JAPAN

Population Census Japan collects census information every five years. The exercise is conducted by the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. October 1, 2010 is Population Census Day Urban distribution

Japan is an urban society with about only 5% of the labor force engaged in agriculture. Many farmers supplement their income with part-time jobs in nearby towns and cities. About 80 million of the urban population is heavily concentrated on the Pacific shore of Honsh . Metropolitan Tokyo-Yokohama, with 35,000,000 people, is the world's most populous city. Japan faces the same problems that confront urban industrialized societies throughout the world: over-crowded cities and congested highways. Birth rate In February 2007, demographers and the Japanese government announced the first significant rise in the national birth rate in 40 years took place in 2006. The nation had 1.2 million births in 2000. Population density As of March 2009, Japan's population is 127,076,183, making it the world's tenth most populated country. Its size can be attributed to fast growth rates experienced during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After having experienced net population loss over a number of years due to falling birth rates and almost no net immigration, and despite having one of the highest life expectancies in the world at 81.25 years of age as of 2006, Japan's population rose for a second year in a row in 2009, mainly because more Japanese returned to Japan than left. Migration Internal migration Between 6 million and 7 million people moved their residences each year during the 1980s. About 50% of these moves were within the same prefecture; the others were relocations from one prefecture to another. During Japan's economic development in the twentieth century, and especially during the 1950s and 1960s, migration was characterized by urbanization as people from rural areas in increasing numbers moved to the larger metropolitan areas in search of better jobs and education. Out-migration from rural prefectures continued in the late 1980s, but more slowly than in previous decades.

In the 1980s. . British.000 for the year. Chiba. and Kanagawa around Tokyo. and Shiga near Osaka and Kyoto. and. Indonesians. Indians and others. particularly Tokyo. in general. Brazilians 250.9% up in five years. approximately 75. Chinese 0. had become a major public issue both in Japan and in Japanese communities abroad. Filipinos 0. In 1988 more than 500. Regional cities offered familiarity to those from nearby areas. However. Iranians. the prefectures showing the highest net growth are located near the major urban centers. and assisted regional cities to attract young people to live and work there. government policy provided support for new urban development away from the large cities. or business assignments. As the government and private corporations have stressed internationalization. Despite the benefits of experiencing life abroad. This pattern suggests a process of suburbanization. shorter commutes. to attend universities and find work. research. Demographic statistics Foreign citizens More than 2.100 Japanese were living abroad. which experienced a net loss through migration of nearly 73. particularly the bullying of returnee children in schools. Ibaraki.5 million (possibly higher because of the illegal immigrants). Russians. rather than a true decentralization. 14. a more relaxed lifestyle than could be had in larger cities. More than 200. Africans. Other nationalities (examples): Americans.000 Japanese went abroad in 1990 for extended periods of study. Canadians. Emigration About 663. lower costs of living. these problems. Thais. decreasing Japan's historical insularity.000 people left Tokyo.000. Nara.000 of whom had permanent foreign residency. and Hyogo. North and South Koreans 1 million.5 million. Turks.000 in the same year. but some returned to regional cities (a pattern known as U-turn) or to their prefecture of origin (a pattern referred to as J-turn). individuals who have lived outside of Japan for extended periods often faced problems of discrimination upon their return because others might no longer consider them fully Japanese By the late 1980s. people moving away from the cities for affordable housing but still commuting there for work and recreation. Government statistics show that in the 1980s significant numbers of people left the largest central cities (Tokyo and Osaka) to move to suburbs within their metropolitan areas. Osaka had a net loss of nearly 36. however. more than six times the number who had that status in 1975.6 million. Young people continued to move to large cities. More people in Japan like to live near coastal areas because they are easier to travel around in than the mountainous interior. such as Saitama. greater numbers of individuals have been directly affected.000 and Peruvians 200. Australians.

