This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
DEFINITIONS OF PLAY
PLAY is the work of children. It consists of children performed for selfamusement. It is child-directed and the rewards come from within the individual child. According to the theorists, researchers and educators across different disciplines and perspectives have documented that:
Play is the optimal vehicle for learning and development in the early childhood years. They also suggest that the absence of play is often an obstacle to the development of happy, healthy and creative individuals.
Play is an important part of the childhood development. Through play, children learn about shapes, colors, cause and effect. Besides cognitive thinking, play helps the child learn social and psychomotor skills. There are at least 5 essential elements that characterized play: Play is voluntary d intrinsically motivated.
Children freely choose the content and direction of their activity. Play is self-satisfying because it does not respond to external demands or expectations.
Play is symbolic, meaningful and transformational.
Play enables children to relate their past experiences to their present world. It empowers them to transform themselves into other’s roles.
Play is active.
- Children explore experiment, investigate and inquire with people, objects or events.
Play is rule-bound.
Children are governed by either explicit or implicit rules during play.
Play is pleasurable.
When children play, they pursue activity for the intrinsic pleasure it brings- not for an extrinsic reward.
When play is only for self-amusement, a game is structured playing which has goals, rules, challenge and interaction. Games involve mental or physical stimulation. Games help develop practical skills serve as a form of exercise. Total Development Susan Isaac’s is another historical figure who believed that play contributes to all aspects of children’s growth and development. Cognitive Development It is how children make sense of their world. They do this by building upon what they already know to interpret new experiences. Language Development Children use role appropriate statements, language used to maintain the play episode, plan a storyline and assign roles. It also helps them generate multiple ways of expressing their thinking. Literacy Development Children’s first attempts at reading and writing often occur during dramatic play. Their play can reveal literacy understanding such as: - Interest in stories, knowledge of story structure and story comprehension. - understand fantasy in books-world “as if” - use of symbols to represent their world Social and Emotional Development School success largely depends on children’s ability to interact positively with their peers and adults. Physical Development Play contributes to children’s fine and gross motor development and body awareness as they actively use their bodies. Creative Development Play and creativity are related because they both rely upon children’s ability to use symbols. The ability to engage in make believe is described as essential to children’s development for internal imagery, stimulating curiosity and experimenting with alternative responses to different situations. Socialization Practice both verbal and non verbal communication skills by negotiating roles, trying to gain access to ongoing play or appreciating the feelings of others.
Respond to their peer’s feelings while waiting their turn and sharing materials and experiences. Experiment with the roles of the people in their home, school and community by coming into contact with the needs and wishes of others. Experience other’s points of view by positively working through conflicts about space, materials or rules.
Approaches to Play
THEORETICAL APPROACHES Throughout the world children play, and this activity is such an important part of their lives that one is inclined to see it as the raison de’tre of childhood. A n d indeed, play is vital; it conditions the harmonious physical, intellectual and affective development of a child. A child w h o does not play is a sick child. A child w h o is prevented from playing will fall ill, physically and mentally. W a r and poverty, which compel an individual to concentrate solely o n survival and consequently m a k e it difficult or even impossible for him to indulge in play, ultimately have a crippling effect o n the h u m a n personality. Although the development of the child and children’s games and the overall need for play can be seen as a universal fact, play activities are none the less profoundly rooted in each individual people, whose cultural identity can be discerned through the games and toys it has invented. There is an infinite variety of play activities and Playthings, all bearing the stamp of their specific ethnic and social origin. Conditioned b y dwelling or subsistence patterns, curtailed or fostered by family, political and religious institutions, functioning as a veritable institution in their o w n right, children’s games and their history provide insights not only into societies as they are today, but into the past history of peoples as well. Each ethnic group’s cultural capital is m a d e u p largely of its play heritage, which is enhanced by the contributions of successive generations but is also sometimes in danger of being distorted or even of dying out. Play is furthermore one of the most important of all educational activities and deserves acknowledgement of its rightful place in formal schooling, beyond the nursery school to which it is too often confined. For play provides the teacher not only with a w a y of improving his k n o w - ledge of the child, but also with a means of renewing his teaching methods. But bringing play into the classroom raises a great m a n y problems, particularly in view of the fact that there have so far been relatively few studies o n play, and those in existence have not c o m e u p with any general theory offering a response to the various questions involved. PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES
because it is universally applicable. for babies child. for example. fictional or make-believe games. Children’s play can be seen as a dialectical balance between successive stages in identity-building and. w h o is carried around by his motherand fed o n demand is not systematically given a d u m m y . These games become all-important after the age of t w o or three. the child sees himself as an in dissociable whole and has not yet learnt to m a k e the distinction between his own body and the outside world. These two theories are based on the postulate of the universal nature of mankind which would explain that the stages of development always follow one another in the same order. on the one hand. minute he is an animal. and when the sucked object is not his finger. T h e African child. have used play as a gauge of the maturation process and mental and affective development. whence its fundamental role in the development of the ego’. It will be seen. at each stage. since Piaget’s genetic psychology‘. rocking movements are not really a game. that the socio-economic context in which a child lives can have a considerable influence o n the relative importance of these different stages. which makes its appearance in the lives of children in industrial societies m u c h earlier than elsewhere. since they m a y vary not only from one culture to mother ’but also from individual to individual within the same culture’. Sucking gives the child his first inkling of the possible fragmentation of his body. play is confined to rocking or swaying movements reproducing the sensations experienced in the mother’s w o m b . Primary school years While this accession to self-identity which passea through the discovery oE others does not efface the sensorimotor games of early childhoold. for they correspond to the normal and permanent state of the child. challenges to that identity. he is confronted with his first experience of what is in fact a pre-play object (initially through oral investigation only). the shopkeeper or the doctor. like the little girl who said she played at $king asleep or crying. it becomes the predominant feature 3n what authors term variously M t ative. however. At this stage. the next he is himself but in a make-believe situation. that the mother will present her child with a toy that represents and replaces her and can be manipulated by the baby.In studying the development of play activities from birth to adolescence. where babies are separated from their mothers at a very early age. and on the other. This is the role of the rattle. to child psychologists w h o . reference will be made. as is typical of the fust few months in the life of a European Figure 5: D u m m i e s exist in the Ivov Coast but are not very widely used. explaining play through the need to provide relief from drives and assigning it a primary role in the development of the ego. Again it is in industrial societies. In societies in which infants are carried around virtually all the time. Early childhood For a newborn baby and until the age of 3 months. to psychoanalytical theory. . At this age the child constantly plays at make-believe. this concept of order is important. whereas the ages at which the stages occur are unimportant.
is far from being a meaningless pastime. an implies leisure. or as purely infantile. the actual space. in an environment which. On the contrary. In this connection. to be sure. whichever way one looks at it. or at least those involving identification with an actual family model (mother or father) or a social model (hunter. anytime.Pre-adolescence During the following period. A s universal a g a m e as playing dolls. is prepared to provide a dynamic setting that we may call a play context. chief . or anyhow. ETHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES For the ethnologist. to be studied as such.. Dimensions and I. she is. one is aware time and again of close dependence on the environment. and yet in the eyes of the adult her g a m e is not . enjoyed b y little girls in nearly every society known to us. Erny write 4: ‘When a little African girls plays dolls. But fictional games. writes Roger Caillois in the preface of Les jauc et les hommes3. and it is surprising that it has not been studied in greater depth. Such a context is m a d e up of the following components: a. For play cannot occur just anywhere.. cowboys and Indians. Toureh. and d. schoolmistress. and in which any artificially induced changes affect the whole and can have a profoundly disrupting effect on it. pressure from outside. qualified by its. play is a complex structure. without being altogether committed. adaptability to change . the living and housing conditions. symbolic games. as yet non-formal and in a sense pre-cultural occupations. the environment and means of subsistence all have a direct bearing on play activities.S. film stars for girls. indulging in a specifically childlike occupation. writes Y. or invariably the same. continue to be extremely popular until the age of about twelve: pirates. resources and c. fulfilling the same psychological functions as in the rest of the world. SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES Societies and their games In retracing the basic stages in the psychological development of the child as manifested through his games. the child’s play is directly linked to the social context. spacemen. b. But in fact they form a substantial part of the activities of a section of the community and should on n o account be regarded as a random assortment of anecdotal elements. The hungry do not play’. T h e reason m a y be that games are seen either as religious practices. ‘Play is a luxury. The mother’s presence or premature absence. It comes about. the family structure.) tend to fade into the background.in which imagination plays a considerable part. etc. play behaviour is as valid a subject for investigation and theorization as family relationships or table manners. the ethnologist P. which cannot develop w h e n children live in conditions too unfavorable. the individual with his experiences. a coherent whole which must be studied in the same w a y as mythologies.
