal Religion of Global Mankind or Sanatan Dharm, Good Health of Body and Mind, how to achieve material wealth and successes and finally Art of Uniting with Universal God (Yoga with God) by mastering the last step of Samadhi. The Path of Yoga is not Easy. But the theoretical knowledge of 8 steps will help any curious student. He will start correct Yoga practices in daily life. 1. Yama: Fear of death. Yama is imaginary Deity God of Death in Hinduism. Yoga liberates one from natural fear of death. Five words must get translated in life to Postpone Death. These are Satyam (Truth), Ahimsa (non violence), Asteya (no thefts, no dishonesty), Aparigraha (no greed of money, material wealth or political high positions etc), and Brahamcharyam (Sex-Control). 2. Niyama: Well Disciplined Life. nd Five more words are indicated in this 2 step for health of body and mind. Santosh (satisfaction with any situation in life), Saucham (Cleanliness of body, food, water, air, etc,), Tapa (Vegetarian diet, enduring some hardships like hunger, thrust etc, for a few hours, a day or two. Swadhyay (Observing ones own self by daily meditation), Ishvara Parinidhanam (Surrender to God, all events occurring in daily life). 3. Asana : Nearly 300 Asana (body postures) are shown in different Yoga books. They are static postural exercises for preserving full mobility of all joints and tone of muscles. Relaxing Asana like Sabasana and Pranayama (Breathing exercises) are done in between different Asana. 4. Pranayam: Various Breathing exercises. Nearly 96 types of Pranayam are described in different Yoga books. Pranayam brings the sub-conscious vital system of respiration 8

under conscious voluntary control. This creates wonderful peace of mind, feeling of well being and tension free Mind. 5. Pratyahar: Self control practices of the five senses and five organs of actions (Karm-Indriya) start with this step. Tapashcharya teach victory over sensual cravings of short term joys, e.g., taste of eating, smoking, alcohol, drugs etc, Listen to words of wisdom from all Gurus but never become a hypnotized blind disciple of any one Guru. 6. Dharana : Purpose or Goals of Human Life. Four Age related goals are indicated in scriptures. One goal must be achieved during one Age Quarter. Life of 100 years is divided into four age related quarters (Ashrama). Achieve one goal in one age quarter and observe some vows also. During Vidyaarthi-Ashrama (first 25 years), get education from parents and teachers (Gurus) in school and colleges. Also learn moral codes of good conduct (Dharm). One important vow indicated during student-age is Celibacy. During Grahastha-Ashrama, (second age-quarter) live a family life in home. Goal indicated is Earn Money (Artha). Marry and Raise good children, and welcome Atithi or home coming guests. During Vanprastha-Ashrama, (3rd age quarter), Goal is Kama, meaning fulfill all Desires. Van-prastha word means Go to Jungle. Its practical meaning is Partial Retirement, but doing some social service activities in village areas. Sanyasa-Ashrama. Sanyas means renouncing with good understanding all high positions in jobs, wealth and material comforts. Become a desireless saint. Live a simple but purposeful life. Meditate on Self and Soul and try to win the natural fear of death. This leads to a mental state of Nirvana, Kaivalya or Moksh. Be prepared now to meet death (Yama) on any day, at any time. 7. Dhyan: Perfect attention and one pointed Contemplation is Dhyan. Contemplate daily upon short term plans and current age related main goal of life (Swadhyay). Do all activities- Karma, with a sense of moral duty. Pay perfect attention in job or study and do all deeds in an excellent manner. Dhyan means perfect attention and full concentration in any job you are doing at the present place- today and now. Arjuna hitting bird's eye (bulls eye) Target in Mahabharat story is a good example of Dhyan. No anger at any time. 8. Samadhi : In Samadhi state one tries to identify the physical body and soul as two separate elements, by thinking about one's own Day and moment of Death. Most Yoga teachers are vague about

Dhayan and Samadhi steps. In deep Samadhi "you are looking at your own dead body". Associate the moment of your death with respiration and heart beats. Think like this. I am alive as long as I am breathing and my heart is beating. When my heart stops, I will die. This Law of Death applies to every living human being and animal. The moment of my death is my next breath or next heart beat. But Today and Now is life. Life goes on as long as God is dwelling in my heart. Summary : Steps No. 1 & 2, Teach Ten words of Morality preached in all World Religions. Steps No.3 & 4, Teach Good health of body by postures Asana and breathing exercises. Steps No, 5, 6 & 7, deal with Mind control, developing Will Power and how to achieve of all possible goals by daily Meditation. The 8th step leads a true seeker to SEE, KNOW and Unite with Supreme (One) God- the perfect maker of Universe, when he/she overcomes the natural fear of death. TIPS: Dont try for Samadhi step before age of 75. No Guru can show you God or teach Samadhi. Spiritual Vision or Seeing Cosmic Light is an individuals unique self experience (Swa-anubhuti). One sees Cosmic Light of Universal God. Remember this Law. All living Gurus are Mortal Human beings, just like you. Yoga is a perfect science for good health of body, mind, intellect and soul. Yoga teaches how to live a noble and happy well united family life (Sansara-Yoga), enjoy good health, earn fame and name, wealth, successes and ever remain in a state of mental bliss, happiness and satisfaction.


Section: II

Ashtang Yoga: 7. STEP NO. 1. YAMA.

Ahimsa Satyam Asteyam Aparigrahaha Braham-charyam eeti Yamaha Sadhan Pada. V-30
These five words mean Non-violence, Truth, No thefts, No greed and Chaste sex life. If these words are well understood and translated in daily actions (Karma), they help to postpone death and remove Fear of Death. "Jatasya hi dhruvo mrutum". "Every born creature has got to die". The Bhagavat Gita (Ch-2) declares this perfect and eternal law of Mother Nature or God. Death is the final and natural End of Life, yet it is also a common FEAR (Bhaya) in all living human beings and animals. The name of first step is Yama. Yama is an Imaginary mystic God of Death in Hinduism. The first step in Ashtang Yoga makes us aware of a definite event, surely going to occur in future life, namely Death. This step teaches five moral words. These words are like commandments found in all world religions. If one does not observe these five principles in daily life, Death comes earlier. Its practice promises a Long and Healthy Life. All animals and mankind have this natural fear of death. This fear of death vanishes and mind becomes fearless (Abhaya) when one th reaches the last (8 step) of Samadhi by Yoga study. In Samadhi one realizes that he/she is Divine Immortal Soul, always present in all living beings. One also understands true relationship between living and non-living Universal bodies, and knows the presence of Absolute Reality (God) as Immortal Soul within. 10

By: Swami Dwiroopanand.

(Dr.H.K. Gandhi in past life. Jacksonville. FL. USA)

Each word needs some good discourses. Only a few points are given below. Ahimsa = Non violence. No injury to any life or property. This is a common doctrine in all world religions. It is preached with great stress in Jainism and also in Buddhism and Hinduism. This is not a simple negative commandment. Ahimsa teaches attitude of a positive universal love, and help people in need with compassion and sense of universal brotherhood and friendship. Do not kill lower forms of life like insects, animals and plants, or murder innocent people even if you do cannot love them. Satyam = God is Truth, and Truth is God, Mahatma Gandhi said. Search God by search of Holy Spirit or Immortal Soul within all living beings. This changeless reality is called by various names in scriptures as Soul, Holy Spirit, Bhraman, Atman, Chetna, Tat, Saha, Tatva meaning pure essence, etc,. Sat means Truth, Good, right, correct. Goona means qualities. A man of good qualities is called Sat-jan, Sajjan (Jan = man), a noble gentleman, an angel. Remember: Tatva Gyana means Spiritual Knowledge, and Atma Gyan means Self Knowledge. Most Indian Gurus teach that this world (Jagat) and our physical bodies are "Mithya, false or unreal", because they are ever changing and perish one day. But Patanjali and Lord Buddha teach that our body is made up of 5 basic elements (Panch-Mahabhuta). These are Earth, Water, Air, Fire or Light (Energy) and Space. This is also a reality and truth. Thus everything in Universe is True and not false. Truth is God. Gandhiji had adopted Nonviolence and Truth, two moral words preached in Yoga and all world religions, in political fight for independence of India against the British Rule. He used it nicely and brought Freedom (liberty) for its people in 1947. He said. There is no dispute, either in family, society or international issues, which cannot be solved by adopting Nonviolence and Truth . Asteye = No thefts, no stealing. Karma Yoga in the Gita teaches practical Asteya in family relations. Children are ever indebted to parents and teachers. If they do not return their debts by serving them in old age with respect, love and care with a sense of gratitude, they are thieves according to Gita. (Ch.3-V-12) Mother-hood and father-hood are natural instincts of love and care for young ones in all species. Love is provided by both parents but more by the mother. Mother is respected as a living Goddess (Devi) in

Hinduism. How to serve parents in old age is nicely indicated in story of Shravan in the Ramayan. Aparigraha = No greed (Alobha). Do not be greedy about money and material things. Desires of collecting great material wealths, money, clothes, furniture, cars, houses, estates, kingdoms etc, is LOBHA. A Yogi has a mental attitude of detachment (Alobha) from all material things, because they give only short-term happiness and pleasures. Brahma-charyam= Chastity or celibacy in sex life. Developing mental control of thoughts of sex desires is real celibacy. Brahmacharyam or mental control of sex desires (Kama) is an important aspect in Yoga study. All religions peach sex control. Unrestricted sex activity leads to diseases likes AIDS, Syphilis and early death. Brahmaya Charati eeti Brahamchari. Brahamchari is a person who travels far and wide for spiritual quest. But by traditional usage this word means a girl or a boy who has not done any sex activity at all in life. (Virgin Girl or Man). A perfectly celibate individual is highly respected at all places. He is called a Brahmchari. Lord Brahama is an imaginary creator God of Life on earth in Hindu mythology. Brahama symbolizes totality of spirits in all living creatures. A person who knows Brahman is a Brahmin, a living representative of God on earth. Brahmin is the highest class in the four-class system socio-political structure started by King Manu (approx. 2500 BC.). Manu Smruti dictates moral laws (Dharma =duties) for all men and women in all four classes. All living beings want to live. The instinct of survival is an inborn natural instinct (vrutti) in all living beings, which drags them all to do many actions (Pravrutti, Karm) like eating, drinking, breathing, moving, etc,. for self preservation. Race preservation instinct is also another natural instinct. The Karma of sex act is done by all insects and vertebrates. All species try to create young ones at certain age period. The desire of sex (Kama = passion) starts at teenage. In human families mental control of passion is needed for a happy and healthy family and social life. The 5 moral vows and practice of the first step of Yoga keeps Yama or 'death' away. By translating the five moral codes in life one lives a long life of many achievements without any psycho-somatic problems and diseases. Satyam Vada, Dharmam Chara. Be Truthful, Honest and Nonviolent. Om Tat Sat. 11 That is Truth.

Section: II

Ashtang Yoga: 8. STEP NO 2 NIYAMA

Shaucham, Santosha Tapa, Swadhyaya, Ishvara-Pranidhanani eeti Niyamaha. Verse- 32. Sadhan Pada. Shaucham = Cleanliness of body, mind and intellect. Santosha = Satisfaction, contentment, compromising attitude in any and all situations in life. Tapa = Penance are done for purification of body, mind and intellect by restrains of senses and actions. It develops good human qualities like discipline, obedience, tolerance, endurance, etc,. Swadhyaya = Self study and practices of unfoldment of inner self (Anter-Atma), Soul or Spirit (PURE ATMAN). Ishvera parinidhani = Total surrender to God. Develop an attitude of accepting all events (including deaths of relatives) occurring in life, as destined by God or Laws of Mother Nature. The 10 words of 'Yama and Niyama', can be compared with TEN commandments of Christianity and all religions. One will find great similarity of moral doctrines in all religions in first two steps of Yoga. Yoga practice starts with understanding of these morals. The word Niyama means rules, regulations, laws or commandments. FIVE important rules or codes of conduct are indicated in this step. 1. Saucham: Cleanliness of body, food, water and air. This means clean food, water, air, dress, home and land. In name of religion, many rituals are done e.g. Fire worship by orthodox Bhramins. This makes atmosphere and surroundings unhygienic. They pour milk, curd, honey etc as 'Abhisheks on Shiva Linga. The residual milk create an ideal breeding pot for bacteria, flies and mosquitoes. People throw garbage near temples and on roadside. Epidemics like cholera, jaundice and typhoid break out. Orthodox Priests explain such events as anger of Lord Shiva. Thousands of people take bath in holy rivers like Ganges. This makes the water polluted. All such practices are wrong according to this step of Saucham. A Yoga student should not participate in such activities.

2. Santosha: A sense of Satisfaction with the present situation in life. Events in life happen, as they must happen according to rules (Niyama) of Mother Nature (Prakruti). These bring either happiness or unhappiness. All human beings are limited by Time and Place (DeshKal). They SEE only the effects (of events) with senses and minds. Mostly they do not try to find the causes (reason) of such events. If something do not happen as one wishes, he/she gets upset, becomes unhappy, frustrated, depressed or angry. After birth, the journey of all human beings and animals reach a day called Today. This is the Last Day of creation of Universe (!). According to Karma done in past- by every individual (Atma), he/she is either happy or unhappy. Yoga teaches to develop a sense of satisfaction (Santosh) in material terms for whatever and whereever you are in life Today and Now. 3. Tapa: Austerities or penances. Tapa teaches how to control sensual cravings arising in mind for objects of sensual joys, and demanded by five senses. Tapa is a religious training. It must be taught by parents and learned by children during young age. Tapa prepares mind for unexpected hardships likely to come in future life. All days are not green and rosy days. One must learn to endure some difficulties like pain, hunger, thirst etc,. for a few days. Most people live at physical body level only. They get upset with slightest change in their comforts and surroundings. Their attachments to taste, smell and appearance of food make them miserable. Happiness or unhappiness arises in mind. It is mostly due to likes and dislikes for food items and drinks, clothes and comforts. 'Tapa' training creates Will Power for facing odds in life's journey. The purpose of penances is to gain control over mind and senses. By learning Tapa, the student develops mental control over natural instincts like thirst, hunger, sex desires, etc, and learns tolerance. In military training one learns many Tapas in hard training schedules. 4. Swadhyaya: Self study and self analysis. Swadhyaya teaches realizing and accepting one's own mistakes. One learns to confess, say sorry and apologize for ones mistakes (Sins). A false ego of superiority or "I am always right" prevents such confessions. All kinds of false egos gradually (Mada) disappear by meditation. Real Swadhaya occurs when one reaches the last step of Samadhi in Yoga which comes by Self-Meditation


(Adhiatm-Chintan) only. One becomes aware of one's limitations of Time, Place, Knowledge and Mistakes (sins) committed in the past life. 5. Ishvera-prainidhanai. Surrender to God's wish. The art of surrendering to wish of God or as design of God is Ishvera-prainidhanai. One may believe in God or not, but by Yoga meditation one learns that there is some perfect law and wonderful order in Mother Nature. Founder Prophets of all religions explain God as invisible maker of laws like gravity, bondage of time-place for all living beings and so on. God is maker of the perfect laws of Mother Nature (Prakruti). This God could be realized in an indirect way by self meditation only. One gradually understands that the laws of Mother Nature work in an equal, just and perfect manner on all living bodies and non-living objects, on all material creations in the world and universe. Ishvara is one of the many names for supreme God in the Upanishads. Ishvara is a fraction of the Holy Spirit ever present in the hearts of all living beings. Ishvara sarva Bhutanam Hridaye tishti Arjuna. (Gita-Ch-18) In anatomical terms words of modern science one can say God or Ishver is sitting at AV node in heart and Bundle of HIS'. Yoga books describe many Chakras like Kamal (Lotus) Chakra, Hridaya Chakra, etc,. These can be understood as AV-node located in heart (AtmaVishuddhi-Chakra). Wishes and desires of all human beings are endless. Niyama help to develop a mental balance of desires and give courage to face and endure any unhappy situation in life. Love and compassion towards lower forms of life and preservation of living creatures including animals and plants is the divine quality and noble attitude of any pure hearted man. All acts mst be done as work of and for God. Niyama step teaches strict discipline, moral conduct and good manners and behavior. Niyama lay great stress on purity of body and mind and help to remove negative thoughts. All this is achieved by self meditation. Slogans like do to others what you want them to do to yourself come from understanding of a divine self within all of us. Om Tat Sat. God Is Truth.

Section: II


PART-I. Seven golden rules of asana and pranayama. PART-II. Savasan, Padmasana, & Surya Namaskara. PART-III. (A) Asana for limbs. PART-IV. (B) (i) asana for backward bending of spine and neck. (ii) asana for forward bending of spine. (iii) side bending and rotation of spine. PART-IV. (C). Asana for Vital Systems PART-I. Seven golden rules of asana and pranayama. Pranayama and Asana go hand in hand. A Good warning before doing any Asana and/or Pranayama. Persons with history of diabetes, BP, heart attacks, lung, bones, brain, eyes, digestive problems, pregnancy, major illness, history of operations etc., must get their family doctor's opinion before doing ANY ASANA, except:(1) MAHA-PRANAYAMA (Step No 4) and (2) SAVASANA. These two can be done by any one even sick, and mastered perfectly. They are important steps of Yoga before learning any other ASANA. Their devoted practices bring wonderful mental and physical results. SEVEN GOLDEN RULES OF ASANA AND PRANAYAMA. 1. ALL ASANA MUST BE DONE VERY SLOWLY AND WITHOUT JERKS. The slow movements create a great mind power, control of mind and will power. 2. Yoga Asana are like vaccine shots. They prevent many psychosomatic diseases. Partial relief or complete cure in many psychosomatic diseases like blood pressure, insomnia, asthma, diabetes and many chronic diseases occurs to many people. When a disease is well established, one cannot not expect magic cures. But some relief in digestive diseases, BP, and arthritis etc., always occur. 13

3. Yoga Asana are Static Postural exercises. They cannot be compared with muscle developing Aerobic exercises or Fitness Gyms. 4. Learn and master Maha-Pranayama, inner Kumbhak and outer Kumbhak and Rachak. These are linked with many ASANA. Do relaxing Savasana in-between and/or after completion of Asana. In stead of doing many ASANA daily, master a few selected ASANA advised by the teacher which are useful for your age and other conditions. Do such Asana daily for longer times. 5. Do not spend more than 15 to 30 minutes for Asana and Pranayama at one time in a day. Surya-Namaskara, walking, Pranayama and Savasana are good for aged people. 6. Jogging or fast running is not advisable after the age of sixty or seventy. Avoid long standing Asana, if you are doing long standing jobs for hours, have high BP, hip, knee, ankle and leg problems. 7. Flex and extend toes and fingers in between ASANA, many times during a day, whenever possible, after removing shoes and stockings. Remember little fingers also do very important jobs. STATIC BODY POSTURES. "Shariram adyam khalu Dharma Sadhanam " "Body is the first important tool for living a healthy, and happy long life. Correct practices of Dharma (religion) are indicated in the first two steps of Yoga". The bliss state of mind (thoughtless consciousness) produced by Pranayama and meditation, cures many psycho-somatic diseases. In spiritual talks of Indian Gurus one hears like this: You are not body, not mind, not intellect, but pure Atma, soul or spirit. Body is mortal, perishable, ever changing etc,. You are immortal soul". This takes very long time, daily meditation on Self, and devoted study of Yoga for years to reach this final point of Nirvana or Spiritual Consciousness. Asana means a seat, a chair or a throne. Asana are firm static body postures, usually combined with simple postural exercises and Pranayama . The purpose of Asana is to maintain good health and mobility of all joints in limbs, spine and vital systems like respiration, circulation, excretions and digestive organs. The human body is wonderful design, highest creation and gift of God. Patanjali and Lord Buddha had realized the importance of a healthy body, sound mind, and purification of intellect for higher mediation. Body is important and must be cared well.

The first four steps of Yoga teach Eternal Religion and how to keep Body and Mind in perfectly fit condition. Some simple Asana can be easily done for ten to fifteen minutes at home or in office if one finds a little Free Time. Yoga meditation and Asana are time tested tools of pacifying mind. This leads to quick recovery from many diseases like digestive problems, BP, etc,. Asana and Pranayama if done regularly, help to stop progress of many diseases. Some Asana cure digestive problems like loss of appetite, hiccups, flatulence, constipation, acidity, ulcers etc,. They also prevent and cure brain, bone and joint diseases like headaches, migraines, insomnia, back and neck stiffness and joint aches, cramps in legs etc., etc. Always learn Asana under supervision of a knowledgeable and experienced teacher (Guru), preferably having background of modern medicine. People in old age and/or diseases like BP, history of heart diseases, have to avoid Asana like 'Shirsasana'. Some Asana are not advisable during pregnancy, in cases of injuries of spine and so on. Nearly three hundred Asana are described in Yoga Books. One needs to learn only a few, suitable for his or her age period and need. The names of Asana vary in different books. Asana and Postures are named after animals, birds, insects, and geometric figures etc.,. For example the "Matsya-asana" is like a fish, the "Kukutta-asana" is like a cock, the "Salabhasana" is like a grass hopper, the "Sarp Aasana or Bhujang Asana" is like a snake and so on. "A healthy body keeps the mind healthy and healthy mind keeps the body healthy. If both are well united (in Yoga) with intellect, a perfect human personality is created". Good health of body and inner Vital Systems is important for long life and all happiness. Respiration is partly voluntary and partly involuntary. Any adult individual can easily control rate and depth of air intake at will. Pranayam teaches how to develop a partial control even for a few minutes, over this involuntary vital system of body. Learn and master art of Maha-Pranayama before starting any Asana. Maha-Pranayama (MP): Longest Possible One Breath. Take a very deep breath, (inhale); Hold the air in lungs as long as possible (Kumbhak). Then exhale as slowly as possible (Rachak), and lastly do not take next breath (outer Kumbhak), as long as posible. These 4 steps of one longest possible breath cycle make one MahaPranayam (MP).


Normal respiration rate is 15 to 18 breaths/minute. 500 cc. air is breathed in and out in 4 seconds normally. In one breath. any average person can easily breath- inhale, 3 times (1500c.c) air, hold it in for some time, and do one MP. This reduces the normal breathing rate of 15 to 18, to only 2 or 3 breaths per minute. Measure your MPs with a wristwatch. Try to do 4 to 8 MPs of about 30 seconds, in two to five minutes. Do not try any more. By doing long in-holds (Kumbhak) more time is allowed for a larger volume of air for purification (oxygen exchange) in lungs. Mind soon becomes fresh and pacified immediately. We will learn only a few common and useful Asana with important points and benefits. PART-II. Savasan, Padmasana, & Surya Namaskara. General rule: Before starting any Asana a student should learn and master Maha-Pranayama. In pregnancy and in case of injuries of back, spine twisting Asana should be avoided. Before trying any difficult Asana consult family doctor. Some Asana are good only for youth and not advisable for old people. Do all Asans slowly, without jerks and only to your capacity and age limits. SAVASAN OR SHABASAN: DEAD BODY POSTURE. Shab means a dead-body. Shava means sleep. Lie flat on hard ground and pretend as if you are like a dead body. This sleeping posture or a dead body posture is called Savasana or Shabaasana. If one lifts the hand or leg of a person in real Savasana, and then releases it, the limb falls on ground like a lifeless block of wood. SAVASANA IS A THOUGHTLESS WORRYLESS CONSCIOUS RELAXED STATE OF MIND DURING WHICH ALL OPPOSING GROUPS OF VOLUNTARY MUSCLES REMAIN IN A RELAXED STATE.

Lying on ground with face towards sky is called Supine position. Lying face down is called Prone position. Savasana appears easy but it is a difficult Asana to master. Yoga teachers show various tricks to master Savasana. It should be done in a quiet and dimly lighted room if possible. Savasana can be done either in PRONE or in SUPINE positions. Savasana should be done inbetween other Asana which require more KUMBHAKS, (breath-in holds). Savasana brings great relaxation to joints, muscles, internal sphincters, all vital organs and creates immediate peace in agitated minds. Savasana is very useful in relieving tensions, worries insomnia and mental tensions. If well mastered Savasana can induce sleep at will. No sleeping pills will be needed. One gets a dreamless sound sleep within a few minutes, even in noisy places. A student must note that dreamless sleep state and Samadhi, the 8th step of Yoga, are not similar mental states as many Yoga Gurus believe and teach. A few minute Savasana done at any place during jobs demanding great mental attention and concentration helps to create new and fresh ideas. Savasana and Pranayama help Lawyers drafting important documents, Doctors performing many operations one after another, Business people making important decisions like buying or selling shares or property etc,. Similarly writers, poets, actors, singers, dancers, sportsmen and athletes during their spells of mental or physical fits demanding extra energy will be benefited. A few minutes of Savasana will create new ideas, mental peace and physical energy for next important jobs. A few Maha-Pranayama, done prior to diving give a longer under-water time to all swimmers. Steps for Mastering Savasan. Lie flat on ground and close both eyes completely. Use a firm mattress and a rolled towel under the nape of neck, if the hard ground is uncomfortable for back and head. Make your self very comfortable at first. Do two or three Maha-Pranayama. By altering normal breathing rate from 15 to 18 per/Min to 4 to 6 per/Min, or chanting in mind Long OM mantra, or any long Mantra, try to relax all body muscles. Count breathing by numbers from one to fifty, or chant name of God you like. But in final stage all chanting must stop. Try to develop a thoughtless consciousness or a total void in mind. Following tips will help. Imagine that your body is very light and floating in a cloud of golden light. 15

Try to feel the temperature difference of exhaled and inhaled air at the tip of nose. The temperature of exhaled air is higher than that of inhaled air under normal circumstances. Try to feel this fine temperature difference. Try to hear the sound and rhythm of your own heart beats. Many such tricks are described in Yoga books and taught by different Yoga teachers. One observes that in a simple looking Asana like Savasana there is need of a teacher. The teacher suggests procedures and supervises performance of students. Indian Yogis knew such tricks since thousands of years. Savasana is an important and preliminary Asana, which must be learned and mastered before practicing other Asana and higher steps of deep meditation like Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. Learn Asana and Pranayama in small groups. Experiences of other students help when they discuss their own subjective experiences. Pranayama and Asana are correlated, complimentary and interdependent practices. Meditation postures:-

postures according to ability and level of the student. Any comfortable sitting posture is called Sukha-asana. Chant OM or some prayer Mantra. Combine them with deep breathing exercises. This practice immediately brings a short time mental peace to any fresh Yoga student. It relaxes body muscles, relieves tensions from confused and worrying thoughts in mind. With more practice of Self Meditation (Adhiatma Chintan) newer ideas and positive thoughts of bright future are created in mind. Surya Namaskaras. SUN SALUTATIONS. Surya-namaskaras provides a full body exercise of all joints. It is combination of lift-ups and stretch-outs, familiar in West. It gives good exercise to both limbs and spine. Five to ten SUN Salutations is a very good daily exercise and a good daily Yoga routine. Combine one SUN SALUTATION with chanting of one, two or three Gayatri Mantras of Sun worship. During one Surya-Namaskara, try to chant two or three Gayatri mantra. After some practice try to complete one Gayatri mantra with one Maha-Pranayama in one spell of a Surya Namaskara. When Surya-namaskaras is combined with chanting Gayatri Mantra, it makes devotional ritual of Sun-worship. In Gayatri Mantra the student requests the Sun God to give him/her Intellect as bright as the Sun, so that he/she can shine in world with newer self uplifting ideas for entire mankind on Earth.

Padmasana, Siddhasana Sukhasan. Most popular sitting Asana for Yoga is the Lotus posture or Meditation posture. There are three main variations. (1). Padmasan, (Lotus Posture); Two feet are firmly crossed over each other. Feet are placed on opposite thighs. The ten toes make a figure like a lotus in the lap. (2) Siddhasana (Success posture). When any meditation posture is maintained for a long time it is called Siddhasana. (3) Sukhasana (Comfort posture). Sit in any comfortable position, even in a chair or sofa. Meditation can be done by old, and people with leg joint problems in chair. Yoga Meditation is generally done in above 16


Garudasana. EAGLE POSTURE.

A healthy body keeps mind healthy and healthy mind keeps the body healthy. When Body and Mind are in Yoga with Intellect, a well balanced human personality is the final result. Nearly three hundred Asana are described in Yoga Books, but one needs to learn only a few useful Asana, good for ones age period and specific needs. Good health of body and all Vital Systems is important for long life and to enjoy material happiness. All Yoga Asana can be classified into following main groups. A. Asana for limbs. They preserve the fullest range of mobility of all major joints of upper and lower limbs. B. Asana for the spine and neck. These can be sub-divided into 3 groups. (i). Backward spine bending Asana (ii). Foreword spine bending Asana. (iii). Rotation and side to side spine bending Asana.

Stand on one leg. Wrap the other leg around it. Do similar wrapping of one hand on a semi-flexed elbow of other hand. Maintain this position for a few minutes. Do such 2-3 min. spells changing right and left hands and feet.

C. Asana for the vital systems

(A) ASANA FOR LIMBS. These Asana maintain and increase the full range of movements in major joints of upper limb like shoulders, elbows and wrists, and lower limb like ankles, knees and hip joints. The limitation of joint movements and various diseases occurring in joints of hands and legs bring crippling state to any person. If some simple Asana are done regularly from young age, a very useful long and healthy life is the real gain. Only a few popular Asana will be described in these chapters. The pictures of many other Asana and more details are available in many Yoga books and work out Yoga videos available today.

2. Vajrasana. HIPS AND KNEES POSTURE. Sit on both flexed knees and ankles pointing backwards. Try to separate both feet slowly outwards according to your tolerance. Maintain this posture as long as you can, but never over do this or any difficult posture longer than your limit of tolerance. Complete flexion of knees and rotation of hips prevents old age arthritis. This Asana is very useful for the western people who are not used to sit on ground or use toilet in squatting position for excretory functions.


3. Mayurasana. PEACOCK POSTURE. This is a difficult Asana, but useful for youth and adults. Two palms and forearms flexed at elbow support the straight and horizontally extended body in prone position. Posture looks like an Indian colorful bird peacock.

PART-IV. (B) (i) asana for backward bending of spine and neck. Most people stoop forewords during normal daily activities. This leads to a constant strain on the back muscles of spine. By doing forward bending Asana, the spinal back muscles get toned up. The fatigue of the back muscles is responsible for many minor backaches and loss of mood during work hours. By doing Back bending Asana the range of backward movement of spinal column is increased. Stronger spinal muscles prevent backaches and future slip-disk problems. 1. Shalabhasana. Half, Full, Chalit. LOCUST POSTURES. Lying in prone position raise head and neck and extended one by one leg as up as you can, keeping two hands by the sides. Carry out this, alternately 5 or 10 times on both sides. Try to synchronize and link with one Maha-Pranayama each spell of leg raising. Two legs raising done together makes a full Shalabhasana. Moving two legs one after another make a Chalit Shalabhasana.

4. Hirak-asana. DIAMOND POSTURE. Can be done in standing or sitting positions. Stand on toes, knees facing outwards. Raise heels and keep two palms on loins. Upper limbs can be placed in various poses like facing sky, or back of neck etc,. These postures can also be done in sitting or lying down positions.

Chalit Shalabhasana.


2. Bhujangasana. SERPENT OR COBRA POSTURE. Lying in prone position raise Head and Chest keeping both legs fully straight. Maintain for 2 or 3 minutes. Breathing is allowed. Short spells of 10 to 30 seconds of Breath In-holds, Kumbhaks, can be done. Support of two elbows is allowed. Do not forget to do a Savasan in between.

3. Matsyasana. FISH POSTURE. Do Padmasana- the meditation posture. Maintaining the flexed knees, lie on back. Then bend neck backwards and lift abdomen and chest upwards. Breathing permitted. Do such 3 to 5 spells of 2-3 min. each.

4. Dhanurasana. BOW POSTURE (easy). After doing above two Asana No 1 and 2, lying in prone position try to hold two ankles with two hands on the backside making shape of a bow. Kumbhaks done for 10 to 30 seconds.are useful. Do such 4 to 8 spells and one or two Savasana in between.

5. Chakrasana. HALF WHEEL POSTURE. Usually done in Standing, but can be done in Supine positions. Keep two legs together, bend knees forewords, try to bend backwards making a half arch of body looking like a half wheel. Difficult for adults and aged. Breathing permitted. Maintain for 2-3 minutes.

BOW POSTURE (perfect).

6. Ooshtrasana. CAMEL POSTURE. A Sitting Triangle made with (i) base by legs, (ii) thigh and trunk straight, (iii) two hands behind taking support on two ankles: (iv) Keep neck thrown backwards. Breathing allowed. Do 2-3 spells. Try to keep each spell for 2-3 min. 19

1.Uttanpadasana. (Half-full & Chalit). STRAIGHT LEG RAISING. Lye supine, raise one leg up (keeping straight) to 30 to 45 degrees from ground, and doing a Kumbhak. Keep for 10 sec. Breath out. Bring leg down. Do such 8 to 10 spells with each leg. Do Savasana in between. Raising two legs together is full UP-Asan. Moving legs in with Kumbhaks make it a Chalit Uttanpadasana. This is a good Asan for reducing fat from abdomen, and a good quadriceps exercise for thigh.

Part-IV.B (ii). ASANA FOR FORWARD BENDING OF SPINE. These Asana can be done lying on ground in Supine or Standing positions. These are not indicated for people with bone diseases, tumors, slip-disk cases, pregnancy etc. 1.Katiutthanasana. (Bridge Posture of PT Exercises) THIGH-TRUNK-CHEST-RAISING POSTURE. Lying supine lift abdomen and chest with half flexed knees, making a triangle supported by shoulders and feet. Keep two hands by sides. Breathing permitted. Do 3 to 5 spells of MahaPranayama. Maintain this for 2-3 min. This is a very good Asana for back of spine, Lumbgo, and legs. It is very easy for most people.


3. Naukasan. BOAT POSTURE. Lying in supine position raise two straight legs and two straight hands at 45 degrees position towards the sky.

