Hydromax

Windows Version 15

User Manual

© Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd 1984 - 2009

License and Copyright
Hydromax Program © 1985-2009 Formation Design Systems. Hydromax is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. The license for use is granted to the purchaser by Formation Design Systems as a single user license and does not permit the program to be used on more than one machine at one time. Copying of the program to other media is permitted for back-up purposes as long as all copies remain in the possession of the purchaser. Hydromax User Manual © 2009 Formation Design Systems. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form or by any means, without the written permission of Formation Design Systems. Formation Design Systems reserves the right to revise this publication from time to time and to make changes to the contents without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY Neither Formation Design Systems, nor the author of this program and documentation are liable or responsible to the purchaser or user for loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the software and its attendant documentation, including (but not limited to) interruption on service, loss of business, or anticipatory profits. No Formation Design Systems‟ distributor, agent, or employee is authorized to make any modification, extension, or addition to this warranty.

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Contents

Contents
License and Copyright...................................................................................................... iii Contents .............................................................................................................................. v About this Manual .............................................................................................................. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction........................................................................................................ 3 Input Model .............................................................................................................. 3 Analysis Types ......................................................................................................... 4 Analysis Settings ...................................................................................................... 4 Environment Options ............................................................................................... 4 Stability Criteria ....................................................................................................... 5 Output....................................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 2 Quickstart ........................................................................................................... 7 Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart .............................................................................. 7 Large Angle Stability Quickstart ............................................................................. 8 Equilibrium Condition Quickstart ............................................................................ 9 Specified Condition Quickstart .............................................................................. 10 KN Values Quickstart ............................................................................................ 10 Limiting KG Quickstart ......................................................................................... 11 Floodable Length Quickstart .................................................................................. 12 Longitudinal Strength Quickstart ........................................................................... 13 Tank Calibrations Quickstart ................................................................................. 13 Probabilistic Damage Quickstart............................................................................ 14 Chapter 3 Using Hydromax .............................................................................................. 15 Getting Started ....................................................................................................... 15 Installing Hydromax .................................................................................... 15 Starting Hydromax ....................................................................................... 15 Hydromax Model ................................................................................................... 16 Preparing a Design in Maxsurf .................................................................... 17 Opening a New Design ................................................................................ 20 Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File ............................................... 21 Effect of Zero Point change ......................................................................... 23 Updating the Hydromax Model ................................................................... 25 Hydromax Sections Forming ....................................................................... 26 Checking the Hydromax model ................................................................... 29 Setting Initial Conditions ............................................................................. 31 Working with Loadcases.............................................................................. 35 Modelling Compartments ............................................................................ 48 Tank sections ............................................................................................... 58 Forming Compartments ............................................................................... 59 Compartment Types ..................................................................................... 65 Sounding Pipes ............................................................................................ 66 Damage Case Definition .............................................................................. 68 Key Points (e.g. Down Flooding Points) ..................................................... 71 Margin Line Points ...................................................................................... 73 Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments ................................. 73 Floodable Length Bulkheads ....................................................................... 74 Stability Criteria........................................................................................... 74 Analysis Types ....................................................................................................... 74 Upright Hydrostatics .................................................................................... 75 Large Angle Stability ................................................................................... 77 Equilibrium Analysis ................................................................................... 84 Specified Conditions .................................................................................... 87
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Contents

KN Values Analysis..................................................................................... 89 Limiting KG................................................................................................. 92 Limiting KG for damage conditions with initially loaded tanks.................. 95 Floodable Length ......................................................................................... 99 Longitudinal Strength ................................................................................ 102 Tank Calibrations ....................................................................................... 104 Probabilistic Damage ................................................................................. 107 Starting and Stopping Analyses ................................................................. 127 Batch Analysis ........................................................................................... 128 Analysis Settings .................................................................................................. 130 Heel ............................................................................................................ 131 Trim ........................................................................................................... 132 Draft ........................................................................................................... 134 Displacement ............................................................................................. 134 Specified Conditions .................................................................................. 135 Permeability ............................................................................................... 135 Tolerances .................................................................................................. 135 Analysis Environment Options ............................................................................ 137 Fluids Analysis Methods ........................................................................... 137 Density of Fluids........................................................................................ 140 Waveform .................................................................................................. 141 Grounding .................................................................................................. 143 Stability Criteria......................................................................................... 144 Damage ...................................................................................................... 144 Analysis Output.................................................................................................... 144 Reporting ................................................................................................... 145 Copying & Printing.................................................................................... 147 Select View from Analysis Data ................................................................ 148 Saving the Hydromax Design .................................................................... 149 Exporting ................................................................................................... 150 Chapter 4 Stability Criteria ............................................................................................. 153 Criteria Concepts.................................................................................................. 153 Criteria List Overview ............................................................................... 153 Types of criteria ......................................................................................... 156 Criteria Procedures ............................................................................................... 157 Starting the Criteria dialog ......................................................................... 157 Resizing the Criteria dialog ....................................................................... 158 Working with Criteria ................................................................................ 158 Editing Criteria .......................................................................................... 160 Working with Criteria Libraries................................................................. 162 Criteria Results ..................................................................................................... 164 Criteria Results Table ................................................................................ 164 Report and Batch Processing ..................................................................... 166 Nomenclature ....................................................................................................... 166 Definitions of GZ curve features ............................................................... 166 Glossary ..................................................................................................... 169 Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference ..................................................................................... 171 Windows .............................................................................................................. 171 Assembly View and Property Sheet .......................................................... 171 View Window ............................................................................................ 171 Loadcase Window...................................................................................... 173 Damage Window ....................................................................................... 173 Input Window ............................................................................................ 174

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................................. 209 Section Area Coefficient ........................................................................................................... 211 RM at 1 deg.................................................. 218 vii .......................................................... 204 Coefficient parameters ................................................................ 201 Appendix A: Calculation of Form Parameters ........................... 191 Case Menu .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 200 Help Menu ................... 213 Reference Calculations................................. 181 Toolbars .........Contents Results Window .......................................................... 211 Immersion .................................................................................................... 212 Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations ............................................................... 185 Window Toolbar .......................................................................................... 211 MTc or MTi ................. 196 Data Menu................................................................................................. 209 Prismatic Coefficient ............................................................ 185 Edge VIsibility Toolbar ................... 204 Length .................... 212 Integration of wetted surface area ..................................... 209 Waterplane Area Coefficient ............................................................................................................................. 193 Display Menu....... 186 Report Toolbar ... 193 Analysis Menu ............................................................................................................................................................... 184 Analysis Toolbar ..................................................................................................... 214 Appendix B: Criteria file format .......... 186 Render Toolbar ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 205 Beam ...... 186 Menus ............................................................................................................................................... 187 Edit Menu ......................................................................................................................................................... 186 Extra Buttons ToolbarToolbar ............................................................................................... 218 Parent calculations ........................................................................................................ 186 View (extended) Toolbar ...................................................................................... 207 Midship and Max Area Sections ................................................................................... 175 Graph Window..... 186 Design Grid Toolbar ................. 200 Window Menu ................................................................. 202 Measurement Reference Frames ................................................................................................... 202 Definition and calculation of form parameters ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Report Window ................. 208 Block Coefficient .................... 189 View Menu ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 185 Design Grid Toolbar ............................... 206 Draft ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 184 File Toolbar.................. 187 File Menu .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 184 Edit Toolbar ......................................................... 212 Reference Designs......................................................................................................................................................... 202 Nomenclature ............................. 216 Appendix C: Criteria Help............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 184 View Toolbar ........................................................................................... 210 LCG and LCB .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 185 Visibility Toolbar ................. 210 Trim angle . 211 Maximum deck inclination ...................

................................................................................................................................................................................... 289 Analysis settings reference table .............................................. 228 GZ Curve Criteria (non-heeling arm) .................... 218 Parent Heeling Arms ......................................................... 226 Parent Stability Criteria ............................. 277 Dynamic stability criteria ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 279 IMO HSC Code MSC..........................................36(63) ......................................................................................................................... 283 ISO 12217-1:2002(E) ...... 272 Specific stand alone heeling arm criteria ................................ 220 Parent Heeling Moments ........................................................................................................Contents Selecting a calculation in a criterion ...............................................................................................................................................................Note on unit conversion . .......................... 289 File Extension Reference Table ....................... 219 Heeling Arm Definition ..............................749(18) amended to MSC..... 277 Capsizing moment ...... 274 Appendix D: Specific Criteria .................................................................................................................................. 218 Angle calculators ............................................................................................................... 273 Stand alone heeling arm criteria ........... 259 Heeling arm.................... 290 Index .................. 284 ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation.................................................................. 291 viii .... 286 Appendix E: Reference Tables .....75(69)................. 268 Other combined criteria ....................................................... 265 Derived heeling arm criteria .......... combined criteria.................................................................................... 281 USL code (Australia) .................................................................... 228 Criteria at Equilibrium .................................. 277 Heeling arms for specific criteria ................ 230 Heeling arm criteria (xRef) ......................................................... 274 Stand alone heeling arm combined criteria .................................................................................................................... 279 IMO Code on Intact Stability A................................................................... 247 Multiple heeling arm criteria ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 246 Heeling arm criteria ...

please read the owner's manual supplied with your computer. Chapter 1 Introduction Contains a description of Hydromax functionality and its interface to Maxsurf Chapter 2 Quickstart Gives a quick walk through the analysis tools available in Hydromax. Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Gives details of Hydromax' windows and each of Hydromax' menu commands.About this Manual About this Manual This manual describes how to use Hydromax to perform hydrostatic and stability analyses on your Maxsurf design. This will introduce you to commonly used terms and the basic techniques for using any computer program. Page 1 . Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Explains how to use Hydromax' powerful floatation and hydrostatic analysis routines to best advantage. If you are unfamiliar with Microsoft Windows® interface. Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Gives details of the stability criteria that may be evaluated with Hydromax.

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immersion and embarkation points. Hydromax adds extra information to the Maxsurf surface model. Hydromax‟ analysis tools enable a wide range of hydrostatic and stability characteristics to be determined for your Maxsurf design. The loadcase allows static weights and tankfillings to be specified and calculates the corresponding weights and centres of gravity as well as the total weight and centre of gravity of the vessel under the specified loading condition. Hydromax is designed in a logical manner. This allows visual checking of compartments and shows the orientation of the vessel during analysis. the model can be displayed using hull contour lines. Other input consists of: tank sounding pipes. which makes it easy to use.Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction Hydromax is a hydrostatics. stability and longitudinal strength program specifically designed to work with Maxsurf. such as downflooding points. rendering or transparent rendering. Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity. This direct transfer preserves the three-dimensional accuracy of the Maxsurf model. key points. Tanks and compartments can be flooded for the purpose of calculating the effects of damage. Input Model Maxsurf design files may be opened directly into Hydromax. A number of loadcases can be created. margin lines and section modulus. This includes: compartments and key points such as downflooding points and margin line. Loadgroups may also be created and cross referenced into loadcases. centre of gravity and free surface moment. The following steps are followed when performing an analysis: Input model Analysis type selection Analysis settings Environment options Criteria specification and selection Run analysis Output Hydromax operates in the same graphical environment as Maxsurf. Page 3 . A number of environmental setting options and modifiers add further analysis capabilities to Hydromax. eliminating the need for time-consuming digitising of drawings or hand typing of offsets.

different analyses may require different settings. Analysis Settings The analysis settings describe the condition of the vessel to be tested. Environment Options Environmental options are modifiers that may be applied to the model or its environment that will affect the results of the all the hydrostatic analysis types.Chapter 1 Introduction Analysis Types Hydromax contains the following analysis tools: Upright hydrostatics Large angle stability Equilibrium analysis Specified Condition analysis KN values and cross curves of stability Limiting KG analysis Floodable Length analysis Longitudinal Strength analysis Tank Calibrations Although common analysis settings are used where possible. whereas the longitudinal strength analysis requires a detailed load distribution. For example: the upright hydrostatics analysis simply requires a range of drafts. or a range of heel angles for a large angle stability analysis. For example. Settings that are not relevant to the selected analysis type are greyed out in the Analysis menu. The following analysis settings are available: Heel Trim Draft Displacement Permeability Specified condition The analysis settings are specified prior to running the analysis. The analysis settings for each analysis type are explained in detail in the analysis synopsis below. a range of drafts in the case of upright hydrostatics. Page 4 .

gravity and buoyancy are also displayed. Limiting KG and Floodable length analyses also use stability criteria. These criteria are either derived from the properties of the stability curve calculated from a Large Angle Stability analysis or from the vessel‟s orientation and stability properties calculated from an Equilibrium analysis.Chapter 1 Introduction Depending on the analysis being performed. The centres of flotation. Page 5 . or output directly to a Word document. In addition. different environmental options may be applied to the Hydromax: Type of Fluid Simulation Density (of fluids) Wave form Grounding Intact and Damage condition Stability Criteria Hydromax has the capability to calculate compliance with a wide range of stability criteria. For a brief overview of the different analysis that Hydromax has available. copied and printed). complete with immersed sectional areas and actual waterlines. All results are accumulated in the Report window (which can be saved. or as graphs of the various parameters across the full range of calculation. The criteria checks are summarised in tables listing the status (pass/fail) of each criterion as well as the margin. Hydromax has a generic set of parent criteria from which virtually any stability criterion can be customized. Heeled and trimmed hullforms and water plane shapes may be printed. continue reading Chapter 2 Quickstart. either in tabular form. Output Views of the hull are shown for each stage of the analysis. Results are stored and may be reviewed at any time. The criterion settings and intermediate calculation data may also be displayed if required. Hydromax has an extensive range of stability criteria to determine compliance with a wide range of international stability regulations.

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trim is fixed at a user defined value and draft is varied in fixed steps. settings and environment options in more detail. Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart For Upright Hydrostatics. Upright hydrostatics requirements Page 7 . Displacement and centre of buoyancy and other hydrostatic data are calculated during the analysis. For each analysis type. Hydromax contains the following analysis types Upright Hydrostatics Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Condition Specified Condition KN Values Limiting KG Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Tank Calibrations Each analysis has different settings that may be applied Heel Trim Draft Displacement Specified condition Permeability Loadcase Tank and compartment definition Hydromax offers different environment options that may be applied to the analyses Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Grounding Damage Hydromax offers an extensive range of stability criteria that are applicable to equilibrium.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Chapter 2 Quickstart This chapter will briefly describe each analysis type and its output. heel is fixed at zero heel. The Analysis types section describes each of the analysis types. large angle stability. a list of the required settings as well as the available environment options is given. limiting KG and Floodable length analysis.

These additional data depend on which (if any) stability criteria have been selected. if the model is free-to-trim. A graph of these values at the various heel angles forms a GZ curve. the horizontal distance between the centres of gravity and buoyancy. curves for wind heeling and passenger crowding levers and the angle of the first downflooding point. A range of heel angles are specified and Hydromax calculates the righting lever and other hydrostatic data at each of these heel angles by balancing the loadcase displacement against the hull buoyancy and. Various other information is often overlaid on the GZ curve. displacement and centre of gravity are specified in the loadcase. Page 8 . curves of form and sectional area at each draft are available. Large Angle Stability Quickstart For the analysis of Large Angle Stability. including upright GM. Large angle stability requirements Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Loadcase or loadgroup Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Large angle stability options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) Key points Margin line and deck edge Analysis of stability criteria The key output value is GZ (or righting lever).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Range of drafts to be analysed VCG (for calculation of some stability characteristics such as GMt and GMl only) Trim Upright hydrostatic options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) The results are tabulated and graphs of the hydrostatic data. the centre of gravity against the centre of buoyancy such that the trimming moment is zero. For more detailed information please see: Upright Hydrostatics on page 75.

If a wave form has been specified there will be a number of columns. each column contains the results for a different position of the vessel in the wave as given by the wave phase value. Maximum safe steady heel angle The sectional area curve at each of the heel angles tested may also be displayed. margin line and deck edge. For more detailed information please see: Large Angle Stability on page 77. integrated from upright) Variations of other hydrostatic and form parameters may be plotted against heel angle. Downflooding angles for any key points. Hydromax iterates to find the draft.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A number of other graphs may be selected from the pull-down list in the graph window. heel and trim that satisfy equilibrium and reports the equilibrium hydrostatics and a cross sectional areas curve. Note that some of these graphs have parameters that may be adjusted in the Data Format dialog If large angle stability criteria have been selected for analysis. Page 9 . The sectional area curve is also calculated. Remember that you can access this data in tabular form by double clicking in the graph window: Dynamic stability curve (Area under GZ curve. Equilibrium analysis requirements Loadcase or loadgroup Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage) Equilibrium analysis options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Grounding Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) Key points Margin line and deck edge Analysis of equilibrium criteria Equilibrium analysis result table lists the hydrostatic properties of the model. Any equilibrium criteria will also be evaluated and their results reported. as is the freeboard to any defined key points. to calculate the displacement and the location of the centre of gravity. these results will also be reported in the criteria results table and they may lead to additional curves being displayed on the GZ curve. margin line and deck edge will also be computed and tabulated. Equilibrium Condition Quickstart Equilibrium Analysis uses the Loadcase.

you may enter the trim or specify the forward and aft drafts (these are at the perpendiculars as specified in the Frame of Reference dialog). KN Values Analysis Requirements Page 10 . Specified Condition Requirements Specified Conditions Input Dialog If fixed trim is specified. KN Values Quickstart KN values or Cross Curves of Stability are useful for assessing the stability of a vessel if its VCG is unknown. The KN data may then be used to obtain the GZ curve for any centre of gravity height (KG) using the following formula: GZ = KN .KG * sin(Heel) where GZ is the righting lever measured transversely between the Centre of Buoyancy and the Centre of Gravity. They may be calculated for a number of displacements before the height of the centre of gravity is known. Specified Conditions options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) The output for the specified condition consists of a curve of cross sectional areas and hydrostatics of the vessel in the specified condition. and KG is the distance from the baseline to the vessel's effective Vertical Centre of Gravity.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax For more detailed information please see: Equilibrium Analysis on page 84. for which the hydrostatic properties of the model are to be calculated. For more detailed information please see Specified Conditions on page 87. Specified Condition Quickstart In the specified condition each of the three degrees of freedom. can be set.

At each of the specified displacements. For more detailed information please see KN Values Analysis on page 89. the centre of gravity is increased until one of the criteria fails. If the analysis is performed free-to-trim and an estimate of the VCG is known. this may be specified. Hydromax runs several Large Angle Stability analyses at different KGs. This may be done for a range of vessel displacements. Limiting KG Quickstart The Limiting KG analysis may be used to obtain the highest vertical position of the centre of gravity (maximum KG) for which the selected stability criteria are just passed. The computed KN results will then give a more accurate estimate of GZ for KG close to the estimated VCG since the effects of VCG on trim have been more accurately accounted for. The selected stability criteria are evaluated.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Range of displacements to be analysed Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Estimate of VCG (provides more accurate result if free-to-trim) TCG (if required) KN Values Analysis Options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) Output is in the form of a table of KN values and a graph of Cross Curves of Stability. Limiting KG Analysis Requirements Range of displacements to be analysed Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Stability criteria for which limiting KG is to be found TCG (if required) Limiting KG Analysis Options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) Laodcase (in case of initial loading of damaged tanks) Key points (if required for criteria) Margin line and deck edge (if required for criteria) Page 11 .

if the intact condition is used. only intact criteria will be evaluated. this may be done in the Batch Analysis mode. Only relevant criteria will be used.to. such as angle of maximum GZ. the LCG may be specified directly or calculated from a specified initial trim. only damage criteria will be evaluated. Floodable Length Quickstart This analysis mode is used to compute the maximum compartment lengths based on user-specified equilibrium criteria. Floodable Lengths may be computed for a range of displacements. In addition a range of permeabilities may be specified. If the analysis is unable to converge for a certain displacement this will be noted and the next displacement tried. if a damage case is chosen. Some criteria.trim to either initial trim or specified LCG) Floodable length criteria to be tested Margin line and deck edge (required for criteria) Floodable Length Analysis Options Fluid Densities Wave form Page 12 . For more detailed information see Limiting KG on page 92. however at least one large angle stability criterion is required. As well as the standard deck edge and margin line immersion criteria (one of which must be specified) the user can also add criteria for maximum trim angle and minimum required values of longitudinal and transverse metacentric height. are very insensitive to VCG and may prevent the analysis converging. A check will be made to ensure that any selected equilibrium criteria are passed. i. The VCG is also required to ensure accurate balance of the CG against the CB at high angles of trim. Floodable Length Analysis Requirements Range of displacements to be analysed VCG Range of permeabilities to be analysed Trim (free.e.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A graph of maximum permissible GZ plotted against vessel displacement is produced as well as tabulated results indicating which stability criteria limited the VCG. If limiting curves are required for each of the stability criteria individually.

Longitudinal Strength Analysis Requirements Loadcase (including distributed loads if required) Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Longitudinal Strength Analysis Options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation is always used for Longitudinal Strength analysis Wave form Grounding Damage Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage) Allowable shear and bending moment The longitudinal strength graph and tables contain all information on weight and buoyancy distribution. but the vessel's trim may be specified. the shear force and bending moment on the vessel. Tank ullages are measured from the top of the sounding pipe to the free surface of the liquid within the tank along the sounding pipe and in a similar manner. Tank calibrations are for the upright (zero heel) vessel. soundings are measured from the bottom of the sounding pipe to the free surface. For more detailed information please see Longitudinal Strength on page 102. Longitudinal Strength Quickstart Hydromax calculates the net load from the buoyancy and weight distribution of the model. The data is tabulated for each of the stations as defined in Maxsurf. Tank calibration analysis requirements Tank definitions Sounding pipe definition (if required) Sounding intervals for calibration levels Trim Page 13 . The data is also presented graphically. Fluid densities and tank permeabilities can be varied arbitrarily. That data is then used to calculate the bending moment and shear force on the vessel. If defined. Tank Calibrations Quickstart Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity. graphs of allowable shear and bending moment are superimposed on the graph. For more detailed information please see Floodable Length on page 99.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The output is in the form of tabulated Floodable Lengths for each displacement and permeability. taking into account the vessel trim. Hydromax uses its fluid simulation mode to calculate the actual position of the fluids in the tanks. centre of gravity and free surface moment (FSM).

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tank calibration analysis options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation always selected Damage: Intact case always selected For each tank. Probabilistic Damage Quickstart Attained index using probabilistic damage analysis may be computed. These results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. a table of capacities. For more detailed information please see Tank Calibrations on page 104. volumes etc. Page 14 . Probabilistic damage analysis requirements Loadcase definitions Tank and compartmentation definition Main probabilistic damage analysis parameters and criteria setup Subdivision definitions Heel angle range for GZ curve calculation Trim Probabilistic damage analysis options Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Key points Margin line and deck edge For more detailed information please see the Probabilistic Damage section. is calculated.

Windows Registry Certain preferences used by Hydromax are stored in the Windows registry. click OK. You will be asked if you wish to clear the preferences.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This chapter describes Getting Started Hydromax Model Analysis Types Analysis Settings Analysis Environment Options Analysis Output Getting Started This section contains everything you need to do to start using Hydromax Installing Hydromax Starting Hydromax Installing Hydromax Install Hydromax by inserting the CD and running the Setup program. Note: Before installing any program from the Maxsurf suite for the first time. or you may simply want to revert back to the default configuration. Simply select Hydromax from the Maxsurf menu item under Programs in the Start menu. please read the purchase letter (also referred to as installation manual). then follow the instructions on screen. Hydromax should be accessible through the Start Menu. The following preferences are stored in the registry: Page 15 . It is possible for this data to become corrupted. Starting Hydromax After installation. To clear the Hydromax preferences. start the program with the Shift key depressed. doing this will reset all the preferences.