This is the attitude of certain teachers. Plato and Aristotle contradicted this statement by saying that play and seriousness should be distinguished and that among the two. the R o m a n rhetorician Quintilian expressed the wish that ‘learning be a game for the child’. seriousness is more important. interpret. as though it were a waste of time and energy w h e n there are more urgent and serious things to do. writes Y. the g a m e is watch. play activities and materials are the best w a y for a child to express himself and the best testimony by which the adult can attempt to understand him. SO as to turn the child into a miniature adult. There was an account in the History that Heraclitus said that the act of play was more virtuous than the act of governing. ‘For some adults are averse to children’s play and will even try to repress it.1704) believes that a child’s mind is a tabula rasa or a blank slate and children’s play with toys .sheer recreation. O n e might say that in these traditional societies there is no such thing as childish trivialities.Rae doll belongs to two worlds. St. w h o are in a hurry for the child to reach the age of reason as quickly as possible. John Locke (1632. but is recognized as having a meaning and an effective purpose of which the child is unaware to begin with but will discover little by little. and some parents w h o regard their child as an investment that must bring in returns as soon as it can walk.€ way: the one it is treated with the obliviousness that make a game a game and in the other. ‘this is true of parents living in poorer socioeconomic environments. Aristotle viewed play as mimesis or imitation. Nearly two thousand years ago. sometimes in the course of a proper initiation. they can serve as a basis for the teaching methods and techniques which the adult wishes to devise for the child with whose education he has been entrusted. History of Play Play is present even in the times of the Ancient Greeks.S. During the Early Christian Church (347-407). expected to engage in subsistence activities before he has even really learnt to play. Chrysostom stated that it is not God who gives us the right to play but the devil. He also believes that children’s play and drama were very similar. the adult’s and the child’s but in a very darken. talk and tell its left hand from the right’.’2 For it would seem only natural that play should have its place in the classroom. Toureh. A n d yet despite the innovative theories advanced by Claparkde and subsequently by Decroly and Freinet. Also. and on the other. the role of play is far from being recognized by education authorities everywhere. and speculated upon’. in which the age for play is cut short or done away with altogether. At the time of The Enlightenment. PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES ‘On the one hand. adding.
John Dewey (1859-1952) believes that play allows children to explore society and nature.. giving attention to its bearing upon human behavior and the question of the evolutionary significance of play behavior..contributes to the learning. Cultural and social anthropologists look at play as culturally molded behavior and examine similarities and differences in its forms throughout the world. who believes that adult play or imagination is what drives individuals to pursue knowledge. Pestalozzi believes that children should learn by doing. Karl Groos (1861-1946) stated that the purpose of play is to prepare or practice the children for their adult lives. politics. He is Immanuel Kant (1724. Although much variation exists in specific forms of play. economics. and play as related to a variety of other subjects including religion. Froebel was the inventor of kindergarten.. During the Scientific Era. Johan Pestalozzi (1746-1827) and Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) about play have emerged. rolelearning." David Attenborough. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) updates Schiller’s “surplus energy” theory. Enough Rope. 2008 Learning through play .. play and communicationcognition. G. Schiller was also the first to link play with creativity. and creativity. In the Romantic Period. Anthropological Aspects of Play Modern anthropologists now view play as universal and strikingly conspicuous human behavior that must be studied to reach the goal of understanding man and his culture. law. Physical anthropologists have concerned themselves with the play of nonhuman primates. Stanley Hall (1846-1924) developed the recapitulation theory which stated the purpose of play is to help individuals to overcome their uncivilized biological roots. building blocks and circle time.. Greatest attention is now being given to the functional and dysfunctional significance of play in human life and the relationship of play to other elements of culture. the ideas of Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805).. ABC TV June 16th. Schiller stated that seriousness and play can be reconciled (which is against Plato and Aristotle’s belief) and that play is the surplus energy that individuals use to explore creativity.it is not about pouring information into an empty vessel.1804). motivation toward achievement. Pedagogical Aspects of Play “Education is what the child does in order to discover. Major subjects of current study are play and social control. play and social-psychological problems. Another philosopher during this time emerged.. aggression. all human societies are seen to be fundamentally alike in their play behavior.
creating. In their play they enjoy imagining. and Understanding causal attribution. This includes seeking to know the child through working with families." PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PLAY Psychology of play . or like that). While others estimate and guess. some will rely on leaps of insight. since it is through the sensory pathways that the brain interprets and creates its knowledge structures. " "Children demonstrate a range of cognitive competencies and are constantly trying out comparisons by analogous reasoning (it seems like this. constructing. ‘Talking the problem through’ is often vital at this stage some children will be ‘synthesizers’. and building and make believe. logical reasoning. questioning and Sharing information with previous educators to ensure that planning for the child’s learning is tailored to individual and group interests and abilities."Children develop their self-concept through demonstrating competence. observing." "Learning experiences must allow children to use as many of their senses as possible. others build understanding slowly and in segments. hypothesizing and questioning. The ‘match’ of effective scaffolding to the thinking and learning of the child is of vital importance.
Therefore. For example. If the child were under three. Like all functions of consciousness." . so he picks up a stick and stands astride of it. At that critical moment when a stick – i.. Imagination is a new formation that is not present in the consciousness of the very raw young child.. thus pretending he is riding a horse. It is terribly difficult for a child to sever thought (the meaning of a word) from object. play was akin to imagination where a child extends him or herself to the next level of his or her normal behavior. a child wants to ride a horse but cannot. As well as social rules. Play is a transitional stage in this direction. A horse would behave as horse even though it was a stick.. but around the age of three the child's relationship with the world changes. Vygotsky saw play as a moment where social rules were put into practice. illusory realization of unrealizable desires. The rules of behavior between them that go unnoticed in daily life are consciously acquired through play. dolls and other toys diminishes. In essence. This is the Vygotsky ‘s research on play as a psychological phenomenon and its role in the child's development. he would perhaps cry and be angry." The child wishes to ride a horse but cannot. Vygotsky believed that play contained all developmental levels in a condensed form. Another aspect of play that Vygotsky referred to was the development of social rules that develop. is totally absent in animals. They have internalized these pivots as imagination and abstract concepts through which they can understand the world. He said "The old adage that 'children’s play is imagination in action' can be reversed: we can say that imagination in adolescents and schoolchildren is play without action”. one of the basic psychological structures determining the child’s relationship to reality is radically altered". Vygotsky cites an example of two sisters playing at being sisters. For example. it originally arises from action. thereby creating a zone of proximal development. when children play house and adopt the roles of different family members. and represents a specifically human form of conscious activity. which is a critical feature in the development of higher mental functions. "Henceforth play is such that the explanation for it must always be that it is the imaginary. when a child stands at the starting line of a running race. As children get older. not by objects.. an object – becomes a pivot for severing the meaning of horse from a real horse. for example. she may well desire to run immediately so as to reach the finish line first. As what Vygotsky said. Vygotsky believed "play is the source of development. "Action according to rules begins to be determined by ideas. the child acquires what we now refer to as self-regulation. but her knowledge of the social rules surrounding the game and her desire to enjoy the game enable her to regulate her initial impulse and wait for the start signal. The stick is a pivot. According to Vygotsky. to Vygotsky. their reliance on pivots such as sticks.Through play the child develops abstract meaning separate from the objects in the world.e.
