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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study Nowadays, English has been a universal and important language that must be learned and acquired well. As a foreign language English is not an easy language to be learned and to be understood. There are many important aspects in English that must be learned to master English well. One of the aspects that are considered as the essential and important one to be learned and mastered well in learning English is vocabulary. Vocabulary is the central of language teaching and learning. It plays an important and significant role in the four language skills. Basically, learning language is a matter of learning vocabulary of that language. It is impossible for the learners to perform their English well if their vocabularies are very poor. Research has shown that vocabulary knowledge plays a critical role in students literacy development (Scott, Jamieson-Noel, & Asselin (2003) cited in Binta (2010). It is supported by Flower (1995) cited in Oktarina (2007), who said that vocabulary is much more important than grammar, because English has the largest vocabulary in the world. Thus, it can be concluded that learning vocabulary is important as the basic need to encounter a new language. Vocabulary is taught in many different ways. But in our country, many ways of teaching vocabulary still lack and have several problems. One of the problems is in remembering words. Generally in teaching vocabulary, teachers

still uses the conventional method in teaching the materials. Teacher just explains the materials and then gives exercises in written from. There are no variations or other teaching media or technique used by the teacher. When students are finding new and difficult words they have to open thick dictionary to look for the meaning. This type of learning has a tendency to make learners bored, tired, burdened and frustrated when they have to recall or to memorize a list of new words at once. It may take a long time for students to understand the materials and get improvement in vocabulary. Furthermore, it can influence students motivation in learning vocabulary especially, and learning English generally. Based on that condition, nowadays, the teachers are demanded to be able to deliver a certain method or technique which is impressive and effective for learners in teaching vocabulary so that the students are able to remember and understand every word which is learned effectively and they are able to know the correct or appropriate situation to use that words. Considering to the problem above, the researcher are interested to study the phenomena in learning vocabulary method, especially the correlation between the phenomena in learning vocabulary and students motivation toward the methods. One of the phenomena in learning vocabulary method, which is interested to be studied more, is learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle. Crossword puzzle is considered as one of the most famous games that have been beneficially used in language teaching learning process in the rest of twentieth century. It is strengthened by Dale (2000) cited in Austin (2009), who said that the crossword puzzle is still the most popular

word game. It lies in the ease with which it can be constructed. The words are run together horizontally and vertically. According to Jones (2007) crossword solving involves several useful skills including vocabulary, reasoning, spelling and word attack skills. It is a kind of games that will make the teachinglearning process more attractive than before. Furthermore, it gives much opportunity for the students to practice and repeat the sentence pattern and vocabulary. 1.2 Limitation of the Problem Based on the background of the study above; the researcher tries to limit the problem on the students motivation in learning vocabulary, the students responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle, and the effect of using crossword puzzle toward students motivation in learning vocabulary. 1.3 Formulation of the Problem Based on the limitation of the problem above, the formulation of the problem are: 1. How is students motivation in learning vocabulary? 2. What are the students responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle? 3. What are the effects of using crossword puzzle toward students motivation in learning vocabulary? 1.4 Objective of the Research The purpose of this research will be to find out and describe the students motivation in learning vocabulary, and then to measure and describe the

students responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle. Furthermore, it is aimed to identify and describe the effect of using crossword puzzle toward students motivation in learning vocabulary. 1.5 Benefits of The Research Benefits of this research will be useful for: 1. The Researcher The Researcher can know more about the usage of crossword puzzle in vocabulary learning process. Furthermore, the researcher can find out the implication of crossword puzzle toward students motivation and response in learning vocabulary. 2. The Students Through this research, the students are expected to be able to get evaluation in learning vocabulary, especially through crossword puzzle. Furthermore, the students can be motivated to develop their vocabulary mastery in English, through varied methods, besides crossword puzzle. 3. The Teacher Through this research, the teacher is expected to be able to take some information as a feedback and reference in teaching vocabulary, especially by using crossword puzzle. Furthermore, it can be motivated the teacher to prepare good and various methods and techniques more in teaching vocabulary.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