Setting Initial Conditions Depending on the analysis performed. these may be reset by holding down the shift key when activating them) Density of fluids Heel angles for large angle stability. the next step is to check the Hydromax settings and initial analysis conditions. you may need to set up the following additional model data: Page 16 . All hydrostatic calculations use this.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Colour and line thickness settings of contours and background Fonts Window size and location Size of resizing dialogs (alternatively. Hydromax Model This section describes how to open a Maxsurf model in Hydromax and provides some important information to ensure that your model is correctly interpreted by Hydromax. Check the density of seawater after resetting your preferences. Preparing a Design in Maxsurf Opening a New Design Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File Updating the Hydromax Model Hydromax Sections Forming Checking the Hydromax model After checking the Hydromax model. It is recommended to save your customized densities with your project using the File | Save Densities As command. KN and Limiting KG analyses Permeabilities for floodable length analysis Location of files Units for data input and results output Convergence tolerance (Error values) Maximum number of loadcases Reporting preferences Note: The default density for the fluid labelled "Sea Water" is stored in the windows registry.

the baseline and the datum waterline. midships is automatically defined midway between the perpendiculars. However it is possible to specify upto nine additional locations at which the drafts should be reported. The Frame of reference should not be changed in Hydromax. The perpendiculars define the longitudinal positions of the vessel‟s draft marks and cannot be coincident. The frame of reference defines the fore and aft perpendiculars. This is done through the Data | Draft Marks dialog.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Working with Loadcases Modelling Compartments Forming Compartments Compartment Types Damage Case Definition Sounding Pipes Key Points (e. In Hydromax you have the option of displaying longitudinal measurements such as LCB or LCF from the model zero point or amidships. A consistent zero point and frame of reference should be used for the model throughout the Maxsurf suite. the vessel‟s bow is on the right. in the profile and plan views. The frame of reference cannot be changed in Hydromax. Page 17 .g. Down Flooding Points) Margin Line Points Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments Stability Criteria Preparing a Design in Maxsurf There are several important checks that must be carried out in Maxsurf before opening a design in Hydromax: Setting the Zero Point Setting the Frame of Reference Surface Use Skin Thickness Outside Arrows Trimming Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model Setting the Zero Point Ensure that the zero point is correctly setup in Maxsurf. By convention. The base line is the datum from which the drafts and KG are measured. Setting the Frame of Reference It is vital that the Frame of Reference is correctly setup in Maxsurf before attempting to analyse the model in Hydromax.

To include skin thickness. Skin Thickness Hull Shell Internal Structure If skin thickness is to be used in hydrostatic calculations. Thickness can be specified differently for each hull surface. Internal structure Internal structure surfaces are used for all other surfaces (any surfaces which do not make up the watertight envelope) and also surfaces which are to be used in Hydromax to define the boundaries of tanks and compartments that have complex shapes. it is not included as part of the hull shell by Hydromax. The following table describes the difference between each surface use in Hydromax: Included: Hydrostatic sections Selection of tank/compartment boundaries Skin thickness applied to the surface Verify that all surfaces that are to be used as tank/compartment boundaries are defined as Internal Structure. If a surface is defined as internal structure.e. Page 18 . Skin thickness for hull surfaces will be treated so that the hull sections go to the outside of the plate whilst any tanks are trimmed to the inside of the plate. Surface Use In Maxsurf you can choose between two types of surface use Hull Hull surfaces are used to define the watertight envelope of the hull. Note Tank boundaries made from internal structures surfaces do not have skin thickness. resulting in more accurate hydrostatics. the internal structure surface should be placed to model the inside of the tank if the tank wall has significant thickness. To activate skin thickness in Hydromax ensure that the “Include Skin Thickness” option is selected when reading the file or calculating the hull sections.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Draft and Trim specification It should be remembered that the drafts specified for an analysis are the drafts at the perpendiculars (or amidships) and the trim specified (and reported) is the difference between the draft at the AP and draft at the FP. i. ensure that the thickness and projection direction have been specified for the hull shell surfaces. internal surfaces will be ignored in the forming of hydrostatic sections.

the deck).g. Also see: Hydromax Sections Forming on page 26 Checking the Hydromax model on page 29 Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model Hydromax will generally have no problem correctly interpreting your design as long as the following requirements for the Maxsurf model are observed: Page 19 . Correct Section with no opening. Trimming Ensure that all surfaces are trimmed correctly. Correct section with one opening: this section will be closed across the top. Ensure that you have used the Outside Arrows command from the Maxsurf Display menu to define which direction points outwards (towards the seawater) for each surface. At any longitudinal position on the hull. The surface direction may be flipped by clicking on the end of the arrow.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Outside Arrows The surfaces‟ outside arrows define the orientation of the surfaces. you should have completely closed transverse sections or sections with at most one opening (e.

then select Open Design from the File menu. trim away the excess regions of the surface. The meaning of (ignore existing data.g.msd). Use Trimmed Surfaces If the Maxsurf model has trimmed surfaces. any surface thickness specified in the Maxsurf Surface Properties dialog may be included. Page 20 . Also see: Checking the Hydromax model on page 29. These will then be used for the Hydrostatics calculations. Hydromax will automatically look for compartment definition files when you are in a Compartment Definition window and a loadcase in a Loadcase window. the Use Trimmed Surfaces item should be ticked.e.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Make sure that each surface touches its adjacent surfaces at its edge. Include Plating Thickness At this stage. e. internal structure surfaces are ignored when forming the hull sections in Hydromax Note: For groups internal structure surfaces that will be used to define tank (or compartment boundaries) the same requirements apply. a maximum of one gap in a transverse section through the hull. if any) is explained in Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File. The following dialog will appear: Calculate new Sections Choosing Calculate Sections will calculate the specified number of sections through the hull. i.e. Remember that the inner portions of each intersecting contour will be trimmed off Check surface use. i. Choose a Maxsurf design file (. the part of the keel that is inside the hull and the part of the hull that is inside the keel Do not have surfaces that cannot be closed in an unambiguous fashion. Opening a New Design File opening in Hydromax is window specific. ensure that the design view window is active. To open a design for analysis. preferably by bonding the edges together Where surfaces intersect.

conversely increasing the number of stations will increase the analysis time but lead to higher accuracy results. Reducing the precision of the sections can greatly improve performance. avoiding any errors inherent in the integration of evenly spaced stations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Stations When calculating stations.hmd) is created. The first option allows you to use the station grid created in Maxsurf. Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File After saving the Maxsurf design file for the first time in Hydromax. The upper limit for the number of stations is 200. Surface Precision The Surface Precision options has two functions: Setting for calculating the hydrostatic sections Setting used to form new compartments or tanks. usually at relatively small impact on the accuracy of the hydrostatics. a “Hydromax Design file” (. sounding pipes etc. Hydromax recognises this precision setting and will and set the Surface Precision button accordingly. To open an existing design. by specifying one station 1mm aft of amidships and one station 1mm forward of amidships this discontinuity can be modelled very accurately. if it was known that a design had a significant discontinuity in its sectional area curve at amidships. key points. Note: Maxsurf surface trimming information may vary for different precisions.msd). It also allows designs with significant longitudinal discontinuities in their sectional areas to have stations specified either side of the discontinuity. you may select how many stations should be used. Reducing the number of stations will speed up the analysis time but reduce the accuracy. compartment definition. Hydromax also allows saving of all input and output files into individual files. Therefore it is recommended not to change the precision setting when opening the Maxsurf design file in Hydromax. For example. there are two options: Page 21 . This is extremely useful for hulls that have features such as keels or bow thrusters that need to be accurately modelled and may need a locally denser station spacing to do so. The Hydromax design file will consist of the hydrostatic sections and all input data such as loadcases. The precision at which the design was saved in Maxsurf is included in the Maxsurf design file (. Note: The accuracy of the results depends much more on the number of sections than the accuracy at which the sections are calculated.

msd file.hmd file from any Windows explorer window Use the Hydromax Open command form the file menu and select the . i. key points etc. loadcases and compartment definitions etc.  Ensure “Read existing data and sections” is selected and click OK. You will load your existing sections.hmd file with the same name as the . Notes: 1) When selecting “Read existing data and sections (do not update geometry)” the Maxsurf surface information is not recalculated.msd file.msd file An existing Hydromax design consists of a number of files with different file extensions. the OSV. This means that changes to the hull shape in the Maxsurf Design file. For example: when opening OSV. damage cases. loadcases. compartment definitions. When Hydromax opens a . Hydromax will now open the . See: Updating the Hydromax Model on page 25 for more information. it will look for a . are not automatically incorporated.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Double click on the . Page 22 .hmd file is found.e.hmd file was saved. This contains hydrostatic sections information and all input information from last time the .hmd file. The Calculate Sections dialog now has the option to read the sections from the file.msd.

the zero point has been moved (in Maxsurf) to the aft-perpendicular and the DWL. if any) means that Hydromax will recalculate the hull sections and ignore any data stored in the . In previous versions of Hydromax this could cause problems because the loadcase and tank data maintained their position relative to the zero point. For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax. The model is closed in Hydromax The model is opened in Maxsurf and for some reason the location of the zero point is changed The model is reopened in Hydromax and the tank and load etc. Etc. data is then created in Hydromax and that data all saved in the . loadcase. data is automatically read from the . please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 289.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax 2) Calculate new sections (ignore existing data.hmd file (as is done when you chose Save when the drawing window is top most). In the second image. The two images from Hydromax 13 show this problem.hmd file will be overwritten and any existing data lost. The first image shows the model as initially defined in Hydromax with the zero point amidships and at the baseline. Hydromax 13 behaviour It may sometimes occur that the model zero point location is changed in Maxsurf after tank.hmd file. You will have to reload your individual loadcases and compartment definition files etc after you have selected this option and pressed OK. where as the key points and margin line remained in the same position relative to the hull. Do not choose this option if you wish to keep the additional Hydromax data and you have not yet saved them as individual files as if the model is saved in Hydromax the . the tanks and centre of gravity (from the loadcase) have remained in their same locations relative to the zero point. data is defined in Hydromax. Page 23 . Effect of Zero Point change The description below relates to what happens in the following situation: A hull model is generated in Maxsurf Tank and load etc. Original location of data as entered in Hydromax before zero point change in Maxsurf.hmd file. Note that whilst the margin line and key points have remained in their same locations relative to the hull.

essentially just the zero point it moved. Original location of data as entered in Hydromax before zero point change in Maxsurf. if the zero point has changed. you will now be prompted. Selecting “yes” will maintain the position all the Hydromax data relative to the hull. Hydromax now detects if the zero point has been modified in Maxsurf when the model is reopened in Hydromax. Hydromax 14 behaviour To rectify this problem. Hydromax will display the following message: If the zero point is moved in Maxsurf. when loading a .hmd file. This of course means that the numerical values of the various data are changed: Page 24 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Effect of Zero point change in Maxsurf 13. Now. Note that this is only possible with Hydromax models that have been saved from the new version of Hydromax (because the new version of Hydromax now saves the zero point independently so that it can check for changes).

loads etc relative to the hull. Click “no” to maintain position relative to zero point. Any tanks and loadcases will also be updated with this command. it is more likely that this option would be selected if it was realised that the zero point for the tank plan were slightly different than the zero point of the lines plan and a small correction to the zero point was required.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Click “yes” to maintain position of tanks. Thus the tanks and loads etc. but their numerical values will remain the same: The example shown is quite extreme. Selecting “no” will move all data other than the margin line with the zero point. Updating the Hydromax Model To update the hydrostatic sections to the latest Maxsurf Design File. select “Recalculate Hull sections” in the analysis menu after reloading the Maxsurf Design File with the “read existing data and sections from file” option selected. Page 25 . This function can also be used to include/exclude surface thickness or change the number of sections and to change use/not use trimmed surfaces without reloading the Maxsurf Design File. The “Recalculate Hull Sections” command recalculates Hull surfaces as well as Tank Boundary surfaces (Internal Structure surfaces in Maxsurf). will move relative to the hull.

Hydromax will try to resolve any problems with the model definition in the manner outlined in the following sections. called “Hydromax sections”.g. Furthermore. non-intersecting (and non-self-intersecting) contours. an ambiguity exists as to how the two line segments will be connected.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Changes to the Maxsurf design are only recalculated after the new Maxsurf design has been re-loaded into Hydromax. it is necessary to: 1) save and close the model in Hydromax 2) save in Maxsurf 3) open in Hydromax. contours cannot be contained wholly within another contour. compartment definition etc remain part of the Hydromax design file. the section must be made up of closed. (e. This means that if the model is simultaneously being edited in Maxsurf and Hydromax. Hydromax will automatically form these sections. If. Note: The golden rule is that for any longitudinal position. Hydromax deals only with sections that are completely closed. Whilst it is always preferable to give Hydromax a completely closed model with no ambiguities. a hull surface with no deck). Hydromax Sections Forming Hydromax works by applying trapezoidal integration to data calculated from a series of cross sections taken through the Maxsurf model surfaces. or can be unambiguously closed. The same is true for groups of internal surfaces that have been selected to define a tank boundary. Hydromax will automatically close the section with a straight line connecting the opening ends. having both a gap at the centreline as well as an open deck). however. using “Read existing data and sections” to make sure the loadcase. 4) use the “Recalculate Hull Sections” from the analysis menu. the section is made up of two line segments. Page 26 . This section outlines the section forming process used in Hydromax and may be helpful when preparing a Maxsurf design for Hydromax. This is not an acceptable shape. Where a section consists of an open shell (e. In practice. one opening is acceptable and this will be automatically closed with a straight line.g. “hydrostatic sections” or just “sections”.

Page 27 . Hydromax will form a closed section through multiple surfaces by linking the curve segments together.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the example above. Multiple surfaces that are trimmed correctly. bonded together or use compacted control points will not cause any problems when opened in Hydromax. if either the top or bottom gap had been closed in Maxsurf the design would cease to be ambiguous.

However this is not always possible so it is much better practice to trim the model correctly manually. decks. Hydromax will have difficulties distinguishing the intended main deck. because there are too many dependencies in the program.g. Hydromax will make an attempt to remove excess portions of the curve to form a single continuous contour. Hydromax closes the outside contour and trims remnants Page 28 . The user cannot change these tolerances. Where surfaces intersect.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A section through a multihull containing a single closed contour A section comprising two closed contours Hydromax will link curve segments together if they are only separated by a small amount. bulwarks) A common example of ambiguous sections is a model with multiple decks. Ambiguous Sections (e.

You can then click in the inset box to view the sections. For more information see the Maxsurf manual. Page 29 . but this depends on the height of the bulwark relative to the rest of the section. Checking the Hydromax model Before starting any analysis you should check whether Hydromax has been able to correctly interpret your design. look closely at intersections between surfaces to make sure that Hydromax has interpreted the shape correctly.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The example above has bulwarks. This works the same as the Maxsurf body plan window and is an extremely powerful tool to validate your Hydromax model. the bulwark‟s volume has to be properly modelled in Maxsurf by modelling both the outside and the inside of the bulwark. you can step through the sections one-by-one to verify that they have been correctly calculated. To prevent ambiguities it is recommended to trim the bulwark in Maxsurf. generally these will be treated correctly by Hydromax and removed. The following tools are available to validate the Hydromax model. checking your sections after opening the design in Hydromax is strongly recommended. the left and right arrow cursor keys will enable you to step through the sections one-by-one. These sections should be continuous with no gaps and no unexpected lines. Show Single Hull Section In the body plan view. This is done by selecting Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan view from the Display menu. In particular. Therefore. Show Single Hull Section Checking the Sectional Area Curve Using Rendering to Check the Model Note: Sections that are not formed correctly cause the majority of problems with Hydromax models. Incorrect sections in the model will give incorrect results. If the bulwark‟s volume is expected to influence the hydrostatic calculations.

This Cross Sectional Area curve indicates there may be a problem with section forming from 12 m to 16 m. This is not a foolproof method since it does not necessarily highlight problems in the non-immersed part of the hull.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Checking the Sectional Area Curve Another way of checking the Hydromax model is to perform a specified condition analysis at quite deep draft and look carefully at the sectional area curve in the graph window. which makes it easier to see if there are any areas of the model which have not been properly defined. Select Render from the Display menu whilst in the perspective view and turn on the sections: Page 30 . If this displays any unexpected spikes or hollows Hydromax may not have correctly interpreted the hull shape. Using Rendering to Check the Model The model may also be rendered.

Hydromax uses the aft perpendicular and forward perpendicular together with the baseline and the zero point for all calculations and gives the results in the units specified in the display menu. As long as the sections are formed correctly. This does not necessarily mean that the model is incorrect. the model is correct. Setting Initial Conditions All Hydromax calculations are performed in the frame of reference of the model. Coordinate System Hydromax uses the Maxsurf coordinate system: Longitudinal Transverse Vertical +ve forward +ve starboard +ve up -ve aft -ve port -ve down Page 31 . it is important that you set up the required initial conditions for the design.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: In rare instances incorrect rendering may occur. Note: Before you run any analysis using Hydromax.

This should be done in Maxsurf and not in Hydromax. Immersed depth measurements are made perpendicualar to the free-surface. you may specify upto nine additional locations at which the drafts should be reported. This is done through the Data | Draft Marks dialog. Port side above the centreline (this the opposite direction to Maxsurf) From Starboard. Draft and trim are measured on the forward and aft perpendiculars. loadcase and other input values. should you require drafts to be calculated at other locations. See: Setting the Zero Point and Setting the Frame of Reference on page 17. Drafts are always measured to the Baseline in the centre plane of the vessel. If these are not in the correct positions.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax View window Body plan Plan Profile View direction From the stern. Difference between “Immersed depth” and “Draft” measurements Page 32 . Changing the zero point after you have started analysing the model in Hydromax is not recommended. Frame of Reference and Zero Point It is essential that a frame of reference be specified. bow to the right. Draft Marks Drafts are automatically calculated at the perpendiculars and amidships. some analysis results will be meaningless or may even fail to complete. Note: Changing the zero point in Maxsurf will not update the compartment definition. looking fwd From above.

Amidships location. Fwd Perpendicular or from the Aft. Finally you can chose whether you want the LCB and LCF to be displayed as a length or as a percentage of the waterline or LPP length as specified in the Length for Coefficients. You may also select the draft. beam and sectional area to be used for calculation of these coefficients. Page 33 . Drafts can only be defined when the vessel is rotated to the DWL (Display | Set vessel to DWL).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax User-defined Draft Marks Note that the Trim is still defined as the difference between the drafts at the perpendiculars and the Midship draft (used to define the range of immersions for the Upright Hydrostatics analysis) is the mean of the drafts at the perpendiculars. Middle or fwd end of the actual waterline.e. User-defined draft locations and new toolbar button Note: Draft and Trim specification It should be remembered that the drafts specified for an analysis are the drafts at the perpendiculars (or amidships) and the trim specified (and reported) is the difference between the draft at the AP and draft at the FP. Aft Perpendicular. Customising Coefficients In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. i. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients. neither of these values has changed and neither are affected by the user-defined draft locations. The LCB and LCF can be displayed in the Results windows relative to the specified Zero Point. You can also specify whether you want the forward (towards the bow) or the aft (towards the stern) to have a positive sign.

Page 34 . may also be set.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Data | Coefficients dialog Setting Units The units used may be specified using the Units command. In addition to the length and weight (mass) units. Units may be changed at any time. units for force and speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to high-speed turn etc. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees.

The exception to this is if tanks have not yet been formed or the vessel is still rotated from the result of an analysis. expressed as either a percentage of the full tank capacity or as a weight. Loadcases automatically contain all the tanks defined in the Tank definition.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Other Initial Conditions See: Fluids Analysis Methods on page 137 Density on page 140 Working with Loadcases Loadcases define the loading condition of the vessel. The loadcase will normally update the column totals automatically as weights or tank loadings are changed. click on the update Loadcase button and ensure that the hull is at the DWL by selecting “Set vessel to DWL”: Page 35 . Static weights that make up the vessel lightship are specified here as well as tank filling levels. These may be used to define groups of fixed weights (such as the steel weight or lightship weight) in a single location which may then be cross-referenced into a loadcase. A loadgroup is included in a loadcase simply by specifying the loadgroup name in the “Item Name” column. If the loadcase does not update. Loadgroups are special loadcases that contain no tanks. Any changes to the loadgroup are then automatically incorporated into any loadcases that reference them.

Page 36 . A new load spreadsheet will be displayed in the Loadcase window. The default loadcase will contain a lightship entry and an entry for each tank (with a default filling of 50%). Then select “New Load Case” from the File menu or press Ctrl+N. switch to the loadcase view by selecting Loadcase from the Loadcase sub-menu in the Window menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The individual loads can be displayed graphically: Creating a new Loadcase File To create a load case.

select the Loadcase you wish to use as a template Bring the loadcase you wish to use as a template to the front for example by clicking on the tab on the bottom  select File | New First.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The tabs in the bottom of the window can be used to skip through the different loadcases in the design. you will be asked for a new Loadcase name after which the following dialog appears: Page 37 .  In the loadcase window. To do this. an existing loadcase may be used as a template when creating a new loadcase. Create New Loadcases based on Template To avoid rework.

If there are no blank tabs left. you should either increase the maximum number of loadcases (see below).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A new loadcase will appear in one of the blank (…) loadcase tabs. Loading a Saved Loadcase You can load a saved loadcase into your loadcase window by:  Select an empty tab in the loadcase window that you wish to load the loadcase into Empty tab. If there are no empty tabs. The next time you use the File | Save Loadcase command you will be asked to confirm the loadcase file name. Alternatively. or close an existing loadcase. you will either have to close an existing loadcase. or add more loadcases using the Case | Max. Note The template is only used during the creation of the loadcase.  Select Edit Loadcase from the Case menu  Changing the name in the Loadcase Properties dialog. Once a loadcase has been created from a template loadcase.  Select File | Open Load Case Page 38 . changes made in the template are NOT automatically changed in the loadcase derived from it. Naming and Saving a Loadcase A loadcase can be given any name by saving it to a separate file where the loadcase filename will be used as the loadcase name and displayed on the tab in the loadcase window. Number of Loadcases command.

For example: if the item was “crew” with a weight per unit. If you wish to delete several loads simultaneously. You may then enter the maximum number of load cases you require. For convenience of use. and the total weight of crew would be automatically calculated.  Select Add Load from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A. simply click anywhere in the row you want to remove. Page 39 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax  Select the . a sensible number is recommended. and press the Tab key to go to the next column in the table (or simply click directly in the cell you wish to edit). Editing Loads Click on the cell containing the load name and type in a name for this load. you could specify the quantity and unit weight. then select Delete Load. The weight of each item should be entered in the next column. If you want to remove a load from the table. You can repeat this process for as many loads as you wish. and choose Delete Load from the Edit menu (or highlight the complete row by clicking the grey cell to the left of the row and press the Delete key). This is used to calculate the total weight of that item. effectively allowing you as many loadcases as you require.hml file you wish to open. Each may be saved and loaded independently. In most cases. Setting the Maximum Number of Loadcases The maximum number of loadcases (up to twenty-five) that can be loaded in Hydromax at any one time is set by selecting “Max. A new load will be inserted into the table above the currently selected row. Each loadcase can be selected and used for analysis. You must restart Hydromax for this change to take effect. click and drag so that all of the loading rows that you wish to delete are selected. Closing a Loadcase   Select the tab of the loadcase you wish to close in the Loadcase window Select File | Close Load Case Adding and Deleting Loads To add an extra load to the loadcase. for example "Lightship". you will receive a warning and the file will not be loaded. you will only need to set this once to the maximum number of loadcases you are ever likely to use. Note: When loading a design that has more loadcases than the maximum you have currently set in Hydromax. For each item in the list you can specify a quantity. Number of Loadcases” from the Case menu. You must increase the maximum number of allowable loadcases and restart Hydromax before you can load the design.

you can do so by entering a negative quantity – this can be useful if you want to apply a pure moment to the model by applying equal magnitude. you may also sort selected items by name. but opposite sign loads to the vessel in the loadcase. The CG position will also be shown and updated in the View windows if Large Angle Stability. Adding Component or Heading Lines Components or headings can be included in a load case by preceding the text with a period (. apostrophe („) or full-stop(.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The weight must always be positive. heading or sub-total lines in the table. press enter and the total LCG will be automatically re-calculated and displayed in the bottom row of the table.) character in the Item Name field. Tab to the next column and enter the horizontal lever for the item. Longitudinal Strength or Equilibrium analysis are selected. fluid type (for tanks) etc. Loadcase Sorting A number of tools are available for controlling the order in which items and tanks occur in the loadcase. Insert row | Delete row | Sort rows | Move row(s) up | Move row(s) down Sort selected columns After moving loads. Page 40 . Note: Levers.) character. subtotals and subsubtotals. as with all other measurements in Hydromax. You may move selected items and tanks up and down in the loadcase. Hydromax does this automatically prior to running an analysis. are measured from the Zero Point. Loadcase Formatting Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank. Adding Blank Lines A blank line can be added into the load case by placing a dollar ($). you may have to use Analysis | Update Loadcase ( button) to update the subtotals and subsubtotals. After you type in this number. If for some reason you wish to have an upward (negative) load. To ensure data consistency.