Sometimes. perceptions of the adult's power. one can be sure that an hour or two afterward it will be recreated with dolls and will be brought to a happier solution. while playing. objects. through play. the portrayed adults begin to exhibit the behaviors things happen to the adults portrayed in their play. through play. confuse. If the child has been frightened by a dog. children begin to act out their fantasies about significant adults in their lives. through play. or upset them. For example. children gain power over the situations that frighten. such as swinging its feet or throwing its head back. terrible things happen to the adults portrayed in their play. parent. children are able to take charge of the events that frighten them behaviors children wish for. Therefore. or social worker and act out. in play. bodies. COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY Jean Piaget he proposes that children individually create their own knowledge about the world through their interactions. for the sheer enjoyment of doing it · Symbolic Play Child mentally represents realities that are not present Piaget on Symbolic Play “It is primarily affective conflicts that appear in symbolic play. and social behavior. and construct knowledge about people. or physical play or Functional play Child repeats a physical activity. At other times. children use play as a way to react to their world and to learn to deal with the difficult situations they encounter as they mature.THEORIES OF PLAY * PSYCHOANALYTICAL The psychoanalytical theory of play is based on the work of Freud and has been revised and extended over the years by others. Over time. test new ideas against their experiences. Piaget’s Four Types of Play · Sensory-motor. At other times. 1978). Freud(1958) viewed the role of play as an emotional release for children as they grew. children are able to take charge of the events that frighten them and are able to reduce feelings of anxiety and helplessness (Levy. Therefore. in a . for example. If there is a scene at lunch. a child might take the role of his teacher. the portrayed adults begin to exhibit the behaviors children wish for. Erikson(1963) believed that play helped children develop self-esteem and gain mastery of their thoughts. objects. Through play. and situations. According to this perspective. they practice using known information while consolidating new information and skills.
Because children focus on the process of play. he developed the description of the three levels and six stages of moral reasoning: LEVEL I. 1978) Bruner and Sutton-Smith Interpret play as flexible thinking and creative problem solving in action. a child behaves beyond his average. in play it is as though he were a head taller than himself” (Vygostky. 1962 · Games with Rules - Involve two or more players Rules may be completely arbitrary Board Games Card Games Sports Lev Vygotsky He emphasizes the centrality of the social context as primarily influencing cognitive development. STAGE 1: PUNISHMENT-OBEDIENCE ORIENTATION(toddler to 7) STAGE 2: INSTRUMENTAL RELATITIVIST ORIENTATION (preschool to school age) LEVEL 2: CONVENTIONAL MORALITY(9-20 years) . Vygotsky observes “In a play.symbolic game things will be arranged so that dogs will no longer be mean or children will become brave”. · Games of Construction Involve accidental learning emerging from symbolic play “Initially imbued with play symbolism but tend later to constitute genuine adaptations or solutions to problems and intelligent creations” Piaget.PRECONVENTIONAL MORALITY(0-9 years) young children do not really understand the conventions or rules of a society. above his daily behaviour. Thus in 1963. they engage in multiple combinations of ideas and solutions that they use to solve relevant life problems. MORAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY Lawrence Kohlberg he expanded on Piaget’s studies of moral development by making moral dilemmas that could be appropriate for older children.
Contexts for play as well as for any other interactions are extremely complex and are influenced by many variables. The microsystem is the family. at home. the potential of play to support the learning and development of any child determined by the context in which that child plays. in schools. By creating these systems. classroom. philosophy of the school or center. exosystem. and macrosystem. The mesosystem is two Microsystems interacting. culture of the community and political climate. cultural ecological frameworks of behavior and development stress the importance of 3 interacting layers of environmental influence on play. STAGE 3: GOOD BOY-NICE GIRL ORIENTATION STAGE 4: LAW AND ORDER ORIENTATION LEVEL 3: POSTCONVENTIONAL MORALITY(after age 20) the moral principles that underlie the conventions of a society are understand.g. Bronfenbrenner was the leader in introducing researchers into examining the family. in centers. and political structures as influencing the development of a child into adulthood and determine how the interactions between contexts and systems affect the growth and development of children.g. Ecology is the study of the interrelationships between humans and their environment. (1) physical and social aspects of children’s immediate setting. . They study different contexts in which children play (e.e. The macrosystem is the larger cultural context. culture of the family. mesosystem.Conform to the convention of society because they are rules of a society. The Perspective of this theoretical framework is that context or environment surrounding individual interactions and experiences determines the degree to which individuals can develop their abilities and realize their potential. economy. Ecological researchers focus on understanding what influences the way children play and how play influences the way children learn. STAGE 5: SOCIAL CONTRACT ORIENTATION STAGE 6: UNIVERSAL ETHICAL PRINCIPE ORIENTATION ECOLOGICAL Theory Let’s define first the term ecological/Ecology.) The ecological theory defines four types of systems which contain roles. The exosystem is an environment in which an individual is indirectly involved and is external to his experience. yet it affects him anyway i. (2) historical influences that affect the way adults (and children) conceptualize play for subgroups of children. The systems include a microsystem. and on public playgrounds) and the different systems that influence play (e.. such as the connection between a child’s home and school.. Therefore. a child’s parent’s workplace. norms and rules that shape development. or systems in the immediate environment in which a person is operating.
UNIT 11: DEVELOPMENTA L SEQUENCE OF PLAY ACTIVITIES In play. and their ability to communicate with peers and adults. This digest discusses children's play and its relationship to developmental growth from infancy to middle childhood. their knowledge of the physical world. children expand their understanding of themselves and others. The digest also .
infants and toddlers experiment with bodily sensation and motor movements. toddlers begin to represent their world symbolically as they transform and invent objects and roles. Some roles are functional: necessary for a certain theme. Children's responses regulate the adult's actions. objects bring forth more specific and differentiated actions. and a rattle makes noise. they apply the same limited actions to all objects and see how they react. an infant learns that a ball rolls away. The toddler puts a cup on a saucer and a spoon in her mouth. By 6 months of age. act with others. Roles are identities children assume in play. and retrieve it. When infants of 9 months are given an array of objects. Infants use action schemes. Pretend Play As children develop the ability to represent experience symbolically. but will shake rattles. simple schemes are coordinated to create more complex play sequences. In a toddler's second year. a bile spins. taking a trip requires passengers and a driver. They may stir an imaginary drink and offer it to someone (Bergen. In this complex type of play. and transform objects as they express their ideas and feelings about the social world (Garvey. Family roles such as mother. Older infants will push a ball. They may push a baby on a swing or cheer its first awkward steps. as are action plans for treating and healing and for averting threats. By pushing various objects.suggests ways in which educators and other adults can support children's play. and engage others in play. and are integrated into elaborate play with themes related to familiar home activities. Action plans are blueprints for the ways in which actions and events are related and sequenced. take on roles. Family-related themes in action plans are popular with young children. 1984). father and baby are popular. children will throw or kick a ball. 1988). Sensorimotor Play In what Piaget (1962) aptly described as sensorimotor practice play. there is growing awareness of the functions of objects in the social world. pretend play becomes a prominent activity. At about 12 months. Adults initiate and support such play. During the last half of this year. infants have developed simple but consistent action schemes through trial and error and much practice. a child's cries will guide the adult toward a gentler approach. children carry out action plans. In interactions with adults such as peekaboo. children learn to take turns. For example. and with objects and people. such as pushing and grasping. If the swing is pushed too high. As children master new motor abilities. At this age. to make interesting things happen. crawl after it. Children also assume stereotyped character roles . An infant will push a ball and make it roll in order to experience the sensation and pleasure of movement.