This chapter will discuss some theories underpinning the study. The theories will be classified into two categories, the first category will discuss about vocabulary theories, and the second one deals with crossword theories. Related to the vocabulary theories, there will be presented some theories in vocabulary related to the research, such as: the concept of vocabulary, aspects of vocabulary, techniques in teaching vocabulary, factors in teaching and learning vocabulary, and approaches in good teaching vocabulary. Furthermore, in crossword theories will be presented some theories related to crossword in terms of this research, such as: the concept of crossword, approaches in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle, and the advantageous of teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle. 2.1 Vocabulary 2.1.1 The Concept of Vocabulary Vocabulary acquisition is a crucial, and in some senses, the central component in successful foreign language acquisition ((Beglar & Hunt (2005) cited in Lieb (2007)). According to Lado (1961) cited in Oktarina (2007), vocabulary is one of the most important aspects of foreign language. On the other opinion, the first that the learner should be learned and mastered about language is vocabulary. It can be assumed that vocabulary is one of the most important aspects of a language, moreover a foreign language such as: English. It is the central and basic

aspect of language that should be mastered, if we want to master a language, especially foreign language. In language teaching and learning, vocabulary has crucial and important role to be taught and learned well. It will be hard for someone to learn more about a language, if he cannot master the vocabulary of the language well. That statement is strengthened by Kevin (2000) cited in Oktarina (2007) who says that vocabulary is central to language and the crucial aspect to master a language. According to Nunan (1936) cited in Oktarina (2007), it would be impossible to learn without vocabulary. It means that it is impossible for the learners to perform their English well if their vocabularies are very poor. Without mastering the vocabulary, the learners will be difficult to master the other language skills. They will find any difficulties in expressing or mastering their language skills because of having too limited vocabularies. According to Flower (1995) cited in Oktarina (2007), vocabulary is much more important than grammar, because English has the largest vocabulary in the world. It is strengthened by Thornbury (2002) cited in Oktarina (2007) that without grammar very little can be conveyed and without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Therefore vocabulary mastery must be on the priority in teaching and learning new language, especially English. 2.1.2 Aspects of Vocabulary Learning vocabulary is a complex process. The students aim to be reached in learning vocabulary process is primarily their ability to recall

the word at will and to recognize it in its spoken and written form. Generally, knowing a word involves knowing its form and its meaning at the basic level. According to Carter and McCarthy (1988) cited in Okatarina (2007), there are some vocabulary items which are needed to be taught and learned in language teaching, that are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Pronunciation and spelling Grammar Collocation Aspects of meaning Word formation

Furthermore Harmer (1993) cited in Shejbalov (2006), clarifies the aspects of vocabulary into 4 items: (1) Meaning, i.e. relate the word to an appropriate object or context, (2) Usage, i.e. knowledge of its collocations, metaphors and idioms, as well as style and register (the appropriate level of formality), to be aware of any connotations and associations the word might have, (3) Word formation, i.e. ability to spell and pronounce the word correctly, to know any derivations (acceptable prefixes and suffixes), and (4) Grammar, i.e. to use it in the appropriate grammatical form. 2.1.3 Techniques Used for Teaching Vocabulary There are so many techniques that can be used for teaching vocabulary. According to Nation (1974) cited in certain website (2010), basically, teaching English vocabulary is based on the technique of

teaching form and teaching meaning of vocabulary itself. It can be concluded like the table below: Teaching the form of a word Teaching the meaning of a word By showing the written By showing an object form of the word or a cutout figure By showing the By gestures movements involved in By performing an saying the word action By showing hand Visually Demonstration movement s that draw the letters of the word in the air By showing wooden or plastic letters that spell the word By using letters made of By using photographs, wood, cardboard, blackboard drawings, sandpaper, and so on, so illustration cut from the learners can feel the magazines or shapes of the letters that newspapers make up the word Tactilely Pictures By using the system of writing like Braille (the writing for the blind) By writing the word, letter by letter, on the learners hand By saying the word By description By producing the word in By giving synonyms or morse code or some other opposites Aurally Explanation aural code By putting the word into a defining context By translating That theory is strengthened by Oxford and Crokall (1889) cited in Oktarina (2007) in different explanation and categories. They classified common techniques in teaching vocabulary into four categories: (1) decontextualizing: wordlists, flash cards, and dictionary use; (2) semi contextualizing: word grouping, association, visual, imagery, aural imaginary, aural imaginary, keyword, physical response, physical