002 127. limitedaccess toll roads connects major cities and are operated by toll-collecting enterprises. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities.) í0. Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets. but rather incorporate various elements in a syncretic fashion.Population Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 Population (July est.433. Most Japanese people generally do not exclusively identify themselves as adherents of only one religion.494 127. A single network of speed. There are 176 airports and flying is a popular way to travel between cities. Tokyo International Airport. strategies of these enterprises contain real estate or department stores next to stations. Car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energyefficiency.19% N/A Religion Shint and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions.628 Growth rate (est. All trains are known for punctuality.07% +0.611 127.04% +0. The 1.974. Economy of Japan Infrastructure As of 2005.02% +0.2 million kilometers of paved road are the main means of transportation. They have co-existed for several centuries.09% +0. one half of energy in Japan is produced from petroleum.679 127.244 127.417.416 127.) 126. and Keio Corporation.804. The largest domestic airport.214.17% í0. The largest international gateways . Often. There are small Christian and Muslim minorities.22% í0. Japan has left-hand traffic. 7 JR enterprises.463. New and used cars are inexpensive. Kintetsu Corporation. Seibu Railway.078.333.11% í0. and 14% from natural gas. Japan's road spending has been large.499 126. for instance. Nuclear power in Japan makes a quarter of electricity production and Japan would like to double it in the next decades.288. divided. is Asia's busiest airport.433 127. a fifth from coal.

the US Dollar is exchanged at Services .85 85.04 89. A recent success towards greater fuel economy was the introduction of mass-produced Hybrid vehicles.100 2005 502.905. Many taxi companies run their fleets on liquefied gas with tanks in the car trunks.271. Demand for oil is also dampened by higher government taxes on automobile engines over 2000 cc.700 1965 32.82 236.500 1960 16. Since the oil shocks of the 1970s. who was working on Japan's economic revival. Japan has aimed to diversify its sources. Gross Year Product 1955 8.73 110.56 59.00 360. Macro-economic trend This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Japan at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Japanese Yen.369. Japan has reduced dependence on petroleum as a source of energy from more than 75% in 1973 to about 57% at present.009. currently 54 yen per liter sold retail.55 105.22 24. especially farther north. Inflation Domestic US Dollar Index Exchange (2000=100) 360. signed a treaty with Saudi Arabia and UAE about the rising prices of oil.541. Given its heavy dependence on imported energy.700 2000 501.327.26 225. liquefied natural gas.8 68. nuclear power.00 360.15 122. The largest ports include Nagoya Port. Kerosene is also used extensively for home heating in portable heaters.866.31 16.73 71. Kansai International Airport (Osaka/Kobe/Kyoto area).100 1980 240. and Ch bu Centrair International Airport (Nagoya area).03 71.78 107. as well as on gasoline itself.900 1995 493.79 144.44 105.87 71. Other important energy sources are coal.82 151.707.124.344.30 72.00 74.49 110.315 1985 323.900 1975 148.400 2010 477.27 80.95 38.327. and hydropower.54 75 86 92 98 100 97 98 PPP Capita Nominal Per GDP Capita GDP (as % of (as % of USA) USA) 10. Former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.are Narita International Airport (Tokyo area).00 360.134 For purchasing power parity comparisons.04 63.01 88.068.784 in 2010.000 1970 73.300 1990 440.00 297.78 81.

Mie. Japan is home to 326 companies from the Forbes Global 2000 or 16. that have developed as mill towns. optical fibers. Kanagawa.[23] Although Japan is usually self-sufficient in rice (except for its use in making rice crackers and processed foods) and wheat. NTT. Imported rice. in the following order of importance: the Kant region surrounding Tokyo. optical media. Japan's small agricultural sector. The six major keiretsus are the Mitsubishi. This tariff is now estimated at 490%. Sumitomo. and fermentation processes in food and biochemistry. Kobe. is also highly subsidized and protected. with an overall agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50% on fewer than 56. Tokio Marine. but the rate will soar to a massive 778% under new calculation rules to be introduced as part of the Doha Round. Industry Japanese manufacturing is very diversified. JR East. In addition. facsimile and copy machines.2% of average rice consumption from 1968 to 1988. The Koizumi government set Japan Post.000 km² (14 million acres) cultivated. insurance. the southwestern part of Honsh and northern Shikoku around the Seto Inland Sea (the Setouchi industrial region). (the Hanshin industrial region). semiconductor manufacturing. Due to this lack of arable land. This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area. established by particular industries. Dai-Ichi Kangyo and Sanwa Groups. and the northern part of Ky sh (Kitaky sh ). transportation. including Aichi. the T kai region.Japan's service sector accounts for about three-quarters of its total economic output. but subject to a 341 yen per kilogram tariff. Saitama and Tokyo (the Keihin industrial region). Imports beyond the quota are unrestricted in legal terms. a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas. retailing. Kyoto. including Osaka. real estate. is subject to tariffs of 490% and was restricted to a quota of only 7. with government regulations that favor small-scale cultivation instead of large-scale agriculture as practiced in North America. the most protected crop. one of the country's largest providers of savings and insurance services for privatization by 2014. especially the prefectures of Chiba. with a variety of advanced industries that are highly successful. Mitsui Sumitomo. however. Agriculture Only 12% of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation. the country must import about 50% [24] of its requirements of other . Fuyo. and Japan Airlines counting as one of the largest companies in the world. and telecommunications are all major industries such as Mitsubishi UFJ. Gifu. Banking. automobile manufacturing. TEPCO. and Shizuoka prefectures (the Chukyo-Tokai industrial region). Kinki (Kansai). Seven & I. The fields in which Japan enjoys high technological development include consumer electronics. Mizuho. a long narrow belt of industrial centers is found between Tokyo and Fukuoka. Industry is concentrated in several regions. Mitsubishi Estate. Nomura.3% (as of 2006). optoelectronics. Mitsui.

