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16-09-2010

Performance Based Navigation


PBN

The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation

Navigation Assumptions
Conventional Navigation
Airspace Design based on assumptions that all aircraft equipped with NDB/VOR and/or DME and airspace designed on those assumptions.

RNAV (pre-PBN)
Airspace Design based on assumptions that 'RNAV equipped' aircraft can use RNAV routes. Exceptionally, Nav Spec required e.g. RNP 4.

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16-09-2010

Why Action was Required

P R E S E N T

Other States-Regions Russia

B-RNAV P-RNAV US-RNAV RNP10 RNP 4 RNP/RNAV

US Europe Boeing

RNAV and RNP

Australia China Airbus Canada Japan South America India

F U T U R E

Development of a variety of navigation applications action required!

RNPSORG Main Goals

Achieve and document a common understanding of RNP and RNAV and associated concepts and functionalities
Define RNAV and RNP How do they relate to each other? What is the essential distinction?

Harmonize use of RNP and RNAV on global basis, for benefit of operators and service providers
Identify operational and airworthiness requirements for RNP and RNAV

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16-09-2010

Enter Performance Based Navigation

PBN Concept replaced RNP Concept Publication of Doc 9613, PBN Manual Resolution of ICAOs 36th ICAO Assembly

PBN SG

In November 2008, RNPSORGS replaced by Performance Based Navigation Study Group (PBN SG) Aims:
Consolidate information learnt during ICAO Seminars Develop Operational Requirements for RNAV and RNP

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16-09-2010

Enter Performance Based Navigation


Conventional Navigation
Airspace Design based on assumptions that all aircraft equipped with NDB/VOR and/or DME and airspace designed on those assumptions.

RNAV (pre-PBN)
Airspace Design based on assumptions that 'RNAV equipped' aircraft can use RNAV routes. Exceptionally, Nav Spec required e.g. RNP 4.

PBN
Airspace Design must, in all cases match.... (a) Aircraft fleet approval, which must match...

(b) An ICAO PBN Navigation Specification

(c)

... and available NAVAID Infrastructure

Components of PBN Concept


3 3

NAVIGATION APPLICATION

2 2

1 1

NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

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16-09-2010

Components of PBN Concept


3 3

NAVIGATION APPLICATION

2 2

1 1

NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

Components of PBN Concept

Ground-based Navigation Aids (Navaids) GroundVOR; DME; (Not NDB) Space-based Navaids SpaceGNSS GPS; Glonass; future Galileo Glonass;

2 1

NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

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16-09-2010

Components of PBN Concept


3 3

NAVIGATION APPLICATION

2 2

1 1

NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

Components of PBN Concept


Aim is to limit number of Nav. Specs in global use

International Navigation Specifications published in Volume II of PBN Manual What PERFORMANCE is required of the RNAV system? What Functionalities must RNAV system have to achieve Performance What Navigation Sensors must be integrated in RNAV system to achieve Performance What requirements are placed on the Air crew to achieve the required Performance from the RNAV system? Document used by State as basis for developing Certification & Operational Approval

Accuracy Integrity Continuity

3 2

NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

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16-09-2010

Components of PBN Concept


International Navigation Specifications published in Volume II of PBN Manual Previous RNP Concept

PERFORMANCE 3 2 Functionalities Navigation Sensors Air crew requirements

NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

Document used by State as basis for developing Certification & Operational Approval

Navigation Performance

System Performance Error Components: Lateral Errors Longitudinal Errors On-Board Performance Monitoring and Alerting: Role Application

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Components of PBN Concept

3 2

International NS in Volume II of PBN Manual RNAV System PERFORMANCE Document used by State as basis for Certification & Operational Approval

NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

RNAV

RNP

On-Board performance Monitoring and Alerting On-

Components of PBN Concept

RNAV

RNP
On-Board performance Monitoring and Alerting On-

On-board performance monitoring and alerting does not only refer to containment in the MASPS; Annex 11 or PANS-OPS. On-board performance monitoring and alerting allows the air crew to detect that the RNP system is not achieving the navigation performance required of the RNP system

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16-09-2010

RNP

RNAV 1 and Basic RNP 1


RNAV 1
1 NM
Desired Path

Basic RNP 1
1 NM 1 NM
UNABLE RNP

1 NM

Developed for continental radar environment Does not require on-board performance monitoring and alerting GNSS, DME/DME and DME/DME/IRU allowed Accommodates majority of aircraft
In ECAC similar to P-RNAV in Terminal Airspace not mandated Continental US Terminal Airspace

Primarily intended for low density procedural environments Requires on-board performance monitoring and alerting Requires GNSS (possible exceptions) Primarily intended for use within 30NM of departure and arrival aerodromes
Specific US Terminal Airspace

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Components of PBN Concept


ICAO NAVIGATION SPECIFICATIONS

RNAV SPECIFICATIONS
Designation RNAV 10
For Oceanic and Remote Continental navigation applications