5. Sarvangasana. ALL LIMBS POSTURE. Legs up - head down posture with extreme flexion of neck. Raise legs and trunk up. Support body with two hands on buttocks. This Asana is like a half- Sirshasana (Head-down legs-up posture).

4. Pashchimottasana. TOE TOUCH AND HEAD-KNEE POSTURE. Sit with extended legs in front. Try to touch two big toes with fingers of hands bending forwards. Try to bring face down to touch the knees. This Asana can be done in standing position also.

6. Halasana, PLOUGH POSTURE. From Sarvangasana further flex trunk, stretching legs and feet backwards to touch ground. Hands remain straight on opposite side of legs.


7. Karnasana. EARS BETWEEN KNEES POSTURE. After mastering Halasana, try to make a complete curvature of spine by placing head and ears between two knees. This is a difficult Asana for adults and aged. Do not do this asana during early Asana training.

2. Ardha-Chandrasana. HALF-MOON POSTURE. Done in standing position. Legs together. Raise one hand towards sky and keep that way. Bring other hand as down from knee towards ankle, making curvature like a half-moon. Alternate sides. Do 2-3 min. spells. Breathing is permitted.

PART-IV. (B) (iii) side bending and rotation of spine. 1. Trikonasana. TRIANGLE POSTURE. Done in standing position with two legs 18" apart. Bend one knee, same side hand touches ground, other hand straight, neck bent also on same side. 2-3 min. spells. Alternate sides. Breathing allowed.

3. Matsyandrasana, or Vakrasana. HALF AND FULL TWIST POSTURES. Keep one straight leg on ground. Flex other leg in knee-up position. Twist and pass opposite hand and shoulder over the raised knee. This is half Asana. For complete Asana, flex the straight and try to catch the toes of flexed leg with other hand from behind. Half and full Matyendrasana and many spine twisting postures are done sitting, standing and lying on ground in supine or Prone positions.


Part IV. (C). Asana for Vital Systems Human body is equipped with five vital systems, namely, (i) Prana= Respiratory, (ii) Vyana= digestive, (iii) Samana= circulatory, (iv) Apana= excretory, (v) Udana= nervous. Many Indian priests chant these words during fire rituals without understanding their meanings. These systems are subconsciously controlled by autonomic nervous system. Some Yoga exercises help to develop a partial control over these systems. Deep breathing exercises and ASANA done with 'Breath Inholds- Kumbhak help all inner vital organs of body by circulating more oxygenated blood to brain and all abdominal organs. 1. Pavan-Muktasana. GAS-RELIEVING POSTURES In Supine position, flex one knee, bend head towards knee and do a breath out (RACHAK) forcefully. Repeat on second knee. Flex two legs. Press them by two arms making a Lithotomy position in Gynecology operations. Do in between Kapalbhati, Kumbhaks and RACHAK Pranayama.

2. Vanarasana. MONKEY POSTURE. This is opposite of above Asana. It is done in Prone position. Flex both knees, raise hips and trunk, both arms stretched forwards. Keep face on one side. Do Kapalbhati, Kumbhaks and Rachaks.

3. Shirsaasana. HEAD-DOWN LEGS-UP POSTURE. Complete head down position. Take support of a wall to start with. This Asana should not be done by people with high BP, past history of brain stokes and neck problems. Do this for only 2-3 minutes initially. It cures many headeaches, stops progress and/or cures cases of reading glass numbers and many eye and nasal problems.


Section: II
Summary: Asana names will vary in different Yoga Books. A student must remember the purpose of a particular Asana and try to do it slowly and without jerks. Never over do any Asana or any extreme joint stretching exercises. In all Asana for upper and lower limbs try to flex or extend all joints to their fullest range. In Aerobic exercises the purpose is shape of body and developing muscle power. The aim of Yoga Asana is to maintain tone of muscles and preserve fullest range of movements of all smaller and larger joints of limbs, neck and spine. Try to develop your own suitable routine of Asans and stick to that regularly preferably in early morning hours. Do not mimic someone doing difficult and surprising body postures. People in circus can do wonderful body postures. One should not try to mimic other people. Never forget the smaller finger joints of hands and feet. Whenever you get time, remember to flex and extend these little joints. Osteo arthritis of most joints could be prevented and cured to a fair degree by doing regular exercises and correct Yoga Asana.

Ashtang Yoga: 10. STEP NO. 4 PRANAYAMA. (Breathing Exercises)

BREATHING EXERCISES. Pranayama Cures Blood Pressurein 90 % of cases. Pranayama:-Breathing Exercises. Breathing is a most important involuntary vital system. When the breath stops one dies. One can realize God indirectly by understanding that this Law of Mother Nature (God) work on all human beings and animals in an equal manner. Its voluntary control, even for a short time, creates great will power. Respiratory system (Prana) is one of the five vital systems of physiology in all human beings and animals. The other four vital systems are Excretory (Apaana), Digestive, (Vyana) Nervous (Udaan) and Circulatory (Samaan). Mostly these are not under voluntary control of any person. Pranayama practices create a state of peace of mind called thoughtless consciousness (Nirvichar Jagruti). In long run it leads mind into a higher state of self-awareness, self-realization (Atma-Gyan) and spiritual or universal consciousness. This is called Nirvana. This State of Mind is not easy to achieve as it looks. To reach Nirvana one needs regular Yoga and Pranayama practices for days, months and years. Pranayama Cures Blood Pressurein 90 % of cases. I would like to record an Email response of a new friend who had tried only one short session of Maha Prayanama. He wrote, Dear Doctor Gandhi, It was my pleasure to meet you at the Thanksgiving dinner. I can give thanks that we happened to meet and engage in a very interesting conversation about Yoga. Saturday night I took my blood pressure. It was above normal at 146 over 95. I waited about 10 minutes and did the breathing exercise and took my pressure after finishing. The pressure was low and close to the new standards issued by the medical profession some time ago,


126 over 85. I am impressed and interested in discovering more about the practice of Yoga. Thank you for the additional information you gave me today at church. I will put time aside on Monday to read thru the material. The next thing I MUST do is discipline myself to take the time to do the breathing exercises regularly. Thanks again and I hope to see you soon. Regards, Ron Ferster. Pranayama done in chair, or in lying positions during recovery from heart attacks and other surgical procedures, accelerates the recovery and shortens the bed stay. Many known cases of blood pressure are permanently cured by simple Pranayama practices. Blood pressure is described as idiopathic- disease in 90% of cases in medical books. In simple words the cause is not known. It is a silent disease having no symptoms during the early onset period. Sometimes it is discovered during routine medical check ups for insurance. When it remains untreated for a long time it gets established and starts affecting other vital organs like kidneys, coronary arteries (supplying blood to heart), and arteries of brain and other systems. The arteries become hard and loose their elasticity. Worries, stress and tensions are well-recognized psychological causes responsible for many cases of idiopathic blood pressure. Besides blood pressure, Pranayama and Mantra chanting cures and/or prevents other psycho-somatic diseases like sinus problems, recurrent attacks of colds, asthma, acidity, angina, diabetes, gastric ulcers, constipation, backaches, joint diseases, stiffness, etc., etc. Breathing is partly voluntary and partly involuntary. Any adult individual, by some practice can develop a good control over the rate and depth of air intake at will for some minutes. Pranayama practices teach how to develop will control over this partly involuntary vital system of body. This helps all persons in sports like swimming, diving (in particular), running, tennis, basket ball, singing skills (Aalap) etc,. This is a worth learning step of Yoga even if one does not wish to learn and practice other steps or play above sports. Normally the respiratory system is functioning subconsciously. By bringing it under voluntary (conscious) control of mind, the thoughts cropping up in mind disappear at once like criminals running away upon hearing the siren of a police car. One immediately feels good and becomes worries and tension free. The ancient Indian Rishies had observed another important mental activity associated with breath control. 25

When one consciously controls the rate and depth of respiration, all worrying and confusing thoughts cropping up in mind like sparks of wild fire- or a monkey jumping from one branch to another disappear for that short period of time. Pranayama when combined with chanting of OM and Prayer Mantras provide a handy tool of pacifying the confused mind for any individual at all times and at all places. With Pranayama and chanting OM, mind becomes pacified. A pacified mind is needed to learn any subject in school or doing any good job or mental activity of meditation. Mind remains attentive and creative if it is calm. Immediate relief of worries, stress, tensions and confusion of thoughts is experienced. This can be compared to two aspirin tablets relieving joint pains, fevers and headaches in a short time. The benefits of Pranayama are totally any Individuals subjective experience (Atma-Anubhuti). One has to confirm by self-experiment and observing all short and long term results. Deep breathing produces more oxygenated blood in lungs and at the same time wipes out accumulated carbon-dioxide. All vital organs of body like brain, kidneys, intestines and liver start working better immediately because they get oxygenated fresh blood. The mind is peaceful, heart rate falls and this increases cardiac out put per minute. The satisfied vital organs like lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, intestines etc., create a wonderful sense of well-being, alertness and better performance. There is no need for smoking or drinking tea or coffee or alcohol. Pranayama is the threshold for entering Yoga Meditation The art of Meditation starts with Pranayama and last four steps of Yoga. These steps teach mind control, setting of age related goals and art of positive thinking. They teach how to control five Senses (Pratyahar Step -5), Four Goals of Life (Dharna, 6th step), Art of 100 % Concentration (Dhyan, 7th step) and spiritual realization of Self, by selfknowledge, self-upliftment and vision (Darshan) of invisible God (Samadhi, step 8). They are studied with Upanishads, Darshans like Sankhya, Vedanta and the Bhagavat Gita (Divine song of God). * * * * It is possible to live long by regulating the Prana (life breath), which is partly under control of your will. Your life is partly in your hands by the free will for actions (Karma) given to only human beings by God. You are Bhagvan - the maker of your own destiny. (Bhag or Bhagya means Luck, destiny).

Nearly 96 types of Pranayama are described in different Yoga books. Learn Pranayama under the guidance of a non-greedy teacher (Guru) having background of modern medical subjects like anatomy, physiology, pharmacology and diseases. Only a few useful and important are described below. SOME IMPORTANT PRANAYAMA: 1. Maha-Pranayama: (MP) Longest Possible One Breath. 2. Bhrastrika. Rapid Deep Breathings. Long inhalation, short in hold- long exhalation- short out hold. Different combinations of above procedures Combined with OM and Mantra Chanting. 3. Kapal-Bhati. Deep forced Breath outs with forceful use of diaphragm and the recti (abdominal) muscles. 4. Tratak: Combined with different Eyes exercises and Pranayama. 5. Nasal Pranayama. Various tricks of Nasal breathing, in/out from right and/or left noses, and Mouth Breathing. 1. Maha-Pranayama (MP): Longest possible single breath. In MP Yoga student learns to reduce normal rate of breathing of 15 to 18 per minute to one or two breaths per minute. (MP is authors name of this Pranayam). 1. Take a deepest possible in-breath, Maximum Inhalation. 2. Hold breath in as long as possible. In-hold (Kumbhak). 3. Breath out slowly; Long Exhale, Rachak. Lastly, 4. Do not take next breath as long as you can, Keep long outer breath hold Bahya Khumbhak. Above 4 parts of one breath cycle make One Maha-Pranayam (1MP). Mastering MP is foundation stone for all Pranayama Practices. It is simple to learn and easy to practice. In MP normal rate of breathing of 15 to 18 per minute is reduced to one, two or three breaths per minute. Measure this with a wristwatch. Measure also the length of each part. MP is a very useful and wonderful breathing exercise for all individuals, at all age periods, males or females, sick or healthy. Normally an adult at rest takes 15 to 18 breaths per minute or one breath in 4 seconds. During same one minute the heart beats 72 times. One heartbeat takes about 0.8 seconds. During one breath cycle (inhalation and exhalation) a person at rest takes-in and exhales-out nearly 500 cc of air. Out of this 500 cc of air inhaled, only 350 cc of air enters into the inner most sponge like portion of lung (alveoli) for oxygen exchange. Whereas 150 cc of air 26

remains in the dead space area made up of bronchi, trachea, pharynx and nasal sinuses. When respiration rate is reduced from normal of 18 per minute, to 2 or 3 breaths per minute, it gives nearly 30 seconds of time for 1300 cc of a block of fresh air in the lungs for purification during one MP. With more practice one can increase 1 MP time to one breath per minute or one breath in 2 or 3 minutes. But do not try such long MP stunts in early practice. Recently I watched on TV one 8 minute long breath-hold (KUMBHAK) by some under water diver. Even if you wish you will not be able to do more than 5 to 10 MPs. There is a physiological reason. The carbon-dioxide level in blood falls due to deep breath ins/outs. It changes the normal pH of blood. There are nerve sensors located in the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain. They send messages to the vital center of respiration located in brain stem (Medulla Oblongata) to stop this activity. This is a wonderful design of God. It is comparable to fuel and air mixing devices of automatic sensors of modern carburetors in cars and airplanes. One can easily master Maha-Pramayam (MP) and a few other Pranayama. MPs provide more oxygenated blood to diseased organs during recovery period in sicknesses, and thus helps to cure many diseases. This knowledge also help during life threatening situations like entrapped in mines, caves or fallen buildings during earth-quakes, land slides, smokes due to fire hazards, poisonous gases etc,. Any inexperienced person can easily breath-in 3 times than normal air intake- nearly 1300 to 1500c.c. He can hold it in, the breathed air for some more time. By doing such a long in-hold (Kumbhak) more time is allowed for a bigger volume of air for oxygen exchange in lungs. Anybody can easily do 3 or 4 MPs of average 30 seconds each, and can do such 4 to 8 MP session of two to four minutes at very first trial. Maha Pranayama is a very simple deep breathing exercise. 5 to 10 MPs done at intervals during work intervals or recovery period in hospital beds, improve tone of all body muscles. People take breaks during work hours to refresh their tired bodies and minds. But they smoke cigarettes; take tea or coffee, alcoholic drinks and other intoxicating drugs, which harm liver, lungs and general health. Instead a few MPs, if done regularly, will have no side effects and they do not cost a cent. Besides the results will be far superior, heath preserving, and give immediate mental benefits. MPs create a general sense of well-being, freshness of mind, improve general tone of body muscles and all joints. MPs refresh all vital organs of body like brain, lungs, kidneys, liver and heart.

Imagine during Maha Pranayam that God as Universal Air (Vayu Dev) and Cosmic Light Energy (Vishva -Jyoti) is entering your body and purifying all internal organs and mind. Tips: (1). Master each part gradually up to its full capacity, but never overdo any part of a MP to extreme limit. (2). All phases must be smooth and gradual without any jerks. (3). Do 5 to 8 sessions of 4 to 8 MPs daily at two or three hourly intervals. Advise: Do not do more than 8 MPs in one session at one time. Let your breath come down to normal breathing rate for a few minutes. Then only start next 8 Mps and stop. Do 15 to 20 minutes MPs sessions in one sitting. Than do next the next session after 2 to 4 hours interval. MPs can be done at any time in a day, e.g. getting up from bed, after taking bath, before prayers, during work intervals, recovery periods from sickness in hospital beds, or any free time, during day or before going to bed at night. You will soon start seeing its mental, physical and benefits in High Blood Pressure cases and recovery of other disease conditions. Summary: Maha Pranayama is simple to learn and useful for all individuals, at all age periods, males or females, sick or healthy. Learn, master and try to practice 20 minutes sessions of MPs. Do at two or four hourly intervals. Try this for 3 to 5 days regularly. You will soon start experiencing its mental peace and benefits in recovery of Blood Pressure and other disease conditions. You can teach this Pranayama to many friends after observing its benefits upon yourself. All other Pranayam practices are some variations of the different phases of MPs. They give some other benefits in specific conditions. * * * * 2. Bhastrika Pranayam. Rapid Deep breathings. Long inhalation, short in hold, long exhalation- short outer hold All done in one breath. During quick breaths try to make a whistling sound like a Steam Engine from nostrils and throat. Bhastrika is opposite of MPs. In Bhastrika the normal rate of breathing of 15 to 18 is raised to 25 to 30 per minute. Never over do any Pranayam beyond your capacity and comfort limit. One spell can be of 2 minutes to start with and increased up to 5 minutes maximum. Never do Bhastrika more than that limit.

Do such 15 to 30 quick breaths up to tolerable limit in one cycle. Take rest and come back to normal breathing for two to three minutes. Again start a second cycle of Bhastrika. Try to count how many breaths you rapidly took in one minute, and also in one session. Do maximum 4 sessions in one day. Tip: How to remember four daily sessions of MPs and Bhastrika. 1. Getting up from bed. 2. Before Break Fast 3. Before Lunch. 4. Before Dinner. In case you forget one session, then try to do before going to bed. Benefits: Bhastrika is useful in many Headaches, Migraine, Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis, Parkinsons disease, Paresis of limbs, Liver and kidney diseases, Acidity and Gastric Ulcers, Blood pressure and Heart diseases, etc,. Before diving, a spell of Bhastrika helps to increase under water time. 3. Kapal-Bhati. This is a useful and worth mastering Pranayam for both sexes. In normal breathing adults do not use abdominal muscles in breathing like young children. In Kapal Bhati one does Deep forced Breath outs with use of diaphragm and in-drawing the abdominal Recti muscles. Keep one hand on abdomen and press while exhaling. Try to force out maximum air from lungs with all possible efforts of chest and abdominal muscles. This compresses the lungs to its maximum. From deepest parts of lungs carbon dioxide containing air is thrown out by pulling abdomen inwards with diaphragm, a dome shaped muscle separating abdomen and chest. Three humors Vat, Pitt and Couf (gases, bile, and sticky mucous) are described in Aur-Vedic texts. Imbalance of these is responsible of many diseases. KB Pranayama creates a balance of all three humors. The forced expiration awakens Swadhistan Chakra, located in chest region. Benefits: KB produces an abdominal massage, which improves tone of all abdominal organs like, intestines, pancreas, liver, kidneys, and genital organs in males and females. It helps in regulation of menstrual cycles, and cures fibroids of uterus. KB helps to develop control over urgency and frequency of urination, cures minor prostrate problems and early cancer cases. Helps in cases of cirrhosis of liver, hepatic diseases, controls diabetes and cholesterol. The abdominal in-drawing exercises reduce abdominal fat, circumference of belly and belt size. 27

KB helps to pass out hard stools from bowels and relieves constipation when done on a toilet seat. KB helps in other abdominal conditions like, prolapsed uterus in females and prostrate conditions in males. It is believed that KB awakens the Muladhar Chakra, located in pelvis. Awakening of Muladhar Chakra, improve sexual functions in EDS (Erectile Dysfunction Syndrome) cases in males and similar state in females leading to joy (anand) of sexual life. KB practices push fresh blood on face. Without any cosmetics the face looks brightened up. KB cures early cases of asthma, sinusitis, allergies, snoring at night, and sinusitis. High blood pressure is a silent disease and root cause of many heart diseases Improvement of kidney tone removes toxins from blood and reduction of blood pressure. KB develops attention and concentration powers in all activities. Tips. Do not do KB after food. Best time is early morning before breakfast, in after noon after 4 hours of meals and after 3 hours of dinner before going to bed. Not advised in later months of pregnancy. Work out. Do 5 to 10 KB in one spell with intervals of some rest in between. Do not do more than three spells in one sitting. Bahya Kumbhak - Pranayam. Longer Outer Breath Holds: Take few Deep breaths then do a short In-hold and Exhale quickly. Now do not take next breath until you are forced to take next breath. Measure outer breath hold time with a wrist-watch. Mastering BKP is useful in swimming for remaining under water for longer times. Do such 3 to 5 BKP after each session of KB. Bandha like Jalander Bandha can be combined with this Pranayam. Flex neck and touch chin to chest and Hold. Keep position of flexed neck during BKP. 4. Tratak. Different Yoga teachers and schools teach various Tratak tricks. Tratak falls under Hath Yoga practices. In Tratak students are asked to focus Eyes on some Objects like bright Lamps, an Idol of a deity God, photo of a Guru or a great past personality like Lord Buddha. Fixing eyes on a bright object. This is a popular trick for achieving concentration (Dhyan), the 7th step in Yoga. The student looks at a fixed bright object usually a candle or a bright lamp. He/she is not supposed to blink even if tears run profusely from the eyes. This washes out dust particles from eyes. Tratak mastery (Sadhna) imparts ability of mind reading, when one is in Tratak with some one.

Modern psychics and police officers know this trick. In Karate fights also Tratak is taught to students. Conscious mind is fully concentrated upon the object observed. Yogis who have cultivated this ability can read thoughts of weak minded people. They can easily hypnotize and influence them. Many successful intellectuals worship more than 1000 Mortal Living Gurus as Living Gods. They donate millions of Dollars to build hudge temples as per wish whims and dreams of such Gurus. This is going on to maximum degree at present in India, England and USA. In sports Tratak helps to concentrate and win a game. Tratak develops fullest attention of eyes and mind. All jobs requiring pinpointed attention and fullest concentration, like calculations of numbers, driving a car in heavy traffic, ascend and decent of airplane, wrist watch repairing, fine painting, etc, become perfect by Tratak practices. Yoga Eyes Exercises. Eyes are important sense organs. Their movements like looking Up, Down, Side to Side and at Tip of Nose without moving head are good Yoga Exercises. Other exercises teach wide opening and closing firmly of both eyes alternately. After above exercises press softly both eyes with base of palm after rubbing palms. This gives a mild heat pad like soothing effect on Eyes. This can be done when eyes are tired due to constant use in writing or reading. * * * * Only a few successful and intellectual individuals have real curiosity to know true religion and God. The higher steps of Yoga require sacrifice of time, liberation from family and material attachments like money and victory over sensual pleasures. This is very difficult practice for many people. Pranayama and the first three steps of Yoga create a wonderful sense of well being of body and mind and give inner joy, selfconfidence and positive attitude to many individuals. These are easy to start and practice for all. 5. Nasal & Oral Pranayama. Try these Nasal practices before doing Nasal Pranayama. A. Nose Massage. With tips of thumb and middle fingers of R hand, press nose at top and bring fingers down wards, giving two sides of nose a gentle massage. Do this for 10-15 times.


B. Nose Twistings. Press and Push nose gently on L side with R thumb. Repeat for 10-15 times. Do reverse of this with Left Thumb for 15 times. C. Nose Expansion Exercises. Two nostrils can be expanded and contracted to some extent by voluntary muscles around two nostrils. Try to do this expansion exercise 10 to 15 Times. Above Nasal exercises can be done at any time during a day. They increase defense capacity of mucous membrane, the inner lining of nose, and help to prevent attacks of recurring cold. While doing nasal Pranayama, keep the left hand on left knee. Use only right hand for nasal Parnayama. Keep Spine Erect. Sit in Sukhasan Comfort Posture, Padmasan Lotus Posture or Siddhasan for Pranayama practices. Some palm poses Mudras are done. In Yog Mudra, one makes a circle with index finger and thumb keeping other three fingers extended. In Vayu Mudra, the index finger is firmly pressed at the base of the thumb with three fingers extended. Nasal & Oral Pranayama. A. Lom Anulom (Vilom) Pranayam. B. Shitli Pranayama. C. Bhramari Pranayam. D. Udgith Pranayam. E. Hasya Pranayama. Long Loud Laughters. F. Ujjayai Pranayam. A. Lom Anulom (Vilom) Pranayam To close left and right nose alternately make a Mudra (hand pose) with Right hand. Keep only Thumb, Little and Ring fingers extended and keep Index and Middle fingers flexed. (1). Inhale via Right and Breath-out via Left Nose. Second time Inhale via Left and Breath-out via Right Nose. During early learning phase try to do 10 to 15 breaths in one session, and come down to normal breathing in-between. Try to maintain the rate of breathing about 8 to 10 per minute. Determine to do regularly 3 to 4 such sessions daily. You will observe its benefits within a week. In yoga books two important Nadies, IDA (also called Sun or SuryaNadi) and PINGLA (also called Moon or ChandraNadi) are described. Ida runs in R. Nose and Pingla runs in Left nose. (2). Inhale via Right and Breath-out via Left nostril every time. This will be Sun or Surya Pranayam. Do such 30 breathings in one session. Take rest. This will become one session of a Sun Pranayam. 29

It is claimed that 4 Sun Pranayama done in one session, and such 4 sessions done in a day, reduces body weight by 1 lb/month without any diet changes. If combined with proper food and Calories control it helps to reduce Obesity. The reverse of Surya Pranayam is Chandra Pranayama. (3). Inhale via Left and Breath-out via Right nostril. Do this way every time. This will be Moon or Chandra Pranayam. Do such 30 Moon Pranayams in one session. If such 4 sessions are done in one day, it helps to increase body weight by 1lb in a month. Chandra Pranayam helps to gain weight by increasing appetite. In case you forget one session, then do it before going to bed. Benefits. This pranayam helps in Asthma cases and Recurrent Sinus problems. Also helps in Arthritis by producing joint fluids and regenerating cartilages in early cases of Osteo-Arthritis. Helps in varicose veins of legs and blockage of Brain and Coronary arteries. B. Shitli Pranayama. Temperature Cooling Pranayama. Inhale from mouth through teeth and exhale via Nose. Some teachers ask to make a tube like protruded tongue while doing Shitli Pranayama. This is useful in cases of high temperature. The air entering on moist tongue gets cooled and reduces temperature of blood in lungs. When it is exhaled the hot air carries away the heat. Opposite of above breathing is breath-in via Nose and exhale via mouth. This is useful in cold weathers. C. Bhramari Pranayam. Place two thumbs of two hands into ears to close any sound coming from outside. Then place index finger on forehead. With remaining fingers partially close two sides of nose. Take deep inbreath. Then while exhaling try to produce a constant humming noise (hum-m-m-m) like that of a Bumblebee. You will experience a loud hum in your ear drums. Measure the length of hummmm by wrist watch. Benefits: This Pranayam helps to relieve mental tensions, worries, stress, family upsets and business problems, and negative thoughts. Also helps in High BP. Do 3 to 5 Bhramari Pranayam in early morning and before going to bed. It can be done at any time during free work interval for quitting habit of smoking, alcohol and drugs. It creates self control, (AtmaSanyam) self confidence (Atma Shraddha) and concentration (Dhyan) in jobs. It awakens Agna Chakra and gives ability of making firm decisions.

Follow up this Pranayama by Udgith Pranayam or Mantra Chanting. D. Udgith Pranayam. Association of Speaking or Chanting OM Mantrta, Verses, Prayers, Songs, or musical sounds during breath out phase is Udgith Pranayama. Note that any Mantra is possible during out breathing phase only. Speaking becomes Karma or activity, which can be done only at present moment Today and Now. In this Pranayama each MP is combined with OM or Mantra chanting. This develops singing ability and is very useful for budding singers. Take deep breath, hold and try to speak a long and loud OM while exhaling air. Measure length of OM with wrist watch. Try to speak 5 letter Mantras like Om Namah Shivaya, or 12 letter Mantras like Om Namo Bhagavate Vasu Devaya, or some short poetry lines. Later try to chant longer 16 sound Mantras like Gayatri Mantra or Hare-Rama, Hare- Krishna Mantra in one breath. Keep eyes closed and do this chanting with devotional mood of prayers to God. During chanting imagine as if you are sending your message or praises to King of Universe (Jagdish, Narayana)-or God, residing in paradise at the other end of Universe. Such practices are seen in Islamic and Christian group prayers also. The sound produced during OM Chanting is called Pranav. Imagine your sound is merging with the spoken words of all people of past and present times in Infinite Space (Aakash, Sky) of Universe. In Hindu temples group Mantra Chanting of scriptures like Ramayana or Gita is done in a nonstop manner for hours. Combination of devotional songs with music produces wonderful mind pacifying effects. All worries and confusing thoughts disappear for that short or long spell of time. Singh Mudra: This is a funny variation of Pranayam. A pose of sitting Lion is done. Then tongue is protruded to maximum limit. After taking a deep breath, a sound like the Roar of a Lion is done. It creates a funny atmosphere around. It creates self-confidence in the mind of the doer. E. Hasya Pranayama. Long Loud Laughter This is done in sitting or standing positions. After taking a deep breath, start laughing as loudly as you can in a non stop manner until your breath is exhausted, and abdomen drawn in like Kapal Bhati. 30

Repeat such long laughs for 3 to five minutes. This creates a joyful mood in mind and in surrounding people also. Hasya Pranayama, when done in small groups, creates a happy atmosphere. Regular Laughing Clubs movement is going on in many places in India. This activity helps to over come stress, tensions, and sad moods in friend circles and social groups. F. Ujjayai Pranayam. Flex neck and touch chin to chest. Usually we are not able to produce any sound or noise while breathing in. But with some practice it is possible to make such a sound. While breathing try to produce a sound like Uoo, Uoo, Uoom during inhaling phase. Try slowly two or three noises in the beginning. Gradually increase up to 5 to 8 in one session. Benefits: Helps to cure Thyroid problems, Sinus and night snoring problems. Also clears throat stickiness and clears vocal cords and improves quality of voice for singers. Summary: Yoga students must learn and master some simple Asana and these Pranayama. They will soon observe its subjective beneficial effects on Body and worrying agitated Mind. Indian Yoga Gurus earn lot of money by teaching such simple time tested tricks of breathing, soothing music, Mantra Chanting and Religious group Prayers. All these create a short-term peace in any agitated mind. When OM or any Mantra is spoken repeatedly and loudly with breath control a powerful pacification of mind occurs. This trick pacifies any worrying and confused mind. Average Swamies and Yoga teachers who know this trick hypnotize rich and famous and many other people easily. For giving some Mantra to chant Indian Gurus charge lot of money. They mint money by teaching such simple age-old psycho-physiological tricks for pacifying confused minds. The wandering and agitated mind soon becomes quiet. The pacified mind is more receptive to fresh knowledge. New and positive ideas arise only in a cool mind. Initially learn Pranayam and Asana practices and master some popular Pranayama under the guidance of a non-greedy teacher (Guru), having background of modern medical sciences and diseases. Later on you will be able to teach such Pranayama to others after observing its benefits upon yourself.

Section: II

Ashtang Yoga: 11. STEP NO. 5. PRATYAHARA.

Part-1. Third Eye of Shiva is within you. Swa-vishava samprayoge Chittasya swaroopanukara, eve indriyanam pratyaharahe. Sadhana Pada. Verse 54. Understanding ones Self, within dimensions of Universal Space/Place -Time (Chitta-Shakti) and developing control over the senses is Pratyahara. The student now reaches the 5th step of Yoga ladder. In this step "Mind is with drawn from sense objects and the senses are withdrawn from their subjects". He learns the art of understanding inner natural desires or instincts (Vrutties) like hunger and thirst, passions or sex urges (Kama, Vasnas) and actions (Karma) done to satisfy these desires by self. This brings complete mastery over the 5 senses namely Ears, Skin, Eyes, Tongue as taste organ and Nose; and their 5 subjects - namely Hearing, Touching, Seeing, Tasting and Smelling (Shabda, Sparsha, Roop, Ras and Gandha). Yoga Meditation is study of Self or Who am I? With this step starts the analysis of ones own likes and dislikes at material and senses level, desires, hopes, wants, ambitions, achievements of goals and failures etc.,. All past events that have occurred in own life, thoughts of sensual happinees (Sukkha), unhappiness (Dukkha), family expectations, separations and meetings etc, all pleasures and joys (Ananad) occurring are meditated upon. Who am I"? Self meditation starts with this question. The Sanskrit word for "I" (Aham) has two meanings. 'Aham' means Ego. It also means Self or I- the first person singular pronoun. When any one speaks 'I', mostly he/she means gross physical body. But in sub-conscious mind he/she is aware of the name, sex, nationality, education (knowledge), wealth, bank balance, status or position in life and many relations, beliefs and false notions. Thus each person understands a number of vague things for himself or herself. By 31

tricks shown during Yoga meditation student has to reach and find inner pure divine Self, called SPIRIT or SOUL (Brahman). The Sanskrit term for soul or spirit in the Vedas is BRAHAMAN and the word for 'self' is 'Atma'. By self meditation one understands that I am Brahaman. 'Atman is Brahaman'. "Ayam atma Brahamaha" is a great short sentence or Vedic Maha Vakya. Most Indian Gurus and priests understand, speak and translate the word ATMA in the sense of spirit or soul only. This is not correct understanding or translation. Many misunderstandings would get clarified if the word ATMA is strictly translated as Self and 'Brahaman' is translated as soul or spirit. Grammatically speaking "I" is 'first person singular pronoun'. It is the consciousness of one's own physical body or self. This is only the first level of self consciousness. Removal of a variety of false Egos in a short time is very difficult. One gradually learns to reduce false egos. Meditation teaches how to discriminate between true and false egos. This is not possible without help of a trust worthy teacher and regular meditation practices. As one climbs higher steps all false beliefs and egos get slowly reduced. "Nothing belongs to me, I don't possess any thing, I don't know so many things. Whatever money, knowledge and power I have is limited and it is for a limited time only". Mahatma Gandhi has shown an easy way to develop such a mind. "I am just a trustee, a care taker of whatever I have and possess". When false egos are conquered, true self (Nij-Swaroop) unfolds. When true self unfolds, self-confidence and firm convictions (Atma-shraddha) develops. Then real self control over all senses and organs of actions develop. Many false religious and political beliefs come to an end. True beliefs and correct goals indicated by scriptures, and knowledge based upon memories of one's own experiences remain clear in awakened and ever conscious mind. One learns this important psychological fact. Any conscious mind is able to possess only one thought at one time. When one thought gets erased, then only a second thought can enter and occupy the conscious mind. This is true for any human being, how great a scholar he/she may be. Meditation brings to memory and consciousness many past experiences like a recall on calculators and computers. When Kundalini and Agna Chakra (the highest intellect and universal mind) awakes one is able to switch from remote pasts to near future, much faster than any computer in the world. A super-human genious and a saintly personality is born, who transcendents into divine spiritual zone of universal or God consciousness.