sensation, and semantic mapping; (3) fully contextualizing: reading, listening, speaking, writing; (4) adaptable: reviewing. On the other hand, Pettigrew (1995) try to gives some techniques in teaching vocabulary that more concern to fun & games. 1) Act out/pantomime (Charades)

Give students cards with instruction. Have them perform the actions without speaking. The other students try to guess the word or expression that the student is pantomiming. 2) Crossword Puzzles

The clues can be synonyms, antonyms, complete the sentences. Helps focus on spelling as well as meaning. 3) Categories Game

Divide the class into teams. One person from a team sits in front of the class. The rest of the team members are given a card with a category, For example: Things that are red. The team members take turns giving examples of the category until the person in the hot seat guesses it or all the team members have given a clue. If the person in front cannot guess, the other team can confer and try to guess. The clues must be examples, not definitions. 4) Password

Divide the class into two teams. One person from each team sits in a chair in front of the class. Those two people receive a card with a vocabulary word. The first person gives a one-word clue to his/her team. If no one from the team can guess, the second person gives a

clue to his/her team. This alternates back and forth until someone from one of the teams guesses the word, or until a specified number of clues have been given. 5) Drawing pictures

This works well if you have an empty classroom nearby. Divide the class into two groups. Give each one a list of vocabulary words (idiomatic expressions also work well for this). The students draw picturesbut no wordson the board so that the students in the other group can guess the words or expressions theyre trying to represent. This is a fun way to review some vocabulary and break up the class routine. Based on some theories above about techniques in teaching vocabulary, it can be concluded that techniques in teaching vocabulary is not strict and constant. It is something that flexible and relative to be used. Based on the situation and condition that is faced. Basically, all of the techniques above are same and strengthening each other; the difference is only in the category, the way, and the emphasis that each specialists state. All of those techniques depend on how the condition of teaching-learning itself and also the object of the teaching-learning process, that is the students. 2.1.4 Factors Affecting in Learning Vocabulary

2.1.5 Approaches in Good Teaching Vocabulary

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Nation (2001) cited in Mardika (2008) mentions three procedure in teaching vocabulary, that is: recycled words, the second-hand cloze, and the vocabulary interview. In recycled words, procedure in teaching vocabulary move from receptive use to productive use, which is focused to intentioned learning. In the second-hand cloze, the procedure in teaching vocabulary covers three paces that are: students read text contained target vocabulary, students learn vocabulary intentionally, and students are given cloze passages that is a summary of what are they actually read. In vocabulary interview, students are given opportunity to do interview, asking n answered to the teacher or to other students about certain vocabulary. One of the purposes of that procedure is to make students notice about aspects of understanding a word. Meanwhile, According to Lado (1979) cited in Mardika (2008), there are several steps that can be applied in teaching and learning vocabulary that are: (1) listening to word, (2) saying the word, (3) understanding the meaning, (4) making an illustration in sentence form, (5) doing exercise in expressing the meaning, (6) saying the certain word loudly, and (7) writing those certain words. Furthermore, Marzano (2005) cited in Jackson (2010), explains about approach in teaching vocabulary more explicit by using instructional steps process format. Step 1: DESCRIBE Provide students with a description,