To do this the item name field must commence with the word „total‟ or „subtotal‟. Grouping Similar Tanks Use the move items UP or Down commands in the Edit menu to adjust the row order in the loadcase. Sub-subtotals must start with the text “subsubtotal”. Use the Display | Data Format dialog: Page 41 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Adding Totals or Subtotals A subtotal can be displayed for several loads within a load case. then the quantity and unit mass items will be included. The unit mass is the sum of all the masses of the full tanks and the quantity is the sum of the masses divided by the sum of the full tank masses. When tanks are grouped by fluid type this can be useful for calculating the total tank capacity for that fluid type. Loadcase Colour Formatting Different colours can be defined for fixed mass items and tanks.  View | Colours and lines menu when Loadcase window is frontmost Loadcase format It is possible to select which columns are displayed in the loadcase window. Sub-subtotals Sub-sub-totals may also be inserted. Quantity and Unit mass for sub total rows If a sub total includes only tanks. tanks may be displayed in the same colour as the fluid they contain (As defined in Analysis | Fluids dialog). alternatively.

Page 42 . Longitudinally Distributed Loads Distributed loads can be entered in the Loadcase window in the aft limit and forward limit cells. Arm” column defines the longitudinal position of the centre of the load. The aft limit and forward limit columns only appear when Longitudinal Strength analysis is selected and the distributed loads will only have an effect on the results in this analysis mode. This can be useful for vessels such as product carriers which may have cargos of different types of fluids with different densities. The “Long. the forward and aft limits will be moved by the same amount.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The Relative density and Fluid Type which allow you to override the default tank densities as defined for each tank in the Compartment Definition window. For an evenly distributed load. If the longitudinal arm is changed in the Loadcase window. Moment columns (mass * lever) can be displayed if desired. the fore and aft limits define the longitudinal extents of the load. the centre of gravity should be midway between the forward and aft limits.

but within the middle third 1/3 of the centre. Red = green and divided in the centre.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Evenly distributed loads. the load distribution becomes triangular. Tank Loads When you create tanks using the compartment definition. Note: Since the load is distributed as a trapezium. Red = Green divided within middle 1/3 of centre. they will be automatically included in the loadcases (but not in Loadgroups which do not contain tanks). Page 43 . at these extrema. For trapezium shaped distributed loads the centre of gravity is not midway between the boundaries. the centre of gravity should lie within the middle third between the forward and aft limits of the load. Trapezium shaped distributed load. Tanks will be automatically treated as distributed loads for the longitudinal strength calculations.

The Loadcase properties dialog (Case menu) is used to define a loadcase as a Loadgroup: Page 44 . question marks may be shown in the loadcase momentarily while the tank‟s new volumetric properties are being calculated. Also see: Update Loadcase on page 195 Loadcase cross-referencing. we have defined the following rules: A special type of Loadcase called a Loadgroup has been defined. volume. Loadgroups It is possible to cross-reference one loadcase from another. Tank level can be given as either a percentage of full capacity. Loadgroups may be analysed in the same way as Loadcases – but remember the tanks are implicitly empty in a Loadgroup. Updating tank values in the loadcase Irrespective of whether you have updated the values in the Loadcase Condition. To update the loadcase for changes in tank loads. It also means that this lightship mass distribution would only need to be defined and edited in one location instead of in each loadcase. the Loadcase will be automatically updated as the first step of any analysis using the Loadcase information. expressed as a percentage of the full capacity and a weight column. To prevent the problems of recursively including the same loadcase and also prevent tanks from being included more than once. a sounding or a weight. This is useful if you wish to define a detailed lightship mass distribution but do not want to have it displayed in full in each loadcase. For the example above this means that the lightship mass distribution would be defined as a Loadgroup and then this Loadgroup could be referenced in any number of loadcases. A Loadgroup does not contain tanks Only a Loadgroup can be referenced Only a Loadcase can reference a Loadgroup. select Update Loadcase from the Analysis menu or toolbar. A Loadcase can reference any number of Loadgroups A Loadgroup is referenced in a Loadcase by typing the name of the Loadgroup to be referenced in the Item column You can factor the referenced Loadgroup by changing the value of the Quantity column in the Loadcase. When a tank is changed in the Compartment definition table. The tank Unit Mass is the tanks mass at 100% filling.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tanks have a quantity value.

The Lightship load group can then be cross-referenced into any loadcase Page 45 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This lightship Loadgroup contains the lightship mass distribution along the ship.

By default use tank defined densities: Page 46 . This allows you to load the same tanks with different fluids in different Loadcases – as might be the case for a product carrier. Loadcase density override It is now possible to override the default tank fluid densities as defined in the Compartment definition window. for instance.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The referenced Loadgroup is automatically calculated and the appropriate values included in the Loadcase: Note: Loadgroup naming The cross-referencing of loadgroups in a loadcase is case insensitive.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Type in a valid (>0.0) specific gravity and it will override the tank value: Type in any string that doesn‟t begin with an “L” for the fluid and it will revert back to the tank value: Type in some thing that begins with an “L” and it will revert back to the “Private” density of the loadcase item. Page 47 .

Hydromax calculates the actual position of the fluid in the tanks taking into account heel and trim. This can be loaded into Hydromax and referenced in any Loadcase. Actual Hydromax uses the free surface moment for the current fluid level of the tank in upright condition.(69) Ch 3. When the corrected VCG method is selected in the analysis menu.3 for the calculation of the free surface moment. no correction is made to the upright VCG. divide by the total displacement to obtain the VCG correction and adjust the VCG accordingly to obtain the corrected fluid VCG. This method approximates the movement of fluid due to heeling and is based on the fluid shift in a 50% full rectangular.htk)  Select the Compartment Definition table by clicking on the Compartment Definition tab at the bottom of the Input window. Select New Compartment Definition from the File menu  Page 48 . at every step of the analysis. User specified A user specified value is used for all levels and heel angles. the Loadcase will sum the free surface moments. For other shapes and fillings of tanks it will not correctly approximate the free surface moment. Modelling Compartments This section will describe in detail how to model different types of tanks and compartments. Besides a general explanation on how to model tanks using the compartment definition table. making the tanks‟ free-surface parallel to the sea surface. The options available are Maximum Hydromax will use the maximum free surface moment of the tank in upright condition for all fluid levels. IMO Hydromax uses IMO MSC75. Fluid simulation If the Fluid simulation option is selected in the analysis menu. Workshop structure Workshop can save a Loadgroup that contains the masses of all the structural parts. Instead. box-shaped-tank.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Free surface correction If the corrected VCG fluid option has been chosen. it is possible to choose the type of free surface moment to be applied for each tank in a Hydromax Loadcase. thus the actual vessel CG is recalculated accounting exactly for the static shift of the fluids in slack tanks. this section contains a number of important sections that the user should be aware off when modelling tanks: Number of Sections in Tanks on page 64 Tank and Compartment Permeability on page 56 Creating a Compartment definition file (.

Add will add a tank after the currently selected compartment and Delete will delete the currently selected compartment(s). This is done by finding the intersection of the tank bounding box and the hull. see above. Thus it is not necessary to make the tanks fit the hull manually – this is done automatically by Hydromax. When the “Update Loadcase” command from the Analysis menu is used. The column headings in the Compartment Definition table include terms such as 'F Bottom. in other words the two ends of the compartment. Each value defines one of the six planes of the tank. Hydromax will form the sections that define the tanks and compartments. This means that the value is identical at the aft end of the tank to the forward end. the top and bottom. This box will be called the Boundary Box. The boundary box is made up of the fore and aft extremities of the tank. 'F Port' and 'A Starboard'. or an analysis started. Modelling Box Shape Tanks Simple tanks and compartments are created by specifying six values that define a boxshaped boundary for the tank. The 'F' and 'A' abbreviations stand for Forward and Aft. Compartments may be added or deleted by  Select Add or Delete Compartment from the Edit menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This will give you a new set of compartment definitions with one default tank. See Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 64 for some recommendations regarding setting the boundary box. 'A Top'. and the port and starboard limits of the tank. Adding and Deleting Compartments Before you can start adding compartments. Box shaped compartments can be formed from the numerical values in the compartment definition table. You will notice that aft columns contain the word "ditto". make sure you have created a Compartment definition file. The accelerator keys Ctrl+A and the Delete key may also be used to add and delete entries respectively. Page 49 . resulting in a parallel tank.

tapered tanks can be formed Note: Tapering can be done in Plan and in Profile view.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Modelling Tapered Tanks The default is for compartments to have parallel sides. a tapered tank will result. See Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 51. However. The easiest way to do this is to copy and paste the name from the Name column of the parent row into the Name column of the linked tank row. Linked tanks and compartments do not have to be physically linked in space. the fluid in a linked tank or damaged compartment is always assumed to be able to flow freely between the linked volumes. To link tanks. Tapered tanks in Body Plan view have to be created using a boundary surface. Hydromax does not have a mechanism for creating a sloped tank boundary in the Body Plan view. first make them the same type as the parent and give them the same name. compartments or non-buoyant volumes. Linked Tanks Tanks and compartments may be linked. they act as a single tank with a common free surface. They may then be linked to the parent by typing l or linked in the Type column. it is possible to enter different transverse and vertical values for the points defining the forward and aft ends of the compartment. If you wish to define tapered compartments. Page 50 . This means that although they are defined as separate tanks. By changing the “ditto”-input fields. If a different value is entered in one of the “ditto” columns. Tanks can be tapered or sloped in Plan or Profile views.

A dialog will appear that allows you to select which surfaces form the boundary of the tank. Page 51 . Forming tanks using boundary surfaces The surfaces to be used to define the tank boundaries are selected by clicking in the Boundary Surfaces column in the middle of the Compartments Definition table. If a tank uses boundary surfaces. compartments and non-buoyant volumes may have their boundaries defined by surfaces as well as being constrained to particular dimensions. This allows for the modelling of arbitrarily shaped tanks.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces Tanks. the cell in the Boundary Surfaces column is coloured blue.

tick next to the surface name in the Boundary Surface list.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If you wish to use a Maxsurf surface to define a tank or compartment. with the port-side surface having “(P)” appended to the surface name. Note: Only internal structure surfaces appear in the boundary surfaces list. it is normally possible to add "Hull" surfaces in the Maxsurf model. This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank. The Starboard surface is first in the list and the Port surface second. Note that symmetrical surfaces appear twice as there will be a starboard and a port side copy of the surface. Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the Boundary Surface. The tanks can then be modelled in Hydromax. Symmetrical surfaces are duplicated. However. it is necessary to type in the extents of the boundary box. Additional box-shaped hull surfaces used to define deck tanks Page 52 . which will enclose the external tanks. After selecting the internal surfaces. The port surface is also identified with the suffix (P) after the name. Also see: Forming Compartments on page 59 Number of Sections in Tanks on page 64 Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 64 Modelling External Tanks External tanks may not be modelled in Hydromax.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Modelling Non-Buoyant Volumes Non-buoyant volumes are effectively permanently flooded compartments. If possible. These parts of the hull can normally be modelled using trimmed hull surfaces. In some cases. when the sections of the non-buoyant volume are entirely enclosed within the hull sections (as is the case for a water jet duct) the use of a non-buoyant volume is the only way in which these features can be modelled.g. is large enough. waterjet ducts. this is the only option. there are occasions where it is more convenient to use non-buoyant volumes. Propeller tunnels modelled with trimming surfaces Using tank type: Non-buoyant volume In some cases using trimmed surfaces is just not possible. For example. e. The choice whether to use trimmed surfaces or nonbuoyant volumes is primarily determined by the length of the non-buoyant volume relative to the length of the vessel. relative to the length of the model. Water-jet ducts modelled as non-buoyant volumes Page 53 . Using trimmed hull surfaces When the length of the non-buoyant volume. the non-buoyant volume can be calculated accurately from the hull sections. The picture below is a good example of when to use trimmed surfaces. However. where the volume to be flooded forms sections within the hydrostatic section. trimmed surfaces should be used.

Page 54 . deleted or modified. Linked negative compartments are deleted and recreated whenever a tank or compartment is added. Bow thruster tube modelled as two non-buoyant volumes Tanks within Compartments When a tank is defined within a compartment. This is necessary for damage cases where the compartment is flooded and the volume of the tank should be treated completely separately from the compartment. (negative) compartment”. is when the length of the compartment relative to the length of the hull is too small to calculate its volume from the hull sections. Hydromax will automatically deduct the volume of the tank from the compartment volume using a “linked neg.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Another occasion when non-buoyant volumes should be used. If the vessel is very long. Tip: Besides increasing the number of sections through the bow thruster from 1 to 12. deleted or modified. For example: in the image below the bow thruster volume is only calculated with one section. In this case you are better off modelling the thruster duct as internal structure and using these surfaces to define a non-buoyant volume. modelling the thruster duct as a non-buoyant volume has the additional advantage of being able to specify a Tank and Compartment Permeability. see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 64. and the thruster duct is of small diameter. This means that linked negative compartments cannot be added. there may not be sufficient sections to model it accurately (even if you use the maximum of 200 sections for the Hydromax model). Negatively linked compartments are displayed on the bottom of the Compartment Definition table solely for reference purposes and are not under direct user control. and hence also account for the thruster. For more information. A good example of this is a bow thruster on a long ship.

only compartments and non buoyant volumes or tanks can overlap with each other. it can be quite difficult to see why the tanks overlap.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Linked negative compartments are named based on both the parent compartment as well as the tank from which the linked negative compartment was derived. you will receive an error message: Notice that the compartment definition row number of the tank is given in brackets i. the surface boundaries act as a boundary between two adjacent tanks and the bounding box extents are allowed to overlap. Page 55 . By temporarily deleting all tanks except for the one that does not form. Hydromax will first try to form tank sections and then check whether these sections overlap tank sections of adjacent tanks. when you are modelling tanks using boundary surfaces. However. When two conflicting or overlapping tanks or compartments are detected during the forming process. it often becomes clear why the tank overlaps. A tank and a non-buoyant volume are also not allowed to overlap. Tanks Overlapping As mentioned earlier in this manual. Tanks or compartments of the same type (eg two tanks) can not overlap. For example a linked negative compartment might be named “Compartment3 (Stbd Hydr Oil)” to reflect that it is derived from the intersection of Compartment3 with the Stbd Hydr Oil tank. Troubleshooting Overlapping Tanks Sometimes the reason for the conflict can be quite simple: eg an overlapping boundary box. the tank‟s fwd most section goes all the way to the CL (probably because the fwd boundary box extent is just fwd of the boundary surfaces or exactly on the edge of a boundary surface). tank #8 intersects tank #3. especially if you have a large number of tanks already defined.e. In these cases. This causes this particular tank to “overlap” with surrounding tanks. In the case of the image above.

inspect tank sections Try to fix tank definition. eg by selecting additional boundary surfaces Close comp def file. Compartments and non-buoyant volumes have only one permeability. the permeability fraction is also applied to the free-surface-moment contribution of that tank or compartment.. The compartment permeability is applied when the compartment is flooded in a damage condition and the non-buoyant volume permeability is applied at all times since it is always flooded. Page 56 . Depending on the level of accuracy required. which is used when the tank is intact. 60% and the upper compartment a permeability of 95%. Do NOT save!! Open saved Comp def file Fix compartment. The lower compartment will have a permeability of. one. compartments typically have structure (other than plate stiffeners) and equipment inside.and an upper engine room compartment.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Procedure to Fix Overlapping Tanks:       Save Model Go into Comp def window Save comp def Delete all tanks except for one you wish to investigate form tanks. Save & move on to next compartment. In case of large variations in permeability within a compartment it is recommended to model separate linked compartments with separate permeability to increase accuracy. For example an engine room with engines and auxiliaries at the tanktop could be divided up in a lower. and the other when it is damaged. In the case of damaged tanks and compartments. Permeability of Compartments As opposed to tanks. Relative Density of Tank Fluids Relative Density (Specific Gravity) values can be typed directly into the Relative Density column of the Compartment Definition table. Now that you know how to fix it. thought it is listed in both columns.     Tank and Compartment Permeability Tanks may have two permeabilities. for example. the engines and equipment could also be modelled individually as empty tanks.

Page 57 . Groups of linked tanks and compartments will be moved together. the default density specified here in the compartment definition may be overridden in the loadcases. all entries for that fluid in the compartment definition are automatically updated. Select the rows you wish to use and use the Edit | Move Items Up or Down commands (there is no provision for sorting tanks alphabetically). either as the name or as one of the single letter codes (when entering the name. Tanks and Surface Thickness If you have specified that Hydromax should include the surface thickness. auto complete is used. You can either control the tank visibility through the Assembly window. or if you prefer. If a fluid type is entered. Assembly view can be used to show and hide tanks/compartments Using damage cases. hence you should design these surfaces to the inside of the tank. Compartment and Tank Ordering The tank definition order can be adjusted in a similar way to loads in the loadcase. Compartment and Tank Visibility When creating complicated tank plans. the tanks.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Alternatively the fluid type can be entered into the Fluid Type column. Note: Thickness of boundary surfaces are not taken into account. the relative density value is obtained from the value specified in the Density dialog. compartments and non-buoyant volumes will correctly account for the surface thickness and its projection direction: the tanks will go to the inside of the hull shell. selected tanks may be displayed in the following manner:   Define a damage case Select only damaged tanks and compartments for display. so it is normally only necessary to type the first few letter of the name). Whenever values are changed in the Density dialog (see Density of Fluids on page 140). If the tank defines a cargo tank that will carry different liquid cargoes. it is often useful to check individual tanks. you can use damage cases to quickly change the display to show certain tanks. turn off the display of intact tanks and compartments.

tank sections are also displayed in the Bodyplan view when the “Show single section” option is selected.   You can make the damage case window quite small and tile it next to the perspective view.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax  Select whether you want to see the tank outline or the tank sections (tanks sections are preferable when checking that tanks have been formed correctly since it is these sections which are used to determine the tank volume and other properties). Use this to quickly turn tanks on and off by changing their damage status. Using a damage case to quickly change the tank and compartment visibility Tank sections When in Tank Calibration mode. Choose the damage case from the Analysis toolbar Set any of the tanks and compartments you wish to be visible to damaged in the damage case window. Only tank sections that lie on or near the current station are shown – this makes it easier to verify that the tanks have been formed. Page 58 .

Step-by-Step Tank Forming Process As an example.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Forming Compartments Tanks and compartments are formed automatically by Hydromax (once the tank extents and any boundary surfaces have been defined) by selecting Recalculate Tanks and Compartments from the Analysis menu. the starboard waterballast tank below will be created using boundary surfaces. Understanding these processes may assist you in rare situations where the tank forming does not work as expected. This section describes the internal tank-forming process that Hydromax uses to form tanks. First a step-by-step outline of the tank forming process is given. The formed status of a tank (yes or no) is shown in the last column of the compartment definition table. Starting point: Hydromax Hull sections with an internal surface and a bounding box Also see: Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 51 and the Maxsurf manual on internal structure surfaces Page 59 . followed by the tank section insertion process. Hydromax uses three input items to form the compartment Boundary surfaces (if defined) Boundary box Hydromax Hull sections Starting position The starboard tank margin plate is modelled using an Internal Structure surface from Maxsurf. An example of a port and starboard waterballast tank with a pipe tunnel at the centreline. The water ballast tanks have a margin plate on the side.

Make sure that the boundary surfaces: Form a closed section contour. The area inside the selected surfaces will define the tank contour. Another common cause of unexpected results is trimming. the surfaces selected to form the tank boundary must form closed section contours at all longitudinal positions through the tank. Hydromax will use the trimmed internal structure surface. Often a tank is not formed as expected because only one side of the internal structure surface was selected for example the portside (p). or There is no more than one opening – the opening will be closed with a straight line Note: Hydromax will close the section contour of the selected boundary surfaces only. Step 2: Clip to Boundary Surface Using the closed surface section contour Hydromax can now form a closed compartment section. The tank or compartment looks like this at this stage: Page 60 . Usually the internal structure surfaces are best to be left untrimmed. Hydromax uses the same method for forming the tank section from the boundary surfaces as for forming the hydrostatic sections through the hull. If you selected “use trimmed surfaces” while opening the Maxsurf model.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Step 1: Close Internal Structure Surface Hydromax will close the Internal Structure Surface contour by drawing a straight line between the ends of the opening. As with the hull sections.

The boundary box is formed from the numerical input in the Compartment definition table. In practice additional surfaces would be required. In this example the vessel has both wing and double bottom tanks with non-rectangular cross-sections thus requiring them to be defined by boundary surfaces – see blow: Page 61 . Step 4: Clip to Boundary Box Finally the compartment section is clipped to the boundary box. A more realistic example is shown in the following section.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Step 3: Clip to Hull Hydromax will clip the compartment section to the hull. it is not really realistic because it would not be possible to define a tank above the surface-bounded double bottom tanks. More realistic surface-bounded tanks Whilst the above example shows the principles by which surface-bounded tanks are formed.

TankBilgePlate (P) Double Bottom (S) TankTop (S). TankTop (P) Double Bottom (P) TankTop (P).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Sketch of tank cross-sections Five surfaces have been defined to define the tank boundaries: Tank Boundary surfaces defined in Maxsurf The following surfaces need to be selected for the different tanks so that closed sections are generated (or at most one section) Hold (C) TankWing. TankBilgePlate (S) Page 62 . OuterClosure (S). TankWing (P). BottomClosure (S). TankBilgePlate (P) Wing Ballast (S) TankWing (S). TankBilgePlate (S) Wing Ballast (P) TankWing (P). TankTop. OuterClosure (P). BottomClosure (P).

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Hydromax tank definition Surfaces for Hold (C) (top is closed automatically) Page 63 .

Thus it is important to have a sufficiently large number of sections to accurately model the tank. In most cases. this will be done automatically by Hydromax. Also see Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 64 Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box For tanks near the ship‟s extremities it is good practise to set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits in the compartment table to just inside the hull surface (say 1mm). additional sections will be inserted into the tank so that the tank section spacing match the hull section spacing.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Surfaces for double bottom tanks Surfaces for wing tanks (top is closed automatically) Number of Sections in Tanks The volume of a tank or compartments is calculated by integrating section properties along the length of the tank. The following example illustrates why: Page 64 . Hydromax will normally place twelve sections between the forward and aft limits defining the tank. If this results in a section spacing greater than the spacing for the hull spacing.

This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank. compartments. linked tanks. Note that transversely and vertically there are no such restrictions. Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the boundary surface. the longitudinal extents should not be set to extreme values. Page 65 . they should be set to just inside the extents of the hull surfaces to ensure that at least 12 sections are used to calculate the tank volumes. But if the boundary box is set just inside the forward limit of the bulbous bow: To recap – Near the ship‟s extremities. For internal structure surfaces that are used as boundary surface. Also see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 64 Forming Compartments on page 59 Compartment Types Five compartment types can be created using the Compartment Definition table .tanks.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If the boundary box is set like this: The number of hull sections is dependent on the section spacing in the model. linked compartments and non-buoyant volumes.

The top of the sounding pipe is taken to be level with the highest point of the tank and the default sounding pipe is assumed to be straight and vertical. any changes to the sounding pipe due to tank geometry changes will also have to be made manually. One sounding pipe per tank is permitted and up to nine vertices per sounding pipe. any tank that it is linked to will also be regarded as damaged. if a tank is damaged. Non-Buoyant Volumes Are only used to specify compartments of the vessel which are permanently flooded up to the static waterline. bent or curved sounding pipes to be modelled. c or n) in the Type column of the Compartment Definition table and then press Enter. the bottom of the tank is flat either longitudinally or transversely) the default sounding pipe location is placed at the aft-most low point and as close to the centreline as possible. you need to use the Sounding Pipes table in the Input window. If the lowest point of the tank is shared between several locations (e. shown below.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tanks Will be included in the tank calibration output and are automatically added to the loadcase.g. They do not have a separate entry in the loadcase. they can be remote from one another. and essentially behave as damaged compartments. Hydromax creates a default sounding pipe when the tank is formed (either by running an analysis. Tanks need not be adjoining to be linked. Automatically created sounding pipes will be recalculated if the tank geometry changes. type the first character of the tank type (t. once the sounding pipe has been edited manually. This will automatically set the tank/compartment to the correct type. Sounding Pipes Hydromax allows sounding pipes to be defined for each tank. However. moon pools. In addition. The default sounding pipe is placed at the longitudinal and transverse position of the lowest point of the tank. allowing inclined. They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase. etc. They are ideal for defining water-jet ducts. To change the type of a tank. or Analysis | Update Loadcase. Page 66 . They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase. Linked Tanks Will have their volume added to the parent tank with the same tank name. In this case the tank linking simulates tanks with cross connections. Edit Sounding Pipes To customise a sounding pipe. Compartments Are only used to specify compartmentation for damage. This allows you to damage a complex compartment configuration by linking compartments together and damaging the parent compartment. Linked Compartments Work in the same way as linked tanks. or using one of the following commands: Analysis | Recalculate Tanks and Compartments.