Asana and Pranayama prepare the student to create a peaceful and thoughtless state of mind. In this step the student must clearly understand two important Yoga words. (1) Swadhyaya (Refer this word in the 2nd. Step of Niyama). (2) Atma-Sanyama (Self-control over senses and sensual joys). (1). Swadhyaya in simple words means Self examination, Self analysis. Thoughts and dreams constantly arise in conscious mind during waking or sleeping hours. Mostly they are related to money, family problems, behavior of relatives and neighbors, or events occurring in a city or country, the world and so on. These events are perceived with Ears and Eyes mainly. Worries and tensions arise due to likes, dislikes and many false fears. Swadhyaya (self-analysis) means thinking about ones own past life starting from childhood till today. You can write a short autobiography. This is easier than thinking or meditating in mind. In Swadhyaya one brings to memory of ones own past, remembers all important events of life like deaths in family, sicknesses, graduation, marriage, birth of children, buying a house, a new car, etc, in past life. The student analyzes his likes and dislikes of past and present time events, his/her behavior at such occasions and the joys and pains produced by such events. Third Eye of Shiva is within you. The intellect (or Kundalini) is located in the front part of human brain. Anatomically it is the frontal lobe area of human brain just behind the forehead. Many Indian people make Tilaks or various colorful religious decorations in forehead. It symbolizes Lord Shivas third eye located at this point. But most people do not know the meaning of Tilak and tricks of meditation of activating Kundalini or making proper use of intellect or Buddhi. Until recent times the exact function of the frontal lobes was not known to medical science. This area was known as silent area of brain. A blind operation of Pre-frontal Lobotomy was performed in severe cases of schizophrenia. Alcohol and hallucinating drugs like Cannabis Indica (Bhang), cocaine, opium etc., produce their first doping effects upon the nerve cells located in this area. Then the ability of correct thinking, judging right and wrong, desires and actions is dulled or lost. Control over all Karma Indriyas is lost and people behave like lunatics and devils under the influence of such intoxicating drinks and drugs. Thinking is done by anatomical, physiological and psychological parts of brain, called mind (lower or animal mind), chitta and intellect (Buddhi). One cannot think well when lower mind is in grip of feelings 32

like, likes and dislikes (Raga and Dwesha), and emotions like angers, and selfish desires (Krodha and Kama). Part-2. Knowledge is the real wealth of any individual. OM is a holy Symbol of Knowledge or Vedas. It is called Pranav, meaning human voice or spoken sound in all Eastern religions. Spoken words of any language are only sound variations of OM. OM is at the root of all spoken human languages. Thinking in all human minds occur with words and all ideas are mainly communicated by Speech. Thinking usually occurs in mother tongue at all places. I cannot think in French, German or Spanish. Similarly a French man cannot think in any Indian language if he has not learnt it. Knowledge is the real wealth of any individual. th I learned the following Sanskrit verse in the 5 grade of my school days. It has always inspired me to learn new ideas and skills every day. I am still a student. Na chor choryam na cha raj haryam; Na bhratru bhajyam na cha bharakari; Vyaye krute vardhat avam nityam Vidya dhanam sarva dhanam pradhanam. "Among all kinds of wealth, knowledge is the top most wealth. Because a thief cannot steal it, a king cannot confiscate it, it cannot be divided among brothers like other material property; and it is not heavy during traveling. But the topmost quality of knowledge is this. It increases by spending whereas other material wealth like money, jewelry, etc, decrease by spending (!)". Knowledge is power. Knowledge is God. Knowledge is wealth. We hear such sentences. This is worldly knowledge. It is called Ved or Vidya, any Logy (like geology, cardiology, etc,.). This is material knowledge of the world explored by different sciences and seers of the past. It is gained by the use of ears and eyes in home and schools. Any useful knowledge is the greatest wealth of a person. But without Self knowledge (Adhiatma-Vidya) and Self realization any person having great knowledge remains in darkness, and behaves sometimes like a lost path soul.

Without genuine interest (Jignasa) one cannot learn and no teacher can teach Self Knowledge. The same principle applies in Self-knowledge also. In studies like Yoga, the real quest of knowing ones spiritual self arises only in a few people- one in a thousand or one in a million. Remain a curious student, revise your worldly knowledge and religious beliefs, always keep eyes and ears open, and learn new things every day. This visible universe is an ever changing world of perishable objects, so do not get too much attached to them. Knowledge and Intellect are different human abilities. Meditate upon this point. 95 % of any human beings knowledge is Audio-knowledge gained by hearing words from parents, teachers and unknown people (Atithi), as any young child grows in any part of the world. Yoga Meditation is a mental exercise of knowing and understanding one's own self (Atma-Gyana). Indian Religions lay great stress upon gaining worldly knowledge (Veda), and also upon spiritual knowledge in which one understands correctly body, mind, intellect, false egos and soul as different parts of Self (Atma), which make the total personality of any individual. The Sanskrit word Veda means knowledge. Veda is stored in the Chitta part of brain, mainly as memory (OM or listened words), as Audio-knowledge or shruti-gyan. Human brain has wonderful capacity of acquiring and storing, volumes of knowledge in subconscious memory compartment or Chitta. The Vedas contain the knowledge and prayers of mother natures visible material objects like the sun, land, water, rain, fire, air, etc.,. The knowledge of worldly material objects is gained by the five senses, but mainly by seeing with eyes (Smruti = memory) and (Shruti) hearing words with ears. Thus Vedic knowledge is like audio-visual recording on mind's blank VCR memory tape. This recorded or 95 % blank tape exists as Chitta-Shakti or sub-conscious mind in all human brains. Vedic knowledge means knowledge of material objects of the world, perceived mainly as Hearing by Ears and other four senses. Medicine (Aur-ved), music and fine arts (Gandharva-Ved), martial arts (Dhanur-Ved), economics (Arth-ved) were the branches of different Vedas or material knowledges. All material knowledge changes with passage of time, newer ideas and inventions. The Vedic knowledge and beliefs need to be revised and updated with passage of time and fresh inventions of science.

There is a second meaning of the word Pratyahara. It is food of a Yogi. 'Prati' means 'daily or towards', and 'Aahara' means food. Food of a true Yogi is nectar of all knowledge. He has spiritual quest and is always trying for self realization. 'Gyan-amrutam Bhojanam'. Intellect (Buddhi) works like a computer with the data (memory or data) stored in different parts of brain and memories of past events as audio-visual impressions. It is stored as words of the spoken language listened by the child, and events observed with eyes, wherever he/she was born, raised, moved, lived and educated until TODAY. (2). Atma-Sanyama. Means:- (A) Self-Control by Intellect over mind and 5 senses -the Gyana Indriyas, namely, ears, eyes, tongue as taste organ, nose and skin and (B) Control over 5 organs of actions Karma Indriyas, namely, tongue as organ of speech, hands, legs, excretory organs and sex organs. The conscious mind, called the 6th sense organ in the Gita is generally attached to the five senses. Desires for gratification of senses constantly arise in mind for getting contact of material objects of the world. Thoughts are mostly about past experiences of gaining happiness from material objects. Yoga student takes some vows of abstinence from such sense joys and strictly observes them. These help him to develop control of mind over objects of material world and lead him to higher steps of selfstudy and better use of intellect. Guru indicates penances for students according to level of his mind. Abstinence from smoking, alcohol, nonvegetarian foods, celibacy, Maunam- not speaking for a day, half or full day fasts etc., are some simple vows. But these must be observed and practiced for higher goals (indicated in next - 6th step of Yoga). To reach the highest steps of Dhyana and Samadhi (7th and 8th steps) more penances are needed. Nirvana or Moksha (Mukti) is reached when mind gets totally liberated from all worldly desires and attachments. This is very difficult for a family man during early years of life. Sanyama or Self control is gained by renunciation of wrong beliefs (Avidya), ego centric desires, passions, greed and superstitions. Desires arise in mind due to likes (Ragas), dislikes (hates), greed (lobha), jealousy (dwesha) etc, called feelings and emotions. The mind is always in the grip of such emotions when it is attached to senses, sense objects and past experiences of pains or pleasures stored in mind as memories. By use of intellect and Sanyama one learns how to control the agitated mind.


In Gita Ch-3-V-41, Lord Krishna indicates a way of controlling one's wandering mind. "Lord Says; Oh the mightiest (like a bull) in mankind, develop control over thy sense organs, and slain all ego centric (selfish) desires and angers, because they drag you to do wrong deeds (sins). They destroy your knowledge and intellect (discriminative ability -judgment, talent, scientific skills etc,). Summary. 1. Pratyahara means victory over temporary sensual joys and control of 5 organs of actions, in which controls of speech and sex desire are most important penances. Learn to develop control of tastes, smell and sight of foods. 2. Self control brings a long healthy life, with good name, fame and immortality. Real Sanyama, (Self control) comes at a later age period after self realization. 3. Active involvement in deeds of selfless humanitarian services makes any person a living Angel, Manifest God or Goddess. 4. Samadhi state and Total Surrender to Gods will requires years of Yoga and living a truly religious life. 5. Golden Rule: Do not try Samadhi Step before age of 75 and over. In Samadhi Step one meditates like this. For days, months and sometimes years a Yoga student searches answers to following questions step by step. How small I am in the universal dimensions of TIME and SPACE in this ever changing endless universe?" How and when I came to this life? What factors maintain my daily life? How long would I like to live? How many people know me in this city, country and on Globe Earth? What will happen to my property, family and city and the world when I die? How big would be my funeral? In what manner I would like to die, if I am given a choice of a disease before my death?

Section: II

Ashtang Yoga: 12. STEP NO. 6. DHARANA.

Part-1. Deshabandh Chittasya Dharana. Vibhhoti Pada. Verse. 1. Awareness of Time, Place and clear Goals (purpose of life) in subconscious mind (Chitta) is Dharana. Awareness of Dharm, Artha, Kama and Moksha, four Goals of Life, is Dharna.. Some Yoga books and Yoga teachers explain Dharana like this:1.Concentration of mind in spiritual consciousness within the body. 2.Fixing attention on some deity forms like sun, moon or a statue of deity God, or Guru within mind and in universal show. 3. Some Gurus teach Hath Yoga practices in Dharna step like Tratak, Naity, etc,. In future articles and next step of Dhyan, we will learn more about Tratak. th 4. I present a new angle of studying the 6 step- Dharna. Dharna means intensions, will, goals, aim and purpose of life. Awareness of four Life Goals is Dharna. Hinduism preaches four age-quarters related Goals. We will learn about purpose of human life and four goals (Ashrama-Dharma) called, Dharm, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Conscious and subconscious mind of all human beings are ever filled with endless wants, hopes, wishes (Asha), and desires (Kama). Most desires get satisfied according to Karma done by every individual (Atma) to achieve them. But desires go on growing as one grows in age. The endless Chain of Desires, never comes to a final full point in mind, called st nd Satisfaction in life journey. (Look at 1 word Santosh - in the 2 step of Niyama). Noble desires are always worth keeping in mind as good goals and dreams of life. Subconscious goals (Dharna) give a definite 34

direction to daily activities (Karma). Instincts (Vrutties), dreams and desires (Kama) are at the root of all human activities (Pravrutti). They drag a person to do Karma and deeds (Karya). This is called Mother Natures (Prakruti) Law of cause and effects, or Karya Karana Sidhanta. The Sanskrit word Dharm is usually translated as religion by most Indian Gurus but it has many meanings. Visit To learn 8 different meanings of word Dharm. The subconscious mind is filled with many desires. SelfKnowledge (Atma-Gyan) and correct actions (Karma Yoga) bring fulfillment of most desires, wishes and all possible dreams in life. Achievement of a goal is called success (Siddhi) or victory (Vijaya). Successes bring mental happiness and joys. This creates Self confidence and Self-esteem (Gaurav). A Karma-Yogi is clear in mind about his/her past actions, present needs and what actions he needs to do for achieving all future noble goals. What do you want? The Desires (Kama) are divided into two major groups. (a) Natural Instincts (Vrutties, Kama) like, eating food for hunger, drinking water for thirst, breathing air for survival and sex activities for propagation of race. These are common in all living beings, human beings, animals and plants. (b) Material wants. There are many material wants in human society, like houses, clothes, money, jewelry, transport vehicles, etc, These are common desires of only human beings, at all places. Ahara, Nidra, Bhaya, maithunam cha Samanyam etat pashunam naranam, Dharmo hi eko adhiko visheshaha Dharmana hina pashubhi samana. To Eat (Hunger), Drink (Thirst), Sleep, Live in many fears and Passions and Sex Desires are common in animals and human beings. But Religion (=Dharm meaning Sense of Duty and Self-control) is unique quality of human beings. People without Self-control and Dharma behave like animals. When any human mind gets attached to money and material pleasures gained by material things with money, he/she forgets natural instincts and runs after material things. People try to get more and more money, political power, etc,. Only a few are conscious aboutwhat are natural wants and what are unnatural desires; what are

correct age related goals of life and what are wrong desires at young or old age periods. A child of five years wants toys and candies. The same toy or candy does not give him same joy when he grows to 10 or 15. At teenage there is natural drag of sex desires (kama) and other material things. The desires again change in middle age period. New desires of touring the world, buying new cars, ornaments, fancy dresses, homes etc, arise in mind. This chain of desires goes on and on until old age starts and diseases and fears of death arise in Mind. Even at moments of death some desires always remain unfulfilled, but one has to die. The ancient Indian King Manu (2500, BC) had divided the population of his kingdom into four job-oriented Classes- or Varna. The Classes were based upon different jobs done by the people. The word Dharm was used in meaning of duty in times of Manu. 1. Brahmins were men of Knowledge. They (teachers, Gurus) made the highest or top class. They knew laws of biology (BhramaVidya) and herbal medicine. They guided all lower three classes in matters of morality or obligatory duties and gave judgments and punishments. 2. Kshatriya were men of strength. They knew use of weapons. They were kings, rulers and warriors. Their duty was protection of people and punishing wrong or evil ones. 3. Vaishya were men doing agriculture, sale and transport of goods. Morals like no cheating, no greed, honesty, etc., were prescribed as their Dharm. They knew economics and business skills. 4. Shudra, the fourth major class was made up of all remaining people. They included carpenters, weavers, blacksmiths, masons and all others who did some manual labor. Their Dharma was to serve upper 3 classes as employees, servants, slaves or laborers. All four classes were expected to do their assigned jobs with a sense of Dharm (duty). Today this word is usually translated as Religion into English. But it means Duty or Responsibility of a person in a particular class in Hinduism. The classes were Job Oriented and not Birth-rights imparting classes to start with. There were no untouchables in earlier times. But with passage of time these classes turned into hierocratic (VIP) privileges imparting and preaching classes. Brahmins (men of knowledge) guided other three classes in all moral codes, laws, sociology, economics and political matters. Knowledge was passed over and preserved by creation of short sentences, Mantra, proverbs and musical hymns and verses. (Sam Veda Hymns).


A woman was property of her husband. A man could marry more than one woman, but a widow could not remarry. Wives were burnt alive upon the death of husbands (Sati system). Inter-class marriages were forbidden. But a Brahmin male could marry any girl from lower three classes, a Kshatriya could marry a girl from lower two classes. A Vaishya could marry a Shudra girl, but not from higher two classes. The stories of Ramayan and Mahabharat indicate such practices. Birth as Female, or as a Vaishya or Shudra was believed to be due to sins committed in previous lives. The majority class of Shudra had no right to speak Sanskrit Veda-Mantra, learn weapons or do any trade. They were supposed to remain lifelong servants or employees of the upper three classes. Such verses were added in Manu Smruti by the Brahmins of the later ages so that their sons might enjoy all privileges and rights of the higher class created in name of religion. th The Bhagavat Gita (in the 5 Cent BC) redefines these class privileges and declares that all human beings (men and women) are equal in eye and laws of God. They have right (Adhikara) of doing Karma and worship God. Hinduism was a Veda (Knowledge) oriented culture and a male privileged socio-political Culture or Religion. There was no idol worship before the 15th Cent AD and start of Vaishnavism by Shri Vallabha-acharya. Only Shiva temples were present in ancient cities like Benaras, Somnath in Gujarat, etc. The Shudras were not untouchables to start with. It is the greatest black spot in Hinduiam Today. All great saints of past and recent times have preached that all human beings- men and women- are equal creations of God. Hinduism is called Varn-Ashram-Dharm. After my study of world religions for last 22 years, a few observations about the condition of Hinduism at the present times are listed above. This is worth revising condition for all Indian intellectual people. Four-class system or VarnaDharma giving special privileges to only a few, has down graded Hinduism during the course of last 800 years. Ashram-Dharma teach four life goals. This is a very useful section in Hinduism, applicable at all places in any land, and worth studying by all Yoga students. We will now study the Ashrama-Dharma part.

Part-2. Sanyasa. Search of Self, God and Union (Yoga) or merging with God is his only Desire of Life. In Hindu scriptures Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha are four popular words. They indicate four goals of Life. One goal is to be th achieved during one age quarter. The 6 step of Dharana teaches how to achieve the four age quarter related goals. The Karma Yoga, preached in the Gita teaches how to achieve life goals by doing correct Actions (Karma). Yoga Meditation teaches Time Consciousness, present age related goal and plans for perfect actions. To achieve a goal one has to do some effort (purushartha) or correct actions (karma). All Karma must be guided by Dharma (duty consciousness), intellect and perfect knowledge of doing that job. Life expectancy of human beings was well studied by the ancient Rishies, the men of great wisdom. They observed that a human being may expect to live at the most 100 years. The span of 100 years of life was divided into 4 age quarters, each quarter called one Ashrama. One goal was indicated for one Ashrama. Some vows for Ashrama were also indicated. The following table indicates one goal for each Ashrama, and gives a plan of a perfectly happy and healthy life of 100 years. BrahmCharya-Ashrama. Age period. 1 to 25 Yrs. Gain worldly knowledge and also Learn DHARMA or moral duties. (No Sex activity during student age.) Grahastha-Ashrama. Age period. 25 to 50 Yrs. Get Married, Earn ARTHA (Money), raise children, Respect home coming guests (Atithi-Dev) as God. Vanprastha-Ashrama. Age period. 50 to 75 Yrs. Vanprastha means go to jungle. Partial retirement. Try to Fulfill all KAMA (Desires). Sanyasa-Ashrama. Age Period. 75 to 100Yrs. Goal - MOKSHA or Nirvana. Liberty from Fear of death and no or minimum expectations from others. Socio-economic and obligatory duties towards family, neighborhood, town, state (mother land) must be taught by parents to 36

growing children along with school education during the first and most important age quarter of life, Brahmcharya Ashrama- student (Vidyarthi) age. Education of morals is called religious education. Dharma teaches speaking truth, no thefts, non-violence, honesty, humbleness, obedience to parents and teachers, etc,. These values must be taught to children during the teenage period. These are fundamental principles of good manners and morality or religion at all places. These are commonly preached in all world religions. (See st Yama, 1 step of Yoga). The Upanishad Rishies gave following advises (moral commandments) to students going home after their study in the Rishi Schools. Satyam Vad, (Speak the truth), Dharmam Chara, (keep sense of duty in life and walk on the path of morality), Praja Tantum Ma Vivatchhetsi. Do not break family lineage. Get married with proper partner. Live family life in home, produce and raise children, give them good education and also teach them Dharm or moral values. Preserve Family Lineage and No Sanyas at young age was the advice of the Gurus. In past times most Gurus were married and not BalBrahmcharies as we see in many recent religious Guru Cults (Sampradaya). What advise a young BramChari or BramCharini will give to a house-holder (Grahastha) in matter of family relations, disputes, love and harmony when they have not lived a family life? ARTHA = money, Laxmi. Earn money or wealth by path of Dharma. Second meaning of Artha is Purpose of Life. Money is necessary for a house-holder (Grahastha). Become a good and responsible parent was the advice. The goal indicated during this important Grahastha-Ashram of living in home with family, was to earn money by honest and fair means. Religion is linked with an Individual Self or Atma. It is called Swa-Dharm in the Gita. In HinduSthan or Land of Hindus (India), today Religion has turned into big business corporations and organizations (Sampradays) of earning money and enjoying all material comforts by average priests. Installation of Idols of Deity Gods and ownership of temples lead by Dynasties of Gurus is a great unreligious activity going on. Ignorant, hypnotized, misguided but rich intellectuals mostly support such activities.

KAMA = Fulfill all desires with the money earned and positions achieved during life. During the 3rd quarter a sense of having lived a satisfactory life must arise in mind (Santosha presched nd in the 2 step) and desire of earning more and more money must come to some end. If health is good then gradually withdraw from job and family works, but remain active in selfless community services like education and medical help to needy and old, particularly in backward villages. A matured wise Karm-Yogi gives benefits of his knowledge, wealth and experience to the next generation during Vanprastha and Sanyasa age. MOKSHA. It means Liberty. Sanyasa Ashrama means mental Freedom from family bondages and money attachments. Moksha is the last goal during 4th age quarter. Salvation, Nirvana, and Kaivalya are similar terms used in Christianity, Buddhism and Jainism for achieving this state of mind. Sanyasa means an attitude of detachment from joys of material objects, money, property and family relations. A truly liberated Sanyasi has renounced all desires of high positions, money, material wealth and property. Search of Self, God and Union (Yoga) or merging with God is his only Desire of Life.

Meditate upon your correct goal of the present age quarter and try to achieve it by practicing Dharma and dreams of future called dharana.

Some methods of achieving set goals that have worked in my life are suggested below. 1. Write autobiography. Keep a confidential notebook or Taperecord your own short life-story in your own words of important events. Remember your young age's desires, dreams and wants. According to decisions made and actions done during the past life, you have reached the present place (Home in any country) and position in life Today and Now. 2. Observe by meditation that most of your desires are fulfilled today or not. You will observe that according to Perfect Laws of accumulation of (Sanchit) Karma of God, you are either enjoying or suffering Today. 3. Remember your childhoods unfulfilled desires like learning dancing, music, painting, traveling, sightseeing, etc. Set 37

short-term goals and try to fulfill them. You will notice that most desires will get fulfilled, provided there is no attachment to money and they do not depend upon help of other family members or mercy of other human beings. 4. Write or make a list of present desires and goals. Give them a Time-Place frame. Record important events of recent past and analyze your actions and reactions. Then try to achieve your remaining goals. 5. Always look at others as good and equal fellow human beings. Do not neglect daily duty bound actions towards job and family members. 6. Always try to gain new knowledge in free time. Develop an attitude of making financial compromises in life and close family relations. The priorities, goals and actions must change with passage of time and age. 7. REMEMBER THIS GOLDEN RULE. When confused about goals and priorities, think with a pen and paper. Conscious mind can occupy only one thought at one time. This applies to any great man, a priest or a politician living on Globe Earth Today, or who lived in the past, or who will live in the future. Some Tips for Meditation. A. Meditate in early morning. Pick only one issue or think about only one natural object like the sun, moon, water, air, land, fire, etc. The sun, moon, water, air etc., have similar effects on all living beings. This understanding creates a sense of equality, satisfaction and Self confidence. B. Meditate upon, law of TIME-PLACE Bondage. Material things and family relations constantly change with passage of Time. There is Perfect Time-Place or Time-Space bondage to all material bodies, living (Chetan) and non-living (Jad). No two physical or material bodies can occupy the Same Space at Same Time. This Law of Alibi of Mother Nature applies to all, any great religious Guru or any Political Head. C. Study scriptures of all religions with open mind. Meditate and/or seek advice from parents and good friends. A trust worthy Guru is necessary until one is liberated from all material attachments and expectations from family members and relatives. God bless You to achieve every short term goal and all four goals of life. (More about Meditaion See Additional Articles in Sec-III ) OM Tat Sat.

Section: II

Ashtang Yoga: 13. STEP NO 7. DHYAN.

Tatra pratikata eti Dhyanm. Vibhooti Pada. Verse 2. Dhyan = Fullest (100%) attention, concentration in present activity. Part-1. There is great confusion about correct meaning, teaching, and practices of the last two steps of Ashtang Yoga. Most Gurus understand Dhyan and Samadhi- are synonymous words. Remember these most important points. In Dhyan- the eyes are open. In Dhyan the person is engrossed in some important activity with fullest attention. In Samadhi the eyes are closed. A Yogi is in state of deep spiritual meditation or Trans. He has conquered all sensual desires of worldly pleasures and joys. He is beyond any family attachment, personal need, body comforts, pleasures or pains and is ready to die for any noble humanitarian cause. What is Real Dhyan? DHYAN means perfect Attention, Awareness and Concentration in any and all activities (Pravrutties), namely job, meditation, learning or study one is doing at the present Place and Time (Desh-Kal). This Time is always Today and Now. Different Indian Yoga Gurus teach this step in different ways. Some ask students to focus eyes on some idol of a deity God for long time and then close eyes to bring that idol in mind. Others place a candle or bright object in a dark room and ask students to look at it without blinking eyes. These are different Tratak and Hath Yoga practices and not Dhyan. th Dhyan is the 7 step of Ashtang Yoga. Dhyan is usually translated as Meditation by many Yoga Gurus and books. The meaning in different Yoga Books and its teachings by different Yoga Teachers 38 awareness and

(Gurus) also vary a great deal. Students need practical examples and some stories of events occurring in daily life to understand correct meaning of Dhyan. Following common incidents will explain the correct meaning of this important Sanskrit word Dhyan, used in Yoga study. Daily Examples of Dhyan. (a) One nice example of Dhyan is narrated in the epic of Mahabharat. Arjuna, the Pandava prince, is shown to hit a fine target- the birds eye at a distance on a tree- with an arrow. Guru Drana during a practical examination, asks one by one all participating students while shooting a target. What do you see? Do you see the tree, the sky and all us present here? Most students answered, Yes. When Arjuns turn came, he said first, I see only the Bird and Tree. Guru Asked again Now what do you see?. He said, I see Birds head only. Next time he replied I SEE BIRDS EYE ONLY. Guru then asked him to let go the arrow, which hit birds eye perfectly. This is a very good example of Dhyan. (b). Alexander Flaming does not hear Sirens. The famous inventor of wonder medical drug Penicillin did not hear the sounds of warning Sirens sound when was fully concentrated during research work in his office. He had instructed his staff not to disturb him while he was working in lab alone. In those days German bombers were raiding England oft and on during the years of 1938-39. When warning sirens started, his staff thought Doctor will naturally hear sounds of siren and come down in shelters. The raid was over.After some time, when the staff returned, they saw doctor still working in laboratory. When they asked about that recent raid, he told he did not know anything about raid and siren sounds about attacks of German bombers. This is 100% attention, concentration or Dhyan. (c). Dhyan- Saved all from a very bad Accident. The following event occurred recently in my sons life on August th 12 -2007. It also explains the meaning of 7 step of Dhyan-Yoga. My son with his wife and two daughters, from Jacksonville FL (USA), had gone to Miami Florida located about 400 miles South from our home in Jacksonville, to help his elder daughter to change her Apartment at start of a new college term. She is studying in a college in Miami. While returning from Miami at night, he was driving North on HW95. He was following a fast running car in the left (fast) lane. Suddenly 39

the front car took a quick shift in the Right slow lane because there was a totally stopped car ahead of the front fast moving car. My son had very little time to shift to Right lane due to traffic in the Right side. So to prevent a bad accident he quickly turned his car to left side of the front halted car and drove for some yards in unpaved sloping grass curb, keeping fullest attention and perfect control of steering. He brought back gradually his car in original Left lane, and carefully moved in the slow moving Right lane. They all were horrified. All started praying and thanked God for saving them from a bad car accident. To prevent other car accidents, his wife called 911 and informed about the stalled car in Left lane on this highway. It was standing there with only Red Lights on and no flashing signals. She informed about approximate mile zone on HW-95. When we think of Ifs and Buts of this little incident an essay can be written. We all will forget about this event after some time. But it will remain in our memory for ever for remaining life. IF my son had not taken that correct, quick and right decision of shifting on the grass curb than what would have happened is matter of only speculations. But our common sense can say and predict that a bad accident would have taken place with all its unhappy consequences of injuries or perhaps deaths. This accident was prevented because my son had perfect attention and concentration in driving. This is called Dhyan. What is Dhyan? Complete awareness in the present situation and activity one is doing at a Place and Time is Dhyan. Perfect attention in whatever I am doing Today Now and Here means Dhyan. Concentration and awareness of surroundings in any job one is doing is called Dhyan. Many such common examples in everyday life can be listed. Keep awareness in speaking with any person- even your family members, and also before any audience. Keep awareness of traffic lights and stop signals while driving car. These are just a few examples of Dhyan in daily life. Even a little loss of attention (Dhyan) will lead to making mistakes, sins and/or accidents. At physical level the goal of Yoga is to achieve a perfect harmony of Body, Mind and Intellect. Religious devotees believing in some Supreme maker of Universe (God, Allah, Yashovah, Jesus or Bhagavan etc.), reach Dhyan and Samadhi stages quickly and easily, compared to more educated, debating, intellectual atheists.

In real Dhyan a student learns how to unite (do Yoga of) his conscious Mind and sub-conscious (Chitta) mind with intellect (Buddhi). He can think about events that have occurred with himself in the past with perfect sense of Place-Time (Desh-Kal), in chronological order. Study of Sankhya Darshan of Kapil Rishi and Vedanta Darshana of Ved-Vysa, also helps in developing art of Dhyan. From Vedanta Darshan one learns that the effect of all natural elements (Prakruti) like Sun, Rain, Fire, Heat, Cold, water, air, etc,. is equal on all (Purusha) bodies of all living beings. Meditate on 10 deity Gods linked with 5 senses and 5 organs of actions and do some self experiments as suggested in the previous step of Dharana. One English verse says, Work while you work, play while you play, that is the way to be Happy and Gay. We can add, Cook while you cook, Eat while you eat, Read while you read, Drive while you drive, Dont talk on Mobile Phones or dont do anything else. This is a simple and practical way of mastering Dhyan. Tip for todays young generation. Do not Drive in Hurry, and Do not talk on Cell Phone while Driving Car. Part-2. Review of previous 6 steps. The first two steps teach moral codes of good behavior (Sanatan Dharm) like truth (satyam)and non-violence, compromising attitudes (Santosh), celibacy, cleanliness etc.,. These are common preaching in all religions. The 3rd step and 4th step of Asana and Pranayama are for bodys good health. Pranayama prepares foundation stone for meditation. The last four steps of Yoga are for meditation. The 5th and 6th steps are of self analysis, developing control over all 5 sense organs and mind, and setting higher goals of future life. The 6th step teaches 4 correct age related goals, art of positive thinking, making correct decisions and doing right actions (Karma Yoga). From 7th step onwards the student enters a zone of transcendental meditation. He learns how to turn mind from zone of material objects of outer world to the spiritual zone and SELF within and understanding of False Egos and True Pride. 40

As step by step the journey of life progresses, Mind experiences a wonderful peace and divine mood. This is experienced by the student himself only and cannot be shown to others, because this is totally a subjective experience. Only a few people study scriptures with spiritual zeal and open mind. Only a few try to understand fine points about the last two steps of Dhyan and Samadhi. Majority of Yoga Gurus in India do not know good English. When important Sanskrit key-words are translated by any Guru in some Indian language, and they are re-translate into English by their average disciples, many a times correct meanings of key words get distorted. Most Yoga Gurus do not know or talk about the first two steps, morals and family values, or about the four life goals and ultimate purpose of Yoga study. Limitations and bondage of same Time -Place apply to all living (Chetan) and non-living (Jad) physical bodies. This is perfectly understood by the student in the Dhyan step. Do not try for deep Samadhi. Some dangers and risks are associated in this last step. A new and unfamiliar student experiences immediate peace of mind from stress and worries by simple Asana and Pranayama. The effects of deep breathing and chanting OM or any Mantra is similar and universal upon all human beings. Anybody can become a Yoga teacher by learning few Asana, Pranayama and Mantra chanting methods. Kundalini Shakti and Agna-Chakra are Mental Power Centers (Chakra) located in Brain and Spinal cord. The Sanskrit words used for Chakra can be explained with equivalent words of modern anatomy, physiology and psychology. (See coming Chapters). Dhyan and Samadhi Steps teach how to develop Kundalini powers or 3-tensesense and art of positive thinking. Physiological changes in body may be observed as reduction of blood pressure and arrest of diseases like acidity, headaches, arthritis and so on. Psychological changes like recovery from depressions and experience of mental happiness and joyful mood can be observed by friends and relatives. This is my simple advice to all new Yoga students. Learn how to develop Kundalini-Powers to achieve material successes in the life first. Never try to reach the Samadhi Step in short times. It is a dangerous practice if one tries to reach it, before mastering the other 7 steps. Remember this message of Lord Krishna in the Gita. Only one in a million, a true seeker of God is able to reach Samadhi and see the cosmic light of God. It is difficult to find a Guru who has seen such light of God.