4% This seemingly modest rate however understates the situation. Average wages also went down by 2. from almost 1 at the start of 2008. Other economic indicators Net international investment position: 266. According to The Economist.9% female (up 0. it stood at 4. in Nagasaki in the late 18th century. had already started. One major long-term concern for the Japanese labor force is a low birthrate. In 2008. primarily from the United States. dairy products. In the first half of 2005. according to the OECD. the unemployment rate in Japan was 4. the ratio of job offers to number of applicants has declined to just 0. Apples are also grown.59.4% male (up 0. Pears and oranges were first introduced by Dutch traders. mostly in Tohoku and Hokkaid . Japan's labor force consisted of some 66 million workers 40% of whom were women and was rapidly shrinking. While one countermeasure for a declining birthrate would be to remove barriers to immigration.223 \ billion [45] (1st)[46] Industrial Production Growth Rate: 7.8% Highest 10%: 21. fruit. initially predicted to start in 2007. the number of deaths in Japan exceeded the number of births.5% (2010 est. sorghum. fish . poultry. This is regarded as an under-estimate. Even part-time workers with extremely low hours are classified as employed. At the end of February 2009. In July 2006.9% over the 12 months ending in February. Labor union membership is about 12 million.1%.3% of GDP (2010 est.grain and fodder crops and relies on imports for most of its supply of meat.1% from May 2009). while average work hours also declined. vegetables. SOHYO (General Council of Trade Unions of Japan). sugar beets. Labor force The claimed unemployment rate for June 2009 is 5. the predominantly public sector union confederation. In 1989. merged with RENGO (Japanese Private Sector Trade Union Confederation) to form the Japanese Trade Union Confederation. eggs. indicating that the decline in population. Japan imports large quantities of wheat.7% (1993) Agriculture ± Products: rice. the Japanese government has been reluctant to do so.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: y y Lowest 10%: 4.3% from May 2009)).2% (5. and soybeans. 4. pork. Pears and Oranges are mainly grown in Shikoku and in Ky sh .) Investment (gross fixed): 20. Japan is the largest market for EU agricultural exports.

Japan is a large. Long recognized as a global leader in design. Japan. however. hybrid automobiles. A number of market barriers remain in place. The 2008 global financial crisis badly affected international trade in Japan ± exports declined by 30.5 billion in 2008 to $516.3 billion in 2009. fuels. specialty steel. Like many of the other Asian countries that have experienced rapid economic growth in the past few decades. The country is a significant energy importer and the world¶s largest net importer of food. Home to 71 Fortune 500 corporations." Japan imports raw materials and pays for them by processing the raw materials. semiconductors. chemicals. digital electronics and nanotechnology. Commerce of Japan As one of the largest economies in the world. foodstuffs. exports have had a historical significance to the Japanese economy. chemicals Imports ± Commodities: machinery and equipment. Japan has been the top export market for 15 trading nations worldwide. it is a cutting-edge player in energy conservation and environmental technology. particularly in agriculture.Exports ± Commodities: machinery and equipment. Japan has manufacturing. applied technology and advanced manufacturing. applied technology and advanced manufacturing. In recent years. lucrative and trend-setting import market. is still a complex and protected market that demands great patience and persistence. most notably in agri-food and forestry products. A Global Commerce Strategy Priority Market As one of the largest economies in the world. thus adding value to them before exporting the output. The belief in the need to promote exports is part of Japan's self-image as a "processing nation. machinery and robotics.8 percent in 2009 from $746. Home to 71 Fortune 500 corporations. textiles. . lucrative and trend-setting import market. Japan has manufacturing. Japan is a large. exporting and trading companies that are at the heart of supply and value chains that reach across Asia and around the world. Japan is also considered one of the world¶s most innovative nations on the strength of its massive investment in scientific research and tremendous success in the commercialization of new discoveries. Today. The country is a significant energy importer and the world¶s largest net importer of food. Japan plays a competitive role in international trade. it is a cutting-edge player in energy conservation and environmental technology. exporting and trading companies that are at the heart of supply and value chains that reach across Asia and around the world. motor vehicles. raw materials (2001) Trade of Japan Japan is the 5th largest importer and exporter in the world. although it still maintains protectionist policies in numerous industries. Japan is also considered one of the world¶s most innovative nations on the strength of its massive investment in scientific research and tremendous success in the commercialization of new discoveries. Long recognized as a global leader in design.