To add vertices to create a bent sounding pipe.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax You can activate this window by selecting from the Windows | Input | Sounding Pipes menu. Calibration Increment Hydromax allows user definable increments (or: intervals) for tank soundings. Unwanted vertices can be deleted by clicking on the relevant row in the table and selecting Edit | Delete or by hitting the Delete key. Hydromax uses its default value based on a reasonable division of the depth of the tank. it is not acceptable to have S-bends in the sounding pipes.  Type the value of the desired calibration increment in the Calibration Spacing cell for the tank calibration you wish to modify. This is done by specifying a numerical value for the increment for each tank in the Calibration Spacing column of the Sounding Pipes Input window. offset and height of the vertex can be edited. make the sounding pipe type User Defined. Page 67 . then click on the first row of a particular sounding pipe and choose Edit | Add or use the Ctrl+A key combination. Note that each successive vertex in a sounding pipe must be no higher than the previous vertex i. If no increment is entered. or by clicking on the icon in the window toolbar.e. by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the Input window. A new row will be added to the sounding pipe and the longitudinal position. In this case the Sounding Pipes table will display “Auto” in the Calibration Increment column for the tank.

Damage Case Definition In all but the floodable length and tank calibration analysis modes. make the Damage window active and select Add Damage Case from the Case menu. Note that it is not possible to delete the intact case. Hydromax allows the user to set up a number of damage cases. not along the vertical axis of the tank. You may specify a name for the Damage Case in the dialog. Page 68 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note Increments are measured along the sounding pipe. Renaming a Damage Case The name of the current damage case may be changed by selecting Edit Damage Case when the damage case window is active. the current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar – see below. Each new damage case will have a column in the Damage Window and a tick may be placed to indicate which tanks and compartments are damaged for that particular Damage Case. Adding a Damage Case To add a damage case. simply select the columns to be deleted in the Damage Window and select Delete Damage Case from the Case menu. Hydromax is capable of including the effects of user-defined damage. Volumes that are permanently flooded should be defined as non-buoyant volumes. Deleting a Damage Case To delete damage cases. select the intact case column. Several damage cases may be added in one go by selecting a number of columns. If the sounding pipe is inclined or if it has multiple angles. soundings will step evenly along the inclined length of the sounding pipe. to insert a damage case immediately after the intact case. The new damage case is added after the currently selected damage case column.

These colours can be specified in the View | Colours and lines menu. Note that carrying out a Tank Calibration analysis will force the intact case to be selected. This is because Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. Any subsequent analyses will take into account the damaged compartments. This is simply done by copying all the damage case data to a spread sheet. and all values set to zero. select Intact as the current damage case. If you have linked tanks or compartments or added tanks within compartments after the definition of a damage case. Displaying Damage Cases When a damage case is selected. Note: Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. When tanks have been damaged. Page 69 . you should toggle the damage status of the damaged tanks. Hydromax assumes that all compartment definition has been done after the tanks have been defined.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Selecting a Damage Case The current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar. Flooding is considered to be instantaneous up to sea level. This is also the case for the Floodable Length analysis which effectively sets up its own longitudinal extent of damage. In the Loadcase Window damaged tanks are displayed with the label 'Damaged' in the Quantity column. To perform analyses for the intact vessel. turning off all damage in all the damage cases (use the fill down command) and then pasting back in the original data from where it was stored in the spreadsheet. Any tank fluids are treated as having been completely replaced by seawater up to the equilibrium waterline. their weights and levers are no longer displayed in the Loadcase window and the word „Damage‟ is displayed in the quantity column. The Loadcase and View windows will reflect the damage defined in the current damage case. all damaged tanks and compartments will be displayed in damaged tank or damaged compartment colour respectively.

Select the column of the damage case you wish to specify the extent of damage for and choose Extent of Damage from the case menu: Page 70 . Extent of Damage Cases The damaged compartments can automatically be set by using the Case | Extent of damage command.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The Loadcase Window displays damaged tanks and excludes them from any calculations.

A new point will be inserted below the currently selected row in the table. Immersed key points will be displayed in the same colour as flooded tanks or compartments. Adding Key Points To start adding downflooding points go to the Key Points table. Key points may be placed asymmetrically. The other types of points have their freeboard measured but are not used for the evaluation of the downflooding angle and are for information only. The points may be displayed in the Design View window and will be displayed in different colours depending on whether or not they are immersed. Key Points (e. Down Flooding Points) Key points such as downflooding points and hatch openings can be defined in Hydromax using the Key Points window. Vessels which have symmetrical key points on starboard and port sides must have both key points added to the table. To delete more than one point at a time. Specify the extent of the damage – any tanks or compartments that lie partially or wholly within the extent of damage will be automatically flagged as damaged: Automatically generated damage case from using Extent of Damage command. a positive offset is to starboard and a negative offset is to port. Page 71 . To add additional key points to the table. select New Key Points from the File menu. click anywhere in the row of the point to be deleted and select Delete. Deleting Key Points To delete a Key point. which is used in criteria evaluation. choose Add from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A.g. click and drag over the rows you want deleted. There are several types of Key Points: Down Flooding points Potential Down flooding points Embarkation points Immersion Points Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle. You will be given a default point.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Defining the damaged compartments by specify the extent of damage.

All points are entered relative to the zero point. The type of Key Point may be selected from the combo-box in the Type column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window: Links to Tanks or Compartments Downflooding points may be linked to tanks or compartments. and a height. which are damaged in the currently selected damage case. will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Select Delete from the Edit menu. These downflooding points will appear italicised and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point‟s name in the DF Angles table of the Results window: Page 72 . and the selected rows will be deleted. Select the tank or compartment from the combo-box in the Linked to column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window: Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments. a transverse offset from the centreline. Editing Key Points Key points are defined by entering a name. Click in any cell and enter the name or value you require. a longitudinal position.

It is only necessary to modify the height value of the margin line points. Margin Line Points The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. This form of automatic flooding is not supported in Hydromax yet. selecting Snap Margin Line to Hull in the Analysis menu will project all of the points horizontally onto the hull surface. Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described in Adding Key Points and Deleting Key Points on page 71. Page 73 . Immersed points are highlighted in red in the Freeboard column. immersion angles or freeboards (depending on the analysis) are also given for the margin line and deck edge. One or more points can be entered in this window. The modulus value is not currently used as deflections are not calculated. Asymmetric margin lines and deck edges are not supported.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The downflooding angles for each of the points are displayed in the results window. If necessary. the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line). Allowable shear force and/or bending moment can be specified at each point. Note: Linking a downflooding point to a tank does not mean that Hydromax will consider a tank damaged when the downflooding point is submerged. Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in. In addition to the Key Points results. the freeboards after an Equilibrium or Specified Condition analysis. Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments The Modulus window can be used to enter maximum allowable shear forces and bending moments for each section. The downflooding angles are computed during a large angle stability analysis. ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely. In the Name column the longitudinal position where immersion first takes place (or the lowest freeboard) is given. Once this has been done for all the points that need to be changed.

Stability criteria are required to perform a limiting KG and Floodable Length analysis. In this section the different analysis types available in Hydromax will be described. For more information see Floodable Length on page 99. Analysis Types After specifying the input values and checking the Hydromax model. New allowable values can be inserted by selecting Add from the Edit menu and entering a longitudinal position as well as an allowable shear and/or moment. the analysis can be performed.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax To start a table of allowable shear forces and bending moments. The allowable values can be saved and recalled as text files by using Open and Save from the File menu. bring the Modulus table to the front and choose New Modulus Points from the File menu with the Modulus window frontmost. The Bulkheads are automatically sorted by longitudinal position. some general information is given on: Starting and Stopping Analyses Batch Analysis The required analysis settings and environment options will be discussed separately and in more detail in the next two sections of this chapter. Please refer to Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 153 for information on defining and selecting criteria. Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described for the key points. Page 74 . Floodable Length Bulkheads Bulkheads entered in the Input window are used for Floodable Length analysis in order to optionally plot the compartment lengths in the floodable length graph for easy verification that the critical compartment lengths are not exceeded. Stability Criteria Stability criteria may be evaluated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and after an Equilibrium analysis. These allowable values are displayed as lines on the longitudinal strength graph. The following analysis types are available in Hydromax: Upright Hydrostatics Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Analysis Specified Conditions KN Values Analysis Limiting KG Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Tank Calibrations Also.

The Vertical Centre of Gravity is also required for the calculation of GM etc.e. together with the number of drafts to be used. one or more graphs may be shown – select the graph to be displayed from the pull-down menu in the Graph window. This is specified as KG. Initial and final drafts can be entered. i. the available options depends on the current results table or graph: Data format dialog for Upright hydrostatics table and graph Upright Hydrostatics Upright hydrostatics lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of drafts. Upright Hydrostatic Analysis Settings The following analysis settings apply for Upright Hydrostatic Analysis: Draft from the Analysis menu. from the baseline. you may specify a fixed trim for all drafts A range of drafts for upright hydrostatic calculations can be specified using the Drafts command from the Analysis menu. at zero or other fixed trim. The Data Format dialog can be used to specify what is displayed in some graphs and tables.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Following each analysis. specify range of drafts for analysis Trim from the Analysis menu. which is not necessarily the vertical zero datum. Page 75 . Choosing Upright Hydrostatics Select Upright Hydrostatics from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.

the initial draft defaults to the draft at the DWL in Maxsurf. Similarly the VCG defaults to the height of the DWL. Upright Hydrostatics Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the upright hydrostatics analysis: Density from the Analysis menu Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Upright Hydrostatic Results Page 76 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax When a design is first opened.

Large Angle Stability Large angle stability lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of heel angles either with or without trim or free-to-trim.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The curves of form are shown on a separate graph and the sectional area may be show for any of the drafts: see Select View from Analysis Data on page 148. Large Angle Stability Settings The following analysis settings apply for Large Angle Stability Analysis: Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window Heel from the Analysis menu. the heel range and heel angle steps should be chosen accordingly. Page 77 . select range for analysis Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu If criteria are being evaluated. to ensure accurate evaluation of the criteria. Choosing Large Angle Stability Select Large Angle Stability from the Analysis menu or toolbar.

The criteria are only evaluated on the side of the graph that corresponds to positive heel angles. Some criteria require calculations of GZ at negative heel.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note You can select positive heel direction (port or starboard). deck edge and margin line Curve of areas at each heel angle Page 78 . the one that would be reported in the criteria would be the one with a positive heel angle (even if the one at negative heel occurred at an angle closer to zero). you can enter negative values and test full 360 degrees of stability if you wish. the results may be two angles of vanishing stability. For example: when using a -180 to 180 heel range. However. safe steady heel angle Stability Criteria evaluation Downflooding angles to key points. Large Angle Stability Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the large angle stability analysis: Fluid simulation of tank fluids centre of gravity Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Stability Criteria Large Angle Stability Results Large Angle Stability Analysis results are: Hydrostatic data table for each angle of heel GZ curve Dynamic stability (GZ area) curve Graph of hydrostatic parameters against heel angle Graph of max. Also see: Heel on page 131 in the Analysis Settings section.

features such as downflooding angle are also included on the graph. Shows the variation of hydrodynamic properties with heel angle.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Dynamic stability Graph A graph of the GZ area integrated from upright may be plotted. Graph of maximum safe steady heeling angles for sailing vessels These calculations are derived from the value of GZ at a critical heel angle. you can display the maximum safe heeling angle curves by selecting the graph type in the pull-down menu. Curves of Form. Curve of Areas Shows the curve of areas for the currently selected heel angle (use Display | Select view from data to chose the heel angle from the GZ results table). for example the angle of downflooding or angle of deck edge immersion. Large Angle stability Graph. Once a GZ curve has been calculated. Page 79 .

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

The parameters for the calculation can be modified in the Display | Data Format dialog (this graph must be selected in the topmost window):

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Analysis options for the calculation of Maximum steady heel angles (Display | Data Format).

The first part of the dialog is almost exactly the same as the “Angle of equilibrium - derived wind heeling arm” criterion. This allows you to specify the critical condition that should not be exceeded due to a gust or squall. MCA require downflooding but you can include additional criteria if desired. You can also change the shape of the heeling arm curve and the gust ratio. In the lower-left, you can specify the squall wind speeds (you can add any number) The default gives three wind speeds of 30, 45 and 60kts. Finally you can adjust the axis limits. This is because normally you will have computed a GZ curve for a wider heel range than you would wish to display in this graph – it is uncommon to sail a vessel with a steady heel angle of greater than 40 degrees. It can often be useful to duplicate this criterion in the GZ criteria that are evaluated. This will give you the same result as for the gust limiting line.

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The same safe angle of heel to prevent downflooding in the event of a gust (16.5 deg) is found.

To obtain smooth curves, the GZ curve should be calculated at small intervals of heel, especially at the lower heel angles – typically steps of 1degree. Under some circumstances, it may not be possible to evaluate the curves, the most common reason for this is that the GZ curve has not been calculated up to a sufficiently high angle of heel and downflooding angle cannot be found. Full details of the calculations can be found in:

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Sailing Yacht Design: Practice. ed. Claughton, Wellicome and Shenoi. Adison Wesley Longman 1998. ISBN 0-582-36857-X STABILITY INFORMATION BOOKLET available from the MCA. www.mcga.gov.uk Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window. For more information on how to customize the display of the criteria results, please refer to the Results Window on page 175 in the reference section. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria, see: Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 226. Downflooding Angle After a Large Angle Stability analysis, the Key Points Data table lists the downflooding angles of the margin line, deck edge and defined Key Points. In addition, the first downflooding point is marked on the large angle stability graph. Only the positive downflooding angles are displayed, hence if there is any asymmetry, the large angle stability analysis should be carried out heeling both to starboard and to port. For the margin line and deck edge the longitudinal position at which immersion first occurred is provided.

Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments that are damaged in the currently selected damage case, will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle. These downflooding points will appear italicised, and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point‟s name in the Key Point Data table of the Results window. Emergence angles of the key points is also calculated – this is where they cross the waterline in an upward direction to become dry; as opposed to the immersion angle which is when the cross the waterline in a downward direction, becoming wet. A downflooding angle of zero degrees indicates that the key point is immersed at zero degrees of heel. Also see: Select View from Analysis Data on page 148.

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Equilibrium Analysis

Equilibrium analysis lets you determine the draft, heel and trim of the hull as a result of the loads applied in the table in the Loadcase window. The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a waveform.
Choosing Equilibrium Analysis

Select Equilibrium from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu.
Equilibrium Analysis Settings

Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window

Also see: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 17
Equilibrium Analysis Environment Options

The following environments can be applied to the Equilibrium analysis:
Fluid simulation of tank fluid centre of gravity Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Grounding (if any) Criteria

Equilibrium Results

Equilibrium Results are:
Hydrostatic data Freeboard of key points, deck edge and margin line Criteria evaluation Wave phase animation Curve of areas

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Hydrostatic data

Height/freeboard above free surface The freeboard of each Key Point is also calculated. The freeboard is for the vessel condition currently displayed in the Design view and is recalculated after each Equilibrium and Specified Conditions analysis. The freeboard calculated is the vertical distance of the Key Point above the local free surface; hence the local free surface height if a waveform is selected will be taken into account.

Freeboard of key points.

Negative freeboards, i.e. where the Key Points are immersed are displayed in red. The longitudinal positions at which the minimum freeboard for the margin line and deck edge occurred are also specified. Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window.

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quasi-static simulation of the hull motion in waves (Display | Animate). when disturbed the object will return to its equilibrium position Unstable. the centre of gravity is above the metacentre (negative GMt). Page 86 . the Equilibrium analysis will automatically phase-step the waveform through a complete wavelength. Note: This simulation only includes static behaviour at each wave phase. In real world a ship in unstable equilibrium will roll from the upright unstable equilibrium position to a position of stable equilibrium and assume an “angle of loll”. This gives ten columns of results. i. it has no way of determining whether the equilibrium is stable or unstable. an unstable equilibrium can exist when the KG > KM. when disturbed the object will not return to its equilibrium position Stable equilibrium Unstable equilibrium With ships. Therefore it is recommend to check the value of GMt yourself after doing an equilibrium analysis or perform a Large Angle Stability analysis and look at the slope of the GZ curve through the equilibrium heel angle. This can be done using Seakeeper.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Equilibrium Animation in Waves If performed in conjunction with analysis in waves. If necessary the results of this phase stepping can be animated giving a simple. You can distinguish equilibrium into two types: Stable. one for each position of the wave crest.e. and does not cover dynamic or inertial forces. This means that unstable equilibrium may be found instead of the stable equilibrium. Equilibrium Concept The definition of equilibrium is “Position or state where object will remain if undisturbed”. Since Hydromax starts the equilibrium analysis in upright position.

The problem can be overcome by offsetting the weight of the vessel transversely by a small amount. In practice. This is most likely to occur if the VCG is too high and the vessel has negative GM when upright. The equilibrium analysis will now find the stable equilibrium position. Then create a very small heeling moment by offsetting one of the weight items in the loadcase window TCG by just a fraction. Page 87 . it is desirable to find the stable equilibrium position. If an equilibrium analysis is performed for this vessel with the transverse arm set to zero. Activate / Deactivate GHS Export This command activates the GHS Import command in the File menu if a Hydrolink License is available. In practice this vessel would have a loll angle of approximately 25 degrees. Note: It is good practice to always perform a Large Angle Stability analysis as well as the equilibrium analysis to check if the vessel is in stable or unstable equilibrium. This is useful for estimating the initial weight of hull plating. This will ensure that the smallest possible heeling moment is required to find stable equilibrium position. To do this. Preferences) are set as sensitive as possible. first ensure that the tolerances (Edit | Add Surface Areas This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull surfaces into the current loading condition. It can also be used to release the Hydrolink license – a restart of Hydromax will be required for this to take effect.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Unstable equilibrium Stable equilibrium ”Angle of loll” The graph above shows the results of a Large Angle Stability analysis for a vessel with negative initial GMt. Hydromax will find the unstable equilibrium position with zero degrees of heel.

Choosing Specified Conditions Select Specified Conditions from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. Immersion can be specified by either the displacement or the draft. One choice must be made from each of these groups. trim and immersion. Specified Conditions Settings The settings required for Specified Condition analysis are: Specified Conditions from the Analysis menu Three Sets of variables are provided.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Specified Conditions Specified Condition analysis lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the vessel by specifying the heel. Heel can be specified by either the angle of heel or the TCG and VCG. labelled Heel. Specified Conditions Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the Specified Condition analysis: Page 88 . Values from the current loading condition can be inserted into the Centre of Gravity and Displacement fields by clicking on the Get Loadcase Values button. Hydromax will then solve for the vessel hydrostatics at the conditions specified. Also see: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 17 Specified Conditions on page 135 in the Analysis Settings section. Note: If the fluid simulation has been turned on in a previous analysis mode. The specified condition analysis itself ignores tank fillings and does no correction to VCG. Trim and Immersion. then the VCG obtained from the loadcase will not include the free surface correction. the “Get Loadcase Values” button will return exactly the displacement and CG as displayed in the current loadcase window. Trim can be specified by the actual trim measurement. or the LCG and VCG.

e. A range of displacements for KN calculations can be specified using the Displacement command from the Analysis menu. i. together with the number of displacements required. hydrostatic data and key points freeboard are calculated. To set the range of angles. KN Values Analysis KN Values Analysis allows you to determine the hydrostatic properties of the hull at a range of heel angles and displacements to produce the cross curves of stability diagram. KN Values Analysis Settings The analysis settings required for KN Values analysis are: Heel from the Analysis menu. select range for analysis Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu Displacement from the Analysis menu. select Heel from the Analysis menu. Choosing KN Values Analysis Select KN Values from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Specified Conditions Results The specified conditions results are the same as equilibrium analysis results except that criteria are not evaluated. Displacement range dialog Page 89 . select range for analysis and specify estimate of VCG if known The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and Limiting KG analyses. Initial and final displacements can be entered.

KN calculations are calculated assuming the VCG at the baseline (K).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Trim dialog The VCG can also be entered (specified from the vertical zero datum). However if the analysis is being calculated free-to-trim and an estimate of the VCG is known. the accuracy of the KN calculations (for VCGs in the vicinity of the estimated VCG) may be improved by calculating the GZ curve using the estimated VCG position – this will reduce the error in the trim balance due to the vertical separation of CG and CB because this vertical separation is specified more accurately than simply assuming the VCG at the baseline. If a VCG estimate is specified. the KN values are still presented in the normal manner with the KN values calculated as follows: KN(φ) = GZ(φ) + KG_estimated sin(φ) For information on Trim settings for KN Analysis. see: Trim on page 132 Also see KN Value Concepts on page 91 KN Values Analysis Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Page 90 . Traditionally.

GZ. may be calculated from the KN cross curves of stability (at the desired displacement) for any specified KG using the following equation: . GZ = KN .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax KN Values Analysis Results KN curves calualated at each heel angle Immersion angles calculated at each displacement KN Value Concepts The righting lever.KG sin(φ) Page 91 .

To set the range of angles. select range for analysis Heel from the Analysis menu. The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and KN analyses. the selected criteria are evaluated to determine whether the CG may be raised or must be lowered. see: Trim on page 132 Page 92 . When comparing the results of a limiting KG analysis to that of a Large Angle Stability analysis. After each cycle. GZ curves are calculated for various KG values. are extremely sensitive to the heel angle intervals that have been chosen. Limiting KG Settings The initial conditions required for Limiting KG analysis are: Displacement from the Analysis menu. Choosing Limiting KG Select Limiting KG from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax M Z G B’ B N K Note: KN values can also be referred to as “Cross curves of stability”. select range for calculation of GZ curves Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN analysis. it is essential that the same heel angle intervals are used and that the free-totrim options and CG are the same. notably angle of maximum GZ. Limiting KG Limiting KG analysis allows you to analyse the hull at a range of displacements to determine the highest value of KG that satisfies the selected stability criteria. See Large Angle Stability on page 77 for further details. Some criteria. select Heel from the Analysis menu. For information on Trim settings for Limiting KG Analysis.

which is not necessarily the same as the zero point. Criteria are only evaluated on the positive side of the GZ curve. draft amidships.) Limiting KG calculations will be significantly faster if the trim is fixed. The Limiting KG analysis also checks that any selected equilibrium based criteria are passed at each VCG that it tries. Page 93 . trim and centre of gravity are given in the results table. you must still have at least one Large Angle Stability criterion selected. Limiting KG Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Criteria Limiting KG Results Limiting KG analysis results are Limiting KG values. (However this will cause some loss of accuracy. the minimum GM. However. Limiting KG vs displacement graph The Limiting KG value is measured from the baseline. you may wish to use a smaller number of heel angles than for the Large Angle Stability calculations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Since Limiting KG can be quite a time consuming analysis. for each displacement and the limiting criterion. As well as the limiting KG. so if there is any form of asymmetry. it may be necessary to run the analysis heeling the vessel to both starboard and port (this can be done automatically in the Batch Analysis).