A good way of concentration is to form the habit of concentrating your thoughts upon any and all activities and things that you do in daily life. When you are tying your shoe, think of tying that shoe lace until it is tied perfectly and do not try to read a news-paper at the same time. When you are dressing for a dinner party, think of your dress only but do try to practice a speech or a song at the same time. Such simple and regular habits and practices of concentration in present- will greatly quicken your power and enable you to do thoroughly and speedily everything you undertake. All successful men of the world are those who have learned above mentioned habits and practiced daily. They have acquired the art of concentrating upon above indicated simple points. In Dhyan a Yogi maintains an unbroken flow of thoughts for the goal indicated in the 6th step and has perfect awareness of the present Place and Time for doing actions (Karma) and also inaction (Akarma) also. Spiritual evolution (uplifting) takes place in following order. 1. Control of 5 senses. (Indriya Sanyama, by practicing the 5th step). This develops by learning how to control many random sensual desires arising in mind. 2. Make short term material goals and try to achieve them all. Understand well that only wishes and desires do not work at all times. Correct actions are also required to get wishes fulfilled. This is the first stage of Self Realization. Remember the names of 5 organs of actions, namely, speech, two hands, two legs, excretory organs and sex organs. Any Action (Karma) can be done Today and Now only. Make a possible wish and do perfect actions. Your wish will be fulfilled soon if your actions are perfect and do not depend upon other persons. Note also that bondage of Time-Place will always occur to all actions done by you. 3. Self confidence develops: Only after developing an attitude of equality towards all human beings, real self confidence develops. It comes only when all false Egos of superiority vanish. A true Yogi believes that no body is superior and no one is inferior. He does not believe in man made class system and man made unjust laws. We are all equal human beings in the laws of Mother Nature and eyes of God. 4. All inferiority complexes vanish: When positive thinking starts, a hopeful attitude develops. If others can do it, and if someone has done it in the past then, I can also do 41

it. This is called self-confidence. He/she becomes self-reliant, less expectant or dependent upon help from other people nearby. After mastering the 6th and 7th steps, positive helping nature towards others should also develop. 5. Foresight and Vision: Three tense sense- Kundlini develops after conquering six inner major enemies, namely; Desires, angers, greed, illusions, false egos and jealousy (Kama, Krodha, Lobh, Moha, Mad and Matser). 6. Real spiritual Self unfolds only after mastering the Samadhi step. I am zero as one individual (ATMA). How small I am in this Universe? So is everyone. We are all mortal human beings. The date of my death is fixed by God or Mother Nature. The next breath or next heart beat can become my last moment of life. It is with grace of God that I am alive here Today and Now at this moment. 7. Any curious and devoted student of Yoga can reach the mental level of all great prophets by mastering the Samadhi Step. A Yogi becomes one with God and fearless. He is not afraid of death. After mastering the Samadhi Step, he is able to and can give moral guide lines and commandments to masses as his/her AgnaChakra unfolds. He is ready to die performing his duty towards God and humanity at large. He dies a martyrs death fighting against traditional, orthodox, selfish and business minded priests and politicians. His body dies but his noble preaching remains for ever. He thus becomes an immortal (Amar-Atma) soul. The life stories of Buddha, Mahavira, Jesus Christ, Mohammed, many saints and true devotees of God all over the world is same. They were engaged in a life-long fight for delivering the true message of morality (religion) and God. 8. Write your autobiography. Summary: Raj Yoga of Patanjali is a theistic philosophy believing in one supreme creator, compared to Nir-ishver Sankhya of Kapil, Jainism and Buddhism. These are some atheist Darshans in India. Find 15 to 30 minutes Time to meditate daily in morning about what you will and can do Today and tomorrow. Do not worry too much about day after tomorrow. Do not worry or brood over what you did not do yesterday and in past life. One concentrates mind upon the relationship between self or I, material body and pure spirit by constant meditation during the steps of Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi.

Section: II

Ashtang Yoga: 14. SAMADHI STEP 8.

SAMADHI = BRAHAMA-NIRVANA. (Budhi-Yog) Yoga of Intellect Consciousness. with Universal Mind and Spiritual

Sthitpragnsya ka Bhasha, Samadhi-sthasya Keshava, Sthitdhihi kim prabhashate Kim aaseet vrajet kim. Gita II-54. Arjuna asks: Oh Keshava, please tell me how a man of firm mind, pure intellect and wisdom, who has reached Samadhi - sits, walks, speaks, and behaves ?" When the last step of Samadhi in Raj Yoga is reached, a Yogi becomes Sthita Pragna,- a Wise Man, a Buddha, a man of clear vision and foresight, firm mind and purified (unbiased and liberated) intellect (Sthitdhihi). The last 18 verses (54 to 72) of the 2nd chapter of The Gita nicely describe the state of Brahma- Nirvana or Samadhi State of mind. A vivid word picture of a Yogi in Samadhi is described in these verses. One should memorize these 18 golden verses, understand their meanings, and try to meditate upon Self, in the light of these verses. "A liberated soul, in Bhrama-Nirvana state has conquered all desires and is satisfied and peaceful within himself (55). He is not unhappy in unhappy events, or is elated in happy situations; he is free from attachments and pleasures gained by sense objects; and has conquered false fears and angers (56). He can endure hunger, thirst and is always in a blissful mood (59). Dhyayato vishayan punshaha sangat eshup jayate Sangat sanjayate Kamah Kamat Krodhobhi jayate, Krodhat bhavati Sammoha Sammohat Smruti-vibhramaha Smruti bhranshat Buddhi nasho Buddhi nashat pranashyati. Gita:-Ch.II-62 & 63.

Lord Says:"A person runs after material things (Vishaya- material objects giving sensual joys) and gets attached to those objects. Desires to repeat the previous pleasurable experiences arise in mind. When the (desires) are not satisfied, anger is the result. When mind is in grip of anger, consciousness is replaced by illusion (slumber = Sammoha). Illusion leads to loss of memory (Smruti-vibhramaha=Amnesia). Loss of memory leads to loss of intellect (power of logical thinking). Thus loss of intellect (Buddhi-nasha) brings peril, disasters and down fall of the person." These two verses explain how two powerful Satans- desires and angers arise in mind and where they lead an individual to in end. The other four Satans are false egos (Mada), greed of money and power (Lobha), wrong beliefs arising from ignorence (Maya or Avidya), and unproductive jelousy - Matsara. All these tendences create a sense of 'HATE'. Hate is opposite of true LOVE. Such and similar verses of the Gita had changed the life of Mahatma Gandhiji. Gandhiji learned these verses for the first time from an English translation of the Gita (by Arnold Edwin) when he was a student of law in London. He got attracted to this scripture and it changed his thinking and life. This is recorded in his autobiography, "My experiments with truth". Worldly objects come in contact with five senses. They give temporary short lived happiness and joys. For example a dish of sweets gives joy to tongue when it makes contact with tongue. The pleasure experienced by tongue, creates attachments to sweets. Likes and dislikes (Ragas and Dwandwas) for other food items get created in mind. Similarly one likes to see with eyes only beautiful things and persons, and dislikes dirty things or ugly faces of some people. One likes to hear only good news and praises and generally dislikes bad news and critism with another sense organ Ears. One likes contact of soft and cold things with skin (Sparsha Sukh) and likes fragnence of flowers and nice flavours in food items. People do not like bad smells and dirty odours. By remaining attached to all such objects of sensual joys, one commits many sins and falls in life. Naturally a question arises. What is sin? Like a wind dragging a boat without a steering wheel in any direction- the life of people living for joys gained from senses and sense objects, run in all directions, because they cannot use their intellect and wisdom (Pragna). (67). When others sleep, a Yogi is awake; when others are awake he sleeps (69).


He is liberated from sense of possessions, false egos and material desires. He wants nothing, is a man of clear vision, and is conscious of his limitation of Time and Place (71). The last verse describes mental state of Bhram Nirvana. Esha Brahmi sthiti Partha nainam prapya vimuhyati I Sthitvasyam anta kalepi Bhrama Nirvanam uchhyate II Gita, II-72. Lord Says :-"This is the state of Samadhi. One, who has not attained it, is always in illusion (Moha). One who has reached it is unshaken at the time of his death. He gets Nirvana and merges with Divine Supreme Brahaman (God)." Such a soul merges with the Absolute Bhraman (God) after death and is not born again. A Yogi is convinced about the perfect laws of Nature and has no duality in mind. He is a man of firm opinion and is always calm in mind during war or peace. He is not an escapist but is ready to fight and die performing his obligatory duties for noble causes. I know a case of a medical doctor in Bombay who died while practicing Dhyana Yoga and Samadhi, taught by famous intellectual YOGA TEACHER- NOW, LATE Acharya Rajanish. Many young and important family members have died or have became lost path souls while attempting Dhyana and Samadhi under such teachers. They do not teach the earlier steps in a systematic manner. Never be in a hurry to reach the last step of Samadhi in short time. It is like studying in a Ph.D. class, when one is just a student of the 1st grade in a school. Do not try to Reach Samadhi State hurriedly. It is risky, dangerous and suicidal. Nirvana stage comes to a true seeker slowly and automatically. All individuals who gain mastery over the first seven steps, experience a mental state of pure universal spiritual at all times during their future years, and at time of their own death. They have conquered the fear of death. Wrong teachings for Samadhi. Some Yogis teach control of heart rate by practices of long Kumbhaks and Rachaks in Pranayama. Others give hallucinating drugs and intoxicating herbs, like Cannabis Indica (Bhang), marijuana (Charas), opium (Afim), cocaine and narcotics. 43

These drugs induce a temporary Samadhi like state of mind, but it is not Nir-Vikalp-Samadhi. Such drugs, alcohol, smoking, etc., create a short euphoria, trance, or a blissful state of mind. The person gets disoriented from the present time-place sense and the world of reality. Orthodox Hath Yogies teach to with-hold passing urine and stools for long hours "Moolbandha", and such other Bandhas. Some teach long fasts for days and months, to identify that soul is different from body. Such practices are seen in Jainism. These are not real Yoga practices. Penances are meant to develop self control over natural desires of hunger, thirst, sex, etc,. To exhibit their great sex control and high degree of celibacy, some Yogis (Sadhus) move totally naked (Digamber) in the society. This is a common practice in one division of Jainism (Sthanakvasi Jains). Many so called Yogis of Himalayan cults in Hinduism also move naked in small and big groups (Naga Bava), seen on TV in Kumbh-Mela. (January -2001). When a group of Hath-Yogis visit some village in India, they harass illiterate and ignorant village people. Some demand sweets, rich food dishes, money and many other things. People are afraid of such Naked Sadhus and try to satisfy their demands. If one has courage, do not yield to their demands. They are also mortal human beings, just like us. Do not try for Samadhi during early steps of Yoga study. There is great risk of becoming an escapist, and leaving family life. People run away from family responsibilities and duties towards children, friends, society and country. Many young and promising youth, go to Himalaya to learn spirituality and Yoga. They neglect their young children, wives and old parents. A student on path of so called spirituality is highly respected in society and considered a divine soul in India (!). This is wrong practice at young age. It is anti-religious (Adharma). Ashtang Yoga of Patanjali and the Gita, do not preach practices like, detachment from money, wealth, family life and leadership positions, in any society or country. Raj means King. Become a king or a good and noble leader to guide the King, is goal of Yoga study. Summary of important points:1. The purpose of Yoga study is to unfold hidden noble and divine qualities within Self, and not to become a Superman or God. 2. There are many wrong beliefs and notions among Indian people, Hindus and Jains. e.g., You cannot get Moksha or See God,

without a Guru. Only a Guru can liberate from birth death cycle is another wrong notion. These are great misconceptions. 3. Today there are nearly 1000 or more living Gurus, who are worshipped as living Gods. Their hypnotized sheep like disciples, believe in their preaching and teachings. These blind followers believe that, Only their Guru is a super human divine soul and a Living Image of God! 4. No Guru can show or teach Samadhi to any student. No Guru can show God face to face (Sakshatkar). A good Yoga Guru can teach up to 7 steps of Yoga. Then by self meditation the final peak of Samadhi is reached by Closing Eyes and looking at ones own dead body with conscious mind. 5. In this way, only after mastering the 7th steps, one identifies, Body and Soul as two separate things. But do not forget also that they both are ever united (in Yoga), and depend upon each other. 6. Soul cant exist without material elements like water, air, etc,. and Body without Brahman, spirit or soul is a dead mass of bones and flesh. 7. A true Guru guides his disciple on path of morality (Dharma), by first practicing himself. He preaches the higher morals by his own example of selfless, simple life style, and noble humanitarian deeds, and ever peaceful mind and manners. 8. No human being can ever 'BE GOD OR BECOME GOD'. But any true seeker can SEE THE LIGHT OF GOD by the path of Yoga meditation. This is possible by understanding 'who am I?', and the limitations of time-place that apply to one's own self. 9. Any self realized soul can SEE and merge with God by the path of Devotion (Bhakti) and total surrender to Gods will in all events of happiness and unhappiness occurring during life, and accepting them as perfect design of Universal God (Vishva Pita or Universal Father).

Section: II

Ashtang Yoga: 15. WHAT IS HATH YOGA?

WHAT IS HATH YOGA? In different Yoga books HATH YOGA is described as a group of various difficult postures, and /or in many different ways by different Yoga teachers. The correct meaning of the Sanskrit word "Hath" is will power, firm mind or unshakable determination. It also means obstinacy, obsession or stubbornness. The purpose of Raj Yoga study is to develop unshakable faith in God, will power to walk on the path of morality (religion) and do noble deeds and perform right actions. Four types of Haths are well known since age old times which are described in various Indian scriptural stories. These are called BalHath, Stree-Hath, Raj-Hath and Yogi-Hath. It means tenacity or adamant behavior of children, obstinacy of a wife (woman), firm resolution of a king or government officer with weapons, and perseverance or firm beliefs of many religious people or any true YOGI. The last Hath is exhibited by all great prophets who have got no attachments of the other three and conquered likes and dislikes of five senses. There is voluminous literature on Hath Yoga in most yoga books. Each teacher has his own belief about Hath Yoga and explains it according to his understanding of this subject. Some Tapascharya (see Step 2 Niyama) during young age and teenage periods, or training of enduring some hardships like fasting and not eating tasty foods or water for some hours etc,. is important and necessary part of moral and cultural training (Sanskara imprinting). If children are not trained in this manner, they become miserable, frustrated and depressed when they suffer minor injuries, get diseases or some unhappy situation occurs in their future life. Hath Yoga does not lead to vision of God, but it develops a higher thresh-hold for pain endurance. This creates a will power, ability of tolerance of hardships to some limit and an attitude of compromises. The sum total of all such training is development of courage and Self confidence (Atma-Shraddha).


Hath Yoga is only a sub-step (Tapa) described in the second step of Niyama in Ashtang or Raj Yoga. Many wrong things are taught in the name of Hath Yoga. Yoga students should understand the purpose of such penances and their limitations. Some Hath Yoga practices were developed in ancient India when emergency medical aids were not available. By learning these tricks one develops wonderful control over natural instincts and desires like thirst and hunger; and good control over involuntary physiological systems like respiratory, digestive, excretory and reproductive system like sex desires. Weaknesses of males and females in sex urges (passions) arising during teenage periods was very well recognized by the ancient Rishies. Celibacy became an important vow. This is preached as a sub-step of Yama- the 1st step of Yoga. It is an important moral code, preached in all the religions and all civilized communities. Mool-Bandhas mean control of excretory functions of body like passing of stools and urine, vomiting, spitting, coughing etc.,. These controls are a part of good social behaviors and manners in every day life. They are important and essential hygienic manners in home life and neighborhood. This is indicated as another sub-step in Niyama, called Saucham. Many age old tricks and practices of Hath Yoga are obsolete, out dated and not required today. Yet they are taught by many orthodox Yoga teachers. Simple and useful Hath Yogas. Victory over taste of food, diet control for a day or two, partial fasts, missing a meal, taking only fruits and/or only milk for a day or a week, remaining thirsty for twelve hours, and avoidance of some food items like salt, sour tasting foods, etc., are some simple Hath Yoga practices. Anybody can learn these and practice easily. They get established as good habits in the course of time. These should be practiced first by parents and Gurus and then taught to children. A wonderful faith and attitude of devotion to God or some noble cause is created by association of famous festivals and religious days and historic legends with such practices Pranayam and Asana can also be looked upon as Hath Yoga to some extent. These are good for body health. But long term fasts done in the name of false religious beliefs upset and harm digestive organs and other vital systems. Six well-recognized Hath Yoga procedures (Bandhas) are described below. It is only for the purpose of general knowledge and not for practicing. Some Hath Yoga procedures are described in 45

other steps like the Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara and in higher meditation like Dhyan etc.,. 1. Dhoti or Stomach lavage. A long bandage like strip of soft cloth is swallowed slowly with plenty of water- nearly 3 to 4 liters. Then the water and cloth are vomited out. This procedure removes accidentally ingested wrong food items or poisons. This is like a crude type of gastric lavage. But one must learn such tricks during normal times as an additional side step of yoga training. 2. Basti or Enema at will without any instruments. Different "Basti" tricks are mastered and demonstrated in public shows by some Yogis. Some one would sit in a tub filled with water and suck in (drink) the water via anal route by relaxing the anal sphincter at will. Some other one would use a hollow stem (tube) and suck water into terminal parts of colon using abdominal muscles. In ancient times, similar procedures were used to relieve chronic constipation. They can be called enemas of the ancient times. 3. Naiti. or Nose cleaning methods. A thin strip of wet cloth- about 2 feet long is dipped in plain water or saline. Then it is passed from one nostril and taken out from mouth or the other nostril. Then by to and fro slow movements of the cloth strip, nose is cleaned. Yogis claim wonderful cures of recurrent colds and chronic sinusitis in some patients. It was a way of treating nasal colds which can be compared to scraping of nasal polyps by modern E.N.T doctors. Some Hath Yogis can drink water, either by two nostrils or one nostril directly from a glass of water or some take help of a rubber tube placed in one nose. 4. Tratak. Fixing eyes on a bright object. This is a popular trick of achieving very good concentration (Dhyana) of mind - which is the 7th step of Raj Yoga. Students are asked to look at some bright object - usually a candle, a bright lamp, or a fixed statue or a picture of deity God or in the eyes of Yoga Guru. They are not supposed to blink any moment, even if tears run profusely from the eyes. This type of concentration of eyes washout any dust particles from eyes. It is claimed that "Tratak mastery (Sadhna)" imparts ability of reading minds and thoughts of other people when a master is in 'Tratak' with some new student.

Modern psycho-analysts and police officers know such tricks of concentration and looking into eyes. In Karate fights also, such Tratak tricks are taught to students. Wandering sub-conscious mind gets fully concentrated upon the object observed. Yogis who have cultivated this ability can read thoughts of weak minded people, and can hypnotize and influence them. In many sports Tratak helps to concentrate and win a game. Tratak means fullest attention and tuning of eyes, mind, intellect and complete alertness. All jobs requiring pin-pointed attention and fullest concentration, like calculations of numbers, driving a car in heavy traffic or an airplane, wrist watch repairing, fine painting, etc.,. get done perfectly by Tratak and Dhyana practices. 5. Nauli. Control of abdominal muscles. Two long strip like muscles run from chest to mid-pubic region located in lower front of abdominal wall. They are called the Rectii muscles in anatomy. By mastering postural exercises of the abdominal muscles, any student (Sadhak) can develop great will control over these muscles. He can then make them stand out forewords while the remaining part of abdomen is withdrawn. He can move the right and left rectus muscle separately and can churn his abdomen by rhythmic movements of these muscles. This trick removes gases and chronic constipation and gives gentle message to all internal abdominal organs like Kidneys, Liver, Stomach, Spleen etc,. 6. Kapal Bhati. Forced deep exhalations. This is a kind of very popular Pranayama, which is discussed in th the 4 step of Yoga. This is usually done in sitting, but can be done in standing position also. After doing some rapid, short forced exhalations by using the abdominal muscles and diaphragm, the student does one long and forced exhalation. This expiration can be linked with foreword bending of body. Some Yoga postures of foreword bending can be combined with Kapal Bhati. Kapal Bhati is a good Hath Yoga exercise which needs to be learnt from a well experienced Yoga teacher. If done slowly while sitting on a toilet seat, it helps to relieve gases and constipation.

Section: II


(A scientific approach to above frequently used words in Yoga study in light of anatomy, physiology and psychology). Part-1. Kundalini power means a three-tense time (tri-kalgyana) and place sense or perfect orientation of time-place. What is Kundalini Power (Kundalini Shakti), which many Yoga teachers talk about? Some Yoga books and teachers describe Kundalini as a lotus (Kamal Chakra) with thousand petals. Others indicate that the lotus or Kamal Chakra is located in the heart region. Kundal means a round ornament worn in ears. Second meaning of Kundal is gold. A circular coiled up rope is also called Kundal. In Yoga books one finds description of three main nerves (Nadies) and some plexuses (Chakras) located in brain and spinal cord. Ida and Pingla Nadies arise from left and right nostrils respectively and travel up towards brain. Then they descend in spinal cord. Susumna is the third Nadi located in spinal cord. It is described as a sleeping serpent with its tail located in pelvis or the lowest point of spinal cord and genital organs. Susumna nadi also travels upwards to reach brain where it fans out like thousand heads of a snake. This big head is referred to as Kundalini in some Yoga books. Kundalini is the head or lotus like part of Susumna Nadi. Thus Kundalini is explained in different books with different symbolisms and a new curious student gets confused. The other names of Ida and Pingla Nadies are Chandra Nadi (Moon Nadi) and Surya Nadi (Sun Nadi) respectively. Kundalini arousing means developing mastery over all voluntary muscles in Body (Karma Indriyas) and also a few involuntary systems of body like breathing, sex desires, excretory functions, digestive organs, etc,. by Pranayama and some other


tricks. Some Yogis are able to reduce or increase their heart rate at will by such Hatha- Yoga tricks called Tapascharya. Kundalini Shakti (power) is understood by some as super human will power. Orthodox Yogis believe that when Kundalini is aroused a Yogi gets united with Universal God. Please remember that this is not a correct thing or a true statement. It is not easy thing to develop Kundalini powers for all students and also not needed in regular daily yoga practices. What is 'Agna Chakra'? A Chakra literally means a wheel. The Chakras are the locations in spinal cord where the 3 main Nadies- Ida, Pingla and Susumna cross with each other and/or from left to right. Muladhara Chakra, the lowest Chakra is located in pelvis. It regulates excretions (Upastha or Apana) like passage of stools, urine and sex organs. It is the tail of Susumna Nadi. Manipura Chakra (Nabhi or Ganesh Chakra) is located in Navel or umbilical region. It regulates intestinal movements, appetite, desire for food and water. Manasa Chakra (Mind), Surya Chakra (Sun) and Kamal Chakra (Lotus) are located in Chest and Heart regions. Vishuddhi Chakra (Nad-Chakra, Shankha Chakra or Speech Chakra) is located in throat and neck region. The highest Agna Chakra is located between two eye brows. It is symbolized in Puranic stories as the 3rd eye of Lord Shiva. Only after development of Kundalini, a Yogi should try for the last two steps of Yoga called Dhyana and Samadhi. At this point he might get divine inspirations or awakening of spiritual powers which give him ability of giving commandments like a prophet. He becomes a noble political leader like Mahatma Gandhi or a spiritual leader and founder of religions like Jesus, Moses, Mahavira, Buddha, Mohammed, Shankaracharya, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Swami Sahajananda etc.,. Unfoldment of "Aagna Chakra" makes a person a SiddhaPurusha (Vibhooti), a great leader in any field. The elephant headed Hindu deity God 'Ganapati' is symbol of such a leader. A good leader is respected by all people. People obey his commands. Leadership brings self esteem and prosperity. Siddhi and Riddhi (success and wealth) are two wives of Ganapati.

Kundalini Awakening and use of Agna Chakra imparts ability of mass hypnosis and one becomes a Ganapati. (Gana= mass of people and Pati= master, boss or a leader.) Part-2. Scientific meanings of Kundalini and Agna Chakra. We will now try to understand these words in the light of modern medical terms and facts of anatomy, physiology and psychology. In anatomy, the nervous system is divided into two main parts, namely voluntary and involuntary nerves. The Nadies and Chakras could be looked upon as parts of voluntary and involuntary nervous systems. The voluntary nervous system controls all muscles of neck, limbs and spine. The voluntary nerves are under control of will and wishes of all persons. The involuntary system is called autonomic nervous system. These nerves are usually not under the will control of any person. It has two further sub-divisions. (1) Sympathetic nerves and (2) Para-sympathetic nerves. The ganglia of both groups form nerve net-works, called various plexuses. They are located in brain and spinal cord. These are called Chakras in Yoga books. Autonomic nerve ganglia control spinchtors of internal organs of digestion, heart rate, rate of respiration, excretions and sex organs. If a worry-less peaceful state of mind is maintained the inner systems function normally and the person lives a long healthy life. This is the aim of Yoga study and practices. In Anatomical terms, Kundalini could be looked upon as the Corpus Callosum part and nearby areas of brain. These look like petals of a white lotus or thousand heads of a snake to nacked eyes when brain is opened. Through Corpus Callosum pass white fibers of ascending and descending nerves crossing from right and left parts of brain. Their cells are located in higher brain and spinal cord which produce a network of millions of nerves. In this way right and the left hemispheres of brain, the frontal and occipital (back) lobes, mid brain and spinal cord are connected like net work of a gigantic telephone exchange. Through Corpus Callosum area run afferent and efferent nerve fibers which carry messages to and from brain cells and spinal cord.


When sliced like a bread, the Corpus Callosum and nearby brain area look like a lotus to naked eyes. Human body is equipped with a wonderful nervous system. Today the exact functions of different areas of brain which control bodys voluntary muscles, speech, sight, and thoughts are fairly well known to medical science. Autonomic nerve centers are located in medulla oblongata, which is a part of brain stem connecting Brain and spinal cord. They control all vital systems like respiration rate, blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature etc. This mid-brain area function like a computerized subconscious control room of respiratory, excretory, digestive, reproductive and circulatory systems. These systems are referred to as five MahaPranas (vital systems) in Upanishad texts. The words used for these vital systems are Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana and Samana respectively. In fire rituals (Yagnas) Hindu priests chant these five words and speak SWAHA, SWAHA after each word, without understanding of any meaning of these words, or the significance of the fire ritual. The real fire is the body-heat and curiosity of learning new ideas. Whatever we eat is converted into body-heat by these systems. All these five vital systems work in harmony, if we do not worry, do not have any tensions and keep peaceful mind. Blood circulation to different organs occur according to their needs by automatic adjustment of heart and respiration rates. Brain cells and Nerve cells of autonomic nervous systems are greatly influenced by smoking, alcohol and many drugs. Chemical substances like calcium, potassium, sodium and internal secretions like insulin, male and female hormones, pituitary hormones, adrenal secretions, thyroid etc., also regulate internal systems and general metabolism. If mind is peaceful the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and chemicals work in perfect order, harmony and balance. The parasympathetic nerve centers are located within the brain and spinal cord, whereas the sympathetic centers and ganglia are located outside the brain, skull and vertebral bodies. Two chains of sympathetic ganglia run by the two sides of vertebral bodies in neck, chest, lumber and sacral regions. The adrenal glands in abdomen are the biggest sympathetic (Chakra) ganglia. They secrete adrenaline which regulates the tone of blood vessels and maintains normal blood pressure. The Manipura Chakra of Yoga books could be looked upon as different ganglia in abdominal region. 48

The diaphragm is a dome shaped muscle plate. It separates lungs and heart located in chest from abdominal organs like liver, stomach and intestines. It has a double nerve supply, the voluntary nerves from near by spinal nerves and involuntary nerves from the Vagus (the 10th cranial nerve). This nerve starts from brain and ends in sex organs. It controls blood flow in sex organs in both sexes during sex activity. The rate of respiration and heart, all digestive sphincters and movements of intestines are regulated by the balancing actions of parasympathetic nerves like Vagus, sympathetic nerves, and hormones like adrenaline etc.,. The muscles of bronchi in lungs, spinchtors of stomach, bile duct, bladder and anus are regulated by autonomic nerves. Sex desires (Kama) arise in mind from sight of sex parts or smell of perspiration of opposite sex in all animals (including human beings) during reproductive age period. They are conducted to brain via olfactory nerves (Ida and Pingla Nadies). Similarly the secretions collected in seminal vesicles and prostate glands, arouse sex desires. The change of erection occurring in male sex organs is regulated by the Vagus nerve. Kundalini and Agna Chakra decide proper time and place, and teach denial of sex act at improper time, wrong place and student age period. This can be looked upon as Chakra Bhedan of Muladhara Chakra. It means gaining control or mastery over the organs of passing stool and organs of sex activity. God could be understood as a maker of all wonderful organs in body. We hardly think (meditate) about such wonderful gifts of God and the amazing internal functions. Kundalini could be understood at three different levels. 1. At body level we can easily understand it is awareness of a full urinary bladder and stool in rectum. Its control means diaper training in childhood, and ability to with hold these desires for some time till proper rest room is found. As one grows old, one learns to control desires of hunger and thirst arising in stomach and abdomen. Control of sex desires (Vasana, Vrutties) is celibacy. When any person is able to control such natural animal urges and functions, he has mastered Muladhar-Chakra and Ganesh or Nabhi Chakra. 2. At average human being's mind level. By meditation and religious training, one learns to control rate and depth of breathing and desire of speaking. Gradually one learns to conquer the likes and dislikes of smell and taste of different food items.

3. At psychological level. By practicing meditation in the higher steps, one learns to control animal emotions like anger, jealousy, hates and selfish desires. The 4th step of Pranayama immediately makes the mind thoughtless and peaceful. It helps to induce sleep, and end worries and tensions. Prayers and the simple method of OM chanting cures many psychosomatic diseases and insomnia. By meditating upon past experiences and use of higher intellect, great discriminative ability develops. It is called wisdom (Pragna). A wise man is called Pragna-Chakshu person. Higher meditation for Samadhi should only practiced after mastering first seven steps. KUNDALINI POWER MEANS A THREE-TENSE TIME (TRI-KALGYANA) AND PLACE SENSE OR PERFECT ORIENTATION OF TIME-PLACE. When a student (Sadhaka) reaches the seventh step of Dhyana, a wonderful awareness and the art of perfect attention in doing the present job or learning new skills develops with some practice and experience. Never become a hypnotized disciple of any Indian Guru or any religious teacher. Remember that he is also a mortal human being just like you. A religious teacher is supposed to teach good morals like truthfulness, honesty, nonviolence etc,. He can also give you worldly knowledge like all teachers in schools and colleges. The self-knowledge (Adhiyatma Vidya) can be learned by selfstudy alone. A non greedy teacher who has studied scriptures like the Gita and some Hindu Upanishads can teach a few points about morals of religion. These teachings ultimately lead to understanding of equality of all non-living and living beings and universal creations, their qualities (Goona) limitations and bondage of Time-Space etc,. Remember that No Guru can ever show you God. It is a wrong belief that a Guru is needed for seeing the God. One has to do his or her own efforts and study of Yoga in scientific manner. Never spend money for so called spiritual Gurus classes which ask for donations for building temples or Ashramas in India or costly audio and video tapes. They are Half-Self Realized misguiding teachers. The following Gita verses give statistical figures of a true Guru. Such a person is one in a million. It is rare to find a true Yoga Guru, who has seen the Gods Light.

Manushyanam Sahatreshu Kaschit yatati siddhaya Siddhanam api sahatranam Kaschit mam vatthi tatvataha (The Gita Ch-VII- V-3). Only one in a thousand tries to get some material success (Siddhi) in life, and out of such thousand successful Siddhas only one knows ME (God) perfectly. Bahunam Janamnam ante Gyanvan mam Prapadyate. After many lives only one person can touch me by the path of self-knowledge (The Gita Ch.VII-18) Remember the meaning of the word Siddhi. It means material successes like victory in war, sports, financial, or political achievements, getting name and fame in any field like music, dance, acting, knowledge etc.,.


Section: II

Ashtang Yoga: 17. DIET AND YOGA

Yukta-ahar Viharah ch Yukta Karmacha Chestasu, Yukta swapnavabodhascha Yogo bhavati dukhkhaha. Gita; Ch-VI-17. "Proper diet, proper movements (from one place to another), proper actions (Karma), proper gestures and expressions (on face, speech), proper dreams (goals) and correct knowledge of self liberates a person from many unhappy situations in life". Body, mind, Intellect and Ego. Bhumiraponalovayu kham mano buddhirev ch Ahamkarm eetiyam may bhinna prakruti ashtadha. Gita- VII- 4. Lord Says: "From different 8 elements of mother nature (prakruti), namely, Earth (Food), Water, Air, Energy (Agni), Space, Mind, Intellect and Ego - I have created physical bodies and mental make up of all living human beings. Annad Bhvanti Bhutani. Gita Ch-III-14 Physical bodies of all creatures are made by food. All living beings depend on proper food, water, air and energy. If some one over-eats, he/she becomes fat, and not strong; and if one starves, he/she looses strength and normal health. Physical strength depends on muscle mass, power and condition of mind and energy obtained from food. Knowledge of proper food items in Yoga practices means Yoga of Body and Mind. Choice of food items, taste, quality and quantity of food, short term fasts, missing one meal in a week, taking only fruits for few days, remaining thirsty for few hours are some simple (Tapascharyas) Yoga practices. These should be practiced by the parents and taught to their children. Linking them with holy events creates a divine will power. Long term fasts of weeks and months are practiced by many Jain Yogies and their followers. Physiologically these are wrong practices 50

and should not be practiced by any intellectual person. Long term fasts weaken digestive and other vital organs. Short term fasts are good for every body. Children trained in this manner during young age remain calm and can bear hunger easily for few hours and days in adverse circumstances. Various Diet practices are dictated in many religions. Religious fasts are linked with many holy events. People observe them with great faith. They remain hungry and thirsty for weeks. Such fasts are followed by feasts and celebrations. In the month of Ramadan (in Islamic calendar) devoted Moslems observe strict fasts during day time and break them at night. In India the Jains observe 24 hours continuous fasts for 8 days during 'Paryushana' week, in monsoon season. Hindus observe fast of one day on a fixed week or a fortnight day. The aim of Yoga study (and religion) is to live a healthy, happy and active life, with good name and fame. Yoga prepares a student to achieve all above goals by correct training of body and mind. A Yogi achieves many successes (Siddhies) during 100 years of life, spiritual upliftment leading to Moksha or Nirvana in later years and vision of God. There is voluminous literature on the subject of Yoga and Hatha-Yoga in English. One will find about 50 books on this subject in any average library in USA. Every author has his own understanding of this complex subject. He presents and teaches in the way he has learned from his Guru (teacher) or from some ancient scriptures. Many Yoga are described in the Gita. They teach correct mental attitudes and duty bound actions. By learning and doing correct actions (Karma Yoga) an ordinary person becomes an extra-ordinary person, a noble soul, a divine angle or a super soul (Vibhooti). More vegetarian foods, plenty of fruits, developing control of the taste and smell of foods are a few early vows needed in Yoga study. Short fasts and feasts are good for health. Attend regularly religious meetings and share food as gift of God (Prasadum) in groups. This is Yoga of divine food and diet. Proper goal oriented dreams and correct actions to achieve them are advised in Gita.




