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Keri-Ann Andrade CC 495-001 18 April 2008
Andrade 2 Introduction In today’s world, changes are taking place every day. As countries begin to go through the process of globalization and expansion, changes take place. If these changes are not monitored properly, disastrous results may occur. Pollution and emissions from countries around the world can have negative effects on the environment. The future of the world is in danger because of emissions and pollution and many countries are seeing this as a problem that needs to be solved. Different countries around the world are trying to make changes and lower the amount of emissions that is being released into the air, causing pollution. Kenneth Burke and his concept of the Pentad/Ratio can be useful in the analysis of globalization and how it affects the given country and the world. This paper looks at how emissions and pollution is being dealt with, the damage that globalization has already caused in the environment and what the future will bring to the world. Globalization is affecting today’s world in many ways. There has been a lot of research that has been conducted about the effects of globalization, both positive and negative. Countries such as the United States, Japan, China and India, just to name a few, have expanded rapidly without being conscious of the pollution that is occurring. The atmosphere, due to harmful emissions, has been damaged extensively over the past decades. Large amounts of greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide have destroyed parts of the ozone layer. These harmful gases rise into the air that we breathe and leave behind deadly toxins. Industry expansion can be beneficial to the country’s economy. On the same note, cars, airplanes, and other means of transportation let off emissions during every use.
Andrade 3 A more in-depth focus on countries such as the United States, Japan, China, newly developed India, and other developing nations has been taken by researchers. These countries are all in different stages of globalization, but the same issue keeps occurring. Emissions and pollution caused by industry expansion and a growing need for cars are concerns that are looked upon when it may be too late. These developed countries are experiencing an economic growth that reads dollars signs to its governments. Regulating the emissions and pollution during this time is the last thought on their minds. In the next section, a review of previously published research will be reviewed. Once this has been completed, an analysis of emissions, pollution and the effects of globalization will be conducted.
Literature Review There have been numerous studies done in the past about the effects of pollution. A study conducted by L. Claudio (2007) looked at the clothing industry and how it pollutes the environment. Globalization increases the amount of goods offered to the public. This increase in products causes more waste products by the manufacturers. “The EPA, under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, considers many textile manufacturing facilities to be hazardous waste generators” (Claudio, 2007). This means that more goods equal more pollution. Kwong (2005) used a 2001 study that found that “although economic growth produced more pollution, the greater wealth and higher incomes also generated a demand for a cleaner environment.” People tend to care more about their environment when it is cost-effective to them and they have the means to do so, as needed.
Andrade 4 The process of globalization is seen as a positive approach towards making life better for the people of the given country. Molchanov (2005) writes that “globalization is a contradictory process.” The researcher goes on to say that in Europe, globalization and protectionism go hand in hand, referred to as “a double movement” (Molchanov, 2005). Changes are being made, but protectionists are trying to forgo the process altogether and protect Europe’s current state. Europe has taken steps to limit or address the issue of emissions, but as of this point in time, it has subsided immensely. Growth and expansion makes the world strive. As more money pours into the economy, the more negative effects are being ignored. Lowe (2004) stated that “an ecologically-illiterate cheer squad of economists, business leaders, politicians and journalists is actively encouraging further growth in consumption to bring forward the inevitable crisis.” This crisis that is mentioned is the devastation of the earth’s natural resources and the environment. Harmful GHG and CO2 emissions are eating away at the ozone layer and polluting the atmosphere. Those individuals who are in power look towards making money, rather than watching out for the well-being of the planet and its people. “The Australian State of the Environment Report said that urban air quality was improving but all other serious environmental problems in that country [Australia] was worsening” (Lowe, 2004). This brings up the idea that the world’s population is slowly, but surely, killing themselves. These are just a few ways of looking at how globalization affects the country and the environment all at once.