Game play is very organized in comparison to sociodramatic play. Adults may worry that such play will become aggressive. By the age of four or five. objects begin to influence the roles children assume. is popular in preschool years. choosing sides may affirm friendship and a pecking order. such as He-Man. They can learn reasoning strategies . Though meanings in play often reflect real world behavior. A kind of play with motion. 1981). Even three-year-olds can invent and transform objects to conform to plans. or signaled subtly in roleappropriate action or dialogue. While some pretend play is solitary or shared with adults. groups of children run. To implement and maintain pretend play episodes. Potential conflicts are negotiated. For example. baby"). household implements trigger family-related roles and action plans. and agreed-upon criteria for determining a winner. and learn to regulate each other's activity (Garvey. and fictional character roles drawn from books and television. but capes stimulate superhero play. Play procedures may be talked about explicitly. The main organizing element in game play consists of explicit rules which guide children's group behavior. Construction play with symbolic themes is also popular with preschoolers. competition. children's ideas about the social world initiate most pretend play. Games with rules are the most prominent form of play during middle childhood (Piaget. Children use games flexibly to meet social and intellectual needs. As sociodramatic play emerges. rough and tumble play. they also incorporate children's interpretations and wishes. The child in a role who orders a steak and piece of candy from a pretend menu is not directly copying anything he has seen before. Perceptually bound younger children may be aided by the provision of realistic objects (Fein. jump. such as nurse. and they should probably monitor it. Games With Rules Children become interested in formal games with peers by age five or younger. a great deal of shared meaning must be negotiated among children. 1962). Games usually involve two or more sides. Action patterns call for these behaviors to be performed at a high pitch. distinguish between real and feigned aggression. 1984). who use blocks and miniature cars and people to create model situations related to their experience. 1984). Players often make rule-like statements to guide behavior ("You have to finish your dinner. Play related to these roles tends to be more predictable and restricted than play related to direct experiences such as family life (Garvey. 1986). Older children's more logical and socialized ways of thinking make it possible for them to play games together. Children who participate in this play become skilled in their movements. Games provide children with shared activities and goals. and wrestle. For example. preschoolers' pretend or sociodramatic play is often shared with peers in the school or neighborhood. In this play. Children often negotiate rules in order to create the game they wish to play (King.drawn from the larger culture.
1985). Children can play constructively alone as well as with others. chanting. develop language skills. production or profit). and create a rich imagination. and logical thinking. Although functional play decreases as a child grows older. others. Pretend Play: Through pretend play. Parten recognized six different types of play: Unoccupied (play) – when the child is not playing. A child may be standing in one spot or performing random movements Solitary (independent) play – when the child is alone and maintains this status by being focused on its activity. crafts and puppets and doingpuzzles. filling. Pretend play helps children process emotions and events in their lives. It reaches its highest level at pre-school and kindergarten age and becomes less important as a child grows older. Such games can be intellectually motivating parts of pre. Pretend play can be both a solitary and a group activity. mutual understanding. and outdoors play. it remains important. 5 and 6 year olds is constructive play.) Children experience enjoyment. learn values. Parten observed American preschool age (ages 2 to 5) children at free play (defined as anything unrelated to survival. and achieve mastery through functional play. and skipping games. Through this type of play children learn and practice cooperation. This type of play becomes dominant as children reach school age. ball games. and objects from real into make-believe. Smilansky’s Stage of Play Functional Play: The child enjoys repetitive play with objects and gains motor and practice skills. Approximately 50% of all activity for 4. Constructive Play: The child creates or makes something and solves problems. Good examples are dumping. Examples are building with blocks. 1980. practice social skills. Games with Rules Play: This play involves pre-set rules such as board games. just observing.and primary school curriculum (Kamii & DeVries. Functional play can be either solitary or parallel (another child is involved in a similar activity at the same time. stacking. water play. and creativity. Parten’s model Stages of play is a theory and classification of children's participation in play developed by Mildred Parten in 1932. develop motor skills. This type of play develops thinking and reasoning skills. and this type of play continues to be important through the primary grades. children must consider at the same time both offensive alternatives and the need for defense. Kamii. children transform themselves. problem solving. Such a child is uninterested in or is . In these games. Many card games encourage awareness of mathematics and of the psychology of opponents. Functional play characterizes infants and toddlers and at age 3 constitutes 50% of a child's play.and skills from strategy games like checkers. playing with arts.
and the social (associative and cooperative) types of play become more common. Parallel -. Initiating or responding to interaction with peers. In cooperative play. clearly beside others but not with them. More common in younger children (age 2– 3) as opposed to older ones. Relatively uncommon in the preschool years because it requires the most social maturity and more advanced organization skills. 2. .Playing with similar objects. (Near but not with others. and participants have assigned roles.Playing separately from others. social coaction) – when the child plays separately from others but close to them and mimicking their actions. 5.Playing with others without organization of play activity. Solitary (Independent) -. Associative play – when the child is interested in the people playing but not in the activity they are doing. to a more socially mature associative and cooperative type of play. This type of play is seen as a transitory stage from a socially immature solitary and onlooker type of play. May engage in conversation but not engaged in doing.Not engaged in play. with no reference to what others are doing 3. Unoccupied -. the activity is organized. This type of activity is also more common in younger children. There is a substantial amount of interaction involved. An example would be a game of freeze tag. and as opportunities for peer interaction become more common. Cooperative play – when a child is interested both in the people playing and in the activity they are doing. The child may engage in forms of social interaction. researcher Mildred Parten grouped play into six categories and determined that children’s play styles mirror their social development. improving their communication skills. without actually joining in the activity. as children became older. Onlooker play (behavior) – when the child watches others at play but does not engage in it. Onlooker -. but the activities are not coordinated.Watching others play. Associative Play -. Parallel play (adjacent play. Parten's Play Stages Working in the 1930s. such as conversation about the play. According to Parten. These stages are identified as: 1.unaware of what others are doing. or when there is no organized activity at all. There is also increased selfidentification with a group. the nonsocial (solitary and parallel) types of play become less common. 4. and a group identity may emerge. True focus on the children at play.
Beginning of "team work UNIT III: CHILDREN’S AFFAIR-PLAY . Everyone has a role.Coordinating one’s behavior with that of a peer. with the emergence of a sense of belonging to a group.6. Cooperative Play -.
learning and well-being. indoors and outdoors. agility and conﬁdence. strength. Large Muscle Development – gross motor and locomotor skills • • • • • • • • • • Walk forwards. The reasons for our increased inactivity include: • • • Excessive television viewing fewer family members to play with fewer safe outside play areas Preschools can provide many opportunities for physical play to promote ﬁ ne and gross motor skills and hand / eye coordination. bodily coordination. adventurous and stimulating. Children enjoy physical play. backwards and sideways Walk on tip-toes (balance) Running.Values of Play Physical Play Children develop in a holistic manner. Children also learn social skills as they cooperate with one another and show consideration for one another. Physical development should be seen as being important in young children’s development as intellectual development. motivation. They revel in freedom of movement and in play that is inventive. Research has shown that physical activity in young children can enhance concentration. our lives have become more inactive and our children have less opportunity for physical activity each day. Generally. Mental Play . balance. stopping and starting Climb up steps or a ladder with one foot leading Pivot around and around on feet Jump up and down on the spot on both feet Jump a distance Balance along a plank 18cms from the ground Balance on one leg for 4 seconds Crawl through a barrel or tunnel These basic activities develop body management.