Lesson 1. Yama niyama & Sanatan Dharm Lesson 2. Ten practical points for a happy life. Lesson 3. Yoga is science of self study (atmagyana or swadhyay) and art of living a divine perfect life. Lesson 1. Yama Niyama & Sanatan Dharm Yama is afraid of Niyama. If one wants to keep Yama (Death) away, Niyama (No-Yama) must be observed. The first two steps of Yama and Ni-Yama teach Ten Eternal Morals or Sanatan Dharm- the correct name of Hinduism. Morals are like Eternal good guiding principles. They apply at all Places, at all Times in all countries. Such preachings are observed in all world religions. "Shariramadyam, khalu Dharma sadhanam". Good health of Body is the first and most important thing for all religious practices (Dharma). Most Indian Yoga Gurus, Yoga books and Yoga schools in USA mainly teach Body postures or Asana, a few Breathing Exercises and some age old tricks of meditation. The third step of Yoga Asana teaches Different Postures to preserve good mobility of all joints for good health of body. Before we learn Asana, let us summarise practical message of Yama and Niyama. In later five steps we will learn how to liberate Mind and Intellect (Buddhi) from material attachments and develop concentration (Dhyan) in present job, unfold spiritual self and Self Upliftment by meditation. Karma Yoga (Gita-Ch-3) teaches how to achieve material successes (Siddhies) and enjoy material happiness at youth age period. Money and Material pleasures are not denied in Yoga Study. Truth and Non-violence are first two words in the step of Yama. By observing truthfulness and nonviolent attitude one becomes a good person in any society. All world religions preach these two important religious doctrines. Dont Kill and Speak the Truth. 51

Yama is an imaginary deity God of Death in Hinduism. Knowledge and practice of Yama and Ni-Yama guidelines postpone death (No-Yama) and bring good mental and physical health. Beside fear of death, people live in many worldly fears, like loss of money, loss of job, loss of high political position, old age and diseases, etc. Such fears create tensions and worries. Santoshat Param Sukham. But moral advises always need some practical examples. Following short story explains the correct meaning of word Santosh, preached in Niyama. Most people are always unhappy even with their present good situations in life. On Sunday if there is hot Sun, they complain it is very hot. On a cold Monday, they want a hot Sun. In a rainy season they want clear sky, and in summer they want Rain. Some people have got everything in their life and family, in material terms. The following event will explain this mental attitude of ever dis-satisfaction, worries and tensions. They are never Satisfied with what they have got Today. During one of my trip of India I met an old school friend after 30 years. I will refer him as Mr. Santosh Kumar. He kept C grades in our class. But by divine grace he inherited a million dollar worth business and estate of a childless distant relative. He got married to a beautiful good nature girl and had three grown up sons, all married by now. His well-educated sons had taken over all responsibilities of businesses and estates. His two grown up daughters were studying in medical college. I had learned about his weath and family from a common friend. We entered in a nearby caf and I congradulaed him for his present status and family. In reply he tells me following story. "Oh my friend, don't ask me anything. Life is very miserable. The last week was a hell of experience and the worst time in my life. I was shocked and thought something serious must have happened in Mr. Santoshis life. He said. "My eldest son Puranchandra has four daughters. His pregnant wife was admitted in hospital fifth time, for delivery. Doctor told she needed a C-section. We were worried. But the operation went smooth and a grand son was born. For last 4 day I have not slept, because I was busy delivering sweets to relatives for the birth of a son in family. He continued his story without a pause. Yesterday the war between India and Pakistan ended. We had expected a crash in share

market and great loss. I was in great tension. But my second son Ramesh told me that we had made a good profit of half a million. But now we will have to pay 50% in the taxes. While I was worried about this tax problem, my daughter Shila came home and introduced to me a smart and handsome boy of other caste, studying with her. She wanted to marry Him. We were in search of a suitable match for her since last one year. But this news shocked me. How she can finalize her life partner without my consent? You see my friend, I am most miserable person living in hell today. I don't know what will happen to the newly born grand son, how we will pay the taxes, and worried for my daughters choice of life partner. Will she be happy with the boy whom we don't know at all? We will have to arrange for Dowry and lot of marriage expenses". After hearing above story of my friend I perfectly understood the exact meaning of the word 'Santosh' preached in the 2nd step of Niyama. In fact all good events had happened in Santoshilals life during that week. Yet he was an ever dis-satisfied soul. My grand daughter wants pizza from Pizza-Hut only, and any other pizza is Yaki. She misses Pizza while in India. When she is back from India, she wants Pani-Puri an Indian dish not easily available in USA. Develop Good Food habits and learn to be Satisfied with any food. Observe simple regulations of proper food, drinking habits, exercises etc., These are important for health. A daily time-table, according to needs be prepared, but the most important thing is to adhere to it. Vegetarian foods and proper intervals between meals are simple and easy Niyama. Observe proper timings of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Then health will remain in a fairly good and happy mood. Niyama are best learned in a weeks well planned Yoga camp. Lesson 2. Ten practical points for a happy life. For practical understanding of good manners (sad-aachar) preached in Yama and Niyama, I suggest a ten point formula for a happy healthy, successful and long practical life. 1. Find time for Asana, Prayers, OM and Mantra Chanting and Pranayama. These are health preserving vital rituals. Do them daily for about 30 minutes, preferably in early morning. 52

2. Think and Meditate about only Today's important jobs and obligations. Save time by avoiding fruitless talks and chit-chatting. Give an order of priority (ak-agrata). Make a list of jobs to be done and points to be discussed with friends, relatives and other people. Do not postpone important jobs for tomorrow, if you can do them today and now. 3. Punctuality. Keep a perfect Time sense. Niyam means Punctuality. Try to be punctual at all jobs and meetings. A daily timetable, according to ones job needs, can be prepared. But the most important thing is to adhere to it. Punctuality means sense of time. Lord Shiva is God of Universal Time. Maha-Kaleshver. This is most important requirement for achieving any social, economic or political success. 4. DIET. Drink about 20 ounces of Luke-warm water as first thing after getting up from bed. Take breakfast, lunch and dinner at proper times and avoid eating anything in-between. Yoga teaches how to conquer attachments of taste, smell and look of food. Take pure and healthy foods, drink clean water and breath fresh air at all times. 5. Quit habits of smoking, alcoholic drinks and drugs. Liberate SELF from such vices. You have no right to say you are a liberated man, if you are slave of vices like smoking or drinking. What is the meaning of the statue of 'Liberty' in New York harbour? Does it mean one could behave in any manner as one likes? We all live in bilateral family relations. Men and women are always interdependent and never independent. 6. Try to learn daily new skills like computers car driving, music, etc,. welcome new thoughts. During free times read books, magazines etc. Keep learning curiosity alive and remain a busy student. Develop some creative activity and hobby. Never remain idle. Either Learn something or Earn something, but dont waste time. 7. MATRU AND PITRU KARMA. Parents are deity Gods near by is preaching of Hindu Upanishads. Respect and take good care of mother, father, brothers, sisters, well-wisher friends, trust worthy relatives, and wise men in the neighborhood (Gurus). Also find time to look at the progress of children and remain alert about their company of good or bad friends. 8. Dont smoke or talk while driving, and Dont answer mobile phones. Any accident can occur if attention is lost even for a second. The law of Fullest attention in the present Job or Karma gets violated if you talk while driving vehicles like cars or airplanes etc.

Any one can do one thing at one time. Do it best is the golden rule for material success. Keep a pocket diary. Record good thoughts as they crop up in mind during day's work. 9. Listen well. Maximum knowledge is gained by listening. Pay full attention (listen well) when others are speaking. If you do not understand, do not feel shy in asking questions in a group. You can become a good leader if you listen well. The symbolic meaning of elephant head Hindu deity God Ganasha (Ganpati) is a good leader. It suggests Keep Big Ears like an elephant and a Big head symbolizes- a man of great knowledge. Become a great leader with good knowledge of many subjects and help others is message of Ganesh. 10. SAT-SANGA. Remain in company of good friends and avoid fruitless political and religious discussions with colleges having different beliefs. Try to attend spiritual discourses of well read teachers of all religions, whenever possible. An Upanishad Mantra says; Swadhyaya Pravachanabhyam ma Pramaditavyam. Do not remain idle towards lectures and discourses of spiritual subjects. Try to attend such lectures at all times. This is called SatSang. Yama and Niyama teach a well disciplined life-style. Body is like a car. It needs daily service and good steering and breaks. Religious discourses provide daily or weekly tune up service of intellect and mind. Note that the above 10 rules and steps indicated are not difficult. Niyama form the basis of successes in present and all future times of life ahead. Remember Five Ps in Life. Peace of mind, Patience (Dhiraj), Preservation of life (non-violence), Persistence of actions and Punctuality. These 5-Ps bring every successes in life. Summary: 1. Keep perfect Time and Place sense. 2. Always Listen well. Learn something, or Earn something, but Dont waste Time. 3. Find time of 15 to 30 minutes, for exercise and meditation, daily prayers, in morning, noon, and night. 53

4. If you can do tomorrows work today, then finish it TODAY. Keep record of thoughts and important works to be done in next hours, next day or week. 5. Keep company of good friends (sat-sang) and keep ears, eyes and mind open. Many good Niyama can be mastered by attending a week in a trust worthy Yoga camp, and by the study of Gita and good religious discourses. Lesson 3. Yoga is science of self study and art of living a divine perfect life. (Atmagyana or swadhyay) Yoga is science of Self study SWADHYAY (Atma-Gyana) and art of living a Divine life. Yoga is one of the six Hindu Darshans or philosophies belonging to group of Spiritual scriptures of India. Yoga has developed during millenniums in Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Upanishads (about 240), 6 Hindu Darshans and the Gita, all make this group of spiritual scriptures. It is called Brahm-Vidya or Adiatma-Vidya. Brahma Vidya means knowledge of soul (spirit of life) in all living beings. Biology is the correct translation of Brahm-Vidya. Keep Curiosity to learn and revise right or wrong beliefs about religion, politics, sociology etc. Yoga teaches all these by meditation and SELF knowledge. The Correct meaning of popular word ATMA. The word Atma is commonly understood as Spirit or Soul. Let us first learn about different meanings of this most important word ATMA, frequently used in many Indian religious scriptures. Most Gurus and 99.99 % Indian people understand the word Atma as Soul or Spirit of Life. It is wrong. In the Vedas the word Brahman was used in meaning of Spirit or Soul. Brahaman and not Atma is the correct word for Soul or Spirit. Atma, Chetana, Jiva, nameless That (Tat), Sah, Tatva, are the different words used to mean Brahman (soul or spirit). In some scriptures the word used for soul is only pronoun tat meaning That. The Sanskrit word Atma is understood in four different meanings during the millenniums of evolution of Hindu scriptures.

Thesaurus of the word ATMA. 1. Soul or Pure Spirit. All Indian Gurus and scriptures that came up after the period of Adi-Shankara (7th cent AD) understand and explain the word ATMA in the popular meaning of soul today. A yoga student has to search and understand soul as a separate element from Body by Self-meditation. Soul is Divine, changeless, undying, unborn, immortal innermost spark of life in living beings. Body + Soul = a living creature. Body Soul = a dead body. 2. SELF: This is correct translation of the Vedic word ATMA, and Not Soul or Spirit. ATMA = Body + mind + Intellect + Ego + Soul. 3. Manifest Soul (Vyakta Atma). Any one living creature, an animal, a plant or a tree. 4. One living human being, one individual (Vyakti). Vyakta means manifest as opposed to Avyakta or unmenifest, formless, invisible etc. Atma-Gyana (=Self Knowledge) teaches Who am I? as one individual. By Yoga Meditation one has to search an answer to this standard question. The union of Body with Spirit and TIME-SPACE bondage of body can be understood by self-meditation only, and search of Divine Self within. This leads to Self-realization and understanding of the perfect laws of Mother Nature (Prakruti) or God of Universe. Yoga study removes - Avidya and Agyana of Atma or SELF. Agyana and Avidya appear like synonyms but they have different meanings. Avidya means wrong information, incorrect knowledge, false beliefs and wrong opinions, half knowledge etc,. Most people live with Avidya- particularly, wrong and rigid (Jad) beliefs in religious field. This is due to a fact that most people do not study their own scriptures with open mind and in a systemic manner. Eastern religions declare that without Atma Gyana even a highly educated person remains in Avidya and does many wrong activities (sins) in name of Religion and God. True understanding of Religion and conviction about One Omnipresent God occurs to any individual (Vyakti) by Self Realization in Yoga study. 54

Agyan (Tamas) means ignorance, lack of information. A child is ignorant about names of many material things, and laws of society and country. Adults possess this average worldly information, but they have only superficial knowledge of all universal bodies and perfect laws of Mother Nature. Agyana can be removed by company of good teachers, spiritually enlightened souls, Buddha Jana and Satsang. It is easy to remove Agyana but it is difficult to remove Avidya. In Kathopnishad, a famous Upanishad, the word ATMA is used as changeless soul. In the ending dialogue between Yama (deity God of Death) and Nachiketa, (a curipus young boy), - Body is symbolized as a Chariot, Five senses are the horses, Mind or Conscious Self is the rider (Arjuna). The reins must be in hand of Unbiased Unattached Intellect (Krishna). Intellect must be the driver of all desires arising in Mind. The horses (senses) symbolize the five senses, namely, Ears, Eyes, Tongue as taste organ, Nose and Skin. Mind is always filled with endless desires, (kama), fears (Bhaya) and emotions like Angers. These must be controlled by Intellect or Higher Mind. Albert Einstein declares that the Sun Light (Energy) is also fine matter particles (atoms) traveling in Universal Space at great speed. These fine Atoms unite and make Air, Water and Earth. All visible living bodies and non-living objects like rivers, oceans and mountains are made-up of fine atoms. He has proved by his famous equation of Relativity that Time and Space are relative concepts of human mind. If there are no material bodies in universe, then there is nothing like Time and Space. The changes occurring in all physical bodies are perceptible with five senses which can be understood by mind and intellect in a SpaceTime continuum. By deep meditation (Samadhi) one perfectly understands that events like death and birth also occur according to perfect laws of God. Then the fear of death is gone forever. In ending words Yama says, There is nothing higher than divine soul (or self) within. Intellect (Buddhi) is the unique human ability not present in animals. Intellect (Nyaya Buddhi) is the discriminative power by which one arrives at judgment. It can be called common sense also. This is the ability of reason or logic within all of us. But most people never use intellect in revising their wrong religious beliefs and remain attached to their wrong religious beliefs for entire life.

Yoga teaches how to use intellect for developing self-control (Sanyama), and will power of positive thinking. God Search and knowledge of true Religion comes only by use of Intellect and not by reading books. No human being is perfect. Beliefs regarding God and religions will vary with all individuals. Ignorance and Idleness are ever present in all human beings. But there is a hidden spark of God Divine within all human beings. This God Nature or Good nature gradually unfolds by Yoga meditation. By developing a helping nature and attitude of forgiveness and renunciation (Tyag) of all Ego-centric desires (Vasana), instincts (Vrutties) and Selfish attitudes (Swarthi Swabhav), any one can reach the mental level, Nirvana. This was reached by all great religious founders of past like Buddha, Jesus, Muhhamod etc,. Speech and hands are important human Karma Indriya not present in animals. Karma are done by Body. Hands and Feet are most important organs with which all human beings do their daily actions. Indian Yoga Gurus, books and Yoga schools in USA mainly teach Body postures or Asana, Pranayama or Breathing exercises and some well-known tricks of meditation. Om Tat Sat. God Is Truth.

Section: III




Article 1.

Before we study the 5 Step of Pratyahara, let us learn something about Art and science of Meitation. Meditation is a mental exercise or scientific way of thinking and reasoning to find consciously, answers for causes of effects seen and events occurring in daily life. The answers are confirmed by studying Karma done by self and others, and meditating about events of past and present positions in life. Only a few intellectuals possess this faculty and achieve material successes, fame and prosparity (Siddhi and Riddhi)) in life. Out of such thousand successful people only a rare soul is interested in knowing Spiritual Divine Self (soul) within, the Eternal Religion (Sanatan Dharm) and God. Some Guidelines for Meditation. The student must find a quite isolated place. He will sit there with closed eyes in meditation posture for 30 mins to one hour in beginning. The student must remain physically and mentally fit, but isolated during meditation from friends and relatives. Start with chanting some Mantra, long OM, and a few Pranayama like MPs described in the 4th step, for few minutes. This will pacify wandering mind and create a void or thoughtless consciousness for a few minutes. Observe this important psychological effect subjectively during Pranayama which is an entry step for higher Meditation. It works like a magic pill. Random thoughts cropping up in conscious mind disappear immediately. Mind becomes fresh and pacified. There is no need to pay high fees to Yoga Swamies, Saints, Babas and/or Pundits. Think by writing your thoughts about the present worrying situations of your life. Think about their causes, various possibilities and probabilities. You will soon find Right answers and correct plans of actions about solving all present problems and situation. A student has to try these tricks upon his or her self to experience and get convinced that mind does become thoughtless and pacified by 55


such practices. Breathing is partly voluntary and partly involuntary vital system of the body. When breath stops we all die. Pranayama develop voluntary control over an involuntary physiological system and will power. Before learning higher steps of Yoga a student must learn and master some Pranayama. Thoughts in mind usually run after short term pleasures derived from the five senses. When mind is peaceful, the higher mind or intellect (Buddhi) starts working in a positive manner. Waves of new thoughts and new ideas will start flowing in your conscious mind. What is Yoga Meditation? In Yoga Meditation the student searches answers to questions like Who am I?, Where is God, What is true Religion and its need in life- for days, months and years. By Self Meditation a student studies his body, mind, true and false Egos and conscious Self. The subject of study and the object of study is one and same- viz., one's own Self. Yoga meditation starts with the 4th step of Pranayama and ends on reaching the 8th step of Samadhi. Pratyahara, Dharana and Dhyana are middle three steps and different zones of mind. The final aim of Yoga meditation is to discover Divine Pure Soul within, and unite with the maker of Universe (God). Self realization by meditation is not as easy as it sounds. Levels of Mind Consciousness in Meditation. Five different levels of consciousness states of mind are described for understanding Yoga Meditation. These states merge into oneanother. They are not rigid water tight compartments. The terminology, examples, explanations, and meanings explained in different Yoga books, Gurus and teachers vary a great deal. To understand these levels, imagine a 100 volts electric bulb regulated by a rheostat switch. It shines at 100 volts when full switch is open. Any other state is less than 100 % light are lower zones of subconscious mind or Chitta. Total darkness is deep sleep or deep anesthesia state. The following description will help any intellectual student to understand these levels. 1. Conscious mind. (Jagruta mana). Perfectly waking normal state of mind during day time. 2. Sub-conscious mind. (Chitta or Ardha-jagruta mana). Randomly thinking and/or worried mind. 3. Day dreaming or imagining mind. (Diwa-swapnastha mind). Thinking about past or future events. 4. Dreaming mind or hypnotized mind (Tandrit mana). 56

During early sleep one sees vague dreams (Swapnastha mana). During sound sleep mind is sleeping or is in a state of zero consciousness. This is comparable to anesthesia. All voluntary muscles are relaxed and the person does not respond to external stimuli of noise and mild pains. 5. Samadhi state of mind. This is reached only by a few great prophets like Buddha, Mahavira, Jesus, Mohammed or true saints in all countries of the world. The word Meditation needs correct understanding. There is great misunderstanding about some key words. They are vaguely and poorly translated into English by Yoga Gurus or their English knowing disciples. Only a few common Yoga words are listed here. Exact or nearest English meanings of some Sanskrit and Yoga words. Atma. This word is translated and understood as soul by most religious Gurus and also Indian people. The correct translation of ATMA is SELF and not Soul. The second meaning of Atma is One Living Individual or Vyakti. Most Indian Gurus translate Atma in sense of Spirit or soul. Correct Sanskrit word for Spirit (soul) is Brahman (Bios- as pure element, devoid of any matter). Mana = Mind. Psyche. Chitta is a frequently used word in Yoga books, Gita and Sanskrit texts. Its closest English word is 'sub-conscious mind'. It is the second side of conscious mind like two sides of a coin. Chitta is like a StoreHouse of past memories (Smruti) or a Read Write Memory -Disc of human brains computer. In subconscious mind all past experiences are stored as memories. When Chitta is not working properly one forgets the sense of time-place, events of past, names of relatives etc. This is called Amnesia (Chitta-bhrama), Dementia or Memory loss. Buddhi = Intellect. This is a unique human faculty not present in lower animals. Intellect is the ability of logical thinking with data of past memories stored in Chitta. The religion of Buddhism is based upon use of this ability of Human brain. During meditation this mental power is to be activated to its maximum limit. Ved, Gyana = Knowledge of material objects gained as past experiences with five senses. This is mostly Audio Visual information recorded in Chitta. This provides a data-base for logical thinking, imagining and reasoning during meditation. Knowledge (Veda) means simple memory (Smruti) of events of past life, presence of material objects and their properties (goona).

Dhayan means perfect attention in the present job of learning or activity. Dhyan is not meditation. Every Yoga Guru has his own concept, ways, notions and ideas about Meditation. Two Sanskrit words- 'Manan and Chintan' must be well understood before learning more about meditation. The nearest English word translation of Meditation in Sanskrit will be Chintan and not Manan. What is Manan The art and practice of memorizing a verse, a poetry, scriptural stories, or Math Tables in schools by repeated chanting and cramming is called manan. Manan is a familiar practice to all public orators, actors, religious priests, politicians, and Yoga Gurus. Children memorize math tables in schools by repeated chanting. Repeated chanting of short sentences (Mantra) like Om Namah Shivaya', 'Hare Krishna Hare Rama' etc., or of long prose or poetry is Manan. By reciting simple Mantras like OM, loudly or silently in mind, agitated mind becomes pacified. Mantra Jap and prayers in groups in religious places create temporary peace in worried minds. This works like a rubber eraser clearing shabby writings from a paper and making it clear for new writing. All agitated minds become pacified, calm and thoughtless for a short time by 'Mantra Jap'. Constant Mantra Jap done for 10 to 15 minutes arrests vague and worrying thoughts and helps to erase bad memories of events of past. Worries and tensions of the present time get reduced or come to end for a few moments or permanently. This well known time tested trick is used by many Gurus in India. For receiving a Mantra from a Guru, ignorant disciples pay lots of money to Indian Gurus. All kinds of Karma like walking, running, singing, playing some musical instrument, clapping, dancing with music etc., also make mind thoughtless. Then one learns how to direct the flow of vague thoughts to a new event or another object. Manan is an age-old way for developing memory powers. By repeated speaking, chanting or writing any one can remember long paragraphs, phrases, slogans, verses and poetry or long passages of prose. Actors and lawyers who memorize dialogues do Manan. Religious students commit to memory verses of scriptures like Ramayana, Gita, Koran and Bible by Manan. Later on when they speak with emotions and acting, the audience is carried away in a zone of religious trans. They become professional priests or popular story tellers (Kathakar) and earn great wealths. A few Swamies hypnotize rich people and turn them blind followers of their personal Guru faiths. There are such countless Guru cults (Sampradays) in India Today.

Manan (Remembering and Speaking others thoughts) does not create positive thoughts. There is no originality in talks of average priests who give religious lectures from verses of scriptures. They are in business of religion for earning money and building their private temples. Article 2. Manan. Manan and Chintan are quite different mental exercises. The closest Sanskrit word for meditation is Chintan- very close to, but not a 100% translation. Chintan is art of pin pointed thinking for finding hidden qualities within objects or effects perceived by five senses (Karya Karana Siddhanta). What is Chintan? Science roots from Intellect and Chintan. Sir Isaac Newton saw an apple falling from a tree. By constant Chintan he discovered its cause - the natural laws of inertia, motions and gravity. Re-thinking about some past event with a new angle is also Chintan. Searching symbolic meaning of deity Gods idols, history of old monuments or a possible plan of future actions is 'Chintan'. The highest ability of human mind is intellect (Buddhi). Memory of past events and perfect conscious state of mind and intellect are needed for Chintan. This is called Kundalini Shakti or power. It does not develop in a day, a month or even years. "WHO AM I?" (Adiatma-Vidya) Yoga meditation first teaches to look towards own Self. By constantly thinking about Self, the student tries to find an answer to a standard question "WHO AM I ?" The subject and the object of study is one and same- viz., one's own Self. Adhiatma Chintan = Self Meditation, finding an answer to a question Who am I? What do I understand or refer to when I speak I? Yoga is a science of self knowledge (Atma-Gyan). I is first person singular pronoun in all languages. Sanskrit word for I is Aham, which also means EGO. Removal of all false Egos and development of correct Egos is learnt by Yoga practices. Some answers to the above question are given in scriptures. They are confirmed by observing own self in daily life. "I am a very small living being. I am ever bound to a Zero Time and occupying Zero Space in Universe. I can be present only at one Place at one time on Earth; But I am also one Unique Unit within this perfect Universe. The 57

bondage of Time - Place (desh-Kal), that apply to my body also apply to all living beings on the Earth - a king or a beggar, any great priest, Guru or a Satan. I want to be myself. "Be yourself" is a popular phrase in the West. Yoga meditation teaches exactly this particular subject. Yoga is an art of first knowing and than becoming one-self. Meditation creates self uplifting positive thoughts and removes all negative emotions. If Yoga is studied with devotion it creates courage and self esteem. Meditation is not as simple as it appears in Yoga books and classes of Yoga teachers. Devoted effort for five to twelve years is an average time needed to realize pure spiritual self and reach Samadhi. Eight Steps of Yoga are like a ladder. A student cannot jump to last step in short time. He is advised to climb the ladder slowly step by step. . Yoga Meditation and Kundalini? Kundalini Shakti in Yoga study means ability of thinking about, past, present and future events with perfect awareness and vision of sequence of past events in a time-place frame and awareness of the order of sequence. Write Your Own Auto-Biography. A simple and easy trick for meditation is to write your autobiography. It is not difficult to write about memories of childhood, teenage, adult life and events like marriage, deaths of relatives, different job experiences, financial gains and losses etc., etc. Start with your birth date. Then try to answer these questions. How and when I came in this world and got this body? Had I any choice to select my sex, beauty, physical fitness, nationality, race or religion? How small I am in universal dimensions of TIME and SPACE? How small I am in this village, city, country and globe earth. What changes have occurred in my body after my birth in an ever changing endless show of universe?" What is my present age and how long I am likely to live? Now think about dreams of childhood. Ask yourself if most of your past wishes and dreams of young age are fulfilled or become true TODAY or not? Try to create in mind a perfect picture of remaining wishes and definite goals of future and ways and means of fulfilling them. Make a short term plan of near future, which will be Tomorrow. This mental ability develops by regular practice of self-meditation. Unbiased Intellect (Buddhi) eliminates negative emotions like angers, greed, hate and jealousy etc,. Understanding of limitations and equality of all human beings creates positive emotions of love, compassion,

forgiveness and compromises. Develop a habit of Thinking with Perfect Sense of Time and Place. Now answer these questions about your future. What will happen to my property, family and city and the world when I die? Will it go on without me? How big would be my funeral? How or in what manner I would like to die? If I am given to choose a disease before my death, what choice I would make? If you know that you are going to die exactly after seven days what will you do? Write in your notes a few points about such a situation. There is a mystic or symbolic story in the Bhagvat Purana. Parikshit, some ancient king in North India, gets a curse from a Saints son for his egoistic behavior with his saint father. The curse declared that king will die on the seventh day by snake bite. Apply this message to your own self. The Gita declares a perfect law of God. Jatasyahi dhruvo mrutu Every born has to die. We all know this law, but we are not conscious of this law and behave as if we are not going to die at all. We make endless plans of future and forget this. I can die today evening, or this very night. I may not see the morning of Tomorrow.


Section: III

ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES. My Memories of Childhood. We were financially hard pressed in my young days. My father Kantilal died at his age of 19 years, when I was only six months old and my mother Sitaben was 17. In Hinduism a woman generally cannot remarry after death of husband. She remained widow for her entire life. She died in 1974. Born in 1869, (the birth year of Mahatma Gandhi) my grand-father Ambaidas Gandhi was an adventurous and successful business man. Old records indicate that he was running three firms in the year of his death 1910. One in Rangoon (Burma), second in Bombay, and third in Ahmedabad. After his death two firms were taken over by local partners. My grand-mother Roopaliba was a very beautiful but illiterate lady having no knowledge of business. Her second son Mangaldas had died at young age of 13 by drowning in a lake. She lived for 25 years after the death of my grand father and gave me wonderful love and moral support to my mother. Our Ahmedabad firm was managed by cousin brother of my grand father. He was made a partner by my grand father. I see a dead body. (1934). After the death of my father in 1925, Roopaliba managed our home until her death in 1934. I remember her beautiful Mona Lisa like face and immense love for me. Up to age of six years I used to sleep with her. I remember all events of her death as if it occurred only yesterday. I was 10 years old. It was a moment of great grief and sorrow for me and my widow mother. I remember I had cried for days and months. For the first time I was looking at motionless and speechless dead body of my loving grand-mother. Being the only male son in family, I was forced by relatives to walk to the cremation place on the bank of river Sabarmati for performing final fire rites according to Hindu custom. After her death our financial conditions worsened. It was a challenge for my mother to run home and arrange funds for my school education and other needs. Her only hope and goal was my good cultural growth and education. After the death of grand-mother in 1934, my mother wanted to know details of business and annual balance sheet from the cousin grand father. We used to receive only Rs. 25 ($4) per month from our "A.C. Gandhi and Brothers" firm in Ahmedabad in 1934. Accounts and any increase in monthly maintenance were denied by the managing partner. So my mother filed a court suit. It went on for next ten years.



SAMPLE By Swami Dwiroopanand (Dr H. K. Gandhi in Past Life!) Part I.