RNP SPECIFICATIONS
Designation RNP 4
For Oceanic & Remote Continental navigation applications

Designation RNAV 5 RNAV 2 RNAV 1


For En Route & Terminal navigation applications

Designation RNP 2* B-RNP 1 A-RNP* RNP 0.3* RNP APCH* RNP AR APCH
for various phases of flight

Designation RNP with additional requirements to be determined (e.g. 3D, 4D etc)

International NS in Volume II of PBN Manual


* Under development

Components of PBN Concept


1

NAVIGATION APPLICATION

RNAV X
RNAV 10 RNAV 5

RNP X
B-RNP 1
RNP APCH

NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

RNP AR APCH

RNAV X
RNAV 10 RNAV 5

RNP X
B-RNP 1

RNP descriptor
RNP APCH RNP AR APCH

X = Navigation Accuracy in NM

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16-09-2010

Components of PBN Concept


3 3

NAVIGATION APPLICATION

2 2

1 1

NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

Components of PBN Concept


3 3

NAVIGATION APPLICATION The APPLICATION (use of) the Navigation Specification and Navaid Infrastructure For example: Routes based on RNAV and RNP Specifications (these rely on the Navaid Infrastructure); Infrastructure); For example: SIDs/STARs based on RNAV and RNP Specifications; Specifications; For example: Approach procedures based on RNP Specifications

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16-09-2010

Example: RNAV 1 Specification


RNAV 1 APPLICATION

PERFORMANCE

ICAO RNAV 1 SPECIFICATION Navigation Sensors (1) DME/DME/IRU (2) DME/DME (3) GNSS

Functionalities

Navigation Sensors
Air crew requirements

NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

(1) DME (2) DME (3) GPS

E.G: RNAV 1 Specification (A)

State A
STATE (A) RNAV 1 SPECIFICATION Navigation Sensors (1) DME/DME/IRU (3) GNSS

1 STATE (A) RNAV 1 APPLICATION 2


NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

(1) DME (3) GPS

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16-09-2010

E.G: RNAV 1 Specification (B)

State B
STATE (B) RNAV 1 SPECIFICATION Navigation Sensors (1) DME/DME/IRU (2) DME/DME

1 STATE (B) RNAV 1 APPLICATION 2


NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

(1) DME (2) DME

Aircraft - Equipment and Operator Approval


EQUIPMENT LEVEL APPROVAL
NAVIGATOR BOX e.g. GPS type ABC

Comments/Notes GPS could be a sensor in multi-sensor system or a self-contained and stand-alone navigator; FAA/EASA (E) TSO against a MOPS e.g. DO229, incl. functions, performance qualification. Attributes incl. accuracy, functionality (e.g. Nav database), integrity, alerting, path steering;
based on MASPs or PBN Nav Spec

AIRCRAFT LEVEL APPROVAL


NAVIGATOR BOX e.g. GPS type ABC

Installation approval on aircraft against an EASA AMC or FAA AC which includes an operational context e.g. RNAV 5; Takes into account a/c level integration e.g. displays, controls, interface with other systems e.g. auto-pilot; flight director; safety requirements and HF. For the aircraft installation to be used by pilot, operational approval needed against, for example, EU-OPS 1. Operational Approval is concerned with training, flight crew procedures, quality, database management, etc.

OPERATOR LEVEL APPROVAL


NAVIGATOR BOX e.g. GPS type ABC

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16-09-2010

Components of PBN Concept


3 3

NAVIGATION APPLICATION

2 2

1 1

NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

PBN in Context:

COM
NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

NAV
NAVIGATION APPLICATION

SUR

ATM

PBN

NAVAID INFRASTRUCTURE

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16-09-2010

What's new with PBN



PBN requires the use of an onboard area navigation system; PBN creates requirements for airworthiness certification and operational approval to use area navigation systems in airspace implementations; The area navigation systems performance and the general operation must conform to the requirements stipulated in the relevant ICAO navigation specification.

Approach and Landing and PBN

European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation

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16-09-2010

Approach and Landing Types


CDO Final Approach Capture STAR (e.g. P-RNAV)
FAF

Above CAT I

Final Approach CAT I CAT II/III

RNP APCH
Includes: LNAV LNAV/VNAV LP LPV

ILS GBAS/ GPS (LPV 200) ILS MLS GBAS/GPS GBAS/Multiple constellations

RNP AR APCH

RNAV Precision Approach

Approach Types

Two Types of Instrument Approach Precision Approach Using Instrument Landing System Guidance in lateral and vertical dimensions provided by radio beams from equipment located at the runway plus other reqs: Runway length, taxiways, lighting and markings, emergency services. Depending on category - Cat-1 Cat-II, Cat-III Descent to a Decision Altitude or Height (DA/H) Limited to major airports with demand for all weather operations critical to airline operations. Expensive

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16-09-2010

Approach Types (2)



Non-Precision Approach based on conventional navigation aids, NDB, VOR, DME. Pilot able to derive lateral position and follow an instrument procedure. No vertical guidance Procedure uses Minimum Descent Altitude or Height (MDA/H) Sometimes quite complex procedures with step-down fixes.