after all. so it does take time for kids to get comfortable in the unfamiliar surroundings.) Generally. They begin to understand relationships as they try to put a square object in a round opening or a large object in a small space. videos. -Children also increase their understanding of size. and solve problems. Children playing house create elaborate narratives concerning their roles and the nature of daily living. -Children increase their problem-solving abilities through games and puzzles. Books. a new teacher. Children involved in make-believe play can stimulate several types of learning. Here is what you can expect in terms of your child's social development: She feels more secure. (Children with a history of transition problems can b an exception. may feel a bit apprehensive. remember. Language is strengthened as the children model others and organize their thoughts to communicate. kindergarten can be disorienting at first. shape. . however. • • • • • • • • distinguishes between reality and fantasy encourages creative thought and allows problem solving encourages thinking and planning develop memory. They exercise their abilities to think. and a new set of classmates.-Children gain knowledge through their play. They develop cognitively as they have a chance to test their beliefs about the world. Separation anxiety — crying and clinging to parents at drop off time — isn't usually an issue. perceptual skills and concept formation learns to try on other roles acquires knowledge and integrates learning learns communication skills develops listening and oral language skills curiosity Social Play Starting elementary school is a big step for children: now they are in "big kids' school. It's a new building. and texture through play." And while the majority has little trouble adjusting. Even children who have been in day care or preschool. it's the parents who have trouble at the door! Educators and others advise mom and dad not to linger. or who have older siblings at the school. and educational toys that show pictures and matching words also increase a child's vocabulary while increasing the child's concept of the world.
From these early interactions. as it forces children to interact and share more. Teachers periodically change the seating arrangement too. Social skills are tested. the decision-making is easy — one child pretends to be the mommy and the other is the baby. Self-control is a challenge. The second half of kindergarten is vastly different from the first. Maturity wins out. The child's self-esteem gets a boost. students have learned what is expected and are comfortable with the routine. Role playing is a way of coping with emotional conflict. children develop a vision of the world and gain a sense of their place in it. bear in mind that kindergarteners are rookies at navigating the social terrain. a child's self-awareness deepens as he explores an event through role-playing or symbolic play. Parents send positive messages to their child when they communicate pleasure in providing him or her with daily care. Seating at tables is by design. they take their time letting new kids in. or reads a story. By January. When a parent or sibling plays a board game with a child. the child learns self-importance. for example. Moral Play . Also. In addition. it's like having a whole new class. they start putting it together too. Kindergarten teachers look for opportunities for students to get to know each other better. Playing with more than one child at a time is still tricky at this age. Academically. Many teachers say that when children come back after December break. • • • • Emotional Children who are anxious may be helped by role playing. There are lots of new rules and routines for kindergarteners to manage. and teachers spend a lot of time going over appropriate behavior. Whether your child is a social butterfly or more reserved. Even though kindergarteners love to play. plays baseball. Remember too that boys and girls don't develop socially in the same way or at the same speed.• New friendships develop slowly. shares a bike ride. boys learn in a more physical way. Playing in pairs tends to be less complicated: when two play house. Girls mature faster and respond better to reason than 5-year-old boys do. Children may escape through play into a fantasy world in order to make sense out of the real one.
It’s normal! Just make sure it’s clean and not small enough to be swallowed.and don’t be alarmed if everything goes in baby’s mouth. He . Types of Play Expository • All under threes enjoy exploratory play. In order to encourage adults to let young children play in this way. just guidelines for encouraging your baby’s curiosity and love of learning. what happens when you do things to them. What stage is your baby at? Watching you. children are finding out about objects.Moral values play dominant role in molding the attitude and approaches of children into their life. squeeze and hit objects. As he starts to wave his arms and legs.g. Discovering. implanting values in the minds of the children is vital and it is easily possible if told through stories interestingly and attractively. • The special heuristic play session for older toddlers and young children in day nurseries and children's centres. Therefore. he’ll learn to reach for them. Look out for these signs . Gradually. she then developed two kinds of resource: • The treasure basket for babies and young toddlers. There are no ‘rules’. how they can be used creatively and how they work. • In exploratory play. how to jiggle his mobile. dropping objects and delighting in you picking them up? Your baby is at stage 2: At stage 2. reaching out and exploring the world around him? Your baby is at stage 1: At first. your baby will use his eyes and mouth to explore the world. Rattles and squeaky toys will stimulate your baby’s senses. chew. She called this kind of play 'heuristic'. They base their decisions on whether something looks interesting and has potential for exploration. from the Greek word eurisko. he’s also learning to make things happen e. their properties. Elinor Goldschmied observed the exploratory play of some babies and toddlers in their own homes and others in English and Italian day nurseries. She noticed how children's learning was supported by a wide range of play materials and the opportunity to explore in the child's preferred way. • Nurturing your baby’s curiosity and love of learning. Babies practice grasping objects by putting their hands together and their fingers in their mouths. meaning 'serves to discover' or 'gain an understanding of'. your baby will be able to grasp. what they can represent.
day sessions. He is likely to be drawn to constructive forms of play e. He may start using words to tell you what he is doing. your baby will be more curious about the way things work and how they’re put together. you’ll help him start to understand ideas such as gravity and consequences. You can also introduce concepts such as ‘teddy is soft’ and ‘ball is gone’ Building. Group Play can be held in: • community • neighborhood centers • preschools • kindergartens • church halls • someone's house .An organized group providing children care and socialization for children under five. Group Play -A small informal nursery group meeting for half. Activities at play group play are either free or low cost. It will also become clear whether he’s happy to play with toys alone or wants you to join in. Group play can be held anywhere that is safe for children and where groups of people can meet.may reach for toys. pick up small objects by ‘raking’ them with his fingers and pass objects from hand to hand. Either way. He may put small toys in a box and take them out again. building with blocks. sorting and completing simple puzzles? Your baby is at stage 3: At this stage.g.g. and delight in dropping and finding objects. . wheeled toys) or those that make musical sounds. completing puzzles. enjoy watching and getting involved. and to moving toys (e. By handing items back and letting him repeat the action. and may include: • Music and Singing • Imaginative play • Outdoor and free play • Art and craft activities •Outings.
A few decades ago. etc. tumbang preso. . luksong tinik. These has been their regular and popular pastimes. Also.Children like group play because they can: • • • • Participate in new experiences Develop and increase their social skills Learn sharing. due to limited resources of toys of Filipino children. kids used to gather in the streets or in their neighborhood playground to play their favorite Larong Pinoy games like piko. dramatic play show that it enables children to be more flexible into new situations Mother Games Are games commonly played by children. taguan. Benefits of Dramatic Play Provides opportunities to combine spoken language with imagination. they usually come up on inventing games without the need of anything but the players themselves. cooperation and simple routines Enjoy learning more about their world All children from 0-5 including babies. When Children engage in dramatic play they deepen their understanding of the world and develop their skills that will serve them throughout their life. Dramatic When children pretend to be something or someone else and make-up situations and actions that go along with the role they choose. to imitate and to pretend to be someone or something else. love new experiences and benefit from developing sensory on skills through activities at group play. usually using native materials or instruments. as well as the favorite games of their parents and grandparents until new and modern forms of entertainment has taken over the interests of young kids. patintero. In the Philippines. With the flexibility of a real human to think and act makes the game more interesting and challenging. siato. It stimulates all areas of child's growth and can in turn affect the child's success in school.