Andrade 5 Asia’s Pollution Asia’s environment and economy has undergone enormous changes in the past twenty years. These changes have affected everyone and everything on the Asian continent. In a study conducted by M.T. Rock and D.P. Angel (2007), they gathered information about air pollution in Asia versus other countries and the world. The results were that Asia’s air pollution was at 238 mg/m3 (milligram per cubic meter), compared to the world’s air pollution coming in at 126 mg/m3 in 2002. Asia is just one continent, among many, that has seen a rapid economic growth recently. This change has brought about new opportunities for companies and people to become wealthier. The effects that came out of this rapid change were not looked at initially. Today, more attention is being given to the polluted environment and what globalization has done to burden the country. The problem of environmental pollution began when expanding industry used the motto “grow first, clean up later” (Rock, Angel 2007). In Singapore, Malaysia and Taiwan, “policy integration helped internalize environmental considerations within the economic decision making processes” (Rock, Angel 2007). Although these countries saw many changes in the economy, pollution was not a concern. Steps are being taken to address concerns and adapt better ways of supplying people with products that fit their needs and helping the environment at the same time. Emissions and pollution are caused by companies’ waste products, large increases in automobile usage and other related factors. Companies are in the business of making money. Waste products are one of the downfalls to producing products for consumption. The tendency to blame companies for most of the pollution is absurd because “industry could not be trusted not to put the bottom line first” (Wall, 2000). It is the people’s fault
Andrade 6 for putting trust in something that is only in business to make money in the growing economy. As countries see these changes occurring, it is often difficult to see the direct effects in real time. Japan, for example, wants to cut their emissions of carbon dioxide which has consistently been blamed for global warming. Along with Japanese people harming the environment unintentionally, a lot of Japan’s pollution has come from China. “Mount Zao is only one example of pollution hitting Japan from China, where factory emissions are causing international concern as its economy soars ahead” (James). A study by Grumbine (2007) found that “Japan and South Korea are already affected by Chinese-generated pollutants, and SO2 and NOx are showing up on the West Coast of North America. Research from southern California suggests that on some days 25% of airborne particulates originate from China, with as yet unknown consequences” (Grumbine, 2007). This fact is unnerving because China is on its way towards surpassing the United States’ economy. Japan and other countries around the world are being affected by the pollution given off by the Chinese people. Japan’s government is trying
to help drivers cut down on emissions and pollution by offering “reduced parking charges small cars” (Nieuwenhuis and Zapata, 2006). This could make Japanese people want to drive smaller, lower emissions vehicles in the coming years.
The Effects of Pollution on Developed and Developing Countries Looking at the world and how it has been affected by globalization brings mixed results. Developing nations are less likely to have the financial means to regulate and clean up pollution. On the other side of the issue, more developed countries such as China are more financially inept to look into effective ways of managing emissions and
Andrade 7 pollution given off into the environment. Japan Probe, a website about Japanese news had a story that stated “developing nations are eager to hear first about what industrialized countries will do to cut their emissions of carbon dioxide and other “greenhouse” gases blamed for global warming, and how much money they will spend to help poor nations adapt to climate change.” Money is an issue for many of the countries going through the process of globalization. The governments in these countries are expanding and money is being put into industry expansion. The nation is unaware of the negative effects of an expansion that are happening around the country and the world. Emissions and pollution is being released into the atmosphere every second of everyday. In a developing country, such as India, the projected emissions for the next few decades are astounding. Shukla, Garg, Kapshe and Nairs claim in their study that “CO2 equivalent GHG emissions [will] grow about 2.6 times during 2000-2030.” This fact is devastating because the environment is at a point where it can hardly take anymore damage. India’s growing need for automobiles is causing this sharp rise and it will not level out anytime soon. Alternate scenarios are being explored to limit the amount of damage that India’s people could cause due to emissions and pollution into the environment. There are many factors that lead to this negative effect of globalization, such as an increased livestock need. India is just one example of many countries experiencing an economic boom with less than appealing results. Many people believe that developing countries have fewer environmental laws that protect the environment. A study by Pulver (2007) reveals that many of these countries have fewer environmental polluters. The researcher goes on to talk about how a developing country such as Africa has little information about how it is helping in the
Andrade 8 greening process. More developed countries such as China and Latin America have firms that release this information to the public and it is more readily available for viewing. The study itself looks at how developing countries are regulating the emissions and pollutions. The following section looks at how pollution and emissions is being regulated by both governments and the people of developed and developing countries.
Regulating Pollution and Emissions Lesser developed countries tend to have regulations that require little attention. A study by M.T. Rock and D.P. Angel (2007) found that “there is also some evidence that countries with weak environmental regulations may emerge as havens for pollutionintensive industries, particularly when new foreign investment involve older, “dirty” technologies.” Many poorer countries do not have programs in effect that properly regulate the emissions and pollutions that industry and vehicles are releasing into the environment. In a study conducted by Kwong (2005), it stated that “globalization will result in a “race to the bottom” as polluting companies relocate to countries with lax environmental standards.” Companies are by-passing strict regulations in developed countries. To avoid fines and putting out more money to fix their emissions and the amount of pollution being released, these industries are moving abroad in many cases. This is a problem that needs to be addressed more closely. These multi-national companies should be environmentally conscious about the world and what they are doing for the future generations. Other countries that have means to regulate pollution and emissions are trying to do so.