explanation or example (not a dictionary definition) using common

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language. Try to determine prior knowledge by using imagery, and invite them to answer about what they think they know about this term. Step 2: RESTATE Students restate the description in their own words. Results are not as strong if they copy the teachers or a classmates description. It can be done by Discuss with a partner, and ask students to record it on a form that teacher provides. Step 3: PICTURE Students represent the term nonlinguistically. This is a critical step in learning new vocabulary. It can be in graphic representation illustrating process form, or by asking students to draw the thing or symbol. It can be done by doing Dramatization of the term, and ask students to record the picture on the form teacher provides. Step 4: ACTIVITIES Engage students periodically in activities that add to their knowledge of the terms. It can be done by asking students to identify synonyms or antonyms, list related words, write reminders of common confusions, draw an additional graphic, write metaphors and analogies, compare terms, classify terms, or discuss similarities and differences of two terms. And the last, ask students to record this on paper and put in their vocabulary folder. Step 5: DISCUSS Ask students to discuss terms with each other (or whole group). In discussion they can think-pair-share about targeted terms. They can also add any pertinent info to the vocabulary folder. In the discussion they also can discuss terms that come up while reading in class. Step 6: GAMES Play games with your terms.

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Crossword puzzles Concentration, etc. Based on theories above, it can be concluded that in doing good teaching vocabulary, the main point that must be noticed is making the procedure as enjoy as possible for learners to learn, and follow the material intentionally. It means the procedure must be able to bring the students aware with the teaching-learning process, and involve in it. Make the learners/students feel comfort with the material and finally has desire from their heart to learn and master the material by themselves. 2.2 Crossword Puzzle 2.2.1 The Concept of Crossword Puzzle Based on certain information taken from wikipedia.org, crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square or rectangular grid of white and shaded squares. The goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues which lead to the answers. In languages which are written left-to-right, the answer words and phrases are placed in the grid from left to right and from top to bottom. The shaded squares are used to separate the words or phrases. It is strengthened by Augarde (1984) opinion that is cited in Mollica (2007), crossword puzzles usually consist of checkered diagrams (normally rectangular) in which the solver has to write words guessed from clues. The words are separated by black squares or by thick bars between squares.

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Squares in which answers begin are usually numbered. The clues are then referred to by these numbers and a direction, for example, "4Across" or "20-Down". At the end of the clue the total number of letters is sometimes given, depending on the style of puzzle and country of publication. The types of crossword grid are also depending on the style of puzzle and country of publication. Some crosswords will also indicate the number of words in a given answer, should there be more than one. Puzzles are often one of several standard sizes. For example, many weekday puzzles (such as the New York Times crossword) are 1515 squares, while weekend puzzles may be 2121, 2323, or 2525. The horizontal and vertical lines of white cells into which answers are written are commonly called entries or answers. The clues are usually called just that, or sometimes definitions. White cells are sometimes called lights, and the shaded cells are sometimes called darks, blanks, blocks, or just simply black squares or shaded squares. Furthermore, a white cell that is part of two entries (both across and down) is called checked, keyed or crossed. A white cell that is part of only one entry is called unchecked, unkeyed or uncrossed. According to Augarde (1984) cited in Mollica (2007), crosswords are now usually designed so that they look the same when they are turned upside down. But many early crosswords lacked this kind of pattern or were designed symmetrically, so that the left side as the mirror-image of the right side. 2.2.2 Approaches in Teaching Vocabulary through Crossword Puzzle

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Wharton (1995) gives approach in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle into two kinds of steps, warm-up activity and main task activity. Warm-up Activity: Prior to giving the students a crossword puzzle, it is a good idea to run through some of the language typically used in circumlocution. For example, as a warm-up to the main task, the teacher could model an answer by defining an object or an action and then urge the class to ask him/her more questions to narrow down the range of possibilities. The students could practice further in pairs until the teacher feels comfortable that they are adept in using these expressions. Once this stage is reached, the students are ready for the puzzle itself. Main Task: The teacher can divide the students in pair. And then gives each pair of students two kinds of different puzzle, one with part A containing half the solutions, and the other with part B containing the rest. The answers for the crossword puzzles are words that were familiar to the students in a particular class; i.e., they had seen and/or heard them in previous lessons. It is advisable to write the instructions for the activity on each handout since students may forget or not understand the teacher's oral instructions. In addition, before handing out the puzzle, explain to the students that the goal is to complete it in pairs without looking at their partner's copy. Stress the importance of giving one's partner feedback on the initial definition by asking more questions to allow the students to narrow the possibilities and negotiate meaning.