However. If you require the limiting KG for each criterion individually or wish to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at each of the displacements and the corresponding limiting KG. the results in the Criteria results table display “Not Analysed”. Page 94 . Also see: Convergence Error on page 136 in the Analysis Settings section. 1 meter). run a large angle stability analysis and check the selected criteria. Hydromax will raise the KG value and try to make the criteria fail. since the heeling arm is not related to the vessel displacement in its definition within Hydromax. Hydromax will continue doing this until the limiting KG value has been iterated to within 0. If any of the criteria fail. rather than the heeling arm is constant). Limiting KG Concepts Hydromax will iterate to a KG value that just passes all criteria you have specified in the criteria dialog.1mm.g. Hydromax will move on to the next displacement. Where these values are explicit in the criterion‟s definition in Hydromax. this is because they do not necessarily refer to the final KG and would be misleading. problems can arise if the criterion is only available in its generic form – most commonly heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified simply as a lever and not as a moment. Hydromax will lower the KG and try again. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria see Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 226. For example in the case where the heeling moment. Hydromax will start with a set start KG value (e. If this tolerance is not achieved in a certain number of iterations. Some criteria may depend on the vessel displacement and or vessel‟s VCG.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax After a Limiting KG analysis has completed. the heeling arm will remain constant for all displacements (where it is perhaps desired that the heeling arm should vary with displacement. the correct values of displacement and VCG will be used in the evaluation of these criteria. this can be done in the Batch Analysis. If the criteria pass. In this case.

this should be zero). Current loadcase specifies initial loading of damaged tanks: This means that the currently selected Loadcase will be used to define the volume of cargo or ballast in tanks before damage is applied. i. Limiting KG for damage conditions with initially loaded tanks The set up of the Limiting KG analysis parameters has been modified to facilitate setting up the required TCG when calculating the Limiting KG for a damaged vessel where liquid cargo tanks initially carrying cargo or ballast water are damaged. however the specified displacement and CG corresponds to that of the intact vessel with damaged tanks empty. 2. Hydromax will evaluate any equilibriumbased criteria that are selected for testing and act accordingly. For Limiting KG calculations for a damaged vessel where some of the damaged tanks were initially non-empty. The second option is for the used to specify the required TCG directly. This is because to perform a sensible search. This is used to compute required TCG. TCG and KG will also be for the intact vessel. it is often required to specify a required TCG. That is the specified displacement will be that of the intact vessel and that the resulting LCG. Page 95 . this can be specified below (if the vessel is symmetrical and initially upright. Hydromax must have at least one criterion that will improve by reducing the VCG. Hydromax assumes that damaged tanks lose all liquid cargo or ballast that they may have been carrying and their buoyancy is lost from the vessel – analysis is done by the lost buoyancy method rather than the added mass method.) Two methods of specifying the required TCG are possible. Note that all results and input data will be assumed to be for the intact vessel. (Although seawater enters these damaged areas. If this method is selected Hydromax will look at the mass and CG of cargo or ballast in tanks which will be damaged during the analysis. The tanks would generally provide a transverse moment that must be balanced by the mass of the vessel. This functionality has been in Hydromax for many years. the intact vessel is upright (zero heel). This is not necessarily the case for equilibrium-based criteria such as freeboard requirements or for GZ-based criteria such as Angle of maximum GZ. this is not seen as an additional mass because damage is computed by the lost buoyancy method. Note that we are only concerned about the tanks that will be damaged and that initially contain cargo or ballast. which must therefore be offset. at least one GZbased criterion must also be selected. However. Hydromax assumes that raising the VCG will make criteria more likely to fail and that reducing the VCG will make the criteria more likely to pass. the mass and CG of the intact vessel after deducting the masses of cargo or ballast in any tanks that will be damaged. In this case. The second method was available in older versions of Hydromax and it is the first method that provides the additional functionality: 1. this is because when they are damaged the ballast or cargo is assumed to be totally lost from the vessel. This is because under most circumstances.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax When performing a Limiting KG analysis. if only these types of criteria are selected. Example calculations It is probably simplest to explain this functionality by means of an example. If the vessel has an off-centre intact TCG. Hydromax may have difficulty in finding a true limiting KG and specify convergence errors.e.

the specified TCG is zero: Page 96 .25m by the stern. Here we have specified that the tank is 80% full before the damage is applied. Importantly we shall also specify that the current loadcase should be used to determine the required TCG and because the vessel is symmetrical. In this case we shall use free to trim. This is done by defining a loadcase and switching to the intact mode to specify the tank filling levels. Initial tank loadings First we need to define how much cargo is in the tanks that will be damaged. This is done in the Displacements dialog: Displacement dialog Setting the Trim options We now need to specify the trim options we wish to use.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The following sample calculations demonstrate how the new Limiting KG options may be used. Use a loadcase to specify the initial quantities of fluids in tanks Setting the Displacements Secondly we need to define the displacement range we wish to calculate the Limiting KG for. We wish to find the maximum VCG that the intact vessel may have in order to pass the selected stability criteria. but with an initial vessel trim of 0. A vessel with a port-side tank that are initially full will have this tank damaged.

Results from Limiting KG analysis Limiting KG results Validation of results The results can be validated by completing a Large Angle Stability analysis with the specified displacement and CG. so the analysis should be done in this direction. In this case large port-side tanks are to be damaged.845mm Page 97 . In this case the baseline (K) is at – 356. We also need to determine which way we should heel the vessel and in doubt should try heeling the vessel in both directions to see which will give the worst result. It must be remembered that these are KG results not VCG so when checking the VCG must be calculated. these are filled significantly above the waterline so loss of ballast from these tanks will cause a list to Starboard.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Trim and TCG specification Running the Analysis We now need to select the damage case to be evaluated. the stability criteria that need to be passed and a suitable range of heel angles to be computed to evaluate the criteria.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Model baseline Computed VCG values We can now set up a loadcase for one of the displacements. Page 98 . it can be seen that (as expected) the stability criterion is passed with a very small margin. Remember that these are the intact vessel displacement and CG: Loadcase to check calculated Limiting KG When the analysis is run.

Choosing Floodable Length  Select Floodable Length from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. Page 99 . select range and specify VCG Permeability. The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN and Limiting KG analyses. The analysis is always carried out free-to-trim. The Floodable Length may be computed for a range of displacements and compartment permeabilities. but the centre of gravity can either be specified directly in the Trim dialog or it is computed from the specified initial trim. select range Bulkhead location (if applicable) 1. For information on Trim settings for Floodable Length Analysis. The permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis. see: Trim on page 132. either initial trim or specified LCG) Displacement. Floodable Length Analysis Settings The initial conditions required for Floodable Length analysis are: Trim (free-to-trim. This means that the vertical separation of CG and CB is accounted for in the trim balance. The VCG must also be specified since the Floodable length analysis is very sensitive to accurate trim calculations. Traditionally the criterion of margin line immersion is used to compute the Floodable Length curve.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Criterion is passed with a small margin Floodable Length The Floodable Length analysis allows you to calculate the longitudinal distribution of maximum length of compartments that can be flooded with the vessel still passing specified equilibrium criteria. The results are presented as the maximum length of compartment plotted (or tabulated) against the longitudinal position of the compartment‟s centre. the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel and is also applied to the free-surface when calculating the reduction of waterplane area and inertia.

Note that internally.) There are several graph plot options available in the Data | Data format dialog (when the floodable length graph is topmost). Floodable Length Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage: no damage case may be selected as this is automatically defined by the analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This permeability is unrelated to the permeability when defining compartments and is only used for floodable length calculations. All compartment standards up to the maximum specified will be plotted. The vessel profile (centreline buttock) may also be displayed. Hydromax will treat the vessel sinking or the trim exceeding +/-89º as a criterion failure. Floodable Length results The results of the analysis are given in tabulated format at the stations defined in the Maxsurf Design Grid as well as graphical format. The tabulated data is linearly interpolated from the graphical data. These are used to compute the Floodable Lengths. Page 100 . select which criteria should be evaluated Criteria must be specified from the analysis menu. The Intact condition is automatically selected and the Damage toolbar is disabled Criteria from the Analysis menu. (The raw graph data can be accessed by double clicking the graph.

This process may be visualised by turning on the display of the Hydromax sections.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Floodable lengths graph options: Fix the y-axis so that it is the same scale as the x-axis. the following dialog will be displayed. with the centre of the compartment at a section under investigation. Floodable Length Concepts The analysis is performed by defining a flooded compartment. The graph updates in real time as you adjust the bulkhead locations so once you have calculated the floodable lengths. If the analysis is unable to find a condition where the vessel passes the selected criteria. Vessel profile (shown in light grey) Floodable Length Bulkheads locations are specified in a table in the Input window. The compartment is then moved progressively forward along the vessel. Plot the different compartment standards up to a specified maximum value. Page 101 . The length of this flooded compartment is increased section-by-section until one of the criteria is failed. you can quickly adjust the bulkhead locations so that the vessel meets the required compartment standard. The vessel sinking or the criteria failing in the intact condition could cause this.

two extra columns appear in the Loadcase window.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Speed versus Accuracy The analysis will be both considerably more accurate and slower with a larger number of sections in the Hydromax model. The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a specified waveform. These are used to specify the longitudinal extents of the load. A trapezium shaped distributed load is derived from the centre and fore and aft extents of the load. See the Loadcase Longitudinally Distributed Loads section on page 42 for more details. Page 102 . Preferences dialog. Longitudinal Strength Longitudinal Strength lets you determine the bending moments and shear forces created in the hull due to the loads applied in the Loadcase window. It can also be used to release the Hydrolink license – a restart of Hydromax will be required for this to take effect. Longitudinal Strength Settings The initial conditions required for Longitudinal Strength analysis are: Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window Distributed loads using the Loadcase window When the Longitudinal Strength analysis mode is selected. The speed of the analysis can be increased quite considerably by increasing the allowable tolerances in the Edit | Add Surface Areas This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull surfaces into the current loading condition. Choosing Longitudinal Strength Select Longitudinal Strength from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. Activate / Deactivate GHS Export This command activates the GHS Import command in the File menu if a Hydrolink License is available. it is recommended that a minimum of 100 sections be used for most situations. This is useful for estimating the initial weight of hull plating.

such as normal masses in the loadcase or lost buoyancy due to damage. Downward acting masses. are given positive values. allowable shears and moments from Input window Note that Hydromax will always use the fluid simulation method when performing a longitudinal strength analysis. For more information on how Hydromax can take fluids in tanks into account see Fluids Analysis Methods on page 137. Name of Curve Mass Buoyancy Description Vessel mass / unit length Buoyancy distribution / unit length = immersed cross sectional area * density. If defined. the net load. shear force and bending moment along the length of the hull are computed. buoyancy.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Longitudinal Strength Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Grounding (if any) Criteria. Damaged tanks and compartments reduce the Page 103 . damage and non-buoyant volumes and grounding loads. Upward acting forces such as buoyancy and grounding reactions are given negative values. Longitudinal Strength Results The output from the longitudinal strength calculations is a graph of mass. From these. allowable shear forces and bending moments are overlayed on the graph.

any point loads in the loadcase will be applied as a load evenly distributed 100mm either side of the position of the load.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Grounding Damage/NBV Net Load Shear buoyancy. Choosing Tank Calibrations Select Tank Calibrations from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. You can display this table by choosing Longitudinal Strength from the Results sub-menu under the Window menu. Grounding reaction Loas buoyancy due to damaged tanks and compartments and Non-Byoyant Volumes (NBV) Mass + Buoyancy + Grounding + Damage (and NBV) x Shear Force = Moment NetLoad( x)dx AftSt x Bending Moment = Allowable shear and moment ShearForce x)dx ( AftSt Allowable shear and bending moments as specified in the input Modulus table. alternatively double-clicking in the graph will give you all the data as plotted. Tanks are taken into account as distributed loads as well based on their mass distribution that is calculated from the tank sections. Tank Calibrations Tank Calibration allows you to determine the properties of the tanks you have defined in the Compartment window. This data is also displayed in the “Long. Strength” tab in the Results window. Note Make sure you have defined sections in your model in Maxsurf. Without this. at a range of capacities. Page 104 . Note: For the purposes of strength calculations. the longitudinal strength table will be empty.

fixed trim Tank Calibration Environment Options Density Tank Calibration Results In the Window | Graphs menu each tank can be selected for display in the Graph window. For more information see Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tank Calibration Input Tank definitions and boundaries Permeability Fluid type All required Tank Calibration Analysis input can be specified in the Compartment Definition table. Page 105 . Also see: Relative Density of Tank Fluids on page 56 Tank Calibration Settings Trim.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Sounding pipes and tank calibration results If the vessel is trimmed. there are ranges of tank volumes that will show the same sounding/ullage. will exacerbate this phenomenon): Figure a Zero trim Figure b Trim by bow. near-empty tank Figure c Trim by bow. Here there will be a range of tank filling levels that all show maximum sounding. Figure b shows the vessel with (bow down) trim and a small amount of fluid in the tank. These points occur when the tank is near empty or near full. (The same effect can occur if the sounding pipe does not reach the lowest or highest point in the tank – remember that this can change as the vessel trims. Figure c shows the vessel with the same trim. see below (increasing the trim. with the vessel at zero trim. which is effectively what is happening in the figures below). Here all tank filling levels will have a valid sounding. Page 106 . near-full tank Figure a shows a sounding pipe that extends the whole height of the tank. but with the tank nearly full. Here there will be a range of tank filling levels which all show zero sounding.

User specified sounding intervals With the addition of user specified tank calibration intervals. 98% and 100% full levels do not intersect the sounding pipe. In the results out lined in red. levels of 1%. Note that in addition to the specified soundings. Page 107 . if the 1% level does not intersect the sounding pipe. 97.9%. if the sounding pipe extends above or below the maximum and minimum fluid levels. Similarly if the 97. These will start at a sounding of zero (rather than an ullage of zero).9% and 98% levels are given because it is at 98% that the free surface moment is made zero. The profile view of the tank in the trimmed vessel is shown on the right. 98% and 100% full.9%. 98% and 100% full will also be added if they have not already been included in the specified soundings. the maximum sounding will be displayed. the sounding will be given as zero. MSC. the last two results are below the bottom of the sounding pipe.0m but different capacities – the fluid levels are all above the top of the sounding pipe.19(58) is applicable to dry cargo vessels only. sounding pipe does not cover full range of tank capacities.19(58) .0m but different capacities (the last but one calibration point is the fluid remaining in the tank when the sounding is 0. Tank calibrations for severely trimmed vessels. 97. In a similar way. The 97. it is possible to specify the calibration intervals that you require. In the blue results.0m). giving soundings of 0. Probabilistic Damage IMO Probabilistic damage Hydromax support for Probabilistic damage according to both IMO MSC. there are four results which all have a sounding of 1. the sounding pipe is in the middle of the tank and extends from the bottom to the top of the tank. you will get readings which have the same capacity but different soundings.216(82) can be applied to both dry cargo and passenger ships whilst MSC.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax These effects will be noted in the tank calibration results if they are extreme enough since Hydromax always adds calibrations at 1%. see below.9%.216(82) and IMO MSC.

User defines the damage zones they wish to consider in the Damage window | Zones table Once 2 and 3 have been completed. The GZ curves are calculated for a large number of different damage conditions and several load cases. The vessel‟s attained subdivision index is the sum of the products of the pfactors with their corresponding s-factors. Hydromax runs a large angle stability analysis for each combination of loadcase and damage and collates the results to calculate the attained index. a p-factor can be calculated. the user may decide to refine the zone arrangement. The same log file is used for each analysis so it is important to either change the name or copy the file at the end of the analysis if the results are to be kept. the p-factors Damage window | p Factors table are automatically calculated and displayed as the zone data is modified. The user can then perform the probabilistic damage analysis. When the Zones have been defined the user can then define which tanks are damaged in each zone in the Damage window | Zone damage table.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic damage – Principles Essentially the probabilistic damage analysis performs a number of large angle stability analyses and uses the IMO criterion to determine an s-factor that depends on certain parameters of the GZ curve. This is then compared with the required index. The log file parameters may be specified in the Edit | Preferences dialog: Page 108 . Flow through – Typical Use-case The following section shows how the probabilistic damage analysis might typically be used. It is useful to have this interaction because if the p Factor is too large for a particular zone. During the analysis each GZ curve and details on the evaluation of the s-factor may be saved in a log file. User defines the bulkheads and deck values for single and groups of adjacent zones. Maxsurf model is loaded as normal User defines (first selecting File | New to open the Probabilistic damage data table) other ship data required for the probabilistic damage analysis in the Damage window | Global table. A first pass at this can be automatically generated using the Case | Extent of damage command. The attained subdivision index can then be compared with a required subdivision index to see if the vessel achieves a sufficiently high degree of safety. For each condition.

The probabilistic damage input sheets are in the damage window after the normal damage condition sheet.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic damage result logging options (Edit | Preferences) Finding the probabilistic damage input sheets. Page 109 .

Settings for Probabilistic damage GZ curve calculation Since the analysis essentially consists of a large number of GZ curve calculations. For this reason it is also possible to save the probabilistic damage data as a separate file (in a similar way to the other Hydromax input data).1 and if the file were read into an earlier version of Hydromax and saved. these data would be lost. ensure that one of the probabilistic damage data sheets in the Damage window is on top. most of the settings that are applicable to the Large Angle Stability analysis are also applicable to the Probabilistic Damage Analysis. Chose the Probabilistic Damage analysis mode from the pull-down or Analysis menu: Page 110 . Bring one of the probabilistic damage tables to the front to enable File menu items Probabilistic damage – Inputs In this section we shall look at the input parameters required for the probabilistic damage analysis. However this is new to version 14.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A Probabilistic Damage toolbar button is available in the Windows toolbar which will take the user back to the last used probabilistic damage input table: Probabilistic damage – Saving input parameters The probabilistic damage data is saved in the . To load or save the probabilistic damage data as a separate file.hmd file.

It is recommended to evaluate at least one negative heel angle and the direction of heel should correspond to the side of the vessel that is being damaged (see below): Page 111 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Selecting Probabilistic Damage anlysis mode Once you have selected the probabilistic damage analysis mode. Hydromax will calculate the GZ curve in both directions and. the lowest s-factor will be taken. if the criteria can be evaluated in both directions. you can define the heel angle range and trim settings to be used as well as any environmental parameters such as waveform (as well as the fluid analysis method to be used). If the criteria can only be evaluated in one direction. This is useful if the tanks contain ballast or cargo and it is uncertain in which direction the vessel will list when damaged (or indeed the vessel may list to different directions depending on the loadcase and damage). During probabilistic damage analysis. it is possible to check the vessel heeling to both port and starboard. then this value for the s-factor will be taken.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Heel angle specification (as per Large Angle Stability) Use either fixed trim or free to trim to loadcase. The Probailistic damage analysis has its own set of criteria (though the same parent criteria are also available in the large angle stability analysis criteria). The number of parent criteria is reduced to only those which can calculate the s-factor. Also some “Default” criteria are supplied. Hydromax will look at the probabilistic criteria that have been selected and warn you if there are any problems. When the analysis mode has been set to Proababilistic Damage. you can add or modify these should you so desire. s-factor calculation The s-factors are calculated by stability criteria. you will see the criteria that are used for this analysis. Page 112 . When running the analysis.

The criteria window can be closed with either of the close buttons. If you need to modify any of the criteria you should make your own copies of the parent criteria A set of Default criteria are provided – these can be modified and changes will be saved. However it is still good practice to review criteria parameters before starting the analysis. you may have up to one of each MSC.) The criteria should always be selected for Damage analysis. please refer to the Criteria Help section for the appropriate criteria (and heeling arms). Only one criterion should be selected and it should correspond to the IMO Resolution being used.216(82) Resolution where the vessel type and heeling moments must be defined correctly. it is probably best practive to just have a single criterion selected.216(82) or MSC. changes made to the parent (bold) criteria are not saved. Main parameters and calculation of required subdivision index The other parameters required for the probabilistic damage analysis are defined in the last four tables in the Damage window: Page 113 . Hydromax will automatically update some of the criteria parameters according to corresponding parameters in the probabilistic damage setup.19(58) criteria selected and Hydromax will automatically use the appropriate one – according to the selected Resolution in the Global sheet – but for clarity. This is particularly true for the MSC. (Strictly.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic Damage Criteria Manager with Parent and Default criteria The following rules should be observed when defining the probabilistic damage criteria: As with the normal criteria manager. For further information on how the s-factors are calculated and the different parameters.

19(58) are provided.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Additional tables in the Damage window define the remaining Probabilistic damage input data Depending on the selected IMO Resolution. Tool tips for Global data sheet Global table This table is used to define the main parameters for the probabilistic damage anlysis as well as provide some intermediate calculations. different rows and columns will be displayed in the tables. Depending on the Resolution and vessel type.216(82) and MSC. Input data are shown in black whilst results are shown in grey. some rows may be hidden. A. both MSC. Page 114 . Tool tips have been added to provide a more detailed explanation of the input parameters and also the options available.265 VIII is not included.

216(82) Dry Cargo vessel and Passenger vessel Page 115 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Global table – MSC.

If you wish to limit the analysis by p-factor only. then specify the number of zones here (see min p-factor below). Vessle type. Specifies the minimum p-factor for which an analysis should be performed. Specifies the upper limit of the number of adjacent zones that should be damaged. Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the deepest subdivision draft. Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the partial subdivision draft. not required for MSC. required for MSC. Number of persons inclusing officers and crew that the vessel is permitted to carry in excess of N_1.216(82). Number of persons for whom lifeboats are provided.216(82) or MSC.19(58) Deepest subdivision draft (summer loadline) Loadcase Partial subdivision draft Loadcase Light service draft Loadcase Type -.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Global table – MSC. Parameter not currently used. p-Factor of damage to consider Page 116 Description IMO Resolution to be used. required for MSC. Vessel only. num. moulded breadth at or below deepest subdivision draft: B max. pax.216(82). of persons in excess of N_1: N_2 max.19(58).Cargo or Passenger Lifeboat capacity N_1 Permitted max. number of adjacent zones to consider min. Vessel only. Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the light subdivision draft. pax.19(58). not required for MSC.19(58) Dry Cargo Row Resolution -MSC. The maximum a condition can contribute to the .

but the option to start from the bow is also allowd in Hydromax The next table (Zones) allows for the definition of the longitudinal damage zones. the boundaries of adjacent zones are automatically updated if required. use Edit | Add or Delete (or Ctrl+A or Del key. If you wish the analysis to be purely limited by the number of adjacent zones (see above) then specify a small negative value. this can speed up the analysis. This will ensure that conditions with zero p-factor will still be evaluated. The heel direction in the Heel setup should correspond to the side of the vessel being damaged. This can speed up the analysis. It is normal to begin the Zone numbering at the stern. If the the p-factor is very small the contribution to the attained index will be negligible and there is little point in carrying out the analysis. as are the zone names. with a number of complete rows selected) to add or delete zones.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax max. vertical extent of damage Damaged side -Starboard or Port Zone 1 located at bow or stern? Longitudinal Zone definition attained index is the p-factor. The extent of damage is assumed to go all the way to the centreline but you may specify which side of the vessel is damaged. The subdivision length is taken as the limits of the length defined by the zones. then the s-factor will be taken as zero (irrespective of the GZ curve). Specifies which side of the vessel will be damaged (when automatically generating the zone damage). If desired the vertical extent of damage (when automatically generating the zone damage) can be limited. Damage zones defined by fwd and aft boundaries Zones may be shown in the drawing views (this display option is only available in Probabilistic Damage analysis mode): Page 117 . If desired the vertical extent of damage (when automatically generating the zone damage) can be limited. As for other similar tables. Fore and aft extents of the zone boundaries are input by the user and the length and centre of the zone is automatically calculated. If the vessel trim exceeds this value. Conditions whose pfactor is below this minimum will not be evaluated. trim angle to consider Limit vertical extent of damage? max.

The last column shows whether a particular condition will be tested (if the p-factor is sufficiently large and the maximum number of adjacent zones is not exceeded).216(82) or MSC. side damage) shown in pink. The columns displayed depends on the choice of Resolution: MSC. In practice. P-Factors From the damage zone calculations. it probably makes more sense to limit the analysis by specifying a desired minimum p-factor rather than a number of adjacent zones.19(58) made in the Global table. This will help the user to determine the maximum number of adjacent zones that should be analysed. All combinations of adjacent zones are calculated at this point.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic damage zones (stbd. Page 118 . the probability of damaging a longitudinal zone or group of adjacent zones is calculated as well as the cumulative probability. This can easily be done by specifying the maximum number of adjacent zones as the number of zones defined. A subtotal for the pfactor for a given number of adjacent zones is given as well as a cumulative to total for all the p-factors.

The b-values are defined not only for each individual zone. The side-shell offset value defaults to the maximum halfbeam of the vessel. measured from the side-shell. the inner limit being at a distance side-shell offset minus b from the centreline. This is because where the side-shell or bulkhead is not parallel to the centerline. the zone will be damaged up to (but not across) the centreline. Transverse sub-zone definition and R-Factors Transverse sub-zone definition allows the user to limit the damage penetration to a certain distance into the vessel towards the centerline. it is alos possible to define sub-zones due to longitudinal bulkheads (transverse subdivision) and decks (vertical subdivision).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax p-factor calculations for individual and groups of zones Sub zones due to transverse and vertical subdivision As well as the main longitudinal subdivision. there is a special way of calculating the b-value and this needs to be done for each set of adjacent zones. Note that there is one extra r-factor than the number of bulkheads – this represents the probability of damaging to the centerline. The r-factors are then calculated for each of the b-values that have been defined. The sum of all r-factors should be unity (a check is provided). If no b-values are specified. I have followed IMO notation by specifying the penetration depth from the side-shell (rather than specifying the offset from the centerline). but also for groups of adjacent zones. Page 119 . A column is provided for the user to specify the side-shell offset (from the centerline) and this is used only to draw the transverse extents of the damage zone.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Longitudinal bulkhead definition and corresponding r-factors Page 120 .

selected zone shown in bold. The currently selected zone or sub-zone is shown in bold as well as any damage for that zone. Clicking in a zone or sub-zone in the table highlights the zone graphically Page 121 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Visualisation of zones and sub-zones: sub-zones shown dashed. This can also be seen in rendered view to quite effectively visualize the damage.