As traditionally practiced in the Philippines and the neighboring countries. followed by knee-level. and each should throw their cue ball. This educational influence of games on the physical. and the children benefit from it. The goal is to cross without having tripped on the garter. The next nearest is second.Major studies of games pointed out those traditional games are shared communally within Philippine context. specially Indonesia. Psychologically. so their feet cross over the garter. with this frame of attitude. the family plays a very important role in the transmission of traditional games on to their children. Lopez also observed that the normal child's natural interests lead him to different types of games at different periods of his development. Also. Chinese Garter Two people hold both ends of a stretched garter horizontally while the others attempt to cross over it. until the garter is positioned above the head). relatives. With each round. Also. and the players generally leap with their feet first in the air. and. and moral vitality of a child is a factor why games in the country are still being practiced and observed by the general public. It is the obligation of the parents to help their children learn social customs. This system is also shared by other members of the family. nearest to the moon. mental. preservation of tradition is enhanced. reinforce the child's learning process. specifically the parents. The same situation exists in neighboring countries. speeding up the learning process of any child.g. children learn from their parents. Whoever succeeds in throwing the cue ball nearest to the place that they have agreed upon will play first. and so on. and they end up landing on the other side. the garter's height is made higher than the previous round (the game starts with the garter at ankle-level. wings or chest). The family. by and large. The first to play is determined depending on the players' agreement (e. the members of the community. It is also commonly known that games play an important part in the learning process of the child. The family is a social agent that builds the development of each member of the household. Holen You should hold the ball called holen in your hand then throw it to hit the . The higher rounds demand dexterity. Piko is the Philippine variation of the game. standards and values of his culture. it helps the child in building up himself to use all possibilities that will make him grow normal. In this connection. The players stand behind the edge of a box. It is in this process that whatever they learned is right away integrated into their consciousness. with the higher levels. doing cartwheels to "cross" the garter is allowed.
Playground is the natural arena of optimal physical development and the ideal environment to promote physical fitness. the thumb under the marble. Neighborhood Games are games which you play with your neighbors in the streets. Jack 'n' Poy This is the local version of Rock-paper-scissors. and everyone in your neighborhood would gather for a rousing game of kickball or hide and seek? When the dog days of summer get boring. The person with the covered eyes gives a number with his hand the same time the other does. get outside and get everyone in the neighborhood involved with one of these favorite childhood games. It is also called as Group Game Amusement is the state of experiencing humorous and entertaining events or situations. laughter and pleasure. On the play ground all motor skills are called into play. Holen is called marble here in USA. You can also win the game by eliminating your opponent by aiming and hitting his marble. Who ever got the most marbles win the game. playgrounds and amusement parks are the best example . and is associated with enjoyment. You aim at grouped marbles inside a circle and flick the marble from your fingers and anything you hit out of the circle is yours. It is played a more precise way by tucking the marble with your 3rd finger. happiness. then they exchange roles in the game Neighborhood Games Remember when you were a child. You have to be sharp shooter to be a winner. Pitik-Bulag This game involves 2 players. The word "Amuse" is so named from the opposite of "Muse" -to learn or to think.players ball out of the playing area. One covers his eyes with a hand while the other flicks a finger (pitik) over the hand covering the eyes. the fourth finger used as to stable the marble. If their numbers are the same. Though the spelling seems American in influence. the game is really Japanese in origin (janken) with the lyrics in the Japanese version sounding very similar to the "gibberish" sung in the Philippines.
Praise appropriate behavior occasionally: • Praise behavior specifically (“You’re really being careful with those blocks” rather than just saying “Good job”). Describe play actions: • Provide verbal descriptions of some of the child’s specific play activities with toy materials (e.g. “There’s the bus. Recommended Age of Child: Primarily for children ages 2-5.g. move where the child moves. giving and withholding attention for selected child behaviors. what your child has just said (e. although variations of the procedures described below can be used with children from ages 6-10. repeating something your child has done with blocks). Objectives of CDP (in order of importance) • To enhance child’s sense of self-direction and self-confidence. •Watch the child’s play activity closely. . • To strengthen and enhance the parent-child relationship. • You can praise what your child does (“You’re a good tower builder”) and how they do it (“You’re stacking those blocks so carefully and quietly”). “There goes the car over the bridge.” This is a good way to increase a young child’s vocabulary without directly teaching). 4.” “You put the blue block on top!”). • Verbally repeating. praising. Follow the child: • Locate your self physically close to child and.g. 2. “Yes. yellow bus up the hill. if your child says. Imitate (or copy) some of the things that your child does: • With toy materials (e. Procedures Dos: 1. there goes the long. unless there is harmful or destructive activity. with some elaboration.occasional descriptions are best! 3. within reason. • To help the parent practice specific child rearing skills such as imitation.” you could say. You don’t have to describe everything.Child Directed Play (CDP) is one-to-one play interaction between a parent and (one) child in which the child is helped to direct and lead the play in any way the child wishes. • To increase opportunities for the child’s access to focused parental attention without having to rely on negative or provocative behavior to do so.
4.” “Don’t get out the blocks yet). 2. your child may deliberately not answer). harmful behavior (hitting. about the same time each day (if possible). • Begin interacting only when behavior stops. and . if child was playing roughly. No teaching: • CDP should not be a time to quiz your child about her/his knowledge. • Asking a lot of questions can set up a power struggle (e. playing with friends or favorite television show. Your child should decide the direction of the play. Ten-15 minutes. Excessive parental praising during CDP can take away from the child’s direction of the activity. No or few questions • Questions are a subtle way of taking control or teaching (“Don’t you want to build a tower?” “Is that a tower?” “What color is that block?”). and then I have to stop.• Don’t praise too much. kitchen toys. physically aggressive. Remember. 2. praise careful play when it is observed). You may want to set a definite ending time that the child is told about. puzzles. breaking valuable items). “Let’s play with the house. Fisher-Price toys. • If “waiting out or ignoring” the child’s annoying behavior for two or three minutes doesn’t work.g. Types of Toys: 1. 2.”). complaining. • Allow your child to play with toys in any manner that is not harmful. Toys that the child already knows how to use (does not need to be taught). rudeness. there is no one “right way” to play with a toy. • Praise the opposite of the annoying behavior when it eventually occurs (e. whining. just occasionally. “wound-up” behavior): • Stop interacting with child.g. cars and trucks. bossiness. In the event of destructive. other parent can prevent interruptions). Refrain from giving the child your play ideas. Establish a time that doesn’t compete with child’s favorite activity. 2. and walk away or handle as you normally would. Do CDP about three to seven times per week. then stop CDP as in step 1. turn away if behavior continues. Blocks. stop CDP. No commands regarding behavior or toys (e. 3. dolls. crying. Set up a time which can be undisturbed (when other children are asleep. 3. briefly explain why. Give child a warning when only a minute or two of CDP is left (“We can play for two more minutes. In the event of “annoying” behavior (arguing. Implementing Child’s Game at Home Time: 1. 4. DON’TS: 1. Do not change direction of the play.g. running away. Handling Misbehavior During CDP: 1.
other children. 4. if there is one (“We’ll play until the timer goes off. pets). If child says “no” to your suggestion of CDP. Offer again the next day. Setting: 1. power struggles). Pick an undisturbed quiet area (no television.“).coloring activities all tend to work well. Make-Believe Play In make-believe play. follow rules. . No competitive games (can get into winning and losing. 2.g.”). Do not agree to do it only when your child demands that you do it. 4. Explain that it is your child’s “special” time (e. Child is given the choice of toys or what to play (“You can pick any of these toys. “I will play only withyou. 3. It also enhances school-readiness skills in children. It can significally strengthen children's skills for succeeding in school. don’t argue or push. 3.”). Studies have now shown how imaginative playing may be used to prepare kids for school. Kids naturally like to play make-believe. How to present CDP to your child: 1. people. Children should be told of the time limit. children learn to cope with their feelings. No books if the child is not yet able to read (parental reading doesn’t let child take the lead).
UNIT IV: EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT IN THE FACILITATION OF PLAY .