Andrade 9 Attractive business conditions draw companies into participating in foreign investments. A study by Jorgenson, Dick and Mahutga (2007) found that “in an additional effort to attract outside investment, less developed countries tend to have lower domestic environmental regulations than developed countries.” This is a key factor for companies looking to make higher profits and cut down on the costs of protecting the environment. Due to these mentioned ideas, the environment is being taken advantage of. There needs to be global policies that apply to all countries across the globe which regulate how much emissions and pollution can be released. The issue of pollution seems to be the last thing on the minds of industry leaders looking to grow their business. Less developed countries do not have the capabilities or the financial means to regulate on their own. Other, more developed countries need to assist less fortunate nations in the global process of lowering emissions and pollution. Regulations in the United States are being put on companies and incentives are being given to industry and employees to help control the emissions. One program that does this is the Environment Protection Agency’s (EPA) Climate Leaders Program. On the EPA website, it states that “Climate Leaders is an EPA industry-government partnership that works with companies to develop comprehensive climate change strategies.” This program looks at the amount of gases being given off by companies and what can be done to reduce them. A similar program was created by DOE. Climate Vision is the Bush administration’s policy that “encourages industry to take voluntary actions using available, cost-effective technologies and best practices to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions intensity” (DOE). The White House has talked about “new bilateral agreements [that] have been established with countries representing over
Andrade 10 70 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions” (White House). The President is assisting other, less fortunate countries in the process of controlling emissions and pollution and to help educate its people about the harmful effects. The European Union is beginning to take action and create programs that better regulate pollution and emissions. Numerous multi-national companies, such as Motorola, have complied with the EU’s environmental directives. A study conducted by M.T. Rock and D.P. Angel (2007), stated that “Motorola maintains a set of core global firm-based environmental standards.” Companies are coming under the watchful eyes of governments and environmentally-conscious groups. Along with industry, car manufacturers are being aided. The European Union (EU) and the European Commission (EC) “negotiated a voluntary agreement with Europe’s vehicle producers…to reduce CO2 emissions from new cars” (Nieuwenhuis and Zapata, 2006). Playing the game of catchup seems to be the issue of industries who have gone through the process of globalization. Governments are trying to aid in this costly process and deliver incentives to those industries that choose to take precautions to save the world’s atmosphere and environment from further damage. People need to regulate emissions and pollution by themselves. Governments can give the public the tools to do so, but the need for change needs to come from the latter. A study by G. Wall (2000) made the point that, “governments can't decree a change in lifestyle--that's got to come from the people themselves. And one of the great benefits, I think, of this conference is creating public awareness of the need to moderate our lifestyles, and use less energy and produce less waste.” Humans create waste and pollute
Andrade 11 the environment. If developed and developing countries are aware of the urgency of change, then the environment may be able to stay as it is, without further damage.
Automobiles Impact on the Environment Along with industry, automobiles have caused massive amounts of the world’s emissions and pollution. The Environmental Protection Agency claims that “technological advances in vehicle and engine design, together with cleaner, higherquality fuels, have reduced emissions so much that EPA expects progress to continue, even as people drive more miles and use more power equipment every year.” This may be the case in the United States and other countries that have gone through the process of globalization, but more cars on the roads are causing mixed results. In India, for example, the amount of cars being driven on the roads is increasing everyday. A 2007 study concluded that “it is well known that the principal human cause of carbon dioxide emissions is the burning of fossil fuels, which takes place in a variety of human activities” (Jorgenson, Dick and Mahutga). Cars are a main contributing factor to pollution across the globe. Automobile manufacturers are realizing that there is a growing need for cars that have lower emissions in more developed nations. A study by Nieuwenhuis and Zapata (2006) writes that “cars are the consumer products with the greatest environmental impact.” A change must be made to satisfy people’s needs for transportation and to regulate how much emissions go into the environment. Hybrid and bio-diesel vehicles are being targeted to environmentally conscious drivers who are seeking a way to lessen the emissions. Although these cars seem to help the problem, there needs to be a larger