Note that during the full probabilistic damage analysis. The loadcase for v-factor calculations is selected by clicking on the desired loadcase in the Global table. Thus we introduce the concept of the currently selected Loadcase for the displayed vfactors. Loadcase for v-factor calculations is selected by clicking on the desired loadcase in the Global table. Page 122 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Vertical sub-zone definition and V-Factors Similarly decks may be defined to create vertical subdivision of the zones. The corresponding v-factors are calculated. but these also depend on the draft of the vessel. the v-factors will be automatically recalculated for the loadcase under consideration.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Deck definition and corresponding v-factors Page 123 .

The “Zone damage” tab of the Damage window must be on top to enable this command.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Zone damage The zone damage sheet specifies which tanks are damaged for a given zone. Page 124 . Once the automatic damage is defined. Definition of whats damaged in each zone Once the zones are defined the user can select the Case | Extent of damage command and this will automatically generate the zone damage according to which tanks lie within the zone boundaries. The Damage window must be on top for this command to work. this can be modified by the user should this prove to be necessary (or it can be defined from scratch by the user). This stage is not required for the probabilistic analysis. From this Hydromax can work out what should be damaged for any combination of adjacent damaged zones. Damage cases will be added up to the maximum number of adjacent zones specified in the Global tab. if the pfactor exceeds the minimum values specified (again in the Global tab). Automatic definition of damage for each zone Additionally the user may automatically generate damage cases for the Zone damage that has been defined damage configurations within the maximum number of adjacent zones range and above the minimum p-factor will be added. but has been added for convenience should the user wish to manually run large angle stability analyses for the same damage cases.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Automatic creation of damage cases using the damage defined for each zone Visualization of zone damage When in Probabilistic damage analysis mode the damaged tanks and compartments displayed are not those of the current damage case. Page 125 . but those of the currently selected zone. The zone is selected by clicking in the corresponding column of the Zone Damage table.

Note that only one criterion may be selected.216(82) is being used) That the correct s-factor criterion has been selected. Hydromax will make several checks to see if the analysis parameters have been correctly set up. it is worth checking that the heel direction (Analysis | Heel) is correct and also check that the s-factor calculation parameters are corerect (Analysis | Criteria) Pre-run checks When trying to run the probabilistic damage analysis. If Hydromax finds no criteria selected but a suitable one is available (but unselected) then it will prompt the user to use this one: Page 126 . These are not exhaustive tests but should pick up critical errors. The following checks are made: That loadcases that have been specified exist That the vessel type is correct in the criteria (if MSC.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Zone damage visualisation Probabilistic damage – Analysis Once the analysis parameter data has been defined.

Starting and Stopping Analyses To start the analysis. this is reported and the s-factor given as zero. Hydromax will redraw the contents of the windows to display the current hull position for each iteration. Hydromax will step through the parameter ranges specified. Probabilistic analysis results Probabilistic damage – Future developments The probabilistic damage analysis is still under development and new features will be added in subsequent versions of Hydromax. The required index is also shown as well as pass/fail status.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Large angle stability analyses are computed for each combination of loadcase and zone damage up to either the specified maximum number of adjacent zones or the minimum specified p-factor. excessive trim occur or the large angle stability analysis fail to converge. choose Start Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. floating the hull to equilibrium conditions where required. Should the vessel sink. Basic data pertinent to calculation of the s-factor is also presented as well as a total Attained subdivision index at the bottom of the table. Page 127 .

Batch Analysis – Procedures Once the loadcases. Further. Hydromax will continue to calculate in the background although its speed will be reduced. Limiting KG and KN calculations can be made for each damage condition. especially where results for all individual criteria are required. Enable Limiting KG and KN analyses to be performed automatically for all damage cases.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Calculations may be interrupted at any time by selecting Stop Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. With a single command. If you are not interested in seeing the progress of the analysis. criteria and analysis parameters for the required analyses have been set up. If you have stopped the analysis. key points. You may also choose to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at the final VCG. Hydromax will run Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases. For the Limiting KG analysis you may also check the Limiting KG for each criterion individually. There are other options which allow the analysis to be performed heeling to both port and starboard. You can also switch application by clicking in the window of any background program.: analysis parameters. the Batch Analysis is started Page 128 . The aim of the batch processing function is to: Provide the user with a simple and consistent way of carrying out Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses on a large number of load and damage cases. The start. Facilitate testing with heel to port and starboard for vessels with asymmetric loading and/or damage conditions (or hulls). The drawing of the vessel at each step of the analysis can be quite time consuming. switch to a table window and maximise it to speed up the analysis.e. Before you can perform a Batch Analysis it is recommended that you run a number of Analyses manually to check whether the Model has been defined correctly and all Analysis Settings and Environment conditions have been set correctly. Provide all relevant results and the data required to be able to reproduce the runs. Should the analysis take longer than about 45 seconds. you can resume calculation by selecting Resume Analysis from the Analysis Menu or toolbar. Facilitate export of the data from Hydromax and import into MS Excel for post processing and report generation. damage cases. Hydromax will flash and beep to indicate that the analysis has been completed. i. pause and resume functions are also available in the Analysis toolbar: Batch Analysis Batch Analysis Concepts Hydromax has basic batch processing capability. file name etc. There may be a slight time delay on all of these operations while the current cycle is finished. Facilitate time consuming Limiting KG analyses.

5 m then select Analysis | Batch Analysis Batch Analysis Environment Options (Criteria) Any Analysis Environment Options specified prior to a Batch Analysis will be used during the Batch Analysis. Batch Analysis Settings Analysis parameters such as trim. This is because time consuming redrawing of the design windows.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis | Start Batch Analysis Batch analysis runs all combination of loadcases and damage cases. Any criteria that have been set are evaluated at the end of each analysis and the results of these are also output to the text file. Page 129 . For example. are set in the normal way for each analysis type included in the Batch analysis. heel angles etc. Tip: Under most operating systems. graphs and tables is avoided.5 m: first select the Large Angle Stability analysis type from the analysis menu set the trim to Fixed trim and 0. minimising Hydromax can reduce the time required to perform the calculations. if you want the Large Angle Stability to use a fixed trim of 0.

Once the analysis is complete. the batch analysis will automatically create a Word document. Batch Analysis Results Before analysis starts. Because the analyses are simply carried out one after the other. Warning: Sending the results to the Report can slow down analysis considerably and also consume considerable system resources. it is possible that your computer will become very slow to respond and under some circumstances with certain operating systems even cause Hydromax to crash. This section will describe the following analysis settings: Heel Trim Draft Displacement Specified Conditions Permeability Hydromax will allow specification of only those analysis settings that apply to the currently selected analysis type. Analysis Settings In the previous sections opening and preparing a model in Hydromax was discussed together with descriptions of the different Analysis types. The report is stored in memory and if you have insufficient memory. you will be prompted to enter the name and location of the file where Hydromax will write the results of the batch analysis. only the results of the final analysis will be stored in Hydromax.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria. For large batch analysis. Page 130 . Also see: Reporting on page 145. At the bottom of the dialog is a check box which allows users to select whether the results of a batch analysis should go to the Report window in Hydromax as well as the batch analysis text file. When the option for Sending the results to Word is selected in the Edit | Preferences dialog. this tab delimited text file may be imported directly into MS Excel for further processing. it is not possible to go back to the results for a specific analysis from within Hydromax. see Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 226. it is advisable not to include the results in the report.

etc. The following table is a very simplified representation of the degrees of freedom and their weight counterpart: Degree of Freedom Draft Trim Heel Weight Displacement Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (LCG) Transverse Centre of Gravity (TCG) 1 2 3 In fact it is a rather more complicated situation than that suggested by the table above. heel and draft with the vessel‟s mass and centre of gravity or visa versa. If any step is greater than 10 deg. If all the heel angle intervals are 10 deg or less. simply put 0 in the other steps. key points. For an equilibrium analysis all degrees of freedom are derived from the centre of gravity and Displacement. If only one set of steps is required. because vertical centre of gravity is also important and also because most of the variables are coupled. The heel steps must be positive. and there is any doubt as to which will be the worst heel direction. Page 131 . Hydromax matches the trim. there are three degrees of freedom: Trim. trim and draft by varying the displacement and centre of gravity. Heel and Draft. or it can match a specified displacement and centre of gravity by varying the heel. Hydromax will not do any curve fitting and linear interpolation will be used. In the Specified Condition Analysis any combination of the variable pairs may be specified. Combinations of both are also possible. Heel angles between 180 and +180 may be specified. If there is any asymmetry in the vessel due to either: hull shape. In this case the LCB and TCB (and therefore the required LCG and TCG) are calculated from the underwater hullshape at each draft. This way the volume of the displaced hull matches the required mass and the centres of gravity and buoyancy lie one above the other in a vertical line.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In hydrostatic analysis. then the analysis should be carried out for both heel to starboard and heel to port to find the most pessimistic condition. For example: it can match a specified heel.. loading. For example: the Upright Hydrostatics analysis consists of fixing heel and trim and stepping through a series of fixed drafts. Hydromax will fit a cubic spline to the GZ curve and use this to interpolate for values between the tested heel angles. trim and draft. KN and Limiting KG analyses. The various analysis types and settings can be thought of as setting one variable in each pair to a fixed value and deriving the others from the analysis. Heel The Heel dialog from the analysis menu is used to specify the range of heel angles to be used for Large Angle Stability. damage.

Large Angle Stability. Essentially there are three options for trim: 1. (For the Specified Condition analysis. Select Trim in the Analysis menu to bring up the Trim dialog. the trim may be specified in the Specified Conditions dialog. Fixed trim – the analysis is carried out at a fixed. Equilibrium. Trim For most analyses you may specify whether the vessel is free-to-trim or has fixed trim.) Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses always use a free trimming (and free heeling) analysis so that there is no trimming (or heeling) moment applied to the vessel at the final equilibrium. This is to allow roll back angle criteria to be evaluated correctly. This can be a source of apparent differences in the results from the different analyses. KN. Probabilistic Damage) as well as Upright Hydrostatics and Tank Calibrations 2. Floodable Length and Tank Calibrations. to ensure that the equilibrium angle is identified. KN Analysis Limiting KG. It is possible that the GZ at zero heel may be very slightly positive (due to asymmetry or rounding error) for this reason. Note: The heel angles to be used are specified independently for each analysis mode. at say -5 degrees. Limiting KG. It is good practise to start the heel range at an angle of approximately -30°. Longitudinal Strength. it is advisable to test at least one negative heel angle. This option is available for all analyses that have a loadcase: Large Angle Stability. Page 132 . Free to trim to loadcase – the analysis trims the vessel to the CG specified in the loadcase. Probabilistic Damage. it is essential that the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: For the angle of equilibrium to be found (when analysing criteria). Trim may be specified for Upright Hydrostatics. specified initial trim. This applies to all analyses that carry out a large angle stability-type analysis (Large Angle Stability.

for each displacement. for each displacement. a specified constant LCG is maintained for each displacement. The TCG and VCG are specified directly. Thus. the vessel is not free-totrim as it heels. all three components of the CG need to be know. For the Floodable Length analysis. This it is possible to specify the LCG either directly or so that the upright. In the case of the Limiting KG analysis. the upright. Fixed trim (KN and Limiting KG analyses only). This is for when a range of displacements is used for the analysis: Limiting KG. this analysis will tend to overestimate ship stability properties such as GZ. Although considerably faster. heel is not considered thus TCG cannot be specified. Page 133 . Free-to-trim using a specified initial trim value Using this method. Free to trim to specified CG – this is again free-to-trim but the CG is specified in the dialog. but the LCG will be different. intact vessel trim will be the same. KN. Thus. Specification of different trim options is dependent on the type of analysis currently selected. Calculations at each heel angle of the large angle stability analysis are then done free-to-trim using the derived LCG and VCG. This LCG is then used to compute the free-to-trim vessel orientation at each heel angle as the large angle stability analysis is performed. The analysis is carried out with the specified fixed trim. the LCG will be the same. the LCB of the intact vessel at the specified trim and zero heel is computed. In this case. but the upright vessel trim will be different. so cannot be specified. Floodable Length. The LCG is calculated using this value and the VCG. the VCG is being found by the analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax 3. intact vessel floats at a specified trim. for each displacement. Free-to-trim to a specified LCG value With this method.

Also. there is an option to automatically adjust the displacement and LCG of the vessel so that liquid cargo of damaged tanks is removed from the model.e. Limiting KG and Floodable Length calculations. It will be used to determine the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. The TCG can be either specified directly or calculated from the tank loadings defined in the current loadcase. for the Limiting KG analysis.) In the case of the Limiting KG analysis. the actual VCG is used and the VCG input field will state “not applicable”. (As the trim angle increases the longitudinal movement of the centre of gravity due to its vertical position becomes more important. from the baseline. any liquid cargo should also be removed from the model. because the analysis is very sensitive to trim. It will also be used to improve the accuracy of the KN results. measured from the vertical zero datum (not necessarily KG).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax VCG for trim balance The VCG. The VCG specified in the draft dialog is used for the calculation of upright stability characteristics such as GMt only. the VCG is needed to provide an accurate balance of the trimming moment. Displacement The displacement dialog is used to specify the range of displacements to be used for the KN. may be specified. so to be consistent. For Floodable Length calculations. Current Loadcase specifies initial loading of damaged tanks (los mass during analysis) Finally. the VCG will only have an effect if the analysis is free-to-trim. the VCG will be used to calculate the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. Draft The draft dialog is used to specify the range of drafts to be used for the Upright hydrostatics analysis. Page 134 . and is specified in terms of KG – i. This is especially useful when evaluating the Limiting KG of a damaged vessel that had cargo or ballast in tanks which are subsequently damaged. For KN analysis. TCG value The TCG option allows you to specify an off-centreline centre of gravity for Limiting KG and KN calculations. This is for consistency with the lost buoyancy analysis method: the buoyancy contribution of damaged tanks is removed from the model. which are always calculated free-to-trim. which is not necessarily the vertical zero datum.

Permeability The Permeabilities are set in a table in the Permeability dialog. and/or calculating the weights of fluids in tanks in the loadcase. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or delete rows from the table. The Permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis. This permeability is unrelated to compartment.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Specified Conditions The specified conditions analysis setting is only available for the specified condition analysis. Also see: Modelling Compartments on page 48 Tolerances In the Edit | Add Surface Areas Page 135 . The permeabilities may be sorted by double clicking on the permeability column heading. See Specified Conditions on page 87. tank and non-buoyant volume permeabilities are used when calculating the effects of damage. the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel. The last set of permeabilities used will be recalled from the registry when Hydromax is started. The compartment. Individual Permeability of Tanks and Compartments The individual permeability of each compartment (or tank) is specified in the Compartment definition table. tank or non-buoyant volume permeability and is only used for floodable length calculations.

The specified displacement and the actual displacement at the current iteration are provided for information.1% (1 gram in 10 tonnes of displacement). Hydromax will continue.00001% and 0.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull surfaces into the current loading condition. Also convergence may be poor if the trim angle approaches 90 . If this is not achieved within a certain number of iterations. Hydromax will display a warning. Preferences dialog of Hydromax. It can also be used to release the Hydrolink license – a restart of Hydromax will be required for this to take effect. Note This warning is not displayed during batch analysis. Page 136 . Convergence Error Hydromax will attempt to solve most analysis to within the ideal tolerance. If Hydromax thinks that it is likely that the model has sunk (waterplane area is zero at the current condition) the following dialog will be displayed. This defines the tolerances that Hydromax uses to determine when to finish iteration during Large Angle Stability Equilibrium analysis Specified conditions KN calculations Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Ideal tolerances can range between 0. If convergence to within the acceptable error has not been achieved. but the acceptable error has been achieved. Acceptable tolerances can range from 0. Acceptable tolerances should always be greater than Ideal tolerances. This is useful for estimating the initial weight of hull plating. Activate / Deactivate GHS Export This command activates the GHS Import command in the File menu if a Hydrolink License is available.001% to 1.0%. instead the warning is written in the batch file. One of the most common causes of non-convergence is if the specified displacement exceeds the volume of the completely submerged vessel and it sinks. calculation tolerances can be set.

Note: There are occasions when convergence will not necessarily occur within the maximum allowable number of iterations. trim angle curve or moment to heel vs. which appears not to be due to sinking. This problem can sometimes occur if the specified displacement is extremely small and the vessel has a large flat bottom. All analyses other than Floodable Length will fail if the trim exceeds +/-45º. in the case of the Floodable Length analysis. draft plot. heel angle curve. you can interrupt Hydromax by pausing the analysis. then the following dialog will be displayed. If you choose to continue. but will allow you the option of continuing the search. Analysis Environment Options The analysis can be performed in different environments. Other causes of non-convergence can be non-linear moment to trim vs. producing a highly non-linear waterplane area vs. this limit is increased to +/-89º. The analysis will also fail to converge if the trim becomes excessive. If Hydromax fails to converge it will give you a warning. this section describes the analysis environment options available in Hydromax in more detail: Page 137 . Hydromax will search for the equilibrium position indefinitely.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The warning is also not shown when accessing Hydromax from a VBA macro using the Automation interface If there is a convergence problem. If the search is unsuccessful after a reasonable period of time.

if the filling level is less than or equal to the lower limit or the filling level is greater than or equal to the upper limit. filling level is 98% or above. The upper limit is clearly stated by IMO as 98%. It is possible to specify the range of filling levels for which free surface moments should be applied in the loadcase.i.2 Free surface effects should be considered whenever the filling level in a tank is less than 98% of full condition. You may set different limits for each of the different free surface moment types other than “User Specified”. In addition it is possible to ignore the free surface moment if the VCG correction for a single tank. provided that the total of such residual liquids does not constitute a significant free surface effect. but the code provides some flexibility in interpretation for the lower limit. the free surface moment will be zero.e. This requires that a nominal minimum displacement be specified. (see IMO IS Code) Page 138 . 3.10 The usual remainder of liquids in empty tanks need not be taken into account in calculating the corrections. Selecting Fluids in the Analysis menu opens the Fluids Analysis dialog. i. Free surface effects need not be considered where a tank is nominally full . due to the free surface moment is less than a specified amount. This is applicable to the “IMO” free surface moment type only.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Fluids Analysis Methods Density Waveform Grounding Stability Criteria Damage Fluids Analysis Methods Hydromax allows you to specify two different ways of simulating any fluids contained in tanks or compartments.3. (see IMO IS Code) 3. This functionality is accessed through the Analysis | Fluids dialog: Fluid Analysis dialog If the corrected the VCG method is used. the FSM is applied if the filling level is within the exclusive range specified.e.3.

not those from the actual second moment of area of the inclined tank waterplane. In this case.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax 3. These values are automatically calculated from the maximum free surface moments of the tanks.3. authorities have not adopted this more accurate calculation of the shift in centre of gravity due to fluid movement. There are several FSM types available. Note: Calculation of GM GM values always use the centre of gravity corrected for free surface moments even if the “simulate fluid” option has been chosen. calculated in the upright condition. It is reasonably accurate at low angles of heel and trim. Note Most documented stability criteria assume that the corrected VCG method has been used. This is because the actual free surface moment to be used to determine the VCG in a loadcase depends on the method being used and also the heel angle in question (in the case of the IMO correction). as it corresponds with the traditional approach used by naval architects and classification societies worldwide. For more information.9 Small tanks which satisfy the following condition using the values of "k" corresponding to an angle of inclination of 30°. This method should be used when compiling a stability booklet for a design. if required. The effective rise in VCG due to the tanks' free surface is calculated by summing the free surface moment of all the tanks and dividing by the total vessel displacement (the free surface moment to be applied is specified in the loadcase).01m m in where M fs is the free surface moment of the tank in question and is the ship displacement at the minimum mean service draft of the ship without cargo. Page 139 . with 10% stores and minimum water ballast. Note: Tank Calibration results In the tank calibration results the free-surface moment based on the transverse second moment of area of the tank waterplane is given for all filling levels. the loading window will include a column for free surface moment and cells for corrected fluid VCG. Although the computational potential is available. need not be included in the correction: M fs / m in 0. Note that the upright free surface moments as shown in the loadcase are used. Fluid analysis method: Use corrected VCG Tank capacities and free surface moments are calculated for the upright hull (zero trim and zero heel). see Working with Loadcases on page 35.

This approach is used when the stability of a vessel is being investigated and the closest possible simulation of the hull's behaviour is required. may be specified. density may be specified using Barrels as the unit of volume. The penalty of using this approach is that the calculation time is longer. Large Angle Stability. Hydromax iterates to find the fluid level for the rotated tank at the specified capacity.0 kg/m3. When fluid simulation is used in one of these analyses. VCG and TCG are calculated for the whole design and used in the calculation of GZ.e.e. Density of Fluids Where necessary. however the results are significantly more accurate. free surface moments and corrected fluid VCG are normally not displayed in the loadcase. or with tanks whose heeled water plane area may be significantly different from the upright case (i. or non-dimensional relative density (specific gravity). The new centre of gravity is calculated for each tank and used in the analysis. When fluid simulation method is selected.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Fluid analysis method: Simulate fluid movement This method is a faithful simulation of the static movement of the centre of gravity of the fluid in each tank. Conversions are performed automatically. tall narrow tanks. Otherwise the complete tank will be shown. the actual fluid level in the tank. It is particularly useful at high angles of heel or trim. KG. When selected. fluid simulation is used for analyses that use a loadcase. and GM. Equilibrium Condition and Longitudinal Strength (the Longitudinal Strength analysis always uses fluid simulation). the density of sea water (the fluid in which the vessel is floating) and fluids commonly carried on board can be adjusted using the Density dialog. Alternatively. or wide shallow tanks). Density using the current units. Every tank is rotated to the heel and trim angle being analysed. The new LCG. filled to the volume specified in the loadcase. Specific gravity is calculated relative to a fluid having a density of 1000. i. will be displayed in the View window. Page 140 .

8400 0. if you wanted to carry out an analysis for a vessel in fresh water.0 kg/m3. you would change the density of "Sea Water" to 1000. fluid code. colour respectively (the colour is in hexadecimal for the red. it is necessary to change the density of this fluid. Tank calibrations results and loading conditions will also be updated.0250 1. If the vessel is to float in a different fluid. There is one row for each of the 18 fluid types. Note that only the custom fluids may have their names changed. specific gravity. blue components and are probably much more easily edited in the Density dialog. This is the first fluid in the list printed in bold font. Sea Water Water Ballast Fresh Water Diesel Fuel Oil Lube Oil ANS Crude Gasoline leaded S B W D F L C G 1.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax By assigning a code to the fluid you can easily apply the fluid type in the Compartment Definitions table.0000 0. The four columns.7499 6D00FF00FF00 6D006D00FF00 FF005F005F00 FF005B00FF00 6D00FF006D00 7F007F007F00 3F003F003F00 FF0000007F00 Page 141 . Tanks that have been specified as containing one of these fluids will be updated automatically when the density of the fluid is changed in the Density dialog. green. All other entries may be edited (the same restrictions area applied as when editing through the Density dialog). each separated by a tab character.9443 0.8883 0. Thus.9200 0. Sea Water. cannot be changed (any changes made will be ignored).0250 1. Note The vessel's hydrostatics are always calculated assuming the vessel is floating in the fluid labelled "Sea Water". Saving and Loading Densities Densities listed in the Density table can be saved and loaded using the File menu. The name and code for the first entry. The densities file may be edited manually if desired. These are fluid name.