• Play is done by the players (children). In this way. Rather than having to explain what is troubling them. It helps them to understand muddled feelings and upsetting events that they have not had the chance or the skills to sort out properly. • Play requires active involvement. without feeling interrogated or threatened. It is used to assist the child in coping with emotional stress or trauma. as long as children are allowed time for "free play" or "unstructured play. as well as the willingness to interact with the therapist. teachers. to prevent or resolve psychosocial challenges. dolls. drawings and paint are used to help a child or adolescent to express their emotions. • Play is child-invented.The characteristics of play • Play is child-chosen. Play Therapy can also be used as a tool of diagnosis. Play in Child’s Educational Pycho-Theraphy The most natural way of engaging in a meaningful way with children is through play. • Play focuses on the doing (process. not the adults (caregivers. The objects and patterns of play. One approach to treatment is for play therapists use a type of desensitization or . growth and development. wishes and needs. This is why psychotherapy with children can only be achieved through play. thoughts. can be used to understand the underlying rationale for behavior both inside and outside the session. people (especially children) will engage in play behavior in order to work through their interior obfuscations and anxieties. Play Therapy is a form of counseling or psychotherapy that uses play to communicate with and help people. • Play is pretend but done as if the activity were real. toys and mediums such as clay.) to determine the cause of the disturbed behavior." Normal play is an essential component of healthy child development. A play therapist observes a client playing with toys (play-houses. According to the psychodynamic view. children use play to communicate at their own level and at their own pace. etc. not product). play therapy can be used as a self-help mechanism. as adult therapy usually expects. This is thought to help them towards better social integration. Play Therapy is a specific counseling approach in which games. or parents). especially children.. pets.
and this was problematic for the teachers.'s study. non-verbal. or indeed whether. or brain-injured or drug-affected persons. children played dogs and babies. therefore. either systematically or in less formal social settings. felt uncomfortable about intervening unless invited to do so by the children. particularly to support children's language or skills development. 3.relearning therapy to change disturbing behavior. children played burglars and guard dogs in the class ‘shop’ (Bennett et al. and acts as a catalyst for developing our thinking about how we should be planning for play. but are also applied with other pre-verbal. Children's intentions during a play activity were sometimes at odds with those of the teacher. Most teachers intervened in other sorts of play. Repetitive play can also be a dilemma. . and also of the role of adults in children's play. The teacher should encourages divergence of idea. Those participating in the study re-evaluated the adult's role during play. on occasions. such as slow-learners. it did not seem to extend or develop their learning. Factors likely facilitate play 1. they should intervene to move the child on. In one instance. A rich background of actual life experience is fundamental to developing creative play.. They argued that children needed adults’ help to make sense of their discoveries and to make links and connections between new discoveries and their existing knowledge. Bennett et al.'s research does not suggest that play is not valuable. The teacher should avoid dominating the play. As regards role-play. The belief that children cannot fail during play was also challenged by Bennett et al. 2. This uncertainty is linked with a particular view of the child as a learner. the teachers held the view that this is the ‘child's world’ and. It was also evident in the Bennett et al. nor that early years settings should introduce formal teaching. 1997:73). while the play activity elicited a set of behaviors from the children. however. or verbally-impaired persons. This could be either because the children had already achieved the learning intention. and about the role of adults in children's play. the teacher's intentions for the play activity were not well-matched or appropriate for the children. or because. In another setting. despite the fact that the teacher had set up the imaginative role-play area to encourage and facilitate play around the theme of birthday parties. These processes are normally used with children. The Role of Adults in Children's Play Bennett. study that. Wood and Rogers (1997) questioned the view that exploring and discovering leads to learning. in that adults are uncertain about when. It does. as instances were observed of children being unable to pursue their goals during play because they lacked specific skills or knowledge. encourage practitioners to look more closely at the actual play experiences of children.
Play area should be attractive. creativity. Equipment plays an important role in facilitating play. Children this age beginning to pretend in their play for example at age 2 or 3 or 4 a broom may become a horse. language development. there’s no right and wrong in creating. . The teacher should provide equipment. and even how to work out disagreements when they arise (and they will!).4. Kids learn a lot from one another. Example: making binoculars using cardboard. Kids experiment with spatial issues. *Creative play is very important for toddlers’ development. new games. making tea with the tea set and dressing in grown-up clothes is important and should never be classed as trivial. Parents can help by providing ample time for free play. Encourage your toddler by allowing plenty of time for free-flowing creative activities. with some time set aside for more structured activities. With creative play. and each encounter adds to their knowledge. or a block may become a train. and socially. Playgroups and classes can help kids to develop physically. This type of play helps promote a toddler's learning through using role play to develop their imagination. cognitively. Through play and creative activities. making them valuable childhood experiences. talking to and feeding their dolls. Special activities to encourage creativity Childhood is a time to be cherished. It’s also good to give positive attention and praise your toddler’s creativity.. through building towers out of bocks. cartons or other recycled materials….* Learning Through Play Much of children's learning is accomplished whilst they are engaged in active play. logic. from discovering new ways to play with toys. One of the most important parts of imaginative play is for the child to pretend to be someone else or in different situations. 5. How to encourage your toddler’s creative play It’s important for toddlers to feel they can do their own thing when it comes to creative play. as future educators of preschoolers we need to allow each child to discover and explore the exciting world. Imaginative play Play that is imaginative and creative will help the toddler to use their mind to find solutions to problems. and social interaction when they play. Neither should soft toys or dolls be rejected as inappropriate for any age of either sex. Imaginative play.
In autumn. or dip into paint. It’s also important to keep things simple. make noise and create music with home-made and bought instruments. singing. Music play Music. For toddlers. collect fallen leaves for your child to draw. is a great way to encourage creative development. Let your toddler draw on bricks. Use a hole punch to attach a strap. acting and so on. the process is what counts. Being creative can be a great way to help your child learn these skills. Your child could also stick on other decorations (you might need to help). Use small plastic lids. playing dress-ups. the process of creating is the most important thing. your child could use these new toys to make up stories. stick on paper clothes. Choose rattles and bells that are safe and comfortable for your child to play. Head out to the park or back yard and look for birds! Dramatic play Toddlers love dramatic play. Draw on faces. Your child might need some help with cutting. and getting your handbags ready to ‘go shopping’. . and use cotton wool for hair. window frames and doors. Too many sounds can be confusing. patty pan cases and other ‘threadables’ with your child to make jewellery. drama and dance can all be combined in music play.building. • Let your child play. Home-made doll’s house • • • Get a very large cardboard box – about the size that a new TV or computer comes in. They often enjoy games about very familiar things they see as part of everyday life. You don’t always need to give your child brand new play materials. You could try patting the ‘baby’ off to sleep. Cut out some windows and doors. and making it up as you go along. Using everyday objects. Home-made binoculars • • • Glue or tape two toilet rolls together. As with all creative and artistic activities at this age. When you’ve finished making the family. pasting and gluing. • • • Use empty toilet rolls or small plastic juice bottles to make a family. paste onto paper.
A simple. birds. hats. slide. Or you can try songs that involve clapping. Playgrounds for children A playground or play area is a place with a specific design for children be able to play there. child care facilities. Encourage your child to listen to your singing or what’s going on the music. ‘Michael Finnegan’. puppets and instruments to use in musical activities. Modern playgrounds often have recreational bars. trapeze rings. rhythmical action such as clapping.• • • • • • • • Try to match your child’s pitch when singing songs. Knees and Toes’. equipment such as the seesaw. schools. Whether it’s music or pictures. repeated. monkey many of and and mazes. institutions. Playgrounds often also have facilities for playing informal games of adult sports. Sing songs about animals. stories or people to your child – for example. develop well physical as strength. It may be indoors but is typically outdoors. multiple family . Introduce humorous. Toddlers are not too young to try some ‘art appreciation’. such as a baseball diamond. but that’s OK. providingrecreation and enjoyment. a basketball court. machines and so on). spring playhouses. overhead which help flexibility. Music and melody skills develop slowly. Public playground equipment refers to equipment intended for use in the play areas of parks. This helps develop skills in imitating voices and sounds (animals. pointing or swinging encourages and supports singing. Provide your child with simple props such as scarves. ‘Five Little Ducks’. ‘Dr Knickerbocker’ and ‘This Old Man’. you can encourage them to talk about what they like and which is their favourite part. chin-up ladder. Name the instruments you’re using and talk about the differences in sound and how they are played. Your child probably won’t sing in tune – or time – with you. events. a skating arena. ‘Heads and Shoulders. jungle bars. sandbox. rider. swingset. Common in modern playgrounds are play structures that link many different pieces of equipment. or a tether ball. active songs for your child to enjoy– for example. ‘Train is a-Coming’. merry-go-round. such as ‘Pat-a-cake’ and ‘If You’re happy and You Know It’. coordination. hankies. patting. children as gym.