Andrade 12 change if the world wants to stop the process that is taking place. More cars on the roads means more emissions. Nieuwenhuis and Zapata (2006) stated that “China alone has the potential to double the environmental impact from human activity.” This means that China is expanding so rapidly that the amount of pollution from vehicles, for example, is permanently harming the environment. Countries such as China and India are two places of concern for environmentalists because of the high increase in automobile usage. Lower emission vehicles only lessen the blow to the environment, but they do not eliminate emissions altogether. The problem that is addressed in this paper is that emissions and pollution due to globalization is destroying the world, rather than creating a better place for everyone to live. Next, an analysis will be conducted using Kenneth Burke’s Pentad/Ratio. It will look at the issue at hand, pollution, and how it affects the world due to globalization. Method of Analysis Globalization “refers to the increasing economic integration and interdependence of countries. Economic globalization in this century has proceeded along two main lines: trade liberalization (the increased circulation of goods) and financial liberalization (the expanded circulation of capital)” (The Halifax Initiative). Globalization changes the economy of the people such that an influx of goods and services is more readily available. Kenneth Burke and his theory of the Pentad/Ratio looks at identification. The issue must first be identified. Here, it is emissions and pollution caused by globalization in the world. Once the issue is defined, the problem can be identified with and this causes people to realize that changes need to be made. Emissions is harming the
Andrade 13 environment and destroying natural resources that are needed for everyday survival. More developed countries are identifying with the problem and looking for different ways of lessening the harm being down to the atmosphere. For the developing nations, pollution is overlooked in many situations. Industry expansion and the growing economy is the concern of the government and its people. The problem has not been fully defined and the people cannot identify with it at this point in time. The idea of form deals with the psychology of the audience. In order to evoke change, the government and other officials need to have an understanding and inform the audience of the issue of pollution and emissions. They must also explain how it will be beneficial to the audience to help resolve the problem. Governments in more developed countries are designing programs to do this. Programs such as EPA’s Climate Leaders Program and DOE’s Climate Vision are designed and implemented for industry use to assist them financially. The public is also given the option of buying hybrid or bio-diesel vehicles to cut down of CO2 emissions. Globalization has its negative effects, but change is being made to reduce emissions and pollution caused by this expansion. Burke’s five terms, which are act, agent, scene, agency and purpose can be useful in this analysis. The act is looking for a way to cut down on emissions and pollution that is going into the environment. Harmful GHG and CO2 are taking its toll on an already badly damaged atmosphere. As of this point in time, there is no fix for what has been done. The agent is the world’s population. Governments, environmentally conscious people and others are looking for a way out of total devastation. Cutting down on driving and offering programs that help industries lower emissions and pollutions only
Andrade 14 temporarily limits the problem. A more dramatic step by the agents needs to be taken in order to battle a deadly killer that could potentially cause future generations to cease to exist. The scene is the world’s environment. Pollutants are depleting the ozone layer and it can never be repaired. CO2 and greenhouse gases from cars, waste products and other related factors harm the air we breathe and destroy natural resources. As countries begin the process of globalization and rapidly expand, more pollution occurs. The environment is only capable of sustaining life if its resources are not damaged and overused. Emissions need to be eliminated or cut back drastically in order to stop what is happening all around the world every day. Agency and purpose, according to Kenneth Burke, deal with a reason to make change and how it will happen. The public needs to be educated about what will happen if they do not change their lifestyles. The industries also need to make changes, although this will have to come from money in their own pockets. There is only one world and it seems that change is coming at a time when it could possibly have no effect. The purpose of cutting emissions and pollution is to help people breathe better and protect the ozone layer. Without a protective layer from the sun, earth would be a hot planet that cannot hold human life. Kenneth Burke draws up the point that “if action, then drama; if drama, then conflict, if conflict, then victimage” (Golden, Berquist, Coleman and Sproule). The action occurs when governments begin to design programs to assist people in the lowering of emissions and pollution. The drama is that people are seeing the issue and becoming afraid about what could happen if nothing changes. The conflict is deciding
Andrade 15 how to make these changes and if it will help the future of the world. The world’s population has become the victims. The environment is heavily damaged and it is irreversible. There is nothing can be done to stop emissions and pollution because the world keeps expanding. The only available means of change is lowering the amount of emissions so that it remains the same or slightly lower than today’s amounts. Looking at the projected numbers for the coming years, it seems that this is a dream that will likely not be reached. Discussion The toll that globalization has taken on the environment is enormous. Emissions and pollution continue to harm the environment in irreversible ways. Changes can help lessen the devastation, but it does not fix the problem fully. Harmful greenhouse gases (GHG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are given off by waste products created by industries and cars. Governmental programs try to address the issue and offer assistance to the public. The concentration on growing, rather than the pollution that was and is occurring, has caused what is happening today. The atmosphere is diminishing at this very moment in time. There is no way to stop what has been taking place. Companies need to manufacture goods for the public. The consumption of those goods is what keeps the industry in business. Pollution, from items that are no longer of use and the waste products of companies, is a problem. The government is only able to do a certain amount to protect the environment. In the United States, and other countries around the world, there are programs in place to give money or benefits to people who recycle or cut down on pollution. The idea of such programs seems to be in good nature, but they will most likely not solve the problem.