Who are you? (Who Am I?) If some one asks this question, what will be your answer? You will say I am Mr. Gandhi H. K. or Mr. George B.J. (Name). Someone will say I am a Doctor or an Engineer.(Knowledge). Others will say I am American or an Indian (Nationality). But in fact one really does not know his or her true SELF or real I. Do you think that you really know your true self better than your spouse or kids and friends? No, you really do not know your true self. You will know it better after writing your own short biography in your own hand writing and words. I present a sample of my autobiography. You can also try and write a few pages in this manner. My Birth Date. It was the Last Day of Universal Time. Yet people called it TODAY. When I have written all events of my past years and of yesterday, my story will come to an end. It will be a day, called Today. We all have memories of past only and existence at present moment. This law applies to every living human being on Globe Earth. I was born on Nov.-16-1924 in Naroda, a village near city of Ahmedabad, in Gujarat, India. I will write about my childhood, young age and student days in school and college. I will write about my marriage, births of children and death events of family members and friends. I will write about independence movement of India and part I played. I will write about my failures, successes and achievements and lessons I learned. Thus it is not difficult to write an autobiography. Only thing needed is your will and desire. Start with determination and continue in nonstop manner. Everyone has something to remember, share, enjoy and some story to tell, and some message to give to growing young generation. 59

Ultimately we had to make some compromise in 1944 and give up the right over the firm after getting some cash money only. My brave widow mother Sitaba. "Behind every successful man there is a woman". Most people understand that this woman is wife. But now I understand that it is the mother and not the wife. Mother is the greatest teacher, living Goddess in the world, as our scriptures say. Wife enters the life of a man in late twenties. By this time 90 % of the personality make up of a boy is already formed, is very firm and not easily changeable. A hand that rocks the cradle, rules the world. The cultural mind of child is molded more by the mother than the father. A good mother gives love and a good father gives money for education and teaches discipline. My mother Sitaba had played both the roles. She was very strict. She will not allow me to play in the street with other boys if I had not completed my home work. She taught me truth and honesty, self respect, endurance of hardships, but above all faith in God. Sitaba faced many difficulties and hardships in her young age. But her penance (Tapascharya) were rewarded in later life. She was a fighter of truth and a woman of self-respect. She filed a court case to get our due share and money from grand father's firm. In spite of poverty she was very hospitable and social. She always welcomed guests and treated them well. Sitaba took interest in finding husbands for her many nieces and daughter's of many relatives. In India marriages are arranged by parents and elderly people and not by dating. I can never forget the discipline, devotion, love and care she gave me in young age. I will never be able to repay her debts. She had raised me with great moral and financial support, which she received from her mother and four brothers in Naroda. She always guided me on the right path of family love and respect for the elderly uncles. She was very happy to see her five well educated grand-children at the time of her death (at her age of 67), in 1974. She suffered a short illness of stomach cancer. My two daughters Ila and Varsha, who were in America, rushed to India on hearing the news of her terminal illness. We moved from Naroda to Ahmedabad in our own bungalow on C.G Road in Ellisbridge area in 1961. She was very happy at this place with her grand children. She did many religious activities. Now she started her pilgrimages and visited many temples of India. She has written a nice travelogue of her pilgrimages. Day and night she would sing devotional songs. Daily she would go to a nearby Shiva temple in early morning at 5 a.m. to offer prayers to Lord. She was a devoted 60

and compassionate lady. Seeing a poor beggar she would give alms, clothes, food etc. When I retired from private practice, I converted my clinic into a charitable medical center and created a charitable trust in her name in 1981. But I had to close it within two years, for want of service minded doctors and devoted staff. Marriage, children and family. After the death of grand mother, my mother Sitaba and me were only two individuals in our home. So I was married on March-8-1943, due to wish of my mother and relatives. It was an arranged marriage by relatives. Mostly we stayed with joint family of four maternal uncles at Naroda. It was a village located 5 miles from Ahmedabad, now a part of mega-city of Ahmedabad. My maternal grand father Ishverbhai Patel was a leading farmer (Mukhi) in Naroda. It was a big and caring family. I became father of first daughter Ila, in 1946, the first year of medical college. My second daughter Varsha was born in 1950, the last year of medical college. Let me explain, why I got married during my student age. We have a custom of early marriages. I had passed with good grades in high school. Boys of my age were getting married. To add a family member, moral support and help in the legal cases going on in the courts, my mother and uncles wished I should get married. She selected the girl and I got married without dating, arguments or protest. The moral support and good advice of my father-in-law Kunvarlal Bapuji worked. All court cases got settled with his compromising attitudes, guidance and wisdom in 1944-45. Part II. I am always a student. I joined school at age of seven, but I have always secured A grades in class from the start. My rank remained first or second in all grades. Today in India and abroad I see three year old kids sent to K.G.. I feel piety for them. This is the age for playing. Parents want their children to become genius doctors like Doughy Houser and scholars like Einstein. But they forget that geniuses are born and not made by sending children to school at very early age. Parents and teachers can only mold their characters by teaching good morals and teaching history, maths etc. I remember all the good grades in schools and colleges I scored. I was first in Ahmedabad center (among 42,000 students) in the high school graduation test (Matric) of Gujarat State in 1941. I was first

class first in biology- Intermediate Science (B-Group) examination of Gujarat university in 1945 and third among all the students admitted to medical college in Bombay State of British India. Bombay State included districts of Sindh (today in Pakistan), Gujarat, Vidharbha, and State of Maharastra. I can never forget the days of economic difficulties (Tapas) that a bright student has to face for getting education in early years of life. I had to get loans for books and fees from relatives and friends besides some scholarships from charitable institutions. I did part time jobs to continue my studies. Finally I graduated in medicine from K.E.M. Hospital, Bombay in 1950. I wanted to continue my studies and become a surgeon. But I had to give up my dream of surgery and start family practice in a village for earning money due to family needs, and financial responsibilities. Economic conditions now improved. To fulfill my dream of becoming a surgeon, I enrolled as an external PG student in 196O after 10 years of practice, at suggestion of my old friend Dr. P. P. Mehta. He was a good teacher and popular physician of Ahmedabad. I passed M.S (part I) at the first trial. Regular students needed two or three trials to pass this. I appeared for final part II in 1964 (after 3 years). For the first time I failed in this exam. I know it was due to increasing practice, family responsibility and lack of time for studies. After coming to America I appeared for the E.C.F.M.G. in 1983. My score was 66 % without great preparations. I joined computer courses, medical billing courses and income tax courses in USA to learn the tax laws of this country. I always read new thoughts from any corner on any subject. But now I spend more time in reading and writing on religious subjects. Because I know that if I don't give out my thoughts, views, and gained knowledge and personal experiences by writing or speaking on audio-tapes, my acquired knowledge will die with me. It is with this kind of self realization, I write books, magazines, booklets and short flyers since last 10 years. I have no aim of any financial gains. I also do not know who will read my literature. But I feel like writing and I write. This kind of attitude is described in the Gita as NishKama Karma Bhav. Hopes and dreams of bright future give courage and keep us alive. We do many activities (Karma) for survival, gaining knowledge, progress and getting financial prosperity for self and family members. But we forget God until diseases, old age and difficulties arrive in life. We are never conscious of the constant changes occurring in our body, mind, intellect, knowledge and ever changing human relations. With passage of time my gross body, places where I lived, relatives and my economic conditions have changed. But the 61

changeless soul within me is same. It does not change and my knowledge is ever increasing. These changes occur according to fixed laws of God, but I was not aware of this in my young days and youth period. All material things are constantly changing according to fixed laws of mother nature. This is nicely said in the following verse. Lords says:Mayaadhyakshane prakrutihi sooyete sacharaacharam Hetunanena Kaunteya jagat viparivartate The Gita. (Ch. IX- 10). "I pervade inside and outside every (non-living and living- Jad and Chetana) object in the universe. Constant changes occur in the gross bodies according to fixed rules (laws of mother nature - Prakruti) made and supervised also by ME". This is an ever changing universe. All material bodies undergo fixed changes. A new born baby becomes a child, then a teenager, a youth, and an old man. The diseases and death also occur according fixed design of God. With spoken words and knowledge gained we can understand these changes. With our own eyes we can see, understand and experience these changes. Once I was son of my mother and father, and grand-son of my grand-mother. Then I was a student of many teachers (Gurus) in schools and colleges. After my marriage in 1943, I became a husband, then a father of five children. Today I am grand-father of 10 grandchildren. But I am still a young and curious student. There is a blank unrecorded empty disk in every brain. There is always plenty of room for new thoughts and new ideas. If you do not learn new thoughts and views of other people, and learn new skills every day, a good portion of your memory disk (called Chitta) ever remains blank. The following verse of great wisdom has always inspired me during my entire life. Na chor choryam, na ch raj haaryam Na bhratru bhajayam na ch bharkari Vyaye krute vardhat ave nityam Vidya dhanam sarva dhanam pradhanam "Knowledge is the greatest wealth of any individual. A king cannot tax it, brothers cannot divide it, a thief cannot steal it, and it is weightless. But above all, knowledge is such a wonderful wealth that it increases by spending!". Keep your mind, eyes and ears open and daily learn new things. Give gained knowledge to others who want it. Give it free, without expecting any rewards. Do not sell knowledge. Knowledge is God with you and within your self. Vidya- education or knowledge is the greatest

wealth of any individual. Give its benefits to others at all times. It will increase and not decrease. Learn new thoughts and remove wrong beliefs by self knowledge (Atma-Gyana) and the Gita study in a scientific manner. Read the life and thoughts of all great men of divine vision like Jesus, Buddha and Mahatma Gandhi. Read scriptures of all religions like Bible, Koran, stories from the Ramayan and Mahabharat etc. Remember that divine knowledge cannot be sold. This is Real Hindu Heritage or Vedic culture. Good thoughts must be propagated free without expectations of money or rewards. Develop your (Sad-Buddhi) unbiased intellect to think with broad vision without any material attachments. ALWAYS REMAIN A LIFE LONG STUDENT IS MY MESSAGE FOR EVERYONE. We immigrate to USA. I do not know why, but by some inner instinct I wanted to send all my children to USA.. That dream always remained in my subconscious mind (Chitta). For the college education of growing children, we moved our residence from Naroda to Ahmedabad in 1960. The student in me also was inspired. I also joined the medical college as external part time student to fulfill my dream of becoming a surgeon. I failed in my last examination of surgery. But I was able to give best education to all my children in the colleges located in our area. To achieve this duty bound goal, I daily drove 15 miles two ways, two times to run my well established practice of ten years in Naroda area. I continued this life style and driving for next 20 years, until I closed my clinic in 1982. The dream of sending my children to USA became a reality in 1972 when my eldest daughter Ila graduated in pharmacy as first class first student in her college. She got the 3rd preference Visa for USA. She was my first child who came to USA. One by one, other children followed. Sweet and sour memories of joys, difficulties, separations and reunions are linked with the years between 1972 and 1980. My second daughter Varsha (Dentist) and her husband Mahesh Patel (Ph.D. in computer engineering) had immigration problems due to our ignorance of immigration laws. After studying Immigration Laws from this experience, I wrote my first book on immigration laws of USA. in simple Gujarati language to help average people. A medical doctor wrote a book on immigration laws of USA, without going to any law school.

After marriage in India, my third daughter Daksha (M.A. born in 1951) came to USA in 1978. Then my doctor son Pankaj (born in 1953) and his wife Kshama came to USA in 1980. In 1981, me, my wife Jashoda and youngest son Rupesh (born in 1963) came to USA.. My dream of 1958 became a reality in 1981. In 1981 I decided to close my practice and stay permanently in USA. with children. My will (Hath-Yoga) to come to USA was very strong. According to our joint efforts and accumulated (Sanchit) Karma we (my family) were rewarded in 1982. Karma done by all the family members get accumulated. TODAY we all are in USA, a different place than Ahmedabad or India. I do not know about tomorrow. The laws of Karma have worked so far. Joint efforts (Purusharth) of family members are visible as progress, achievements of set goals, prosperity, and some failures also. But we should forget all disappointments and failures, and always keep positive attitudes. We are all fairly well set and happy in USA. People staying in any country are like a big family. United hands of the people of a country (national unity), lead to country's prosperity and progress. The attitude of caring, sharing and sense of sacrifice is called LOVE. Love is fostered by giving cultural training and moral discipline (religion). For family unity and prosperity leadership, correct decisions and right Karma by all family members are necessary. It brings joy and happiness to all members. Hinduism is not an organized religion. But it is a worth studying age old culture and heritage. It has many Scriptures, and Stories of practical messages of true religious life (Kul-Dharma) for happy and united family living. Part III. Memories of medical practice. After my graduation in 1950, I started first private practice in the city of Ahmedabad which I shifted to Naroda within six months. I practiced at this place for next 32 years, from 1951 to 1982. (TIMEPLACE BONDGE). Economic conditions improved in course of TIME. There were successes and failures in profession and other businesses, which I tried. I have mentioned earlier that I wanted to become a surgeon. It was my dream of college days. In 1957 I tried to enter into politics, contest an election and become a congressman. Sometimes I thought of leaving medical practice and start business of building construction, pharmaceuticals and radio dealership and so on. I became a partner in


a radio-agency and a pharmaceutical company. But I lost money as I WAS A SLEEPING PARTNER. I had no knowledge of those trades. I had many dreams and plans of becoming rich in a short time in the early days of my slowly growing medical practice. No plan worked. Only my medical knowledge was rewarding me slowly but steadily. For 32 years as medical doctor, I have treated hundreds and thousands of patients. Naroda in those days was a central bigger village between 30 surrounding smaller villages. During first ten years I was the only qualified medical doctor in this area. I had to make home visits to villages within range of 20 to 30 miles, at nights, in rainy seasons, and during hot summer days of tropical climate. The facilities of transport were poor. During early years, I used bicycle, then a two wheeler motor cycle. In 1957 only, I was able to buy my first second-hand car for Rs. 1700. I used it for next 8 years. Some people could not afford fees for car expenses so they brought their bullock carts. I had to accept this method of transport and make home visits in surrounding villages nearly daily or on alternate days. As required by the need of local people, my office hours were from 8-30 a.m. to 1-30.p.m. first session; and 5-30 p.m. to 9-00 p.m. as second session. I used to treat nearly 100 to 150 patients per day, seven days a week. (Only half day holiday on Sundays). It included all types of cases, medical and surgical, children, adults, gynecology, cases of delivery, ophthalmology and orthopedics, burns and injuries and what not! We had to make a quick clinical judgment, and treat the case immediately with whatever medicine was available. There was no medical insurance system. There were no pharmaceutical drug stores in Naroda. We examined patients and gave all the medicines from our clinic. My fees were only One Rupee, for adults and 50 paise (cents) for the children. We charged Rs 2 to 5 for injection shots. Home visits charge was Rs. 3/- during day time and Rs. 5/- during night hours. There were no separate consultation fees. Everything was included in the fees for medicines dispensed from the clinic. When I compare this style of medical practice with the prevalent medical system in foreign countries like USA, Canada and UK, etc., I feel that we did a far better job with less equipment, fewer diagnostic tools and limited transport facilities. Today the practice of medicine in advanced countries is getting more and more complicated by the entry of intermediate agencies like the health insurance, HMOs and Medicare systems. The patients pay premiums in advance for receiving treatment in future, but the doctors also pay premiums for mal practice law suits. Ultimately the costs get accumulated, and the burden is born 63

by honest tax payers and the healthy people. A complicated billing system and many text books of availability of benefits have emerged. One most important factor in mental healing of a patient is sacrificed, viz.,. the doctor patient relationship and faith in doctor. This vital element has practically disappeared. Our patients were highly satisfied with what ever we gave. If something went wrong, there were no mal-practice law suits. Except for an occasional mishap, due to drug reaction or non-availability of proper drugs, our overhaul results were fairly good. We were respected like angles (living Gods), by the families, our patients, and the village community. I have forgotten the memories of thousands of patients and their illnesses. But all my patients remember me as their savior. My patients had great faith in my (little) knowledge and in my honest practice. Faith in the words of a family doctor is a very important factor in healing and recovery from sickness. This I have experienced in thousands of cases. It was not my medicine nor the diagnosis, but their faith in me was the greatest factor in their cure. If a doctor treats his patients with devotion and care, the memories of a doctor always remain permanently engraved in minds of his patients. This is the greatest earning of any doctor. I think and believe this after my experiences and conviction after 32 years of family practice. Once I was visiting my nephew in Chicago, who had moved in his new home. An Indian neighbor came to meet me. "Dr. Uncle, do you remember this young guy? He is from our place Naroda". My nephew asked. "No, I don't remember" I replied. The visitor said, "Dr. Uncle, You can forget me but how can I forget you. I am Ramesh, son of Krishnakant Joshi. You were our family doctor for many years. I had tuberculosis in childhood. My parents had lost all hopes of my survival. But you had cured me from a serious disease. Whenever my mother brought me for shots, I used to cry at the top of my voice, abused and cursed you. It created an atmosphere of a thunder storm in your clinic. But you have given me a new life. When Deepak (my nephew) informed me that you were coming here, I wanted to meet and see you after 25 years and apologize for the misbehavior of my young age". It was a moment of great surprise, unexpected joy and divine happiness for me to meet that naughty boy Ramesh and see him healthy and well placed in life. I recollected immediately the memories of his abuses, mischievous behavior and the drama he used to create in my clinic. To see such a patient healthy after 25 years was a moment of great joy, and a sense of satisfaction and pride. There were

no ill feelings in my mind either then or now. I believe that the true earnings of a doctor is to see such cured patients and the sense of gratitude and joy of life on their faces. Now I will record some of my public life and social activities. I start a new branch of IMA. After a few years of practice, I have always remained active in medical politics and activities of Ahmedabad Medical Association; and later on in the Naroda Medical Association, a branch of Indian Medical Association (IMA). Once I was Jt. Secretary in Ahmedabad, a branch of IMA, having nearly 1500 members. I was active on its Working Committee for five years or more. Doctors staying and practicing in Naroda area were not able to attend the clinical meetings held during the night hours in Ahmedabad. It was a distance of 15 miles. So I decided to start a new branch of Indian Medical Association in Naroda area. I took the initiative and enrolled nearly 40 members. We started an independent Naroda Branch of Indian Medical Association. I became first founder president of Naroda branch of IMA. I remained active in its growth and all its academic, humanitarian and social activities until I came to USA. This activity brought unity, harmony and friendship among the medical community in Naroda area. It helped us to solve local problems and was very instrumental in avoiding unfair competition. We arranged regular clinical meetings by inviting leading doctors from Ahmedabad. We learned many new things in fast developing medical science. We arranged family gatherings of local doctors. Once I became the vice president of the Gujarat State branch of IMA. My Educational activities in Naroda. There was no high school in Naroda. I had faced great difficulties during my student days for high school education. I had to waste nearly 3 hours daily in going to and coming from school. I had to walk daily a distance of three miles, and travel by train or bus from Naroda to Ahmedabad. My eldest daughter Ila - now 12 years old- was facing similar difficulties for going to a high school in Ahmedabad, during the years 1957-58. I believed in giving the best education to my children, children of relatives and all the people of Naroda. So I took an initiative and started a non-profit charitable education trust with the co-operation of local people in 1958. We collected donations and purchased a good plot of land. The high school was started with five classes and 250 students. I have memories of fund raising projects, its growth and many

social, legal and other difficulties we faced to bring this high school to its present status. I had ever remained active in educational field during my medical practice. The high school in Naroda area was started in 1958. It has grown into a big tree having classes from K.G to 12th grades. It has nearly 3000 students, and the classes run from KG to early college grades. At this point I wish to pay my respect and tributes to its first principal Mr. V. D. Chandarana. He was an average school teacher in nearby Sabarmati high school. I invited him to join our budding high school. We gave him fullest freedom and tried to meet all financial needs. We agreed with his all reasonable and good decisions in the interest of students and community. I have learned from this experience that when the trustees of a charitable institution give such freedom to a visionary teacher, he works with his fullest devotion and zeal. The institution grows, prospers. All are benefited in long run. Part IV. My Social public-service Activities and memories of Naroda Lions Club. God gave me a chance to serve the community from which I was earning. A new Lions Club, a branch of Lions International was starting in Naroda in 1970. It gave me many good friends and opportunities to serve people. I joined it as a Charter Member. Then I became its treasurer, secretary, and president in 1975. I visited Lions International head quarters in Chicago during my first visit of USA. in 1976- the year of bicentennial celebrations of America's independence. I have memories of Mr. Reagan loosing the presidential nomination against Mr. Ford in the republican party. Naroda was rapidly transforming into an industrial township. There was no maternity facility or ambulance service. Delivery cases requiring emergency treatment were at great risk. Under the auspices of Lions Club we started a maternity facility and a free polio vaccination center. Both these projects are nicely running today. We arranged every year free diagnostic camps and sometimes Free cataract operation camps. Naroda Lions club started an English medium school for the Non-Gujarati Indian families working in different industries. During these years (1970 to 1981), I became close friend of a devoted Lion, Mr. Himatlal Shah. His noble nature always inspired me. We worked hand in hand during all humanitarian projects and activities of Naroda Lions Club. He was general manager of the Ruby coach builders. In the year 1981, one communist minded worker assassinated 64

this divine soul. Mr. Himatlal Shah was a friend of poor and ever helping brother of all Lions. He was a living angle of kindness, love and a true servant of suffering humanity. In a small matter of trifling demand, not agreed by the management, the murderer entered his cabin with liquid thinner, threw it on Mr. Shah, and ignited fire. He was burnt alive in his office. He died within a few minutes on the spot. This divine soul died performing his duties like a martyr on the battle field. I had always doubts regarding the mercy and omnipresence of God. It was a day of great sorrow and mourning for his wife, my family members, all the Lion members, friends and entire village of Naroda. I have dedicated my first religious book 'Egos and Desires' to this true LION, a true Jain, and brother of my past birth, Mr. Himatlal Shah. He was a family member for my children and a brother, friend philosopher and guide for me. He was younger than me in age but he was my Guru in many social and economic matters. He was a true Lion, an inspiration for all Lion friends and all who came in his contact. Re-union of old college friends. The memories of friendship of school and college days are always selfless, divine and cherished at all places. The story of Krishna and Sudama tells us such inspiring messages. I do not remember names of many school friends, but the memories of many college friends are ever in my heart. In 1964 I started a re-union of the old class friends who studied in the Inter-Science class of Gujarat college in 1945. With the help of similar minded friend, Mr. P.M. Patel, we prepared a list. Mr. Patel had worked as police officer in the crime branch of Bombay for some years. After division of Gujarat and Maharastra States in 1958, he had resigned from a good government job, and started a packing industry of his own in Naroda area. One day we were gossiping about old friends- who is where and what he or she is doing. We could remember many old friends and the idea of re-union gripped our minds. We started working on it. The first grand re-union of nearly 50 college friends was arranged within six months. All were in different walks of life, like doctors, lawyers, engineers, judges, politicians, business-men, teachers, professors, and good positions in government. Most of us were meeting after an interval of 20 years. It was a day of great joy and jubilation for all of us. They came from distant places with their families. At this age period of our lives, our sons and daughters were studying in the Inter-science classes of different colleges. We decided to continue this activity and arrange one annual reunion every year at different places. They were arranged in Bombay, 65

Baroda, Cambay, Anand and sometimes at holiday resort places. The local Ahmedabad group started regular monthly dinner meetings and family gatherings. I remained its permanent president, secretary and treasurer without any funds to manage. This activity continued for next 15 years and all loved it. It brought many friends and families close. Some friends became in-laws when their children started knowing each other, dating and got married. Sorrowful memories of many friends who died during these years are also with me. We were able to help their children and widows in many ways, financial, legal and medical problems. I will not record these events. But I record one sad event of the death of one InterScience group friend, Dr. K.G. Mehta. He was a busy family physician of Ahmedabad. He would leave his home in the morning at 6. a.m. and return at mid-night. This was his routine for 360 days of a year. No rest, no vacation, only devotion to duty and work. One day KG got a minor heart attack but with Gods grace recovered from the first attack. He reduced the pace of work. Now oft and on for check up he would visit our common friend Dr. P. P. Mehta (MD.). Dr. P P. Mehta was a famous teacher, physician and a leading cardiologist of Ahmedanbad. Dr. KG. was once on the examination table in the office of Dr. PP.. Cardiogram machine was recording heart beats. Everything was fine and within normal limits at the start. Both old friends were chit chatting about medical politics of the city. But in a fraction of second, DR. PP noted unusual waves suggesting ventricular fibrillation (Heart changes before death). Before KG could speak a word, and PP could do anything, heart of KG stopped for ever. When the news were disclosed to family members and friends, no body was ready to believe it. The death of a healthy doctor in this set of circumstances was impossible. Today when I reflect upon this event, I can only say that the PLACE and TIME of death (destiny) of Dr. KG. Mehta was pre-written by God. A cardiologist and personal friend could not save his friend's life with all the facilities at his hand. Nor he could extend KG's life span, even for a few more minutes or seconds. During my trip of India in 1988, I had the misfortune of attending the cremation ceremony of my great buddy, and renowned cardiologist of Ahmedabad- Dr. P P. Mehta. He was four years younger than me. Dr. PP was a chain smoker, even after knowing as a cardiologist that smoking is harmful for the heart. He could not quit this most addictive habit. After suffering from some pancreatic trouble, he had reduced the number of cigarettes per day but not stopped completely. Dr. PP got a severe heart attack. I went to see him at his residence while he was recovering from this attack. Always jolly, smart,

active, cheerful and ever talkative Dr. PP appeared silent and depressed. He wanted to hear from me talks on religion and God. I advised him to withdraw from very busy practice and partially retire. He agreed. But on the third day of this meeting, I received news that the heart of a famous cardiologist of Ahmedabad had stopped for ever. The time of death for every born is today and now. The Gita says, "Jatasya hi Dhruvo mrutum". Every born has got to die. Most of us forget this eternal law of God, and run after temporary sensual pleasures like smoking, drugs and alcohol. We think of impossible dreams and improbable events to happen in our future lives. But we forget that the laws of Karmas, actions done good and bad, binds every individual slowly and steadily to his or her destiny in a perfect but invisible manner. My economic positions and attitudes. I had no bank balance to start my practice. I had started my first clinic in Ahmedabad in 1951 by borrowing money from relatives and friends. In the city practice of India, doctors have a system of giving personal credits to patients. Only a few new and unknown patients come and pay cash. In this way the families remain attached to doctors. Some families pay their bills on monthly basis, but many pay on yearly basis. Compared to insurance system abroad, the fees are paid after receiving the treatment and not in advance of some expected sickness. In a city like Ahmedabad, a new doctor has to wait for some years before he is able to enroll some permanent families and make both ends meet. I had to close my Ahmedabad Clinic within six months for these reasons. I shifted my practice to a less competitive but known place, Naroda. It was a village without electricity in those days. But it was my birth place. I had lived there as an orphan child. Every one knew me in Naroda. From the very first day my practice started with a good swing. But for the first ten years, there were many obligations and debts to be paid. Only after 10 years in 1960, I was able to purchase a plot and built my residential bungalow in Ahmedabad. My net savings and bank balance after ten years of practice were only Rs. 3000 Rupees, (=$ 100). Again by borrowing loans from relatives and friends I completed its construction in 1962 and I repaid all debts by 1966. In next year I purchased a new car and extended 2 fllors on bungalow with Life Insurance Loan in 1967-68. Now I started investing surplus money in Shares and bonds. This phase of extra money came nearly after 16 years of hard life and active practice.

Doctors are poor accountants. In those years I learned Indian style double entry book keeping. It helped me to file my income tax returns, and I knew my financial position and assests. I taught this simple Indian method of book keeping to some doctor friends. After learning it some doctor friends thanked me for teaching this accounting system. Part V. I come back from heaven. After immigrating to USA in 1981, I had come to India to close my clinic. I established a charitable trust in the memories of my mother and converted my private practice into a charitable clinic where only cost of medicines were charged. The salary of doctor, staff, utilities and rent were paid from the trust funds. My date of return to USA was Jan 17, 1982. Air flights were confirmed. Two days prior to this date, I got little fever in the afternoon and became completely unconscious in the evening. It was a serious sicknesses. I was admitted to V. S. Hospital, and my family members in USA were informed by phone. All children and wife were in USA. My closest doctor friends like PP and many other doctors treating me in the hospital had lost all hopes of my recovery. I was completely unconscious, in a state of total paralysis. It was a severe brain stroke. I was practically a dead person. The control over the urinary and stool functions was lost, pupils were dilated and not reacting to light. All the signs suggest a state of deep coma and poor or no hope of recovery. During that week of deep unconscious state a big crowed (nearly 1500 people) of relatives, friends, and patient families from Naroda and surrounding villages was gathering in the premises of the Hospital. They were praying for my recovery. God heard their prayers and gave me a new birth! My wife and two sons came running at a moments notice. After a week of their arrival, I regained little consciousness. I was able to recognize them. My face and left half of body showed paralytic signs. It was an attack of cerebral ischemia, I was informed later. I remained in bed for three months. But with grace of God I am able to drive on American high ways. I drive from Florida to Michigan, Philadelphia and New York. All the memories of past years are as sharp as one could observe from this biography. I know with fullest conviction that I am alive today, because God wanted and wants me to live and do HIS work. All my religious books were written and published after that sickness of 1982. 66

Many relatives like my maternal grand mother in Naroda, my mother, cousins, uncles, friends like Dr. KG, Dr. PP, Mr. Himatlal Shah, and great leaders like Gandhiji and Nehru, great scientists like Einestine and many leaders of Europe have died during the span of my life. I have perfect memories of all these deaths and all great historic events. While I was recovering from that sickness, one day I got inspirations to write a prayer in English. It is based upon the theme of all Upanishads and the Gita - A prayer to One Infinite God of Universe. I published it in 1988, in the first English book-ABC of Hinduism. (See Sec-III - additional informative articles for this poem). An atheist turns to spiritual study During the days of busy medical practice there was no time for any religious study or activity. Besides I had no faith in God, temples or Gurus in those days. Once in a while I would attend religious lectures, if there was some famous speaker or a noble religious teacher. For nearly two or three years I was under hypnotic influence of late Acharya Rajanish. He was a great scholar. He spoke on religious subjects with intellectual appeal and logical approach to religion and God. But when he declared himself as Bhagavana (Living God), I was disappointed. This was during the years 1965 to 1970, I think. Education, medical aid, service of the needy, poor and suffering humanity as preached by late Swami Vivekanand, Mahatma Gandhiji, Jesus, Buddha and also preached in the Gita, is worship of God. This I believed during the years of sixties and seventies. The mythological stories of Hindu Puranas, narrating magical wonders of Bhrama, Vishnu and Shiva, never inspired any faith in my mind. Once in Oct., 1979, I heard a week's discourse on the 3rd Chapter of the Gita, Karma Yoga, by Rev. Swami Shree Chinmayanandji. It was arranged on the historic and famous open ground of Gujarat College, Ahmedabad. I had studied in this college during my pre-medical years of college. A crowd of nearly 25,000 people was gathering daily. In morning hours Swamiji was teaching the famous text of VivekChudamani of Adi-Shankaracharya. I was attending both these sessions with fullest devotion and attention. I used to close my evening clinic to attend these lectures. These lectures ignited a spiritual quest for the first time in my mind. I memorized the Sanskrit verses of Karma Yoga- the 3rd chapter of the Gita, and constantly meditated upon the scientific meanings of key words like Dharma Karma, Atma, Bhraman, Jagat, Vishva, etc,. What do we understand when we use the word Karma? It is generally translated as actions, acts or deeds. I started real study of 67

the Gita and other Upanishads by reading translations of authors like S. Radhakrishnan, Swami Chinmayananda, Dada Athavleji and many others. Everyone had some difference in their approach and translation of these Sanskrit words and the text. I was always searching the scientific meanings of Sanskrit words. Within three months of devoted study of this one chapter of the Gita, I saw divine cosmic light one night. It changed my mind, attitudes, lifes goals and activities. I have described this event in all my books and magazines. People spend years to see this divine light of God. Why I was rewarded in such a short time, and with study of only one chapter of the Gita? Why I was selected by God to see the light of holy Cross of Jesus Christ at a particular date and time of Christian calendar, in India without any background of Christian faith in childhood, while reading the Gita- a Hindu scripture? This is still an unanswered question for me. Sometimes I ask myself. Am I the same individual (Atma) who was born on Nov.-16-1924 in India, who wanted to be a surgeon, a politician, a businessman, and struggling to be rich in short time, having many dreams?. All these years I was slave of sensual joys and circumstances. I practiced medicine for 32 years in a small village, though I wanted to be a great surgeon in a big city. People who know me could never imagine that an atheist doctor would be writing books on theology, religion and God in his later life. Sometimes I say to my friends that God inspires me to write this type of spiritual literature. HE wants me to become HIS spokesman and instrument. But I also know that nobody believes such statements and remarks. My present activities. To keep my self busy, I write books on Hinduism, and world religions. I do not worry who will read them and what rewards they will bring to me. During last ten years I have wrote and published four chapters of the Gita, two books on Yoga-Vedanta Darshan in Gujarati and one book in English, ABC of Hinduism for the Indian children staying abroad. During my interim visits of India, I had started a bimonthly magazine "Vignana-Dharma Sandesh" (Science and religion). But after four issues I had to close it due to lack of devoted staff. To write and publish my thoughts and experiences is the only goal of my remaining life. In 1992, I published my dream book, Mahatma Gandhi, Ambassador of God for the 21st century. It is a religio-political book. In it I have given my observations of the post -independence years of India and the causes of economic down fall of Indian currency. I have

made constructive suggestions regarding the changes to be made in constitution of India. It will bring true world peace. I have suggested a new idea of International Gita- Gandhi Dharma Sangh, (IGDS) for religious education of the future generation in any part of the world. Such new and radical religious thoughts take some time to get well rooted, to grow into a big tree and give fruits. I know this but this a mission of my remaining life. I will try my best to propagate this idea of IGDS as long as God permits me to breath in His world. Now I perfectly know the exact date of my death. Signs and symptoms of old age and physical limitations are visible. Relations, activities, needs, knowledge, places and time are ever changing. But my conscious and inner most 'Self' has become enlightened. I now understand the short proclamations of Upanishad Rishies like; "I am Brahaman, I am the immortal soul or undying ATMAN. My soul is changeless, imperishable, immortal and divine in nature. It was, is and shall ever be at all times and at all places, even after it leaves my present physical gross body". In the Mahatma Gandhi book I wrote second English poetry, Immortal Soul. It is based upon a famous Upanishad Mantra, from Bhrad-Aranyak Upanishada, Mrutor mam Amrutam Gamaya. (See Sec-III - additional informative articles for this poem). Now I know that my body and soul - both are part and parcel of the supreme Brahaman or GOD. God is within every human being in the heart as love, in the mind as sympathy and compassion, in intellect as common sense and good thoughts. Like humble words of Sir Isaac Newton on his death bed, I also say, "I have tasted a teaspoonful of water from the endless ocean of divine knowledge. I know many things about my past, present and the world history. I have clear memories of all events that have occurred during my life. This is the story of every human being and his or her limitations of place and time. The journey of life has reached this last day of creation of universe. It is TODAY and NOW. It is like a rigid and un-tresspassable dead end. Anyone can know and learn many things, subjects and skills. Yet the endless ocean of knowledge ever remains unknown. No one knows what is going to happen TOMORROW. Even Lord Rama did not know, though he was God incarnate. I pray God only this Please keep me a life long student".

Another Way of writing Autobiography. Become a third person and tell your story. This is a new method. I just suggest for them who want to understand - Real Spiritual-Self (Soul) and world of material objects seen and perceived by five senses. To gain this knowledge, called Adhiatma Vidya, people in India renounce family life, go to Himalayas to find some Guru, who can show them God by path of Self Realization. I indicate a simple method of self realization. This is not difficult. Try to write only one or two pages. Write a few lines as if a third person is giving your introduction to your family members or to some unknown audience. "Born in 1924, Dr. H.K Gandhi was a poor boy. His father died when he was six month old child. He was raised by a widow mother. He became a medical doctor and practiced as a family doctor for 32 years in a village, Naroda. He believes in giving good education to children. He wanted to send them to USA. In later life at age of 55, he turned to religious study. Today he writes books on religious and philosophical subjects. His worldly knowledge has increased with age. His Karma have given him all desired fruits. His places of residence and goals (Desires) in life have changed many times. In 1982 he suffered from a severe brain stoke but he recovered. He is alive today in 2008, which he now believes is due to wish and grace of God. After 15 years of study of world religions Dr. Gandhi, now Swami Dwiroopanand, believes that TODAY is the last day of Universal TIME or Dooms day, or Day of Judgement for all living beings on Earth. His imperishable (Akshara-atman) soul has not changed and not left his ever changing body. But now he knows with conviction that he is going to die on a day called Today". This Perfect Law of God, applies to every human being who refer her/him Self , as I. * * * * * Summary:After writing these events of life (autobiography), I have come to understand my true Self, and fixed rules of God. This is Self Realization.