Agriculture. A number of market barriers remain in place. mobile devices and applications). With foreign direct investment holdings of $13. Information and Communication Technology (ICT): The market offers opportunities in three sub-sectors: wireless (broadband. Environmental Industries: Highly advanced in this area. most notably in agri-food and forestry products.6 billion.000 Canadian firms export to Japan each year. some 550 Japanese affiliates were active in Canada. hybrid automobiles. repair. meat of swine. machinery and robotics. such as photovoltaic cells and batteries. however. Canadian direct investment in Japan stood at $3. energy-efficient building products). Food and Beverages: Japan is Canada¶s second largest export market for agri-food. cereals. digital media (gaming.digital electronics and nanotechnology.1 billion in 2009. Japan offers long-term value chain partnership possibilities in such areas as renewable and alternative energy (including nuclear power and clean. In 2009. comprising close to $8. and software (such as productivity enhancing business and IT security software). creating tens of thousands of Canadian jobs in the automotive. overhaul) sub-sectors. specialty steel. digital contents). More than 3. is still a complex and protected market that demands great patience and persistence.4 billion in imports. 3G/4G communication networks. and communications technologies. Commercial Relations y y y y Canada¶s merchandise trade with Japan was close to $20. Over 100 Canadian firms have established a direct presence in Japan. processed food and beverage. Market Opportunities The Government of Canada has identified Japan as a Global Commerce Strategy (GCS) priority market based on extensive consultation with government. Japan. aerospace. Japan offers strong potential as a strategic partner in aeronautics/space and other defence sub-sectors. energy and mining sectors. with significant exports of canola seeds.7 billion in 2009.3 billion in exports and nearly $12. Aerospace and Defence: As one of the top 3 international defense markets for Canadians. and in cross-cutting enabling technologies in manufacturing. and health ingredients/functional foods/nutraceuticals sub-sectors. Opportunities are also present in the confectionary. A continued shift in Japan from military to civilian aerospace commercial activity together with global developments associated with Japan's aircraft programs also present opportunities in the aviation and MRO (maintenance. bio-industries/health and information. and soybeans. Opportunities . particularly in terms of their use by the energy and environment sectors. Japan is Canada¶s eighth largest foreign investor. academic and Canadian business and industry representatives and has developed a comprehensive Market Plan that identifies the following sectors as offering clear market opportunities well suited to Canadian capabilities and interests in the region: y y y y y Advanced Materials: The market offers opportunities for advanced marterials.

trade policy. investment and innovation opportunities Japan offers. Canada-Japan Commercial Relations. With representatives in Tokyo. Nagoya. 2005-2009 ($ Millions) Government Leadership and Support The Government of Canada has agreed to further bilateral dialogue with Japan on regulatory cooperation. hydrogen fuel cell technology. Market Access Canada has a number of bilateral trade and investment policy instruments in place that are helping to facilitate and support Canadian commercial engagement in the country: 1986 y Science & Technology Cooperation Agreement 2005 y Japan-Canada Economic Framework 2007 y Japan-Canada Joint Study . and lithium ion battery manufacturing in the automotive sector. the Canadian Trade Commissioner Service is on the ground where it counts most in Japan to help Canadian companies tap into the rich market. the business environment (including investment) and domestic agricultural reform policy.also exist for smart grid technology. Canada is also pursuing a new round of bilateral air services negotiations. Kitakyushu and Sapporo.

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