0000 FF007F007F00 7F007F00FF00 F600FA00C900 FF00FF007F00 FF006F00FF00 D6000300D600 D600D6000300 0300D600D600 D60003000300 DF00DF00DF00 If you make an error. Gas. Also see: Windows Registry on page 15 Waveform Hydromax is capable of analysing hydrostatics and stability in arbitrary waveforms as well as for a level water plane. The wavelength defaults to the waterline length of the hull at the DWL. To specify a waveform.9130 1.0000 1. JFA MTBE Gasoil Slops Custom 1 Custom 2 Custom 3 Custom 4 Custom 5 U J M GO SL C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 0.075875 Wavelength Page 142 .7471 0.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Unlead.0000 1.607 √ Wavelength [m] This is the metric equivalent of the US Naval standard wave height: Wave height [ft] = 1. select the Waveform command from the Analysis menu: The water plane can be specified as flat. you can always reset the densities to their default values in the Densities dialog. or as a sinusoidal or trochoidal waveform.0000 1. the wavelength.0000 1. If a waveform is specified. wave height and phase offset can be specified.1 √ Wavelength [ft] For short waves of wavelength less than 64m. the waveheight reduces linearly with wavelength given by the formula: Wave height = 0. If the wavelength is modified the wave height defaults to a value in metres of: Wave height [m] = 0.8203 0.8524 0.7499 0.

both of which correspond to a wave crest at the forward end of the DWL. Damage can be specified concurrently with grounding. with a wavelength equal to the waterline length. The phase offset varies between 0 and 1. as a proportion of the wavelength. It is possible to specify grounding on one or two points of variable length. The phase offset governs the position of the wave crest aft of the forward end of the DWL. will give a single wave crest at amidships. The effective centre of gravity will be modified by the grounding reactions – a mass is effectively being removed from the vessel. whilst GMt and GMl are the actual vertical separation of the metacentres above the centre of gravity in the trimmed reference frame normal to the sea surface. this will bring the effective centres of gravity and the centre of buoyancy in line vertically. Grounding Grounding is an additional analysis environment option for the Equilibrium or Longitudinal Strength analysis. the wave height may be modified. The Equilibrium analysis will determine whether the hull is grounded or free floating and will trim the hull accordingly. Remember that KG is measured in the upright vessel reference frame (normal to the baseline). the sum of the buoyancy and the grounding reactions equals the loadcase displacement.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Once a wavelength has been set. If the vessel touches one or both grounding points. GMt and GMl are all calculated to the effective centre of gravity. a phase offset of 0. The value of KG. For example.5. this will be reflected in the results: The displacement column will show the total grounding reaction force in brackets. Page 143 .

When two grounding points are entered. Also see: Damage Case Definition on page 68 Page 144 . Stability Criteria Stability criteria may be seen as the “environment of authorities” that the ship will be deployed in.e. Damage You can specify whether the model is to be analysed in intact or damaged condition using the Analysis Toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Grounding points are considered to span the transverse extents of the hull and therefore constrain the heel to zero. the first point (edit boxes on the left) must refer to the forward grounding point. the second grounding point is the aft grounding point. The length of the grounding points is only used when considering the load distribution for Longitudinal Strength analysis and not to determine the pivot point. i. For more information see Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 153. The vessel is considered to pivot at the centre of the grounding point. Note: Fixed zero heel during grounding analysis The equilibrium analysis will only consider the longitudinal balance of moments. the vessel will not be balanced in heel and the vessel will remain upright (zero heel) even if the transverse metacentric height is less than zero.

This then allows you to validate the results at the same time. Batch Analysis results saved as text files do not include graphs. Streaming results to Word It is possible to stream the Analysis results directly to Word. Preferences dialog a word document is automatically generated after a Batch Analysis. Additionally. This is useful for estimating the initial weight of hull plating. Form small number of loadcases and damage cases you can do a manual copy and paste of the results into a report. It can also be used to release the Hydrolink license – a restart of Hydromax will be required for this to take effect. To do this: Page 145 . Select the option to send the results to the report window if you require Graphs. if the option to Stream the report to Word has been selected in the Edit | Add Surface Areas This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull surfaces into the current loading condition. it is recommended to use batch analysis. For large numbers of cases. Activate / Deactivate GHS Export This command activates the GHS Import command in the File menu if a Hydrolink License is available.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Output Hydromax will produce the following output data: Hydromax model visualisation Result data tables per analysis Graphs per analysis Report o o o Report window Streamed directly to a Word document Report Templates In this section: Reporting Copying Select View from Analysis Data Saving the Hydromax Design Exporting Reporting Hydromax has several options to do your reporting: Batch Analysis text file and/or streaming to Report window Automatically generate a report in the Report Window for each analysis run Automatically Streaming results to Word Manually copy and paste tables and graphs from the Results Window and Graph Window The most efficient method depends on the number of loadcases and damage cases you have to analyse and the output you require.

This gives you much greater control over how the analysis results are output than with the normal Send Report to Word option and allows you to customise your own report template document. See the dialog box below as an example: Page 146 . With report templates. Please note that Send Report to Word must be enabled before you can enable this option. This feature is only available when sending reports to Microsoft Word. etc) is placed. it is possible to use template keywords to specify where in the document the analysis results go and where each element of the output (such as graph. Report Templates Hydromax offers the ability to customise reports through a Report Template. instead of just dumping the results of each analysis into a Word document.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Edit | Preferences Select the option to Send the Report to Word This will send the Report document to Word instead of to the Report window. To turn on Report Templating you need to select it in the Preferences dialog box. This also applies to Batch Analysis. Simply tick the box „Use Word Templating‟. After you have run an analysis a Word document is created and opened automatically. tables.

due to new security changes we‟ve had to move this to an alternative location that every user has write access to – so you can find it at: C:\Users\Public\Documents\Maxsurf\Maxsurf14\Report Templates\ Tips: See: Copying Tables on page 147 for tips on how to include the table header in a copy paste to for example Excel Graph Formatting on page 180 for tips on how to format your graph prior to copying to another application. or you can build your own template. copying and pasting data to and from Excel spreadsheets allows you to use the full spreadsheet capabilities of Excel on your Hydromax model.dot This is an example of a complete Stability Booklet template – this document is the default Word Template file for new users and is recommend for users wanting to quickly create a Stability Booklet. It contains an introduction to how templates are created and configured. The location of these report templates varies depending on which operating system you are using.dot and then use it customise their own report template. Users can start with StabilityBootlet. You can use one of the sample templates provided.dot or . HMReportTemplate. Data Format on page 196 for tips on how to specify what should be displayed and customise how to display tables (vertical or horizontal). Page 147 . Both of these templates contain macros and toolbar items to make life easier when you design your own template. Simply double-clicking on a template document opens up a new document based on the template (which is not what you want).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The Word Template File specified should be in .dot This document is a good starting point for creating your own customised template. These allow you to easily add and remove the analysis keyword blocks. Two Report Templates have been included to get you started: StabilityBooklet.g. Note: To edit a report template in Microsoft Word you will need to start Microsoft Word and then open the template directly using the File menu. On Windows XP/Server 2003 the default location for the report templates is: C:\Program Files\Maxsurf 14\Report Templates\ On Windows Vista. This data transfer works both ways: e.dotx/dotm (for Word 2007) format and will be used when creating any future reports. It also includes all of the basic analysis blocks and variables to get you started. Copying & Printing A range of options for transferring data from Hydromax to other programs such as spreadsheets and word processors is provided through copy and paste functions.

Note: Copying data from the table with the Shift key depressed. it is possible to ensure that the graph is plotted to a sensible scale so that measurements can be made directly from the graph. Printing Each of the windows in Hydromax may be printed. Graph Printing to Scale When printing the graph. The titles may be edited by clicking the Titles button. will also copy the column headings. a bitmap of the current image may be saved by pressing Ctrl+Shift+I Copying Tables Tables may be copied to the clipboard. To do this. Note that the print preview is not refreshed after these changes. but the selection will be reflected in the printout. The image copied is as per the image displayed in the Hydromax view window. otherwise click the Cancel button.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Copying Hull Views Pictures of the hull in the View windows may be copied to the Clipboard using the Copy command from the Edit menu. These pictures can then be pasted into other applications or the Hydromax Report window. Simply select a cell. To print the page click the Print button. Choose the Colours button and select the options required. The data copied from the table will be placed on the clipboard and can then be pasted into a spreadsheet or word processor for further work. range of cells or the whole table and then choose the Copy command or Ctrl+C. Simply bring the window you wish to print to the front and choose Print from the File menu. To copy a simple bitmap image of the view at the current resolution. use Ctrl+I. The printing may be forced to be black and white. Views of the hull in the View window may be printed to scale as in Maxsurf. column. row. You will be asked if you want to print the graph to scale or to fill the page: Page 148 . Print Preview The page to be printed is initially displayed in print preview mode. Prior to printing you may wish to set up the paper size and orientation by using the Page Setup command from the File menu. hold the shift key down when selecting the print command for the graph. additionally.

Saving Input Files separately In addition to saving all the data together.hmd file with the same name as the design. 2.0cm.5cm. 5. damage cases. If these are metric. For example: the angle of downflooding can be visualised by returning to the Stability table in the results window. For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax. Exporting a Bitmap Image You may also export a bitmap of the rendered perspective view with the File | Export | Bitmap Image command. This can also be done for Upright Hydrostatics and the different wave phase calculations for an Equilibrium analysis in a waveform. selecting the column at the required heel angle and select “Select View From Data” in the Display menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The scale used will depend on the length units that are currently selected. In the View window the hull will be displayed in the selected position.0cm. may also be saved separately. see Graph type on page 179. compartment definition. Page 149 . please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 289.): 1. The Hydromax data is saved in a . Saving the Hydromax Design Hydromax design data may be saved Saving in a Hydromax Design File Saving Input Files separately Saving in a Hydromax Design File To save the design in one file. Select View from Analysis Data For most analyses. then the graph will be plotted so that the grid lines are at one of the following intervals (If the current length units are imperial then similar intervals will be used. The Select View from Data can also be used to display the Curve of Areas graph for each intermediate analysis stage. key points etc. each step from the analysis can be visualised when the analysis has completed. the data in the individual tables such as loadcases.. 2.0cm. but they will be inches instead of cm. ensure that the View window is topmost and select Save from the File menu.

Saving Damage Cases to a File Bring the Damage window to the front and select Save Damage Cases or Save Damage Cases As from the file menu.hmd file automatically every time you press Save from any of the design windows. bring the Input window to the front and choose the required input table. select Save Compartment Definition from the File menu. To save the data. ensure the Loadcase window is topmost on the screen and choose Save Load Case from the File Menu. This allows the same loading spreadsheet to be recalled at any time for use with the same design or with any other hull. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved. This allows for further calculations to be done in a spreadsheet or for formatting to be done in Word. Excel or other programs. E. Saving Compartment Definitions to a File To save a compartment definition to a file. select Save from the File menu. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved. Saving Results to a File Once you have performed an analysis. This gives the option of loading common data into different design files.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note Although all Hydromax model data is saved in the . ensure the Results window is topmost on the screen and choose the table containing the data you wish to save. Select Save or Save As from the File Menu. Saving Input Window Tables To save a input window table to a file. Saving Loadcases to a File Once you have set up a loading spreadsheet.g. bring the Input window to the front and choose the compartment definition table. Page 150 . To save the loadcase table. meaning that they can be read directly into spreadsheets such as Excel with values being placed in individual spreadsheet cells. Selecting this option saves all the loads displayed in the current tab in the Loadcase window. you can save it in a file on disk. it is recommended to also save the Hydromax input files separately. for comparing the characteristics of vessels which have only minor differences in hull shape and identical tank layouts and loadcases. The Results files are saved as tab delimited text. Exporting The data export function in Hydromax is similar to Maxsurf. the data generated may be saved as a text file. Some Hydromax-specific export features are described below. Selecting this option saves all the data currently displayed in the Results window.

Page 151 . Hydromax models created in versions greater than version 8. Exporting the Model to Hydromax Version 8.0 can be exported using the File | Export menu so that it is compatible with Hydromax version 8. Note: The layer name is the same as the compartment name.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Data export dialog in Hydromax. All key points will become downflooding points in the version 8 file and any tank sounding pipe information will be lost. a major change to the Hydromax file structure was made. so it is important to have unique compartment names.0. each tank. In addition.0 After Hydromax version 8. compartment and non-buoyant volume is exported on a separate layer. please see the “Output of Data” section in the Maxsurf manual. For more information on data export of DXF and IGES. This export function is particularly useful to export tank arrangement drawings. DXF export Contains all lines displayed in the active design window as closed poly-lines.

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However. only the applicable criteria are added to the report (although all are displayed in the Results table). ISO and more. predefined custom criteria and user created custom criteria.e. Criteria List Overview Hydromax includes a wide range of criteria. Although all criteria are displayed in the criteria table. Help information relating to the use and parameters of each criterion is displayed in the lower right hand corner of the dialog.e. This makes it quick and easy to set which criteria should be included for analysis and to change criteria parameters. explanation of terms and definitions See also: Appendix B: Criteria file format Appendix C: Criteria Help Appendix D: Specific Criteria Criteria Concepts Hydromax includes a wide range of template criteria (or: parent criteria) as well as predefined custom criteria such as IMO. Criteria Procedures.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Chapter 4 Stability Criteria This chapter describes how stability criteria are used in Hydromax. after an Equilibrium analysis only those criteria that are evaluated from Equilibrium data are added. Users may save. Criteria Results. DNV. import and edit their criteria sets.: if the intact case is being computed. i. It is also possible for users to create their own custom sets of criteria. an overview of what capabilities Hydromax offers with regards to stability criteria. criteria evaluation results Nomenclature. simplified dialog. This section describes how this list of criteria can be divided up in to Parent heeling arms. and after a Large Angle Stability analysis only GZ based criteria are added to the report. The following sections will be discussed: Criteria Concepts. These custom criteria files may be easily transferred via email. Stability criteria are evaluated for Large Angle Stability. Hydromax uses a single dialog to control all the stability criteria. similarly for the damage cases. only the criteria that are selected for evaluation during an intact analysis will be evaluated and added to the report. These criteria are listed using in a tree control on the left-hand side of the criteria dialog. A fixed sub-set of criteria is used for the Floodable length analysis and these criteria are accessed in their own. explanation how to work with the Hydromax criteria dialog to create your own custom set of criteria. only criteria that are applicable are added to the report. Parent criteria. i. This ensures that the correct criteria are evaluated and displayed during normal and batch analysis. Criteria results are added to the Report after a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis. Page 153 . Criteria may be identified as intact or damage criteria (or both). Equilibrium and Limiting KG calculations. This section also explains how all criteria can be divided up into two different criteria types: equilibrium and GZ curve based. HSC.

Page 154 . Parent calculations in Hydromax Criteria dialog Parent Heeling Arms In most cases a ship is subject to specific heeling moments. Those heeling moment are then used in a number of different criteria. for example. The Hydromax criteria list contains Parent Heeling Arms that can be copied into a custom criteria folder and then cross-referenced into the stability criteria. These calculations may be referenced in certain criteria.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The criteria tree list Parent Calculations This folder contains calculations that are required for certain criteria parameters. the roll-back angle required for the IMO IS code Severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion.

This folder can be found in the Maxsurf root directory: c:\program files\Maxsurf. Furthermore some newer heeling arm criteria are only available for cross-referenced heeling arms and a greater variety of heeling arm definitions are available through cross-referencing. This is explained in the section on Working with Criteria on page 158. Most specific criteria are locked. This is because the parent criteria are intended for use as templates from which you can derive your own custom criteria. Also the parent criteria settings cannot be saved. This ensures that all criteria which use a specific heeling arm use exactly the same heeling arm. those that are not locked require your ship design data to be input. Parent criteria are special in that you cannot rename. Custom Criteria You can create your own set of criteria in the tree as well. Parent Criteria The Parent Criteria group contains all the parent criteria types that are available in Hydromax. since the heeling arm is defined in one place. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder. they are displayed in bold text in the Criteria list. delete or add criteria to the Parent Criteria group.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The advantage of using cross-referenced Heeling Arms is that a heeling arm is now defined (and edited) in only one place. Also see Working with Criteria Libraries on page 162 Appendix D: Specific Criteriaon page 273. Each parent criterion allows you to perform a specific calculation. Another benefit is that. these are the fundamental criteria from which criteria for specific codes are derived. This is done by dragging the required parent criteria in to the “My custom criteria” group or any other group you create. To distinguish the Parent criteria from your derived criteria. it is only displayed once in the GZ graph and not duplicated for each criterion that uses it. they will always revert to their default values when Hydromax is restarted. Predefined Custom Criteria A number of criteria files containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax. Page 155 .

All folders must have unique names (even if the parent folders have different names). GZ criterion.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Types of criteria There are two fundamental types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis. This is because it is only this type of criteria that is more likely to pass as VCG is reduced. For example. For this reason. This can be measured from the GZ curve by looking for an up-crossing of the GZ=0 axis. Note that there is some cross-over between the criteria types. Combined GZ heeling arm criterion. it must be a LAS criterion. trim angle. notably angle of equilibrium heel. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve including a heeling arm. STIX. These criteria make measurements from the GZ curved obtained from a Large Angle Stability analysis. metacentric height. in some criteria sets some criteria are included twice. These icons are derived from the parent criterion type. The different types of criteria and their icons are described below: Folder icon. Weather criterion. e. The same also applies for GMt. etc. area under GZ curve between specified limits. angle of maximum GZ. Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. The equilibrium heel angle is also a fundamental output of the Equilibrium analysis. Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon. Equilibrium criterion. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. freeboard measurements.g.g. but they cannot be included directly in the search algorithm. create separate folders to store related criteria. These criteria are evaluated only after an equilibrium analysis has been performed. See next: Criteria Procedures Page 156 . A check is also made to ensure that any selected Equilibrium criteria are passed. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria. e. GZ area criterion GZ criterion with heeling arm GZ area criterion with heeling arm GZ criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations GZ area criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations Combined GZ criterion. For a criterion to be used in the search for maximum VCG in the Limiting KG analysis. etc. You will notice that different icons are used to differentiate between different types of criteria. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve. once in the form of an Equilibrium criterion and again as a Large Angle Stability criterion.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria Procedures This section describes how to work with the stability criteria dialog. . select Criteria from the Analysis menu: or use the Criteria button. Starting the Criteria dialog Resizing the Criteria dialog Working with Criteria Editing Criteria Working with Criteria Libraries Starting the Criteria dialog The criteria dialog allows you to select which criteria are selected for inclusion in the analysis and change their parameters. To bring up the Criteria dialog. in the analysis toolbar: Page 157 .

Page 158 . Note that if.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The criteria dialog is shown below: Note: The Floodable Length analysis uses its own set of criteria. This behaviour is the same as all other resizing dialogs. Resizing the Criteria dialog The dialog may be resized and a vertical and horizontal slider can be used to resize the width of the Criteria List and the height of the Criterion Details areas. The criteria command will bring up the Floodable Length Criteria dialog when the Floodable Length analysis is selected. the dialog size can be reset by holding down the “Shift” key when you open the dialog. in the unlikely event that the dialog items vanish due to resizing the dialog. This section explains how to create and customise your own criteria from the Parent Heeling Arms and Criteria provided with Hydromax. Working with Criteria In the Concepts section it was explained how the criteria are listed in a tree list.

Locking is used for criteria belonging to specific codes where the required values are fixed. Intact: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for intact conditions. If a criterion is locked.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Using the Criteria Tree List The tree works in much the same way as the file folders in Windows Explorer:     Click on the “+” sign to expand the folder (or double click on it). this prevents inadvertent editing of its parameters. Damage: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for damaged conditions. Lock: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) are locked. Page 159 . Click on the “-” sign to collapse the group (or double click on it). Click on an item’s name or icon to select it Once selected. click again on the on the item’s name to edit its name Some short-cut keys for the tree list: Tree control smart keys Alt+Keypad * Right Arrow or Alt+Keypad + Left Arrow or Alt+ Keypad Up Arrow Down Arrow Space Criteria Tree Right-click Context Menu Function Recursively expands the current group completely Expands the current group Collapses the current group Move one item up tree Move one item down tree Include criterion for analysis Several options are available by right-clicking on a criterion or criterion group: Criterion right-click menu Include for Analysis: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated.

Moving Criteria Criteria may be moved from one group to another by dragging them with the left-mousebutton or by using the cut and paste functions in the right-click context menu (see above). Editing Criteria The specific details for a criterion are displayed in the table in the top-right of the dialog: Page 160 . Defining new Custom Criteria and Groups New custom criteria sets may be created by first creating a new criterion group and then dragging the desired criteria into the criterion group. This may also be done by selecting the label. then clicking again in the label. Selecting the Criteria for Analysis Criteria may be selected for analysis by ticking the tick box to the left of the criterion. in which case a copy will be made regardless of whether the Ctrl key is held down or not). then loading the criteria file may cause unexpected results. Delete: Deletes the criterion or all the criteria and sub-groups within the group. you can hold down the CTRL-key while moving the criteria you will copy the criteria. It is extremely important to ensure that all criteria groups have unique names. Other functions are available from a menu activated when the right button is clicked on your mouse. Copy: Copy the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. As criteria (and new groups) are loaded they are inserted into the first group that is found with a name that matches the name of the group to which the criterion should belong. Alternatively use the Copy and Paste functions from the right-click context menu (see above). Copying criteria You can use the Criteria Tree Right-click Context Menu to copy and paste criteria.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Add Group: Add a new criterion group. all criteria that should be in a group of that name will end up in the first one and none in the second. Cut: Cut the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. This may then be pasted into another location in the tree. This may then be pasted into another location in the tree. Alternatively. If duplicate group names exit. By holding down the Ctrl button a copy of the criterion being dragged is created (unless it is a parent criterion. Paste: Paste the criterion (or whole criterion group) from the clipboard to the selected location Rename: Renames the criterion or group. right-click on the group and choose Include for Analysis from the menu. Note that if you drag a criterion from the Parent Criteria group a copy will be made and the original will not be deleted. If there are groups with the same name. To select an entire group.

use the File | Save Criteria command to save a copy of your current criteria selection and data before making any changes in the Criteria dialog.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criterion details table To edit the parameters for a specific criterion. This occurs. Edit the parameters as required and then select the next criterion to be edited from the tree. For example the limits for an upper integration range or the individual criteria to be evaluated for a more complex criterion: In both of these cases the selection is cumulative and none of the selections are mutually exclusive. Check Boxes in Criteria Properties Section of Criteria Dialog There is some subtly different behaviour for the check boxes in the dialog depending on their context. the check boxes act as radio buttons and only one may be selected. at least one must be selected. with the “Value of GMt at” criterion: Page 161 . click on the criterion‟s name in the tree and the criterion‟s parameters will be displayed in the table on the right. The values that are required for passing a criterion are in bold. or click the dialog‟s Close button. In most cases there will be group of related options used to define a criterion parameter. where the items are mutually exclusive. However. The parameters that may be adjusted have a white background. In other cases. Please note that the criteria are updated as you change their data and that there is no “Cancel” function for this dialog. those which cannot be edited. for example. have a grey background. If in doubt.

only the criteria that you create or import will be saved. whereas another may state “Shall not be less than…”. Page 162 . Working with Criteria Libraries It is possible to load and save the criteria.hcr.hcr” from the directory in which the Hydromax program resides. Criteria that are defined for both are always evaluated. GZ curve reduction in the wind heeling criteria: Criterion Pass/Fail Test There are some subtle differences between the wordings for different criteria. Hydromax will try to open the default criteria library file called: “Hydromax Criteria Library. If this file cannot be found. The parent criteria. Hydromax allows you to make this distinction by selecting the required comparison from a combo-box in the criterion row of the details table: Description Shall be greater than Shall not be less than Shall be less than Shall not be greater than Damage and Intact Symbol > ≥ < ≤ Logical test Greater than Greater than or equal to Less than Less than or equal to Criteria may be defined as intact or damage stability criteria (or both). built into Hydromax are not saved. which consists of the Parent criteria and a “My Custom Criteria” group. Intact criteria are only evaluated for the intact case and damage criteria are evaluated when a damage case has been selected (irrespective of whether there are actually any damaged compartments or tanks in the damage case). By default this is c:\program files\Maxsurf\ Hydromax Criteria Library. Default Criteria Library File When starting.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Finally a check box can be used to select whether a specific effect should be included. you will be prompted to locate a criteria file: You may select an alternative file or click the Cancel button to proceed and be given the default criteria. For example one criterion may state “Shall be greater than…”. for example. These options may either be set using the right-click menu or by ticking the appropriate boxes in the bottom of the dialog: Intact and Damage tick-boxes. A third option which is not yet implemented is WOD (Water on deck) this checkbox has no effect.

continue to be saved to the default criteria library file that was opened when Hydromax was first started. See Saving Criteria below. This will simply export all the custom criteria (parent criteria are not saved) to the specified file. all criteria are still available. updates will be saved in the default criteria library. not in the new groups. or Ctrl select to select multiple files in the Open Hydromax Criteria dialog. Note that when keeping your existing criteria. Note It is good practise to save the criteria file with the project in the project folder. when at a later stage you need to re-analyse the project.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The default criteria library will be automatically updated every time the criteria dialog is closed. you must save them in a new file first. That way. the imported criteria will be found in the original groups. A number of criteria containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax. if you choose “No”. The default criteria library will be over-written with the new criteria so if you wish to keep any custom criteria that you may have added to your default criteria library. You will then be asked if you wish to keep the existing criteria: If you choose “Yes” your existing criteria will be kept. Page 163 . Even if you loaded an alternative file. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder. Choose Save Criteria As from the File menu. Importing Criteria and Specific Criteria Files New criteria may be added to your criteria list by importing them – choose Import Criteria from the File menu. it is important to ensure that the group names in the file you are importing are not the same as those that already exist. however. so if you want to save any further changes you will have to resave as described above. Further updates will. This can be useful when you are defining new custom sets of criteria that you wish to keep separate or when defining criteria sets for different vessels. If this does occur. all existing criteria except the parent criteria will be removed and replaced by those in the file you are opening. either overwriting the existing one or creating a new one. Saving Criteria It is also possible to save the criteria into a new file. You can import several criteria files in one go using Shift.