1. Entire mankind was, is and shall ever be bound to the last day of universal time. We all are equally created human beings. We all will die according to His fixed rules. 2. The eternal laws of God could only be understood by the path of self realization, and a few more words, like Atma, Karmas, Dharma, Jagat (world), Vishva (Universe) and SPACE AND TIME. 3. Death of every born occurs at a fixed moment, the last day and moment of universal time. This moment is always TODAY and NOW. My cardiologist son will not be able to change the moment of my death even if I am under his care in the Mayo clinic of USA. 4. Thinking positively, looking back on my past and the life I lived so far, I can say this. I have not wasted my life. Besides discharging family responsibilities, I was able to help relatives, friends and the community. By writing religious books today, I am trying to help the future generations. I have earned good will, respect and blessings of countless patients and friends. 5. I was instrumental in starting a high school and maternity facility in a rural area like Naroda. The blessings of innumerable students and countless mothers is the real earning of my life. They do not know me and I do not know them. 6. I have a dream of starting a college, a hospital and a Yoga Ashrama in Naroda area, and a Gandhi-Gita Ashrama some where in USA. 7. I am aware of the political system in India, the minds of the people, the teachers, the doctors and business community at large are not ready TODAY for my radical religious and political thoughts. 8. Politicians of India are not ready for decentralization of central powers, political changes and vision of India of Mahatma Gandhiji. I have a dream of starting some service projects in the places of my grand parents and places from where I have earned my wealth and living. To repay such debts is my religion, duty or Dharma. This I have understood after study of scriptures for last 20 years. These are some dreams of Swami Dwiroopanand TODAY. --------------------------------------------------------------------------

(Above notes were written in 2000. I wish to start a Gandhi Gita Dharm Sandesh Magazine in India and USA). Last Note. During last 8 years (From 2001 to 2008), I have published Gita Ch-12 and 15, Magazines, 5000 copies each, and four more books. Two are in Gujarati, -Prarabdh and Purusharth, and Vignanna Rushio, and two books are in English -Will Power of Positive Mind and this last one Ashtang Yoga in May, 2008).


Section: III


Ashtang Yoga: 21. BEGGER OF KNOWLEDGE.

(A story from Upnishad) In the land of ancient India, there lived a great Rishi, Gautam. He was son of Aruna, a man of great wisdom and learning. Swetketu was a young son of Gautam. The learned father gave all the knowledge of Vedas, the ancient holy scripts to his son Swetketu. After learning all the Vedas Swetketu started moving around in the country from one kingdom to another to earn money, good name and fame. It was the style of those days. Noble kings used to invite scholars of knowledge and arrange scriptural debates of religions and morality in their courts. In the discussions at the courts of different kings, Swetketu used to defeat many Brahmins who were men of average learning. They were not well read in the Vedas. Gaining many victories in this manner in different kingdoms, Swetketu became very arrogant and egoistic. Traveling in this manner, Swetketu came to a region known as Panchal (Old Panjab, Panchaab = land of five rivers). This ancient land is associated with the name of Panchali. (It was Draupadi's second name. She was daughter of the king of Panchal). A well read and noble king Pravahan, used to rule that land in those days. He encouraged learned people in his court and kingdom. Daily he arranged conferences of Pandits, (men well read in scriptures) and gave prizes to all winners. Swetketu had heard this news. So he came to the court of king Pravahan and gave an open challenge to all Pandits. "Is there any body who can defeat me in knowledge of Vedas'' He declared. Hearing such arrogant words from a young boy, the king immediately recognized that this boy has great Ego of Vedic knowledge. The king inquired about the teacher who gave knowledge to Swetketu. Swetketu told that he was the son of a well-known father Gautama, who was his teacher. He was also a grand son of famous Aruna Rishi. Learning all such great family names the king welcomed Swetketu and offered him a respectful chair in the court.

*There was going to be a debate in the open court next day. Swetketu entered the hall with a sense of ego and pride. He was looking at Pandits as if they were little cats and rats. In opening the discussion, the king humbly said these words to Swetketu. "Great grandson of Aruna and son of a great Rishi Gautama, respected Swetketu, I ask only five questions to you. Q. 1. What happens to all human beings souls after death? Where do they go ? Swetketu said, "I do not know." Q. 2. Having gone to different places (Lokas), how do those same souls come back in this world again and again? Swetketu had to admit he had no answer to this question, also. Q. 3. Since times immemorial, many millions souls after death have gone to the same unknown land (Parlok) heaven or hell). Yet why there is no over crowding in that region? Do you know the reason for this? Swetketu replied, "No, I do not know." Q. 4. After how many transformations (Changes) and transmutations (Aahuties), a little water (meaning semen, VIRYA in Sanskrit), assumes the form of a human embryo (Garbha)? Do you know anything about this? ''No, Sir" was the answer from Sweketu. Q: 5. Do you know the ways and the means of following the path of (DevMarg) divine life, or that of following path of parent worship (Pitru-Marg)? It is said that Father is Heaven (Swarga) and Mother is Land (Prithvi). In between these two paths there is a constantly moving object. Do you know the name of this object? With great humiliation Swetketu had to admit that he had no knowledge of the spiritual field. Having understood his complete defeat, Swetketu left the court. The king asked him to join the royal lunch that day and tried to give him some gifts. But living there with the shame of a defeat, he had no mood to wait for a moment in the court. He straightaway walked out and went home. He complained to his learned father and told that you had given me all the knowledge of the Vedas in this world. The king asked me only five questions. But I could not answer a single question of an ordinary king. It was a moment of great dishonor and shame for me". Father learned about the five questions from Swetketu. Then he told, "Swetkelu, my dear son, even I do not know the answers to any of these questions. Let us go to this king. I think that only the king knows the true answers. Knowledge is no body's monopoly. Knowledge is like an endless ocean. One must try to gain knowledge from any body, who 70

has some knowledge. A life long attitude of a student should be cultivated. This king seems to be a man of great knowledge and wisdom. Let us go to him and beg for this divine knowledge". But the egoistic Brahmin boy Swetketu, did not agree to the proposal of his father. He told his father You may go alone. I will not come with you. The great seeker of true knowledge, Gautam Rishi approached the king Pravahan. The King gave great respect and welcome to the Rishi and inquired about his mission for coming to his court. Gautam said, "I have come to you to learn the answers of the five questions that you had asked to Swetketu, my son." The king was in a great dilemma. He was a Kshatriya (warrior). It was against the religious and ethical tradition of those times. A Kshatriya cannot teach a Brahmin. In those days this divine knowledge of body and soul relationship (Upanishads) was known to Kshatriyas only. The king requested Gautam Rishi, that he should ask the Devas for this knowledge. He was a mortal human being. He could give him material wealth that can help him a great deal in this worldly life. But the curious Rishi, begged and begged only for the spiritual knowledge. Being a Brahmin, he needed only one wealth, and that was the Divine Knowledge of soul and body. Here we see some similarity between the story of Nachiketa and this Gautam Rishi. They are not attracted by the worldly wealth. Their eagerness to get knowledge about the spirit or soul is very great. Only such students can get this divine knowledge from self-realized and knowledgeable teachers. Looking to the real quest of learning, from this great Rishi, Pravahan, agreed to give "The Alms of the Knowledge". The king said, "Oh great Rishi, it is going to take a long time to give you this knowledge. I am Kshatriya and you are Brahmin. For any moment during your studentship, never allow this difference to enter in your mind. Otherwise you will never learn." The rishi agreed to be a true pupil of the king. He stayed there for many years and learned the divine knowledge from a Kshatriya. * * * * * Gautam Rishi was the first person to get this Divine knowledge. But his arrogant son Swetketu, remained devoid of this supreme knowledge. It was in this way that the Knowledge of Soul, 'Brahman' was made known to Brahamins. After that time it was passed over to true seekers, from great masters to genuine students, in a teacher-pupil tradition. We will 71

conclude this short story of Swetketu and his father Gautam Rishi, with a verse from "Bhartuhari Niti Shatak." This verse beautifully shows the relationship between knowledge and humbleness. "yada kinchid gyno aham, dwipeve madandha samabhavam, tada sarvagnosmi eeyi bhavad valiptam mama manah! yada kinchit kinchit budh jana sakashadvagatam tada murkhosmi eeti jwar eve mado may vyapagatah !! Meaning: When I knew little, like a small frog in a well, my mind was living in great pride. I thought that I knew everything in the world. But gradually on various occasions, when I came in contact with wise and learned people; then I realized that I was a great fool. Then my false ego of knowledge vanished like fever coming down with a tablet of aspirin (antipyretic). Message of the Story. 1. This short story carries a great message, about the knowledge in the Vedas. The ancient Vedic Bhramins did not know much about the spirit or soul. 2. It is in the Upanishads that we get some glimpses of the great heritage of Hinduism. The Upanishad Rishies lived family life and did not take Sanyas (Priesthood), at early age. They taught whatever they learned from their fathers to their sons and to all curious students. In this manner accumulated knowledge was preserved and passed over from generation to generation. 3. The kings were knowledge worshippers, and encouraged wellread people in their kingdoms. They used to pay respect to Brahmins, and used to give them gifts etc. 4. The class system appears to be present in those days also. But untouchability was not there. It has become a great evil in Hinduism today. This has played a great roll in deterioration of the noble ethical heritage. It is time that we all try to reorganize true religion for meeting the needs of our children in U.S.A., the land of great religious freedom. 5. Knowledge must be gained from any country or person. In this matter an attitude of respect and humbleness towards the teacher is a must. No body is born knowledgeable. With gaining of knowledge humbleness must enter our mind and not an Ego of Knowledge. A

constant self-evaluation is a good practice, which can be cultivated by meditation. 6. Knowledge is the real Wealth of an individual. Human mind has a wonderful capacity to stock a heap of knowledge. Curiosity (Jignasa), interest, (Gyana Pipasa) and continuous effort (Purusharth) to gain knowledge, learn new things, is the only way to a higher path of living. 0m Shanti Shanti Shanti (From Book ABC of Hinduism) (Knowledge, Gyan or Veda, is an endless ocean. Hindu Upanishads had developed after the Vedic Era and four class system kingdom of an Aryan King Manu (2500-BC). Veda knowing Brahmins possessed a false Ego of knowledge of Vedas. This story teaches a great message to all students and Vedic rituals minded Indian Bhramin priests. Remain a life long student is the message of this story).

Section: III





(1) Oh Lord! Almighty, Oh Lord Oh Thee, With Folded Our Palms and Bent our Knees, Together, Together, Together We Pray, Shall Share, Shall Care, Shall Bear WE Say. (2) You are Father and Mother, and Brother Oh Lord, You are Friend and Guide, Oh Merciful God, You are Near and Far, and every where Oh Lord In the Smile of a Child You are Present my God.

(3) You are Mountains and Trees, and Rivers and Sea, You are Water and Land, and the Air I Breath, You are Stars and Suns and Moons I See, You are Clouds and Rains and Sky and ZEE. (4) You are Cows and Cattle, and Birds and Bee, You are Plants and Flowers, and Food for Me, I Praise Thy Glory, with Bent my Knees Forgive me, Forgive us, for Sinful Deeds.

(5) You are TIME and SPACE, So Life and Death, Beyond Heaven and Hell, and Mind and Brain, Thy Sound I Hear, and Feel THY Smell, In Wisdom and Hearts, of Saints You Dwell. (6) Thou Sendth Thy Message of Love and Faith, Through Brave and Noble, Thy Sons Oh! God, A Message of Courage and Confidence, in Giving, To Depressed and Needy the Joy of Being.

(7) In North and South, and West and East, As Tao, and Buddha, and Moses and Christ, As Krishna and Rama, and Mohammed and Me, In Mecca, and Mithra, In Bethle Oh Thee. 72


Thy Cross let Enrich Our Scripts and Spirits, Thy Mercy as Conviction, with Love Divine, Beyond Nations and Flags, and Cults and Creeds, I Feel thy Presence, in Truthful Deeds.

Section: III


(9 As Father and Mother, and Knowledge and SHREE As Friend, and Brother and Teacher you help Me, Thy kingdom is Perfect, and Amazing Oh! God, In Unity and Diversity, I SEE THEE Oh Lord. (10) I Thank THEE Oh Lord for THY Gift of Life, With Folded my Hands and Bent my Knees. Together, Together, Together, I Pray Shall Share, Shell Suffer with Joy, I Say


(Based on famous Upanishad Hymn Mrutor Mam Amrutam Gamaya) Someone is Coming and someone is Going, Someone is Awaking and someone is Sleeping, Someone is Sitting and someone is Running, Someone is Leading and someone is Following, Someone is Wedding and someone is Separating, Someone is Laughing and someone is Crying, Someone is Barking and someone is Singing, Someone is Jumping and someone is Stumbling. Millions are Blue and Millions are Red, Only a few are Green but Millions are Pale, Only a few are Strong but Millions are Weak, Millions are Bitter, only a few are Sweet!. I search Thee Oh Lord, and Mystery of Thy joy, My Death is near, shall I SEE THEE Oh God? THY LIGHT if seen, and my ignorance if gone, Then Fear of Death is gone, and courage is born. Millions do not know what things they need, Only Wise really know what one should Seek. No human can give, all things people want, Only a few are conscious of the gifts they've got. Why people are morose and think of Dying? They know not the Limits, where Eagles are flying. Why few are Blissful and millions so Sad? They know not in fact - The Beginning or The End.

ZEE = Zero. (I AM VERY SMALL Zero in universal diamentions). SHREE = Wealth, Money. (Laxmi- in Sanskrit) I wrote this prayer in 1983 while I was recovering from a serious attack of hemiplegia. Its theme comes from a popular Gujarati poem of poet Nanalal, which I learnt during my school days. It covers the theme of all Vedas, all Upnishads and the Gita. This prayer expresses Hindu belief of One Invisible Supreme Infinite God, who is visible in HIS diversity of forms and qualities. They are called Devas (angles) and Devies in scriptures. Formless invisible God could only be realized by a path of Bhakti, practice of Karma Yoga and Self -Meditation.

For Free Yoga Classes and Week End workshops; By Swami Dwiroopanand. Contact : Phones:
USA:- (1) C/O (904)-733-1579 in FL (2) Mob: 904- 472-6857. INDIA: (1) Mob: 94290-24051. C/O (2) Mob: 94260-51251 Mr. K.K. Shah. C/O (3) Mob: 98245-53043 Mr. Vinod Bhatt. For more Info. Visit Dwiroop Email.


I dream of that day when all are in Cheers, No Worries, no Hunger, no Guns, no Fears. No one is Crying and Youth is Dancing, And all are singing Divine songs for Living. Who Gives with Faith and holy Vows, With Love Divine, no Hate for Foes. When Forgiveness of Jesus pervades all souls, A girl can sing, She has Divine goals. From Hell who came, and to Heaven who went, Every born has to Die, the Gita has said, Only Prophets like Jesus and men like Gandhi, True Scientists and Seers (of God) are IMMORTAL SOULS. Mrutor mam Amrutam Gamaya, is a famous mantra and prayer to God from Brahad-Aranyak Upanishad. It means Lead me to immortality from (by) my death. The spiritually evolved soul asks God to give him/her the death of a martyr, which will make him/her immortal. People want to go to heaven after death, but they do not want to die for going to heaven ! Every born has to die, is Eternal law of God. The above poem shows a path for living with noble goals and dying like a martyr in religious field. One should not be afraid of dying for any good and noble cause. Such a death leads to immortality. People remember such souls for centuries. Jesus and Gandhiji died as martyrs having firm faith in God and Gods work. The laws of mother-nature or Maker of the Universe (GOD) work in an equal manner upon all human beings, animals, plants, stars, suns, moons and all Galaxies. Everything- perceptible with five senses is in a non-stop motion or TIME-SPACE continuum. The possession of money, property, political power etc,. creates false Egos and illusions in minds. Such attachments and desires to get more (Lobh) Greed, makes a person to commit great sins.

Section: III




Darshan literally means Seeing with Eyes. In religious terminology it means perfect understanding or cosmic vision and experience of a seeker of God. The word Sankhya means Numbers. There are six major Hindu Darshans. (1) Sankhya Darshan is believed to be first Darshan. (1000 BC). (2) Poorva Mimansa by Jaimini. (3) Vedanta Darshana by Veda Vyasa (4) Ashtanga Yoga or Raja Yoga of Patanjali. (5) Nyaya Darshan of Gautam (6) Vaishashik Darshan of Kanad. Some believe that Poorva Mimansa is the first Darshana, an old Darshan of a Rishi, Jaimini. It is a complicated philosophy based upon Vedic ways and rituals of Hindu Worship of natural elements as Gods. Jaimini declares that Veda or Knowledge within us is God.

Arjuna asks Krishna, "How can I be happy in all respects?. Show me only one definite way to gain all kinds of success and hapiness. (Shreya)" Ch.III- V.2. Lord Krishna Says : "Lokesmin dwividha nishtha, pura prokta mayanagha, Gyana Yogan Sankhyanam, Karma Yogena Yoginam." Ch.III- V.3. Oh, Sinless, Previously (in 2nd chapter), I have told you, there are two paths by which a person can become happy. One path is of Knowlwdge of Sankhya (Numbers of objects and their properties) and the other path is of correct dutiful actions. (Karma Yoga = Dutiful correct Actions). In Gita, Gyana Yoga mostly refers to Sanhky Yoga, (Chapters 2, 13, and 14 of Gita, discuss three Guna- Satas Rajas and Tamas, Prakruti and Purush). The 2nd chapter is called Sankhya Yoga. The 5 Important Words of this Darshan must be well understood, remembered and meditated upon.


Sankhya Darshana Means :Study and Understanding of Purusha and Prakruti, and Sat, Rajas and Tamas. The name of a great Rishi Kapil is linked with this Darshan. The place where the Sage Kapil lived is not certain, but it might be on the river Ganges in Bengal. The likely period of Kapil is between 10th and 8th century B.C. The Gita refers Kapil as one of God's Vibhooti or manifestations in the 10th chapter. We also find some reference of Kapil in Bhagavatum, a popular Hindu Puran. This Darshan is very popular among the western scholars because it is based on sound scientific principles and maths. In Gita nearly two chapters are devoted to explain the three Gunas (qualities) of human nature described by Kapil, namely, Sat, Rajas and Tamas. (Truth, Selfishness and Ignorence). Gita was written in the 5th century B.C. Sankhya describes Purusha in the meaning of divine soul and Prakruti in the meaning Mother Nature and human nature (swabhav) also. These two words are found in many chapters of the Gita. The word Sankhya means a number. Kapil explains this entire Universe and the activities going on in it, by three words, " Sat, Rajas and Tamas." All visible and perceivable material objects could be understood as having three qualities Goona. Sat, means existance or presence, Rajas means activity or actions. Tamas means inaction or inertia. In many verses of the Gita and talks of Indian Swamies, one hears these words very often. Purusha meaning soul is changeless. Prakruti is ever changing or Rajasic. Body, Mind, and Intellect etc are ever changing things. Brahma Sutra or Vedanta is the name given to revised Sankhya philosophy. Vedanta is also called Utter Mimansa, the last Darshan. Vedanta means End of Veda or Knowledge. When knowledge ends, true faith in God (Shraddha) begins. God is beyond description by words of any language or any branch of Human Knowledge. Kapil explains God and Human life with only two words. Prakruti and Purusha. Prukruti means Nature. Purusha means a human being. The other meaning of word Purusha is a male human being or man. (Purusha = Male & Stree = Female). Kapil explains Perfect laws of nature (Prakruti) by three kinds of activities seen in nature. Creation, Maintanance and Destruction. Similar types of human natures (Personalities or Swabhavas), are found in human beings. 75

(These activities are supposed to be done by three mythological deity Gods of Hindu Purana. There are 18 Mythological Scriptures about Brahama, Vishnu, and Shiva) Kapil never believed in One supreme formless God. Therefore Sankhya philosophy is called a Nir-Ishver-Vadi Darshana. (Athist Darshan). The great Veda Vyasa (Badarayana) had accepted many points of Kapil in his Vedanta Darshan. He also accepts presence of many natural elemental Gods and tries to merge these deities into One Supreme God. Kapil declares all human beings are equal and made up of 5Tanmatras (MAHABHUTA), 5- Vishaya, 5- sense organs, 1- Mind, 1- Ego merged with three Gunas. These make total of 17. elements. Kapils Mahat Tatve means, higher Intellect or Soul. This is not true according to other Darshanik Rishies. Soul is eternal and changeless, where as all other material things are subject to fixed and predictable changes (Vikruti). These are bound with time and place. Intellect can judge these changes. A Yoga student must study, Sankhya and Vedanta Darshans along with the Gita. No Darshana by itself is perfect including Yoga and Sankhya. Vedanta is called nearly a perfect Darshan. But it also accepets many real as well as imaginary deity Gods which act upon the 10 organs (Indriya) in an equal manner. Logic of Kapil. I. Only Living creatures create living creatures. Their physical bodies are made of five basic natural elements, called Tan-matras, which come from five inert things (Jad) seen in universe. These are Akasha (Space), Tejus (Light), Vayu (Air), Aapa (Water), and Bhumi (Earth). Purusha of Kapil is the changeless soul within. It is responsible for life. This is Life-spark or Chaitanya. Human body is looked upon as a physical object made from these five Tamasic or inert objects of Nature. II. Prakruti (Mother Nature) is also governed by fixed laws. Sun rises in East and sets in West. There is constant movement of the stars, planets and galaxies. A bean seed would produce a bean tree. Wheat would yield crop of wheat and not rice. Rice gives crop of rice and not wheat. These don't come from nothing or Zero, but grow with help of previous similar seeds only. This law of Mother Nature applies to all living creatures, including human beings. Human beings also come from previous human beings only. Three types of activities are observed in nature. Creation (Birth), its existance or presence for some time, and its destruction (Death).

Three kinds of human personalities are also observed; Creative, Preservative, and Destructive. (Three mythological Gods in Hinduism explain these activities. Brahama creates life, Vishnu maintains it and Shiva destroys life). Everybody likes to live and live forever. But body is subject to fixed changes of old age, disease and death. III. Kapil uses these words to explain his theory of changes occuring in mother nature. Prakruti (In born Nature) -> Vikruti (Changing nature) Prakruti + Vikruti (Changes occuring according to laws of Nature). These are perceived by Self. It is called Anoobhuti (Experience).. Sankhya explains human Nature (Prakruti) with following twenty five words. 1. MAHAT TATWA. or higher intellect. Kapil refers to this as 'Totality of Intellect'. 2. From this "Mahat Tatwa" becomes the menifest-Vyaktitwa (A human personality) or Ego or "Aham" which is wrapped in layers of five tanmatras or the five basic Mahabhutas refered above. Physical body is made up of these five elements. "Ahankara" or Ego cannot exist without these five elements. 3. In between the Mahat tatwa and body there are other things. The five organs of knowledge (Five senses) and five organs of actions (Karma Indriyas), make the ten important organs of body, or DashIndriya. Body is symbolized as a chariot. The ten horses that drive this chariot are these ten organs. 4. The five senses are attached to five subjects (Vishayas) called Gunas. Roop (Shape or Form), Rasa (Taste), Gandha (Smell), Sparsha (Touch sense, hot, cold, rough, smooth etc.) and Shabda (Vani or listening spoken Words). 5. Kapil refers to human mind as Purusha, in this Darshan. (The word Purusha exactly translates as a male human being. But in general sense it can be understood as any human being. But it cannot be translated as "Atma" or soul, as some well read teachers of Vedanta do). 6. To the above Twenty two words, Kapil adds his three Special words. Sat, Rajas and Tamas. The differences in natures of human beings that we see is due to varying degrees of mixtures of these the three Gunas. These can be understood with analogy of the primary three colours; Red, Yellow and Blue. By mixing these colors in varying proportions, one can create many different colors. In same manner human beings are born with varying mixtures of basic three qualities (Gunas). In this manner changes in nature, (Prakruti Vikruti) 76

constantly take place. The Basic quality of Mahat Tatwa is Sat (good) but Intellect according to Kapil. In many Hindu scriptures and Gita, there is reference of Three Gunas or qualities. The exact sense in which each author interprets these words is confusing to many students. The sense in which the Nyaya Darshana uses these three words is different than that used in Sankhya Darshana by Kapil. A student must always keep in mind the following simple English translation to understand the meaning of these "Three Quality Indicating Words, "Sat - Rajas - and Tamas. Sat = Truth, true knowledge, soul, correct actions with understanding. Rajas = Vibrating or Unsteady Mind. Actions done with selfish desirea. Tamas = Darkness, Ignorance, Idelness, Inaction. Actions done in ignorance without proper understanding. Most people in world live in ignorance or 'Tamas'. They are fooled and misguided by selfish priests in nearly all religions. What is Veda, Gyana.or Knowledge?. Kapil expalins knowledge like this. Material Objects make contact with sense organs (Sanga), Mind perceives, feels and gets agitated. Intellect starts thinking and the experience (Anubhuti) is stored in memory as likes and dislikes (Dwandwa) kind of experiences with that object. For example, Eye sees an object. That experience is stored in Memory (Smruti) as object seen. Seeing is believing. This is Truth or Sat. Compared to EYE the other senses play a less important roll in Knowledge of material (Vyakta or Sakar) things. Experience of any body is always limited. But in human societies, spoken words get linked with names objects and this makes deep memory of material things and experiences, These are stored in brain as knowledge or memory (Smruti). Thus knowledge in fact is only memories of past events and things, mainly seen with eyes and heard by ears. (Audio visual experiences). Knowledge is a chain of scattered experiences. As age advances the memories get build up into Ego of Knowledge. The mixture of three qualities or Guna, and Ego determines the behavior of any person. It depends upon knowledge, (which is past experience), Ego, Mind (Purusha) and Intellect of that particular individual (Vyakti or Atma).

Summary of important points of Sankhya Darshan.

All pervading soul or pure spirit is changeless. But Soul cannot exist independent of Prakruti or physical body- made of five elements; Body is subject to fixed and predictable changes (Vikruties). This we understand as process of ageing. A child is born, it becomes a teenager, becomes an adult, and then turns into an old person. These are predictable changes of physical body. In many verses of Gita, the words Prakruti and Purusha are used in the sense of body (Sharira) and soul (Atma). With aid of Vedanta Chart and Yoga charts the understanding of desires (VASANAS) becomes clear. Karma Indriyas are organs of action. Understanding of Karma Indriya is very clear in Vedanta Darshana only. The picture of self become clear by study of all these three Darshans along with some Chapters of the Gita. Mind was wonderfully studied by the Upanishad and Darshnik Rishies. We hear sometimes. "Brahma (God) created this world from Zero." Kapil declares that neither this world nor anything can be created from Zero. Shankaracharya's (7th century A.D.) statemant of "Brahm Satyam, Jagat Mithya", is not true according to Sankhya Darshana. Seeing this obvious mistake some later Acharyas declared, "Bhahm Satyam, Jagat Satyam". "God is truth and this world is also true." We find two more words in this Darshana. "Purusha and Prakruti". Different experts translate these words in English in different meanings and this creates great confusions in the minds of students. The word PURUSHA has many meanings. It means a male in any bisexual species, a man, any human being, male or female, an individual, soul or Atma or spirit, and only one supreme God of universe. Thus the word Purusha is translated as Soul, Brahm, Spirit, Jiva or a creature, a human being, a male, an individual and so on. For a student of Indian philosophy this creates great confusions. The nearest meaning is generally neglected. "Purusha" should mean an individual, a human being (male or female). "Prakruti" should mean mother nature. The second meaning of Prakruti is inborn human instincts or nature (Swabhava). English word Nature, serves both purposes. Meditation upon these two words along with other three other words "Sat, Rajas and Tamas", would explain many events and changes taking place in the world of material objects and behavior of human beings and their nature or mind. Chart of Sankhya Darshan. PARAM BRAHAMAN. OR ONE SUPREME FORMLESS GOD. The perfect maker of universe God, is un-manifest. God is beyond TIME AND SPACE. MANIFEST BRAHAMN. I AM MANIFEST BRAHAMAN (SOUL) PRAKRUTI = Mother nature. [Pancha Mahabhutas= space, light, air, water & earth (5) PURUSHA = HUMAN NATURE (Atma or Self). ATMA = Pancha Mahabhuta + mind + intellect + Ego or I. (1) MAHAT TATVA IN SANKHYA IS HIGHER INTELLECT (Buddhi, not soul). Pure Buddhi is not attached to senses or worldly objects. Intellect is beyond three Guna is called Mahat tatva by Kapil. Thinking is done by Buddhi, and not by mind. (2) AHAMKARA OR EGO is always intermingled with Three Gunas. Ego exists with Sat, Rajas and Tamo Guna. It is the Lower Intellect. (3) MIND or MANAS. Conscious mind is usually linked to five senses. Mind, is inner sixth sense which receives messages from five senses. Mind feels emotions. (4). FIVE SENSES OR ORGANS OF KNOWLEDGE (Gyana Indriya) Shrotrum, Chakshu, Sparsha Rasana and Ghrana. (5). Ears, Eyes, Skin, Tongue and Nose bring knowledge of worldly objects when they make contact with the sense organs. (5) FIVE VISHAYA OR SUBJECTS OF SENSUAL JOYS (5) SHABDA, ROOPA, SPARSHA, SWADA AND GANDHA. (Words, Beauty, Touch, Taste, and Smell). Like animals Millions of people live at this level. They are mostly attached to senses. When objects make contact with senses, feelings of happiness and unhappiness arise in mind which in turn produce angers or frustrations, desires and aversions. The above Chart summarizes the Sankhya Darshan in brief.


Section: III


are made by Supreme God, PARAMBRAHAMA, the maker of all living and nonliving things like galaxies, stars, suns moons clouds and rain etc., in universe) FIVE ORGANS OF ACTIONS: (Karma Indriya). 1. TONGUE AS ORGAN OF SPEECH: Vani. It's Deva is Fire or Agni. 2. TWO HANDS: Panihi or Hastayoho. Their Deva is Indra or God of Heaven. 3. TWO LEGS: Padaha. Their Deva is Vishnu.(needs meditation and explanation by teacher). 4. EXCRETORY ORGANS: Upastha. Their Deva is Yama- God of Death.(Why Yama is linked here?) 5. ORGANS OF SEX. Janan Indriyas. (Reproductive organs. Only here 2 sexes differ). KAMA-deva is God of SEX, also called "Prajapati, Brahama". Individual must learn control SANYAMA of 5 Karma Indriya. Note Assotiation of Agni, Indra, Vishnu, Yama and Brahama with different (Karma Indriyas) organs of actions. FIVE INVOLUNTARY PHYSIOLOGICAL VITAL SYSTEMS Panch Maha Prana. (1) Circulatory system with heart. Samana. (2) Lungs & breathing. Prana. (3) Digestive system. Vyana. (4) Excretory system. Apana. (5) Nervous System. Udana. (Hindu priests chant names of these five systems in Yagnas - fire rituals). Worries, Fears and Tensions produce psycho-somatic diseases of these vital systems). FIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL WORDS OF VEDANTA. Inner Mental Attitudes. Mano Bhava 1. MIND: (MANAS) Conscious, awareness or JAGRUTA MAANAS. Deva is Self or Atman. (I am master of my mind). 2. SUBCONSCIOUS MIND: (CHITTA): Possesses real sense of time and place. Deva of Chitta is universe and Space. Mana and Chitta' are two sides of same coin. Memory (Smrutee) of past events (=knowledge) is stored in Chitta. 3. INTELLECT:(BUDDHI) Ability of discrimination, logic, reason, judgement= common sense. Deva of Buddhi is Vasudeva or Krishna. (Krishna in the Gita, is Symbolism of a man who has 3 tense sense, and Awareness of Duty. 78



VEDANTA Really means END OF KNOWLEDGE.. By this study one Understands that all humans are equal. This is the aim of Vedant study. Memorize these 25 parts of body and names of Devas which make trios with various organs. This makes the Gita and Upanishads, Yoga and Darshans meaningful. Remember that Spirit or Brahaman within us is Not Supreme God. But the MAKER of 5 Mahabhutas, Body Organs, and Spirit and Time Place bondage to all Creations is Supreme God. FIVE BASIC ELEMENTS: (Pancha Maha-Bhuta). 1. SPACE: Akasha. Directionless Endless Sky, or 3-D Empty Universal Space. 2. HEAT OR LIGHT : Energy (Power, Strength) within us. Agni, Tejus, Ojus, SHIVA-SHAKTI. 3. AIR: Vayu. Maruta means air in motion or wind. 4. WATER: Varuna . Water makes 3/4 th surface of earth and 3/4 weight of body. 5. EARTH: Pruthvi, Bhumi, Dharati etc. (Gross body and universe, both are made of above 5 material things). LORD VISHNU'S UNIVERSAL FORM MEANS TOTALITY OF ABOVE (5) INERT GROSS MATERIAL ELEMENTS. FIVE SENSES OR ORGANS OF KNOWLEDGE (Pancha Gyana Indriyas.): 1. EARS: Shrotrum or Karnas. 10 Digpals or Deva in 10 Directions. 2. EYES: Chakshu or Natra. Deva. The Sun or Surya. 3. SKIN: Sparshanam or tvacha. Deva. Vayu or Air. 4. TONGUE: AS ORGAN OF TASTE. Rasana or Swada Indriya. Deva. Water or Varuna. Tongue as organ of Speech, falls in next group of Karma-Indriyas). 5. NOSE: Ghranam or Nasika. Deva "Ashvinikumars" or horseheaded Gods..(Meditate upon the trios made by different Devas. They

4. DESIRES: (VASANAS): These are natural instincts (Vritties) of hunger and thirst, Expectations (Apekshas), Wishes (Iccha), Hopes (Asha or Trushna), Wants, greed (Lobha) etc. Meditation creates union (YOGA) of Chitta & Buddhi. Analyze your instincts, desires (Word used in scriptures is KAMA) and behaviours. True divine self will unfold. 5. EGOS: (AHAMKAR). False Egos of physical strength, money, political positions, false beliefs (AVIDYA) and ignorence of God & Religion must vanish. Egos are great obstacles in path of spiritual evolution for a student of Yoga. Self-realization occurs when one reaches a state of mind like this: "I am not a doer but only an actor. Nothing belongs to me. Everything I possess TODAY is God's gift". This is Moksha or Nirvana state of mind. VEDANTA MEANS END OF KNOWLEDGE (Vedasya antah). Controlling ten organs (Dash-Rath) and mind by ones own pure unbiased intellect (sanyam). makes any person master of himself/ herself. Spiritual upliftment starts when all evil thoughts, material desires and wrong beliefs come to an end. Famous poem Nirvana-Shtakam of Shankaracharya describes spiritual self (Shiva, Brahaman, Atman or Spirit) in a negative manner. Above 25 and some more elements and Indriyas are described like this:I am not mind, not intellect, not Chitta (subconscious mind), not ahamkara (ego), not hands, not feet, not speech, not organs of sex and excretions, not air, not water, not earth, not religion, not desires, not money, not food, not even Moksha, etc, etc, I AM SHIVA -the Formless, Changeless, Eternal Reality. I am Blissful Eternal Joy, Shivo Aham, Shivo Aham, I am SATCHIDA-ANAND-SWAROOPA, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.