e.. for customers only. at McDonald's and IKEA. There are three primary components to a higher level of inclusive play: physical accessibility. former President Theodore Roosevelt stated in 1907 that since play is a fundamental need. playgrounds should be provided for every child as much as schools. They were created as organized and instructional play areas for the use of teaching children the proper ways to play. Types Playgrounds can be: Built by collaborative support of corporate and community resources to achieve an immediate and visible "win" for their neighborhood. The widespread adoption of playgrounds led to the Germanisation of some aspects of childhood development. Over time. Public. Zoom Zoom's Indoor Playground in Ancaster. Cheese's Inclusive playgrounds Universally designed playgrounds are created to be accessible to all children. organized playing areas have been adopted by other countries of the world and have become commonplace. free of charge. Jungle Jam Indoor Playground and Chuck E. and sensory-stimulating activity. as most children can not afford to pay carfare. This means that they must be distributed over the cities in such a way as to be within walking distance of every boy and girl. . resorts.g. age and developmental appropriateness. restaurants. History Playgrounds originated in Germany. Recognizing the need for playgrounds. Ontario. like at most rural elementary schools A business with an entrance fee Connected to a business. and recreational developments.dwellings. and other areas of public use. Elaborate indoor mazes. like those at the (now defunct) Discovery Zone.
these toys have little play value and can be related to aggressive play (Frost. shrubs. lichens. rubber paths and ramps replace sand pits and steps. More appropriate choices are toys that are unstructured. Frost (1992) provides points for toy selection that would meet these criteria for appropriate toys. and indigenous vegetation with creative landforms to create purposely complex interplays of natural. Efforts to accommodate children on the autism spectrum. grasses.Most efforts at inclusive playgrounds have been aimed at accommodating wheelchair users. current children’s movies. textured pathways. and some features are placed at ground level. flowers. and natural water features. 1992). Unfortunately. or children’s television programs that feature violence and action figures. the transformation of toys has included more technology and they are mass produced with unlimited variety. Many of these toys are related to cartoon shows. Over the past 50 years. These toys contribute to a decline in the imaginative activities of young children (Elkind. natural fences (stone. They do not stimulate the imagination. Play components may include earth shapes (sculptures). and simple in design. dirt and sand. who may find playgrounds overstimulating or who may have difficulty interacting with other children. Play Materials for Children Young children are strongly influenced by toys that are marketed on television. or creativity. mosses). environmental art. For example. boulders or other rock structures.Some children with disabilities or developmental differences do not interact with playgrounds in the same way as typical children. wooden). 2005). Natural playgrounds "Natural playgrounds" are play environments that blend natural materials. environmental objects in ways that challenge and fascinate children and teach them about the wonders and intricacies of the natural world while they play within it. have been less common. indigenous vegetation (trees. willow. features. . diverse in playability. dramatic play.
etc. scrap lumber. as suggested in the following list: Gross-Motor Play Large blocks Transportation toys Climbing equipment Tricycles. typewriters. screwdrivers.) Fine-Motor Play Clay Puzzles Art supplies (finger and water paints. squirt guns. etc. Big Wheels.) Cognitive Play Materials for water play (buckets. etc. and caregivers can also consider play in developmental domains in their choices of toys and materials for preschool children. teachers. and so forth Woodworking equipment and materials (child-size hammers.) Language and Literacy Books Writing materials (notepads. wagons. sieves. They will want to include a balance of toys for different types of play.Parents. etc. Legos. Lincoln Logs. crayons. etc. workbench. sand trays. pencils.) . pens.” puppets.) individual chalkboard. vise. brushes.) Beads for stringing Construction materials (small blocks. markers. etc. scissors. old Thematic props (teddy bears for “Goldilocks.
Besides all the health benefits. whose turn it is not. I know as a working parent. If neighbors could come together and each take one day a week to encourage the children in your neighborhood to play together. There are so many dangers waiting around every corner. Playing outside is a valuable activity for babies. Too often these days we are afraid to allow our children to play outside. animal cages.) Sociodramatic Play Dolls and stuffed animals Props for dramatic play (hats. feathers. but I say to you: make groups. eye droppers. neckties.) Objects from nature (leaves.forms of self-expression that are often restricted indoors. and coordination. aquariums. etc. Physically we know the benefits: strength.Simple board games Simple card games Materials for science experiments (balance scales. Before long you will have very busy kids. get a bunch of kids together and make games with them. toddlers and preschoolers are sensory-motor learners.) The Benefits of Out Door play The benefits of outdoor play are physical and mental. table and chairs. riding toys. or for them. they need a chance to practice their basic physical skills. Outdoor play time also allows children to move freely and make noise . child stethoscope. etc. eyeglasses with lenses. it is very hard to make sure your kids get outside daily. dishware. Children need coordination. bird’s nest. terrariums. always making sure they .) Miniature life figures Housekeeping equipment and props (child-size broom. The children adore little art projects such as this. Having kids go out and pick different leaves up to put in wax paper is a great way to get them outside and walking around. and preschoolers because of the many ways it promotes their development. Physical activity: mats. playing outside stretches children's thinking and knowledge. Each parent taking turns on the different days of the week. etc. toddlers. balls. It also gives our children a sense of adventure if they live near woods. There are many benefits to outdoor play. not to mention free time for the separate parents. endurance. etc. or just be close by to make sure no injuries occur. etc. Babies.
computers.never enter extremely wooded areas alone. and a little scary. and engage in self-paced play. Developing perceptual abilities might suffer when so many of their experiences are through media. Ignoring the developmental functions of unstructured outdoor play denies children the opportunity to expand their imaginations beyond the constraints of the classroom. and taste are wonderful ways to learn. who are free to spend time out doors. Children learn from motion. The world we live in today is increasingly complex. but the fact remains. They should gain the ability to navigate their immediate surroundings safety. the kiss of the sun. As adults. as much as we did. we know that we learn through doing. the sense of smell. gain courage in moving through the larger world. touch. the freedom to feel the wind on their cheek. it is the same for children. thus laying the foundation for the competence to eventually lead their own lives. books and homework. COMPILATION OF TOPICS IN ECED 4 . our children need. Children.
both verbal and non-verbal. Getting over the first step of believing they can do it makes every “how to” you teach that much easier. Alberto II-4 Beced Teacher Jaimmy Griffin Competencies of 5 and 6 years old in play The main effect of competition or competencies with children is LEARNING. Often you just have to “expect” them to be responsible. They learn different ideas. Responsibility is the natural “offspring” of competence. send a strong message to children about their capabilities. both in terms of working independently and demonstrating positive social skills. Feeling competent and capable instills in the children a sense of their own maturity as they are allowed to take on more . Five and six are eager to share their competencies with others. they will think so too. They are also ready to take on greater responsibilities. and they will be. skills and they also learn how to become more responsible. Your expectations. moving away from being “I FOCUSED” to enjoying cooperative efforts. If you think they can be responsible.Play and Social Living Jennica Mae C. Fives and sixes can appreciate the benefits of working together.
Toddlers or kindergartners are developing competencies into many domains that they may actually work on new skills and let another skill go for a while. without the wide-apart leg-waddle of the earliest attempts.responsibility and independence. Some toddlers may not be ready for learning toileting competencies while they are working hard at developing other skills. . Sometimes they are learning to balance their bodies and walk well. may not be as adventurous in word learning. Instead they are focused on working hard in this new motor skill.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.