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In case the students are unfamiliar with or have simply forgotten some of the words, give each pair a dictionary, written for EFL/ESL learners. But, make sure they use it sparingly, since some may simply decide to read out the dictionary definition verbatim rather than put it in their own words. While students are working in pairs on the main task, the teacher can circulate, acting as a facilitator when needed, noting down recurrent language problems that can be cleared up later on the board or OHP as a follow-up activity with the whole class. Meanwhile, Austin (2009) gives other perception about steps in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle. Austin states that this game can be done in individual, in pair, or in groups. The teacher gives a copy of the crossword puzzle and explains the rules, such as students have to complete it as quickly as possible. For the individual game, the student who can complete it first is the winner and gets the good point from the teacher. In pair work or group, the winner is the pair or group who can complete it first. All of the winners will have prizes from the teacher. Based on two opinions above, it can be concluded that there are two kinds of steps or approach by using crossword puzzle that can be used in different context of teaching vocabulary. According to Whartons approach, procedure in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle is more formal. It means that, it can be used when teaching-learning process is aimed to give more understanding about vocabulary.

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Crossword puzzle in Wharton approach tends to an exercise to give more understanding about vocabulary. On the other hand, in Austin approach, procedure in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle is more informal. It means that, it can be used when the teacher wants an edutainment process in the teaching-learning process. The crossword puzzle in Austin approach tends to a game to give fresh condition in teaching-learning process of language, without take off the educative component in it. 2.2.3 The Advantageous of Teaching Vocabulary through Crossword Puzzle The crossword puzzle is a kind of games that will makes the teaching-learning process more attractive than before. The students will feel fun, relaxed and enjoyable, and they will memorize the vocabulary in different way, that is by rewriting them. It is strengthened by Jones (2007) who states that crossword puzzles are generally associated with game playing, fun, and recreation, and therefore can be less intimidating for students as a learning tool. According to Jones (2007), puzzle solving involves an active style of learning, and will engage students with the material more than passive techniques. That statement is supported by Goh and Hooper (2007) cited in Whisenand and Dunphy (2010) who concluded that the use of a crossword puzzle game "provided a unique sense of motivation" and challenged the students "because it required both lateral and longitudinal thinking to solve the puzzle". It can be concluded that, the crossword

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puzzle offers a challenge that will motivate the students to try to fulfill the puzzle. Moreover, it gives much opportunity for the students to practice and repeat the sentence pattern and vocabulary. According to Brown (2010), the education value of crossword puzzles reaches into many skill areas. Some of the main areas in which solving and / or creating crossword puzzles can benefit educational efforts include: (1) Vocabulary building, (2) Spelling skills, (3) Reading skills, (4) Word comprehension skills, (5) Dictionary skills, (6) Reasoning skills, and (7) Memorizing skill It is added by Jones (2007) that crossword puzzle can improve some skill such as: making inferences, evaluating choices, and drawing conclusions. Additionally, crossword puzzles can provide great value to English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers. The clues and answers can be an engaging way for students learn Englisha comparatively complicated languagethrough the identification of different combinations of consonants and vowels to determine proper pronunciation, classification of different parts of speech, and the investigation of more complex concepts like homonyms, synonyms and antonyms in reading carefully worded clues. According to Jones (2007), crossword puzzles have the benefit of being customizable to study content. Puzzle creation software and

websites are abundant, and easy to use, so teachers can create curriculum-specific crosswords with little trouble. Besides that, Jones

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also adds that crossword puzzles can also appeal to various student learning styles. So, it can be concluded that, the main advantage point from teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle is edutainment aspect in teaching language. By using crossword puzzle, students are not only able to learn vocabulary, but also they can get useful entertainment in learning vocabulary. It means that the students can learn while having fun. On the other hand, by using crossword puzzles teachers have great teaching tools to teach vocabulary effectively