PA and NPA

Precision approaches are safest


ILS sensor now, MLS & GLS soon, all directly groundreferenced Simple to fly single-slope, straight-in

Non-precision approaches (NPA) are safe, but in practice are much less safe than precision approaches
particularly for large jets, the biggest passenger carriers Often complex & error-prone: dive-and-drive, or not straight-in
No Vertical guidance

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16-09-2010

General Evolution of Approaches


Lateral
NPA Non Precision Approaches
Conventional

Vertical

Sensors
VOR/DME/NDB VOR/DME/NDB Localizer Localizer GPS GPS

RNP APCH CDFA APV Baro

APV Approaches with Vertical Guidance

GPS GPS + + Baro Baro GPS GPS + + SBAS SBAS ILS/MLS ILS/MLS GPS GPS + + GBAS GBAS

APV SBAS

PA Precision Approaches

Conventional

GBAS Approach

RNAV and Approaches



1970s and 80s Area Navigation systems began appearing along with multi-sensor FMS and electronic displays. Navigation along routes defined by waypoints in a navigation database instead of bearings and ranges to navigation aids. Many air carrier aircraft also included VNAV based on barometric altimetry. In the 1990s as more aircraft became equipped, NPA procedures began to be flown using the RNAV system (both LNAV and VNAV modes) However, procedures were not designed with a vertical path and there were some issues. (use of MDA as DA)

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16-09-2010

RNAV Approaches

With the advent of GPS general aviation aircraft had access to precise RNAV capabilities. GPS non-precision approach procedures arrived. These were called RNAV approaches Even though only Lateral Guidance was provided these approaches improved pilot situational awareness and reduced workload. It is widely acknowledged that RNAV Approaches improve safety

CFIT Lateral Accident Data



Map location of CFIT accident/incidents From Runway Threshold, 40 Accidents/Incidents

In most CFIT accidents, the aircraft was lined up with the runway

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16-09-2010

CFIT Vertical Accident Data



Vertical Profile of some recent accidents/incidents Loss of vertical situational awareness is a primary contributor

Global Summary of Instrument Approach Procedures


Region Africa Canada/Alaska Eastern Europe Western Europe Latin America Middle East Pacific South America South Pacific USA TOTAL IFR Airports 293 373 255 729 133 264 198 316 347 2630 5538 ILS 114 124 138 509 25 122 120 60 88 1029 2329 NonPrecision 267 684 308 672 285 319 333 456 301 5705 9330 Total Approaches 381 808 446 1181 310 441 453 516 389 6734 11659

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16-09-2010

Approach Procedures with Vertical guidance



Adding vertical guidance to these non-precision approach procedures improves safety further There are two different types of APV procedure: APV Baro is flown using GPS for lateral navigation and the barometric VNAV functionality available on modern air carrier (Boeing and Airbus) aircraft. APV SBAS uses GPS plus a Satellite Based Augmentation System for both lateral and vertical navigation against a geometric path from the Final Approach Fix to the Decision Height.

Approach Types and GNSS

NPA Can be flown as RNAV approach using GPS lateral navigation No vertical guidance pilot uses barometric information In reality air transport aircraft use VNAV function Minima line = LNAV

APV Baro To take advantage of VNAV capability Flown with GPS and baro inputs to RNAV System Minima line = LNAV/VNAV

APV SBAS
Takes advantage of 3D performance provided by GPS/SBAS Minima Line = LPV

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16-09-2010

Performance Navigation Accuracy

APV Baro APV SBAS

(556 m by 50 m) (40 m by 50 m)

Charting
Title RNAV (GNSS) or RNAV (GPS) in USA GNSS is mandatory for these procedures

All Three minima lines on the Same chart: LNAV LNAV/VNAV LPV

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16-09-2010

RNAV Approach Terminology



RNAV (GNSS) GPS NPA - to LNAV minima APV Baro-VNAV - to LNAV/VNAV minima SBAS APV - to LPV minima
We also have something called LPV200

RNP AR (Approval Required) to LNAV/VNAV minima also includes curved procedures

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16-09-2010

RNAV Approaches and PBN

ICAO PBN Manual Naming Convention: All these approaches are called - RNP APCH Navigation Specification is in two parts:
RNP APCH Operations down to LNAV and LNAV/VNAV mimima RNP APCH Operations down to LP and LPV minima

RNP Approaches - Vertical Guidance


RNP APCH Without Vertical guidance With Vertical guidance

LNAV

LP

LNAV/VNAV

LPV

Approach expected to be flown with CDFA

Not yet available SBAS supported Localiser Performance

APV-Baro

Expected very soon SBAS supported Localiser Performance with vertical guidance (APV-SBAS)

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16-09-2010

Questions?

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