Andrade 16 The Future of the World The timing for change may be too late. The damage has been done and there is little that anyone can do about it. The public needs to have means of transportation and goods to survive in today’s world. Pollution and emissions is not going away. Unless there is a big change and emissions are regulated to a much lesser amount, the environment may not survive. Many countries have projected dates for programs that cut down on emissions, but it will be too late. Future generations are going to see a different world than what our parents and our generation has grown up in. The pollution is going to continue to expand as more countries across the globe go through the process of globalization. Keeping up with current times and the economy is a concern for all nations. Money is important to these people and the environment is a side note. As many of the studies that have been used in this paper have stated, pollution is devastating. No one fully knows what will happen in the coming decades. Governments are now understanding emissions and pollution and passing it down to the public. Education is coming at a time when learning about the problem is the only thing that can be done. This paper looks at what harm has been done, what steps are being taken to alleviate the strain on the environment, and what the future will hold for these countries. The information that has been gathered for this research paper all points to the inevitable, a polluted world where life may not survive.
Conclusion Globalization can have many negative effects on the country which it changes. The expansion of industry brings about more pollution into the atmosphere. This is a
Andrade 17 never ending process. More goods and services are positive for the economy because it gives people choices about what they want to purchase. Countries that have undergone the process of globalization overlook the pollution that is escaping into the atmosphere. Growing is the main concern for the country. Often than not, by the time pollution and emissions is addressed, it is too late. More developed countries, such as the United States, have the available means to adapt programs to control emissions and pollution. The EPA’s Climate Leaders Program, and the DOE’s Climate Vision program are just two examples that directly helps industries change the way they manufacture goods and how much pollution is given off. Developing countries do not have the means to fully
attend to the pollution problem. The economy is trying to strive. Money is difficult to come by and emissions are not accurately regulated to the highest standards. Along with industry pollution, there is a concern for automobile emissions. Globalization expands the given country’s economy. Due to this change, more people need transportation around the growing cities. Emissions, in the developing nations are not a main concern because the government isn’t fully aware of the problem. Pollution is given off by the vehicles and the atmosphere is taking the largest hit. In more developed countries, the government is now beginning to understand the issue that emissions and pollution is bringing up. Greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide are released into the environment and the effects are not reversible. Automobile manufacturers are seeing this concern in earth conscious drivers and are adapting appropriately. New hybrid cars and bio-diesel engines are starting to gain more attention. These vehicles are supposed to have lower emissions and pollution. In the developing nations, it may be more difficult
Andrade 18 to purchase such vehicles though. Something needs to be done soon, but it might already be too late.
Andrade 19 Works Cited “Addressing global climate change.” The White House. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/ceq/global-change.html.> Claudio, L. (Sept. 2007). Waste couture: Environmental impact of the clothing industry. Environmental Health Perspectives. 115(9), A448-A454. DOE <http://www.doe.gov/.> Golden, J.L., Berquist, G.F., Coleman, W.E., Sproule, J.M.. (2007) The rhetoric of western thought. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, Iowa. Ninth edition. Grumbine, R. (March 2007). China's emergence and the prospects for global sustainability. Bioscience. 57(3), 249-255. James. (April 2008). “Japan wants developing countries to cut down on emissions.” Japan Probe. <http://www.japanprobe.com/?p=4200.> Jorgenson, A.K. Dick, C., Mahutga, M.C.. (Aug. 2007). Foreign investment dependence and the environment: An ecostructural approach. Social Problems. 54(3), 371394. Kwong, J. (Jan./Feb. 2005). Globalization’s effects on the environment. Society. 42(2), 21-28. Lowe, I. (2004). Globalisation, environment and social justice. Social Alternatives. 23(4 37-41. Mobile source emissions. (July 2007). United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). <http://www.epa.gov/OMS/.> Molchanov, M.A. (2005). Regionalism and globalization: The case of the European
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