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Topography: The shape of the land (hills, mounds etc.)
The Drainage Basin System
Pores: Tiny gaps in the soil. Macro pores are larger and caused by roots.
The only input to the system where water molecules in any form that fall from the atmosphere to the surface, such as rain, snow and hail. A store where parts of plants get in the way of precipitation, storing it on their leaves. A transfer where water drips off of leaves and vegetation to the surface below. A store of water on top of the top layer of soil or rock, such as glaciers, lakes, puddles and reservoirs. A transfer of water from the surface to the soil as water soaks into pores in the ground. A store of water within the pores in the soil beneath the surface. The transfer whereby water moves downward within the rock under the soil. The store of water beneath the water table. The slow transfer of water from the water table to rivers and lakes, keeping them topped up, even in the heat of the summer.
Factors which effect this
- Climate - Speed of evaporation - Wind - Latitude - Altitude - Topography - Amount of moisture in the atmosphere - Temperature - Season - Density of leaves - Type of plant
Interception Through fall Surface storage
- Type of vegetation (can effect carrying capacity of leaves) - Amount of precipitation - Temperature - Vegetation - Type of surface - Gradient - Topography - Amount of rainfall - Vegetation - Altitude - Distance from water table
- Compaction & permeability - Antecedent moisture - Type of precipitation
Soil water store Percolation Groundwater Store Groundwater Flow
- Type of soil (effects compaction etc) - Vegetation (can cause macro pores) - Geology (permeability of the rock) - Volume of water - Geology -Seasons - Topography - Geology Antecedent Moisture: Amount of water in the soil before additional precipitation - Water tables - Antecedent moisture - Topography
Water Table: The level of water beneath the surface in rocks and soil
Rhys Wall Permeability: The ability for water and gases to travel through a material. Impermeable is when it can t. The drainage basin system is an open system with 1 input, a series of stores and transfers and 3 outputs. Open system: The system has inputs and outputs, meaning that the system can contain variable amounts of water.
Vegetation store Evaporation
The store of water in plants that the plant has extracted from the soil store. The output whereby energy from the sun and the wind heats water, causing it to change state and become water vapour. The output when water is lost through vegetation as it evaporates. The transfer directly between water molecules in the air and the river as the precipitation lands in the river channel. The transfer of water that runs over the land to a water channel from surface storage. The transfer of water through the soil to rivers and lakes, helping to top them up during the summer. The store of water in the river channel that can be fed by channel fall, surface run-off, throughflow and Baseflow. The output from the system whereby water leaves the river mouth and enters the ocean. -Temperature - Season
Factors which effect this
- Type of plant - Density of leaves
- Volume of water - Air temperature - Amount of interception - Surface area of vegetation - Water saturation in vegetation - Size (area) of the channel - Amount of precipitation - Surface type (permeability) - Presence of obstructions - Soil type - Topography - Geology - Season - Shape of river bed - Topography - Human infrastructure (dams) - Topography - Volume of water - Air temperature
Surface run-off Through flow Channel store
- Sediment in river