Books of DR. H. K. Gandhi.

Gujatari Books.
1. Ahamkar and Vasana - Gaurav and Purusharth. (Egos & Desires) (Convert Ego into Pride and Desires into Efforts.) 2. Mana, Chitta and Buddhi. (Krishna is God of Buddhi in you) (Mind, Memories and Intellect - Yoga & Human Psychology.) 3. Karma Yoga Gita Ch-3. (A Scientific Approach) (Essays on History of Gita and Perfect Laws of Karma). 4. Bhkti Yoga Gita Ch-12. (A Scientific Approach) (Essays on AUM and Spiritual Self - or word Atma) 5. Raj Yoga Gita Ch-9. (A Scientific Approach) () (Essay on Panch Mahabhuta -5 Basic Universal Elements.) 6. Purushottama Yoga Gita Ch-15. (A Scientific Approach). (Einesteins Theory of E= MC2, and Mystic Hindu Trinity) 7. Shree Krishna Sharanam Mam. (1994) (5000 Free Copies
distributed. 3 Different Krishnas in Bhagavatum, Mahabharat and Gita)

Arange Dr Gandhis YOGA Classes.

Yoga is Science of Spirituality. It promises Good Health of Body, Mind, and Long Active Successful Life of 100 Years. Who can arrange Yoga Classes? Any one interested in Yoga, Learning Meditation & Self Knowledge. Form a study group of 5, 10 or more interested students. Decide tentative Place and Time. Than Contact Teacher.
This Study is particularly useful for :Medical and Para-medical groups. Social Workers and Business owners and CEOs. Teenagers in Schools and Colleges and their parents. Spiritual Study groups in Temples & Churches. God search by path of logic and reason and selfrealization.

8. Prarabdh and Purushartha. (16 Inspiring Stories- (2001) 9. Vignan na Rushio. (2004)

English Books.
(10). ABC OF HINDUISM. (1988) Basics of Hinduism for Growing Youth Staying Abroad. (11). MAHATMA GANDHI - Ambassador of GodFor Entire Mankind in 21st Century. (1992). Gandhiji, Religious and Political Problems, & Suggested for changes in constitution of India. Proof of One God. (12). WILL POWER OF POSITIVE MIND. Goldin, Gita and God. (2003) Paul Goldins book Wind Mill of Mind - compared with Yoga Meditation and Positive Thinking in the Gita. Recently Published English Books: (14). ASHTANG YOGA. (2008) (15) PRANAYAMA Cures Blood pressure in 90 % Cases. (2008).

A. First FREE Introductory Class. (1 Hr and 30 mins). Subjects discussed in introductory class: What is YOGA?. OM Chanting, Prayers and Peace Invocations. A few Breathing Exercises and 1st level of meditation. (Question answers - in end). After first introductory FREE Class, interested students register for B. 1st Primary Lectures Course of the 8 steps of Yoga. Time required 8-12 hours. This is a course of 8 theoretical lectures, divided into 4 to 6 sessions. The 8 steps of Raj-Yoga explain Morality (Sanatan Dharma), Good manners, Diet habits, Yoga Exercises and Positive attitudes, and high goals. These are explained with practical examples of Karma Yoga, in daily life. One course of 8-12 Hrs. can be arranged on week-ends, e.g., Fri-/Sat - Sundays.

ADD. Jacksonville. FL. 32257. Mobile Ph: (904)-472-6857.Res.C/O (904)-733-1579. For more information visit. Contact By Email: (Dr. H. K. Gandhi).

Contact:SWAMI DWIROOPANAND. (Dr. H. K. Gandhi -age 84). Phone No. C/O (904)- 733-1579 - Mob: 904-472-6857 Add: C/O. 9120, Beauclerc Cir -W, Jacksonville FL. 32257.
Visit Email. YOGA Study Imparts Many Benefits Like, Cure of Blood Pressure in 90 % cases. * Prevents Heart attacks. Control of angers and passion. * Overcome Depressions, Stress & worries Etc,.


Section: III




Scientists are men of reason. They ask, Where is God? Questions regarding Omni-presence of God might be satisfied to some extent if one reads the following three experiences occurring to three different types of people, of different faiths, at different places, yet in recent times. A. North Florida University Student Says:First I record here the experience of a young student of North Florida University. In April (1995), I gave a talk on Hinduism to students of comparative religions class in NFU. They were mostly Christian students. When I described my following experience of SEEING the Holy cross, in 1979, and then after my lifes turn towards study of world religions, all students were spell bound. (Read last C). After the question answer session at end of talk, we were dispersing. A young girl approached me and placed the following note in my hand. She had never studied religious scriptures in depth. But her experience of seeing divine light is worth reading. She wrote: "Thank you for your wonderful seminar. Almost 2 years ago, I had similar experience, though there was no one religion which struck me, rather what (after studying) is most similar to BRAHMAN reaching ATMAN. As you say seeming crazy; for this reason I have stopped trying to tell people. But this seed was planted and I too came to the same conclusion that all religions should be respected and merged in a way that the world community can love one another. Any how if you have any type of mailings please include me. Amenda Mehrtens. B. Berkly University Professor Sees Lord Shiva. During the year 1981 I read a book, THE TAO OF PHYSICS by Fritj of Capra, Prof. of High Energy Physics at Berkeley University, California. Mr. Capra also describes similar experience of SEEING cosmic light and the figure of Lord Shiva (Nataraj), a deity God worshipped by the Hindus. He saw SHIVA in open sky during daytime. This inspired him to write his book which discusses eastern religions, science and philosophies. 81

With help of the famous equation of Albert Einstein, E=MC2 Prof. Capra beautifully correlates science and verses of The Gita and Upanishads, Energy, Space and Time. In the preface of his book Mr. Capra writes:"I 'saw' cascades of energy coming from the outer space, in which particles were created and destroyed in rhythmic pulses; I 'saw' the atoms of these elements and those of my body, participating in this cosmic dance of energy; I felt its rhythm and I 'heard' its sound, and at that moment I KNEW that this was the Dance of Shiva, The Lord of dancers, worshipped by the Hindus" C. I SEE THE HOLY CROSS. Now I describe my own experience of seeing Cosmic Divine Light of God and HOLY CROSS. "It was a cold winter night. I was fast asleep on the second floor of my clinic at Naroda- a suburb of the city of Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat-India. I woke up perspiring like a moist sponge. My clothes were soaked with sweat. Body hairs were raised in elation, amazement and surprise. I wiped my face and eyes. I saw a shining ball of dazzling light outside the window. The brightness of light was greater than thousand suns in the sky. From the East window a ball of dazzling light entered the room. It pervaded in all objects like table, chairs, books etc., and then it entered my body. For a few seconds I felt and experienced as if I was weightless and floating in a soft cloud of light. My total existence and everything in the room was in tune and oneness with this cosmic light. I realized as if everything was made up of that light. There was no sun in the sky at night. I knew this was something else. I saw at my wrist watch. The time was EXACTLY 12.00 at Midnight, The Zero hour between the years 1979 and 1980 and The Date was DEC, 31- 1979.

I did not understand any significance of that event at that time. Even today, after sixteen years I do not know its meaning. Whatever I saw that night was not a dream or imagination. I am very positive about this. It was a real experience in fullest conscious state of mind. Only three months prior, I attended a weeks discourse on Karma Yoga (Ch-3 of Gita) by Rev. Swami Chinmayanandji in Ahmedabad during October-1979, I got interested in study of Gita for the first time in

my life. I had no background of Christianity, nor had any attachments to Hinduism, any religion or even God. I never believed in myth or rituals. My knowledge of Hinduism was hear say, I did not meditate, nor practiced Yoga. But I had started writing notes of my scattered thoughts on religious subjects after Oct., 1979. I recorded this event and experience next morning in my note book. It is still a question for me and I have no answers. Why I was chosen in India by Almighty God to SEE (Darshana) this light of HOLY CROSS exactly at a particular time of Christian Calendar? This is called Shakshatkara or DIVINE EXPERIENCE in Hindu scriptures. Today in retrospect, I understand its some meaning. God had chosen me to be HIS instrument in linking Eastern and Western religious thoughts. This I say today in January 1997, after my study of world religions in an unattached manner for last eighteen years. Devoted Christians believe that the resurrected HOLY SPIRIT OF JESUS CHRIST is pervading everywhere. Later I read, Swami Vivekanand had similar experience of seeing Spirit of Jesus Christ during his meditation practices under guidance of his Guru Swami Ram Krishna Parmhans. After this experience I lost interest in my well established medical practice of 30 years. I withdrew from practice and social commitments. By the end of 1982 I closed my clinic and immigrated to USA. I was a crazy reader from the childhood. Now I turned to reading subjects like world history, history of religions, history of sciences, life stories of scientists and philosophers etc. I had never read these subjects before. A man of reason and science wants proof of God, direct or indirect. The theory of Karma, preached in Gita provides a proof of the Laws of Mother Nature, which govern all individuals in an equal manner. Happiness and sorrows come to a person according to right and wrong Karma done by him or even not done by him (Akrama) at proper times. (Theory of Karma, Akarma and Vikarma). It is time that all intellectual people of reason and spiritual quest must study all world religions with open minds as Gandhiji has recommended. Lord Mountbatton had said these words to Attenborough, the producer of movie 'Gandhi,' Mr. Attenborough you are making a movie of a man of caliber of Jesus Christ and Buddha. Please see that you do not do any injustice to this great soul (Mahatma).
The Upanishads, Patanjali Yoga and Gita provide a time tested path of SEEING the Formless God (Nirakara but not Nirguna God).

Section: III




I.G.D.S. ?.

International Gandhi- Gita Dharma Sangh. (IGDS) IGDS is a study FORUM for systematic study of all religions in a scientific manner. International Gandhi Gita Dharma Sangh (IGDS) is a new idea and movement. All unbiased, educated Gita and Gandhi lover Gujaraties or people of any Indian State may join this movement in order to learn and practice true culture of India, Sanatan Dharma. Indians of faiths like Islam, Christianity, Zoroastrians, Shiks, etc. can also join IGDS. The younger generations growing in any place or land have common questions. Where is God? What is religion? These questions are answered in a logical manner in the Bhagavat Gita. The study of Gita provides understanding of need of religion and proof of One God. Children in 21st century will live in a better religio-political harmony if they understand One God, True Religion and need of some morals in a scientific manner. The gifts of science like T.Vs, Telecommunications, Internet, International trade and Transport facilities has made world into a global village. Religio-Political Views of Gandhiji will bring real world peace. Aims and Goals of IGDS: The main goal of IGDS is to bring peace and happiness to every human being on earth by better understanding of religions and One God. To establish an ideal political system in all countries of the world. IGDS will propagate views of Mahatma Gandhi in political field. IGDS Members will try to build Gandhi Asramas and many Gandhi Halls in townships, cities and villages of all countries of the world instead of Temples of Deity Gods. How you can Start a local IGDS unit ? Find five Gandhi lovers and Gita curious families staying nearby. The families will meet every week regularly for prayers and devote 3 to 4 hours followed by nice Lunch or Dinners (Prasad). Do this for 2 or 3 months, by rotation in members homes. Invite more families to join. 82

Publish GGDS- magazine of Gandhian thoughts by getting local Ads support. Every IGDS unit must publish GGDS, about Gandhis life-events, inspiring quotes and views in local language and distribute FREE to people of other religions, institutions, libraries, churches, schools etc,. When about 20 devoted families join, form a legal body. Register as non profit religious organization. Name it GGDS of (name of local town area). Adopt Legal Constitution. Appoint trustees and office bearers. Plan a fund raising project for a Gandhi Hall or Ashrama. Declare firm and clear noms and guidelines before getting donations from others. Adopt constitution like Rotary or Lions Clubs. Proposed activities of IGDS. Members will observe vows of non-violence and avoid religious and political wars and conflicts. Main activities of IGDS will be: Moral, ethical and cultural education of young generation. Loans and scholarships for deserving bright students of members. Free or low cost legal and medical help to needy growing children of I.G.D.S. member families. Informative talks on state laws, tax laws and medical subjects for members, seniors and handicapped. Residential hostels for students, seniors, guests and short times visitors, like YMCAs. Build a Gandhi Hall and a Gandhi Ashrama. Gandhi Halls & Ashramas will provide : A cultural facility for Education Courses like dance, music lessons, classes of maths, drawing, sports, painting, sewing and fine arts etc. for learning different skills of livelihood to teenagers of local community. This was the dream of Gandhiji of Basic Education, Buniadi Talim or real education. Ashramas will provide Residential/recreational facility for local seniors, visiting guests of local families, IGDS guests, newly arriving students in local colleges from other towns, etc.,. Run Vegetarian kitchens at low rates for seniors and other residents. Library for Youth Education. Libraries of religious books, philosophical and Gandhian Books will be maintained in Gandhi Halls and Ashramas. Free Gita Classes and Yoga Classes at low rates for local residents. 83

To carry out above activities IGDS will build Gandhi Halls and Ashrams in different cities and villages of all countries. The Halls and Ashrams will also become important centers of Education and spiritual activities for active seniors. Who can join or become members ? All people believing in Gandhiji as a prophet, a messiah, an Avatara (Incarnation) of God like Jesus, Muhammad, or Lord Buddha. ** Eleven Commandments and Seven Sins indicated by Mahatma Gandhi. Believers or Non Believers of One God of Universe. Seekers of vision of God by Yoga and Gita study. Gita as a scripture to be studied for moral codes in life, and divine messages of all prophets can join this movement. Men and women of any religion, any country, either sex, color, caste, creed and political views can join this international, interfaith movement without renouncing their religious and political beliefs, methods of worship of God prayers, rituals or their churches, temples and mosques. I.G.D.S. has no religious or political taboos or borders. Jai shri Krishna. Long Live Mahatma Gandhiji. OM Tat SAT = God is TRUTH. **. Details in More details of I.G.D.S. will also be found in above website. Contact:Swami Dwiroopanand: (Dr. H. K. Gandhi) Ph No. C/O Dr. Pankaj.Gandhi (904)-733-1579 (FL) Add: 9120. Beauclerc Cir-W, Jacksonville, FL, 32257.

Section: III




DICTIONARY OF COMMON SANSKRIT WORDS FOR YOGA STUDY. (Nearest scientific meaning of Sanskrit words used in Yoga study) Aap = (1) Water, (Urdu word Aab). (2) Varuna = Water. One of the 5 basic body element. Abhaya = Fearlessness, Freedom from all fears, worries and tensions. Yoga study leads to this mental freedom. It is called Nirvana or Moksha. Abhyasa = Study, practice, repeated attempts to memorize a verse (Manan) or a sentence; or to master some skill, e.g. constant practice of hitting a ball or shooting a target by arrows or bullets. Agna Chakra = A Chakra located between eye brows. Ability of giving commandments or orders, like a commander of army, a boss in a shop, a king making rules in a country, or a religious leader giving commandments and sermons. Agni = (1) Fire, heat; (2) One of the 5 basic elements which make all gross bodies- living and non-living. Agyan = Ignorance, lack of information. Ahamkara = 1st person singular pronoun, Ego, self, or Consciousness. Ahimsa = Non violence, Non injury; It is not a negative commandment in Eastern religions but has a positive aspect of universal love, brotherhood and friendship. Akasha = Sky, infinite space. One of the 5 basic elements of gross body. Akshara = (1) Alphabets; (2) Imperishable, immutable, permanent, immortal, eternal, changeless truth, indestructible. Soul is described in this manner. Ananda = Joy, blissful state of mind. Joy of leaning, Joy of eating, Joy of sex, Joy of victory, etc. Joy and happiness are different states of Mind. Happiness is at material level, Joy occurs at spiritual level by getting the results of deeds (Karma) done. Apana Vayu = Exhaled air. Some Yoga books describe Apana as intestinal gases passed out from anus with the act of excretion of stool. 84

Aparigraha = No greed (Lobha), not grabbing others things. Freedom from desires of collecting great wealth and estates, kingdoms, by immoral means, etc. Artha = (1) Money; (2) Desire; (3) Meaning, sense,(4) purpose, (5) Aim or goal. Asanas = Static postural poses and exercises. 3rd step of Raj Yoga. Asat = False, untrue, transient, Non-existent, unreal; opposite of Sat or truth. Asmita = Egotism, self-esteem, consciousness of one's presence. Asteye = A religious commandment in all religions. No thefts, no stealing. It has a positive aspect of remembering and returning the debts to creditors. Children are ever indebted to parents and teachers. They must remember and return the debts of parents by caring for and serving them in old age with respect, love and a sense of gratitude. (2) Sub-step of Yama, the 1st step of Raj Yoga. Atma = Used in many different meanings. (1). Self; This is correct translation of Vedic word 'Atma'; not soul or spirit. (2). Manifest Soul. Any living being; one living individual (Vyakti). (3). Brahaman. Soul or pure spirit. Soul is the pure and undying innermost life element. One has to unfold and understand it by deep meditation. A soul cannot exist without body, and body becomes a 'dead body' without soul. Atma Gyana = Knowledge of one's true inner most self, which is pure Spirit or Bhraman. Self knowledge. Avidya = Wrong teaching or information, Incorrect knowledge, wrong beliefs and false opinions. Most people live with Avidya in religious and many other fields. True (spiritual) enlightenment comes by correct knowledge. (Agyana and Avidya are quite different words. A child is ignorant about laws, but most adults are misinformed about religion. It is difficult to remove Avidya, but easy to remove Agyana). Bandhas = Fixing and controlling inner organs by fixed body postures. Bhakti = Surrender, sacrifices and devotion to duty, God, or religious beliefs. Bhava = Moods, emotional states of mind resulting from happy and unhappy events and situations occurring in daily life. Spiritual Trance like state. Bhaya = Fear, worries. Opposite word is - Abhaya. Yoga removes Bhaya. Bhoo = Earth. One of the 5 basic element of gross body. Bhoomi = Land, country. (Matru bhoomi = mother land).

Bija = Seed, sperm or ovum. Bindu = A drop, a small particle, a point, a grain. Braham Vidya = Knowledge of living beings and Spirit. Biology. Spiritual knowledge. Brahama = Imaginary (mythological) creator God of life on earth. Totality of all spirits in plants and animals. Brahaman = Atma, Spirit, soul, Chetana, Jiva, Bios, nameless 'that' (Tat). Brahamchari = One who travels for spiritual quest. "Brahmaya Charati eeti Brahamchari". By traditional usage this word means a boy or a girl who has not done sex act during life, a perfectly chaste person, Virgin girl, a celibate individual. Brahmcharyam = Chastity in life, no sex at all, celibacy. A Substep of Yama, the 1st step of Raj Yoga. Brahmin.= (1) A man in the highest class in the four class system of Manu. (2) One who knows 'Brahman' or soul is a Brahmin. Buddha = A wise and intelligent man, spiritually enlightened and evolved soul. Buddhi = Discriminative ability, common sense, logic, reason, intellect. Chakra = Literally a wheel or a circle. Various nerves (Nadies) and plexuses located in spinal cord and brain. Chakshu = Eyes. Divya Chakshu = divine eye of mind or pure intellect. Chandra = Moon. Symbolic 3rd eye of Lord Shiva = sharp time sense. Chintan = Meditation: One pointed thinking, about an event or an object. In Yoga meditation the object and subject of thinking is one's own self. One gradually understands the ever changing desires in mind, the different organs of perishable body (Kshara sharira) and eternal imperishable (Akshara) soul. The bondage of time and place, inter-play of emotions, intellect, desires and actions are related to body. Thinking about anything with perfect sense of time and place (Chitta) is meditation or Chintan. Chitta = Sub conscious mind. Most Yoga books and Gurus translate this word as pure intellect, consciousness, thoughts, perception etc.,. Memories of past events and experiences are stored in Chitta as knowledge. Chitta, according to Yoga books is totality of ego- consciousness made up by (1) mind and its ability of attention, selection, and rejection, (2) ability of reason (Buddhi) and (3) ability of correct decision making. Chitta experiences joys and sorrows. Darshana = Literal meaning Seeing; Vision, observing- thinking and understanding, the cause of the effects seen. Hinduism has 6 main 85

Darshans, (scriptures of spiritual knowledge) viz., Poorva Mimansa by Jaimini, Nyaya Darshan by Gautama, Vaishashik Darshana by Kanad, YOGA DARSHANA by Patanjali, Sankhya Darshana by Kapil, and Vedanta Darshana by Ved-Vyasa. Desha = Place, country. Dharana = Goals, dreams, visions, aims. The 6th step of Patanjali Yoga. Dharma = This word is usually translated as Religion. But Dharma has many meanings. (1) Gunas or qualities in material objects. (2) Consciousness of 'moral duties'. (3) Sectarian religions (Sampradaya; = Some Past Prophets started religions) are also called Dharmas. Most people today know Dharma as tribal traditions, or secular groups of people following strictly scriptural commandments of the founders or prophets. Dharma Kshatra = Field of religion; like field of medicine, economics, politics. Dharma Shastra = A religious scripture. Dhyana = Attention, fullest concentration in study or action; It is the 7th step of Patanjali Yoga. Complete awareness in the present place and the present time. Dosha = Fault, mistake, sin, error etc. Dukkha = (1) Unhappiness, (2) Pain, (3) Bad events in life. Dwesha = Dislikes, hatred, animosity, (opposite of Raga = likes). Eakagrata = Selecting one topic and giving it the top priority. Gandha = Smell, fragrance. Garbha = A fetus or an embryo in womb. Guna = Quality, e.g. to burn is Guna of fire, to wet is Guna of water, sweetness is Guna of cane sugar, etc. Mother nature (Prakruti) has three Gunas, creation, maintenance, and destruction. There are three Gunas in all human beings viz., Sat, Rajas and Tamas. Pure soul is Guna-less (Nirguna) or Gunatit (Beyond Gunas). Hath Yoga = Search of self by practicing penances and denials to comforts. Path of rigorous discipline and self control (Tapas), very popular in Jainism even today. Indriyas = 5 organs of perception (Senses or Gyana Indriyas or eyes, ears, nose, skin and tongue as taste organ) and 5 organs of actions or (Karma Indriyas viz. Speech, hands, legs, excretions, & sex organs). Ishvara = God or supreme being. One among many names of God. God's divine spark present in all living beings, located in heart, as A-V node and bundle of HIS.

Ishvera Parinidhani = Total surrender to God or destined by God. All actions to be done as works of God. They are preservation of living creations, including animals and plants. Jagruti = Awakened state, Awareness of surroundings. Life consciousness. Japa = Repeated chanting of short prayer words (Mantras) or God's name. Jignasa = Curiosity, questions. Brahm Jignasa = Questions about soul; Dharma Jignasa= To learn about religion, moral obligations, qualities of material objects etc.,. Jijivisha = Instinct of survival, I want to live not to die. Basic instinct in all life. Jitendriya = One who has conquered 5 senses and 5 organs of actions. The words Jain, Jainism come from this. Jiva-Atma = Individual soul, a single living creature, or one human being, I or Self. Kala = Time. Symbolized as Mystic Deity Shiva, with name MahaKaleshvara. Kala Chakra = Wheel of time. Happy and unhappy situations are linked with body mind and intellect. They 'Come and Go' as the non stop wheel of time spins on and on. Birth and Death are linked with the wheel of Universal TIME; only all pervading Pure soul is beyond the bondage of constantly revolving Kala Chakra. Kama = Passions, sex urges, lust, desires, wants, hopes, expectations, ambitions, wishes etc.,. In a broad sense any ego centric sensual desire is called Kama or Vasana. This inner most enemy must be conquered first during the early steps of Yoga Sadhana. Karma = Acts, deeds done by an individual under the drag of desires. Karma always bind all human beings. Karya = Works done in the past, present, or planned projects of the future. Krodha = Angers, restless mind, agitated mood. Roots from unsatisfied Kamas or desires. Kumbha = A pot for storing water. Body filled with desires is symbolized as a pot. Kumbhaka = Part of Pranayama. A respiratory exercise in which inspired air is with-held for a long time like water filled in a pot. Kundalini = Susumna Nadi's - a sleeping serpents - head located in brain (Corpus Callosum). Frontal area of brain, three tense sense. Kundalini power or shakti = Visualization in mind of past events, arranging them in chronological order, arriving at reasonable judgment. Then planning for future based upon experiences of past. Time-place awareness and order of priority and preference. Military generals like 86

Napolion are examples of Kundalini Shakti in wars; successful business men running big enterprises, heads of states, successful detectives etc. Lobha = Greed of money, political power and wealth. Loma = Hair. Loma-Harsha = raising of body hairs during moments of extreme emotions. Mada = False egos. Ahamkara. Mahat Tatva = Refereed to as higher intellect, spirit and/or soul in Sankhya Darshan of Kapil. Mamta = Sense of possessions or my-ness. A kind of ego-centric obsession. This is my son, wife, brother, my house, my country, my religion, Guru, etc., Mantra = Short prayer of words, a verse of devotional poetry. Maya = Attachments to relatives, children, religion, sect, country, property, body etc. Moha = Illusions and false attachments encircling intellect. A person in Moha is not able to think and judge without bias and arrive to correct judgment. Moksha = Freedom from sensual attachments and ego centric desires. Moola = Root of a tree, foundation, base. Nadi = Different Nerves described in Yoga books. Also means arteries and veins in anatomical terminology. Nidra = Sleep. (Anidra = Insomnia or lack of sound sleep). Nirvana = Blissful state, Moksha state or Kaivalya state of mind. Niyama = Regularity, discipline, obedience, codes of proper conduct. 2nd step of Patanjali Yoga. Punctuality and observance of rules. Nyaya = Justice. Another Darshana like Yoga in Indian Philosophy. Om (AUM) = Pranava or a long sound made by human phonatory system. Pad = step, foot. Padma = Lotus Padmasana = A sitting meditation posture. Two feet crossed make a lotus like look. Pancha Mahabhutas = 5 basic elements of gross body, namely earth, water, air, fire or light (energy) and Space (Akasha). Pragna = Wisdom or perfect knowledge gained by self experience. Praja = People, children and grand children Prajapati = Creator, God of people and children (Parents). Imaginary God of Sex. Refereed to as 'Kamadev' in some scriptures.

Prakruti = Mother Nature; Universe; Inborn nature of any individual. Prana = Spark of Life or spirit. Breathing activity. Pranayamas = 4th step of Yoga. Regulation and control of respiration. Pratyahara = 5th step of Yoga. Controlling sensual desires by will power. Purusha = Literal meaning a male being. Used in different meaning in different Scriptures e.g., Supreme one God, perfect creator of mother nature, pure soul or spirit etc. This creates great confusions in minds of students of Gita and Yoga. Purushartha = Efforts done to achieve four goals (Dharanas) in life. The 4 goals given to a Hindu are Dharma (Duties), Artha (money), Kama (Desires) and Moksha (liberty). Rachaka = Withholding breath after exhaling in the Pranayama practice (See 4th step of Raj Yoga). Ragas = Attachments to objects of temporary sensual pleasures, and joys. (Opp. word is Dwesha). Raja = A king. A boss, a president, chairman etc., in present times. God is the king of this universe. Uniting with this King is Raj Yoga. Rajas = One of the three Gunas of Prakruti. Actions done with a desire or a definite purpose. Rajasik = A quality of human nature (Svabhava) or Prakruti. A Rajasik person does activities for achieving dictating and commanding position in life. Rasa = Taste. Six different tastes in foods like sweet, sour, salty, pungent, hot (Chilies) and bitter. Tongue gets attached to these in course of time. Roop = Form, shape, beauty. Rudra = Another name of Shiva = merciful God. Angry Shiva is called Rudra. Sadhaka = Student of Yoga. Mumukshu, Shishya, Vidyarthi etc.,. are other words used for a student of Yoga. Sadhana = Practice, study, search and research. Sakshi = A witness or a seer. Samadhi = Thoughtless consciousness or awareness. The last, 8th step of Raj Yoga. The state of Nirvana or Moksha is reached by prophets like Jesus, Buddha, Mohammed who give religious commandments and sermons after self realization. Sankhya = Number. An important Philosophy (Darshan), to be studied with Yoga. Sanskara = Moral training given to children during childhood. 87

Sanskrit = An Ancient and very rich language of Aryans. Most Hindu scriptures are written in Sanskrit language. Sanskruti = Culture: noble, moral or religious heritage. Santosha = Satisfaction, contentment, compromising attitude. Sanyamas.= Mental control or restrains, developed by Tapas, Good company, Yogas and Sanskaras. Sat = truthfulness, true, real. One of three tree Gunas in human nature. Good qualities. Satva = Pure essence, good qualities (Goona) in any human being. Sajjana = Gentle people. Satyam = Truth or absolute changeless reality. e.g., God is truth. Shaastra = A book of science. (Puranas are books of mythology). Yoga is a Shaastra, not a Purana. Bhagavatum is a Purana which describes 10 major incarnations of Lord Vishnu a mythological deity of all gross matter seen in universe. Shabda = Word. Speech and a language arises from Shabdas. All spoken words root from OM. Shakti = Psychic power, mental strength, universal cosmic energy, also means Shivas cosmic Shakti. Sharira = Physical gross body; also called 'Karana Sharira'; Karma are done by Sharira. Shaucham = Cleanliness of body and mind and intellect. Substep of Niyama. Shravan = Listening. Hearing with full attention (Dhyana) is listening. Shri = Wealth, money, respect worthy, auspicious, gorgeous. Shrotrum = Ears. Important sense organ of learning or gaining knowledge by hearing words. Shruties = Audio knowledge. Another name of the earliest Hindu scriptures, the Vedas. Shubha = Good, virtuous, benevolent, joy giving. Shukra = Semen, Virile; Planet Venus. Shukracharya is a mystic character in Hindu Puranas who is able to bring life in dead bodies. Shunya = Zero, Void. Siddhas = Rishi; Famous person; Successful businessman; Sports champion, Film star; famous singer; noble politician; pious religious leader, celebrity. Siddhis = Successes or victories. Smruti = Memory, knowledge stored in brain. (Opposite Vismruti = loss of memory, Amnesia). A Hindu scripture of Manu Smruti (2500 BC) indicates duties and punishments for the four classes at different age periods for both the sexes.

Sparsha = Touch sense. Ability of skin to perceive hot, cold, sharp, hard, soft etc.,. Sthita Pragna = A man of firm judgment, wisdom and free from all attachments. Surya = Sun. Pingla Nadi's other name is Surya Nadi. Susupti avastha = Dreamless state of mind during sleep. Deep sleep. Sound sleep. Swabhava = In born nature of an individual. (Human nature = Prakruti). Swadhyaya = Self study, unfoldment of inner self (Anter Atma), soul or ATMAN. Swapna avastha = Dreaming state of mind. During light sleep a person sees dreams. Tamas = Darkness, ignorance; Inborn Guna of human nature. Our knowledge is very little in fact. Tamasik = Quickly getting upset and angry type of personality. Does actions in ignorance. Tapa = Penances done for purification of body, mind and intellect by strict restrains and discipline. This develops obedience, tolerance, endurance, austerities etc. Tat = That. Nameless address to spirit or God. Tatva = Essence of a thing or a short summary of a subject of study. Tejus = Light, Luster, Brilliance, Glory. Tratak = Glazing or fixing eyes at some object without blinking of eyelids. Turya avastha = Thoughtless conscious state of Mind, very close to Samadi. Tyagi = A man who has renounced wealth, high positions, political powers etc. Upanishads = Spiritual Hindu scriptures dealing with the subject of soul, spirit and body, mind and self-search. Uttama = Best, excellent, top most, highest. Vac, Vacha = Speech, Act of speaking (One of the Karma Indriya, Vani). Vairagi = Whose desires of wealth, power or position are satisfied and over. Varuna = Deity God of water. Water is deity God near us. One of the 5 basic elements. Vasana = Ego centric desires and passions. Kama is general term for all types of desires, hopes, wants wishes, ambitions, expectations etc.

Vasudev = Name of Lord Vishnu; Father of Krishna in Bhagavat stories. 5 basic elements make Vishnu's universal body. All forms of material bodies of plants and animals are also made up of these 5 basic elements. Vayu = Air. One of the 5 basic elements of body and visible universe. A Deity God. Vedanta = Literally means END of knowledge. It is one of the popular Darshan or Philosophy which is studied as supplement to Yoga. Vedas = Most ancient Hindu scriptures, books of knowledge. Also called Shruties because knowledge is revealed by speaking and preserved by listening and memorizing. Vibhooti = A person born with adversities, but achieves great heights in any field; a great celebrity. Vichara = Thought. Thoughts are mostly expressed by speech or writings. Vidya = Knowledge, skill or technique learned by practice. Vigyana = Science. The relationship between cause and effects are searched, studied and confirmed by intellect, reason and repeated self experiences. Vishaya = Subject of study; 5 senses have 5 Vishayas, namely form, word, taste, touch and smell. A person gets attached to these Vishayas when objects make contact with 5 senses. By meditation one recognizes the attachments and tries to get liberated. Vishnu = Puranic God of life preservation and visible material universe. Viveka = Discrimination, reason, logic, judgment ability. Vrutti = Desires, instincts which lead to do activities (Pravutti). Hunger, thirst, desire to pass urine, sex urge, are natural Vrutties. Greed of money, political power, material things etc., are un-natural desires, wants and wishes or Vasanas. Vyadhi = Disease, illness, sickness. Yagna = Sacrifice; A fire ritual of Hindus; Giving knowledge free is Gyana Yagna. Serving and helping others without expectation of rewards is Seva-Yagna. Yama = An imaginary or mystic Deity God of death. The Supreme God's accountant for all people's good (Punya) and bad or evil deeds (sins). The 1st step of Raj Yoga starts with understanding of this deity. Yoga = To Join; To meet; To unite, to get welded to; To marry, to remain in family and social bondage and cooperation etc.