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter will present the detailed image of the methodology of this research. It deals with research problems, research method includes data collection technique and instruments, subject of the research, data analysis, and time schedule. 3.1 Research Problems The focus of this research will concern on the students motivation on 2nd grade of high school students in learning vocabulary and how students responses toward learning vocabulary through crosswords puzzle are. Furthermore, it will also focus on the effect of using crossword puzzle toward students motivation in learning vocabulary. Those lead to the research problems: 1. How is students motivation in learning vocabulary? 2. What are the students responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle? 3. What are the effects of using crossword puzzle toward students motivation in learning vocabulary? 3.2 Research Method This research will deal with students motivation in learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle for eleventh grade high school students. Thus, the

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researcher will apply qualitative research, especially descriptive approach through phenomenology design as the research design. So, the data will be obtained from two sources they are: observation, questionnaire and interview, related to the research question. 3.2.1 Data Collection Technique Collection data needs to answer the formulation of the problem, narrowly the research questions. The techniques that will be used in collecting the data are observation to answer about students motivation in learning vocabulary and find out the students responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle, and then questionnaire to reveal the effects of using crossword in learning vocabulary toward students motivation. Table 1 Data collection technique
No Research Question How to get data How to analyze data Time allocation Conducted at the beginning and during the teaching learning process Conducted during the teaching learning process

Students motivation in learning vocabulary Observation Descriptive analysis

Students responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle

The effects of crossword puzzle toward students motivation in learning vocabulary

Questionnaire

Conducted after the teaching learning process

3.2.2 Instruments

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In this research, the researcher will use observation and questionnaire as the instrument. The observation will be conducted several times from April to May 2012. The observation will be conducted to whole students in the classroom to find out the students motivation in learning vocabulary and students responses in learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle. In the observation, the researcher will come to the classroom and take a seat at the back row. And then, the researcher will pay attention to the process of teaching learning English, especially vocabulary. The researcher will not make any interaction at all to others, not to the teacher, not to the students. The researcher will just observe how students motivation in learning vocabulary is and how the students responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle are. The result of observation will be noted and presented in observation field note which has been provided before. Meanwhile, the questionnaire will be conducted after the process of teaching learning, especially after the last observation is conducted. It will be conducted to know and find out the effects of using crossword puzzle toward students motivation in learning vocabulary. The researcher will combine two types of questionnaire in one form. The questionnaire will be combination between closed-questionnaire type and open-questionnaire type. The questionnaire will be given to 20 students as the representative of the subject of the research. Furthermore, the questionnaire will be jotted down in Bahasa in order to be easily understood by the students. There will be ten questions, which are

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divided into two categories. The first category will deal with material in learning vocabulary, and the second category will deal with vocabulary learning through crossword puzzle. Because the questionnaire is combination between open- and closed-questionnaire, so that the answer will be Yes / No and essay for the students. 3.3 Subject of the Research In this research, the subject of the research will be the second grade students of SMA Negeri 4 Tangerang. There are nine classes consists of four science classes and five social classes. Each class consists of 40 students. The subject will be limited to one class only that is eleventh science one. So the research will be conducted to the students in eleventh science one. 3.4 Data Analysis There will be qualitative data in this research which will be gathered from observation and questionnaire. The analysis of the observation result will be presented in descriptive analysis. The whole raw observation data in descriptive notes about the phenomena of students motivation and students responses in learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle will be organized and sorted through three phases; data reduction, data display and conclusion / verification. In data reduction, the collected data will be sorted by selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting and transforming. It needs to be reduced in order to make the data more readily accessible and understandable. Furthermore, the collected data will be organized to be presented in descriptive analysis in data display. After getting sorted, the collected data which will have been displayed in descriptive analysis will be interpreted to

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draw the conclusion. Furthermore, the data from questionnaire will be presented in descriptive analysis too. The raw observation data will be the response of the students toward the effect of learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle personally. The collected data will be sorted and categorized depends on the questions in questionnaire. Furthermore, it will be displayed and analyzed descriptively per category related to the questions in questionnaire. And then, the collected data which will have been displayed in descriptive analysis will be interpreted and verified to draw the conclusion. 3.5 Time Schedule Table 1.1 Time Schedule
No 1 Activity Observation May Week 1 Observation 2 Questionnaire Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 April Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4

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