. This allows you to edit criteria parameters or selected criteria and re-evaluate using the existing analysis results. The typical format of the file is given in the following file: c:\Program Files\Maxsurf\\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp.: angle of vanishing stability. have n/a in the Actual and/or Value column. Editing this file will also allow you to add your own help text or associate rich text format help files (rtf) files with your criteria. which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria. The format for the results table and the report are specified separately. e. Intermediate values are displayed.html. This is normally due to an insufficient range of heel angle having been used. The file is a normal PC text file.hcr. Criteria can also be re-evaluated without having to redo the analysis when “Close and Recalculate” is selected in the criteria dialog. angle of equilibrium. etc.g.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria File Format The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension . Chose the Display | Data Format command when the Stability Criteria results are displayed: Page 164 . Values that could not be calculated. Results may be displayed in “Verbose” or “Compact” format (see above). criteria are evaluated and the results displayed in the Stability Criteria table in the Results window. Criteria Results After a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis. Criteria Results Table The tested criteria are listed one above the other. After calculation the relevant criteria are also added to the Report.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Stability criteria results window: compact format Stability criteria results window: verbose format Page 165 .

only the relevant criteria results are added to the Report and/or Batch file. Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. For example. i. freeboard measurements. Page 166 . This gives an accurate result that is not dependent on the heel angles and intervals tested during the analysis. trim angle. Note: The metacentre is always (even for Large Angle Stability criteria) computed directly from the vessel‟s hydrostatic properties (i. For example damage criteria during intact analysis or Equilibrium criteria during a Large Angle Stability analysis are not added to the report. any criteria that have a “not analysed” result. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. Definitions of GZ curve features Some typical GZ curves are shown below. the third graph shows the GZ curve with a heeling arm overlayed.e.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Report and Batch Processing As noted earlier. etc. etc. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis. angle of maximum GZ. metacentric height. water-plane inertia and immersed volume) at the specified heel angle and not from the slope of the GZ curve. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria. are not added to the Report (although they are displayed in the Criteria Results table). Criteria that are not relevant. Also see Reporting on page 145 Batch Analysis on page 128 Nomenclature This section gives a brief description of the various values that are determined by Hydromax in the evaluation of criteria. Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon. There are two distinct types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests.e. area under GZ curve between specified limits.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Typical GZ curve Unusual GZ curve with double peak Page 167 .

The downflooding angle is the smallest positive angle at which a downflooding point becomes immersed. The equilibrium angle with a given heeling arm is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve where the GZ-Heel Arm curve has positive slope. this often occurs if the vessel has a large watertight cabin. The angle of vanishing stability with a given heeling arm is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve and where the GZ-Heel Arm curve has negative slope. In some cases. The angle of the first peak is the lowest positive angle at which a local maximum in the GZ curve occurs. the GZ curve may have multiple peaks.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GZ curve with heeling arm superimposed GZ Definitions The table below defines how Hydromax calculates the various features of the GZ curve: Angle of vanishing stability Angle of vanishing stability with heeling arm curve Downflooding angle Equilibrium angle Equilibrium angle with heeling arm curve First peak in GZ curve The angle of vanishing stability is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with negative slope. The equilibrium angle is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope. Page 168 .

Page 169 . The location of the metacentre is computed from the water-plane inertia. If a criterion uses a roll back angle. 1998 CODATA recommended value for standard acceleration of gravity A negative heel angle change. if the cos function goes negative. which is superimposed on the GZ curve. it is often necessary to calculate the GZ curve for negative angles of heel. the heeling arm is forced to be zero at heel angles greater than 90° and less than -90°. Deck Slope / maximum slope Gust Ratio g = 9.80665ms-2 Roll back angle The maximum slope of an initially horizontal. Commonly used in wind and weather criteria to account for the action of waves rolling the vessel into the wind. passenger crowding.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GML or GMT GZ Curve Heeling arm curve Vertical separation of the longitudinal or transverse metacentre and centre of gravity. Positive angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum Positive angle at which the value of (GZ . the resulting heel angle after the roll back has been applied is more negative than the original. the Gust Ratio is the ratio of the magnitude of the gust wind heeling arm to the steady wind heeling arm. Depending on the moment that they represent. the heeling arm curves will have different shapes.heel arm) is a maximum Maximum GZ Maximum GZ above heeling arm curve Glossary The table below describes some commonly used terms: Angle of heel measured from upright. The curve of vessel righting arm (GZ) plotted against vessel heel angle A curve of heeling lever. which are applied to the vessel. Note that the centre of gravity used is the upright centre of gravity corrected by the free surface moments of partially filled tanks in their upright condition. i. rotated to the specified heel (and trim) angle. flat deck at the resultant vessel heel and trim. The heeling arms are never allowed to be negative. centripetal effects of tuning. the heeling arm is made zero. This is typically used to assess the effects of external heeling moments. Used for some wind heeling criteria. not the slope of the GZ curve.e. etc. These include the effects of wind. If the heeling arm has a power of cos greater than zero. combined effect of heel and trim. Often a roll back angle is measured from some equilibrium position.

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immersed sections of the hull and any compartments. tabular. graph and report windows. you may also use the Pitch. and the centroids of gravity. frame of reference. this makes it easier to control the visibility of individual tanks and surfaces. Pan and Home View commands from the View menu may be used and work in exactly the same way as in Maxsurf. These positions are represented by: cb cg cf K centre of buoyancy centre of gravity centre of flotation location of keel (K) for KN during KN analysis You can choose which type of view is displayed by selecting from the Window menu or the View toolbar. View Window The View window displays the hull. buoyancy. The Zoom. Shrink. The Properties sheet can be used to change tank properties of the tank currently selected in the Assembly or design View. Page 171 . You may set the visibility of the various display elements by using the Visibility command from the Display menu. View Window Loadcase Window Damage Window Input Window Results Window Graph Window Report Window Assembly View and Property Sheet An assembly view has been added to Hydromax.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference This chapter contains brief descriptions of the tools available in Hydromax: Windows Toolbars Menus Windows Hydromax uses a range of graphical. Two sets of visibility flags are maintained. and flotation. If a Perspective view is shown. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual if you are unfamiliar with these functions. Roll and Yaw indicators to change the angle of view. one is used for all analyses other than tank calibration and the other is used for when the tank calibration analysis is selected.

it will display the hull shape using the correct heel trim and immersion for the current step of the analysis. The rendered view also enables tanks and compartments to be more easily visualised. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual for more information on the different rendering options available in perspective view. After an analysis. The rendering options are to be found in the Display menu.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference If a view window is visible when an analysis is being carried out. Page 172 . the Select View from Data command in the Display menu may be used to move the hull to a selected position from the Results window. especially when the hull shell is made transparent. Perspective view In the perspective view. with further lighting options in the Render toolbar. compartments and non-buoyant volumes can be toggled between an outline view and a view of the sections. The view of the tanks. the model may be rendered.

Page 173 .Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Note: Fastest performance will be achieved by reducing the amount of redrawing that is required from Hydromax. Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank. this is the default condition. heading or sub-total lines in the table. Using the tabs on the bottom of the window allow you to quickly browse through the different loadcases. and especially waterlines.g. For fastest performance. when running in Batch mode. e. For more information see Working with Loadcases on page 35. If flooded volumes are required in the intact case they should be defined as non-buoyant volumes. Loadcase Window In the Loadcase window a spreadsheet table of all loads and tanks is displayed. You may then turn them on again after the analysis has completed. minimise the Hydromax window so that no redrawing occurs. which cannot be edited. Damage Window The Damage window is used to specify which tanks and compartments are flooded in each damage case. There is always an Intact case. The columns that are displayed may be selected using the Display | Data Format dialog. For this reason. when performing an analysis. it is best to turn off sections.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Input Window The Input window contains tables where the additional Hydromax design data is entered. Compartment Definition This table can be used to define the tanks and compartments in the Hydromax models. For more information see Modelling Compartments on page 48 in the Analysis Input section. Sounding Pipes This table is used to define the tank sounding pipes and calibration intervals. The tables in the Input window contain the: Compartment Definition Sounding Pipes Key Points Margin Line Points Modulus Points Bulkhead locations The input window contains tabs on the bottom that allow you to quickly browse through the different input tables. Default values are provided but these may be edited if necessary. Page 174 .

Results Window The Results window contains ten tables. Page 175 . one for each of the different analysis types plus criteria results and key points results tables. Modulus Points This table is used to define the allowable limits for shear force and bending moment during the longitudinal strength calculations. Note that results are never invalidated if analysis options are modified – it is up to the user to ensure that the results are recalculated as necessary. Margin Line Points The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. choose Data Format from the Display menu. When switching mode. which is used in criteria evaluation. If necessary. the currently selected results table will change to reflect the current analysis mode. Bulkheads See Floodable Length Bulkheads on page 74. Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Key Points There are several types of Key Points: Down Flooding points Potential Down flooding points Embarkation points Immersion Points Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle. the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line). Setting the Data Format It is possible to configure Hydromax so that only the results that you wish to see are displayed. To do this.

Equilibrium and Specified condition Analysis. the data can be formatted so that each draft has a column of results. and select either the horizontal or vertical layout button. Items that are not selected are still calculated during the analysis cycle. select Data Format from the Display menu. Page 176 . Items that are selected with a tick will be displayed in the Results window and on any printed output. Data Layout Most analysis data can be formatted vertically or horizontally to fit better on the screen or the printed page. but are not displayed.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference A dialog similar to the one above will appear. or so that each draft is on a separate row. To change the format. You may change the display format at any time after the analysis without having to redo the calculations. The data available for display depends on the analysis. Key Points Data Result Window Key points data is calculated for Large Angle Stability. with Upright Hydrostatics. The DF angle column is only visible when the analysis mode is set to Large Angle Stability and the Freeboard column is only displayed when the analysis mode is set to Equilibrium or Specified condition. For example.

Criteria results are not displayed in this table after a Limiting KG analysis.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Stability Criteria Result Window If stability criteria are turned on in the analysis menu. The results of the criteria evaluation are presented in this table after Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses. the results can be displayed in verbose format. Page 177 . by selecting the desired format in the Display | Data format dialog. Limiting KG and Equilibrium analyses. they will be evaluated during Large Angle Stability. The results may be displayed in compact format: Alternatively. where all the intermediate calculations are shown.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference

Graph Window

The Graph window displays graphs, which show the results of the current analysis. Hydromax will automatically display the graph that displays the result of the current analysis when you select Graph from the Windows menu or press the toolbar button. Alternatively you can select a specific graph using the Windows | Graphs menu item. Only the graphs that are applicable to the current analysis can be displayed. Graphs can be copied using the Edit | Copy command. Depending on the analysis mode, different graphs are available. Upright Hydrostatics Analysis:
Hydrostatics Curves of Form Curve of areas – different graph for each draft tested (selected using Display|Select view from data)

Large angle stability Analysis
Righting Lever (GZ) Curve of areas – different graph for each heel angle tested (selected using Display|Select view from data) Max steady heel angle Large angle stability (hydrostatic data other than GZ) Curves of Form Dynamic stability (GZ area)

Equilibrium Analysis:
Curve of areas

Specified condition Analysis:
Curve of areas

KN Values Analysis:
Cross curves (KN)

Limiting KG Analysis:
Limiting KG

Floodable length Analysis:
Floodable length

Longitudinal strength Analysis:
Longitudinal strength Curve of areas

Tank Calibration
One graph for each tank

For many graphs you can select what is plotted and other options with the Display | Data Format dialog.

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Graph type

Hydromax can graph many types of data depending on the type of analysis being performed. These graphs include Upright Hydrostatics, Curves of Form, Curve of Areas, Righting Lever (GZ curve), Longitudinal Strength, Floodable Length and Tank Capacities. These can all be displayed via the Graphs item in the Windows menu. Tip: You can use the Select View from Analysis Data option (page 148) to see the Curve of Areas for each heel angle and/or intermediate stage during the analysis.
Interpolating Graph Data

To display an interpolated value from one of the curves, use the mouse to click anywhere on the curve. The data in the lower left corner of the window will change to display the curve name and co-ordinates of the mouse on the curve. Click anywhere on the dashed line and drag it with the mouse; as you move the cursor the interpolated values will be displayed.

Note: In case multiple curves are plotted in the same graph you can switch between the curves by clicking on them. Hydromax will ignore the exact position you click on the curve to allow reading all related interpolated values along the black dashed line.
GZ Graph

The GZ value, Area and corresponding heel angle can be measured by using the slider; the slider data is displayed at the bottom of the Graph window. The area is integrated from zero heel angle to the location of the graph slider. Note: Because the horizontal axis scale is always in degrees, the area is always given in units of length.degrees and cannot be displayed in units of length.radians.
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Note The lower integration limit is always zero (irrespective of the equilibrium angle). Thus if you require the area between two limits, you must subtract the area at the lower limit from the area at the higher limit.
Curve fitting for GZ graph

A curve fit will be performed if all the heel angle intervals are less than or equal to 10˚. If this is the case, a parametric cubic spline is used to fit a smooth curve through the calculated GZ data at the specified heel angles. This ensures that the fitted line goes exactly through the calculated GZ points. If you wish to prevent this curve fitting, add a heel angle interval of greater than 10˚ as the final step. This can sometimes be useful if you expect a discontinuity in the GZ curve.
Graph data

The graphed data can be obtained by double clicking on the graph. Since the graph data contains more data points than most tables in the results window, this double click can be extremely helpful to export the analysis data to for example Excel fro further processing. Especially in the case of the sectional area curve, where there is no tabular data available. Also see: Copying Tables on page 147.
Graph Formatting

When you are in the Graph window you can use the View | Colours and lines dialog to change the colours of the curves in the graph as well as the background. The View | Font command allows you to change the text size and font size.
Copying Graphs

You can copy the contents of the Graph window using the Copy command or Ctrl+C. Note that the picture is placed in the clipboard as a meta-file which can be resized in Word or Excel.

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Note When the graph is pasted in Microsoft Word®, the graph can be edited by right clicking on the graph and selecting “edit picture”.
Report Window

Hydromax contains a Report window. This window is used to create a progressive summary of the analyses that have been carried out. This report can be edited via Cut, Copy and Paste; printed, saved to and recalled from a disk file.
Report Window Page Setup

When you are in the Report window, the File | Page setup command allows you to customise the page orientation and size you wish to use for reporting. This is important because, inserted tables will be automatically formatted to fit the current page set up. However, once the tables have been placed into the report, their formatting will not be changed by changes to the print set up. Hence it is often most convenient to select the desired report page set up before any analyses have been made. You can for example choose the landscape Page Setup prior to running an analysis to make the tables fit better. Hydromax will split most results tables so they fit the specified page set up. However, both Loadcase and Criteria results tables will not be split.
Editing a Report

The Report window has it's own toolbar permanently attached to the view, as well as a ruler showing you tab stops, indentation and margin widths. Underneath all of this you have your actual editing area. As the built-in report window only has basic editing and formatting functionality, it is recommended that the report window be used only to accumulate the results. Once all the results have been gathered in the report window, these should be saved and opened in a word processor such as Microsoft Word or Open Office for formatting:
set the results tables up as you want them to appear in the report (the report uses the same column widths, fonts etc.); do the same for the graph widow; choose an appropriate paper size for the report (the tables will be split to fit this paper size, so choosing a wide paper size will prevent all but the widest tables from being split); copy and paste the Hydromax report into Microsoft word. Use the Format | Autoformat function in Word (with the default settings) to set the correct styles for the different levels of heading in the document, this will facilitate generating a table of contents and also allows you to re-format the various styles (or import a custom set of styles using the style organiser in Word).

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The information below is provided for reference, but it is strongly recommended not to use any of the formatting commands in the Report window. The toolbar has a number of buttons that allow you to change either the current settings, or the section of text that is currently highlighted. The toolbar contains the following items: Font combo box Font Size combo box Bold Italic Underline Colour Left Justify Centre Justify Right Justify Bullet

Use this to change the current font Use this to change the current font size Use this to toggle the Bold style Use this to toggle the Italic style Use this to toggle the Underline style Use this to set Text Colour Use this to set Left Justification Use this to set Centre Justification Use this to set Right Justification Use this to toggle Bullet Points

The Ruler comes in two formats, in metric and in inches - the format you have displayed on your screen depends on the current Dimension Units you have (use Units in the Display menu to change this). The format shown below is metric.

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The Ruler allows you to set left, right, centre, and decimal tab stops. The tab stops are very useful for creating columns and tables. A paragraph can have as many as 20 tab positions. The 'left' tab stop indicates where the text following the tab character will start. To create a left tab stop, click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. The left tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the right. The 'right' tab stop aligns the text at the current tab stop such that the text ends at the tab marker. To create a right tab stop, click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. The right tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the left. The 'centre' tab stop centres the text at the current tab position. To create a centre tab stop, hold the shift key and click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. The centre tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a straight arrow. The 'decimal' tab stop aligns the text at the decimal point. To create a decimal tab stop, hold the shift key and click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. The decimal tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a dot under a straight arrow. To move a tab position using the mouse, simply click the left mouse button on the tab symbol on the ruler. While the mouse button is depressed, drag the tab to the desired location and release the mouse button. To clear a tab position, simply click on the desired tab marker and drag it off the ruler. Normally, a tab command is applicable to every line of the current paragraph. However, if you highlight a block of text before initiating a tab command, the tab command is then applicable to all the lines in the highlighted block of text.
Keyboard Support for Reports

In addition to menu support, there are also several useful keystrokes that are available while editing the report. These are listed below for convenience: Ctrl+B Toggle Bold on/off Ctrl+U Toggle Underline on/off Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+Enter Position at the top of the report Position at the bottom of the report Insert a page break

Opening and Saving the Report

The report can be saved to a file or read in from a file using the Save and Open Menu commands with the report window highlighted. This is useful if you wish to append an analysis to a report that had been calculated at some time in the past. (Load in the old report, perform the analyses; the new results will be appended to the end of the report which may then be resaved).

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File Toolbar The File toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: New – Open – Save – Cut – Copy – Paste – Print Edit Toolbar The Edit toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Add Row . Ensure that the colors selected will be easily visible in the white background of the report view. the image may not maintain its aspect ratio and may be pasted into the report as a square. paste the image into Microsoft Word first. Page 184 . To overcome this problem.Delete Row | Sort Loadcase Rows – Move Loadcase/Tank Row up – Move Loadcase/Tank Row Down View Toolbar The View toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Zoom – Shrink – Pan – Home View – Rotate – Assembly window. it is desirable to insert schematic images of the vessel into the report. then copy it from Word back into the Hydromax report window. Depending on which Microsoft operating system you are using (notably Win98). You can hold your mouse over an icon to reveal a pop-up tip of what the icon does. This is very easily done. Toolbars Hydromax has a number of icons arranged in toolbars to speed up access to some commonly used functions. by copying an image from one of the design views and then pasting it into the report at the desired location. The image copied is as per the image displayed in the Hydromax view window.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Pasting images into the report Sometimes.

The Assembly window is not available in Hydromax. loadcase and damage case: Analysis Type – Current Loadcase – Current Damage Case The Analysis toolbar also contains icons that execute the following commands: Criteria (dialog) | Start Analysis – Pause Analysis – Resume Analysis | Update Tank Values in Loadcase The “Update Tank Values in Loadcase” is exactly the same as the menu command for “Recalculate Tanks and Compartments on page 195. – Linked Negative Compartment. Analysis Toolbar The Analysis toolbar contains icons for selecting the current analysis. Window Toolbar Allows quick switching between commonly used windows: Perspective – Plan – Profile – Body Plan | Loadcase – Damage Case | Compartment – Downflooding – Margin Line – Modulus – Bulkheads | Results for Current Analysis – Criteria Results – Key Point Results | Graph – Report Design Grid Toolbar The Design Grid toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views Frame of Reference (always on) | Toggle Design Grid Visibility Design Grid | Design Grid Labels | Design Grid Tickmarks Visibility Toolbar The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views: Sections – Datum Waterline – Waterlines | Key Points – Margin Line | Loadcase mass items | Tanks – Damaged Tanks – Compartments – Damaged Compart.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The Rotate command is only available in the Perspective window. – NBV – Tank Names – Tank Fluid Level – Tank Sections – Tank Outlines | Probabilistic Damage Zones * NBV = Non Buoyant Volume Page 185 .

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Edge VIsibility Toolbar The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views: Hull Surface Edges – Internal Surface Edges – Feature Edges – Bonded Edges Render Toolbar Render – Render transparent – Toggle custom light 1 – Toggle custom light 2 – Toggle custom light 3 – Toggle custom light 4 – Customise light settings Report Toolbar Spool results to report View (extended) Toolbar Set Home View – Colour – Font – Preferences – Properties Design Grid Toolbar Display Frame of Reference (always on) – Display Design Grid – Show Grid – Show Labels – Show Ticks Extra Buttons ToolbarToolbar Add surface areas to loadcase – Preferences | Heel – Trim – Draft – Displacement – Displacement – Specified Condition – Permiability – Fluid simulation – Densities – Waveform – Grounding – Batch Analysis Data Format – Units – Coefficients – Set to DWL – Set View from Data –Visibility Dialog – Show Single Section Page 186 .

Save As Selecting Save As performs the same function as save but allows you to specify a new filename preventing the original file from being overwritten. Import Allows import of file types other than Maxsurf design files Page 187 . Select the design you wish to open. Hydromax will ask whether you wish to save any changes. the New command will create a new loading condition. Menus The following section describes all of the menu commands available in the Hydromax program. the Open command will open whichever file corresponds to the frontmost input window. New Creates a new table for whichever input table is frontmost.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference This toolbar provides a number of buttons for commonly used commands in case you should wish to customise your toolbars. Open When no design is open. If a design is already open. e.g: when the Loadcase Condition is the frontmost window. New creates a new compartment definition. When the Compartment Definition table is frontmost. Selecting Close when one of the design view windows is frontmost will close the current Maxsurf design. The requested design will be read in and its hull shape calculated for use in Hydromax. selecting the Open command will show a dialog box with a list of available Maxsurf designs. Save Selecting Save will save the contents of the frontmost window to a file on the disk. click the Open button. File Menu Edit Menu View Menu Case Menu Analysis Menu Display Menu Data Menu Window Menu Help Menu File Menu The File menu contains commands for opening and saving files and printing. Close The Close command will delete the data in the frontmost window.

so it is important to have unique compartment names). Import Main Criteria Imports criteria from the selected criteria files. but will be removed in subsequent versions: Hydromax supports only a single buoyant hull part. Page 188 . The hull. Linked negative tanks are not supported in Hydromax. The full model including critical points. Sail parts are ignored Export Selecting Export enables you to export a Hydromax file as a variety of different file formats such as: DXF or IGES DXF exports sections as closed poly-lines. Because the GHS file does not contain a full. tanks and sounding pipes are read from the GHS file. Current criteria may be kept or discarded. The following limitations currently apply. The buoyant hull part with the most sections is loaded from the GHS file. compartment and non-buoyant volume is exported on a separate layer (the layer name being the same as the compartment name. tanks and compartments and key points are all exported.0 file Also allows users to export Hydromax files that are compatible with earlier versions of Hydromax. This command is only available when the Perspective window is frontmost with rendering turned on. you may export the Hydromax model to a GHS geometry file. To enable the export command. GHS If you have a Hydrolink license. Export Bitmap Allows you to export the rendered image as a bitmap file at the specified resolution. Hydromax v8. GHS Allows direct import of a GHS geometry file. interconneceted. the geometry is locked: the tank geometry is locked and tanks cannot be added to the model. See the Maxsurf manual for more information. Hydromax supports only a single buoyant hull part with one byouant component. Any container parts with elements with negative effectiveness will be read in as tanks.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference nuShallo Allows direct import of a nuShallo pan file. chose Edit | Activate GHS export. IGES exports the NURB surface data. All other cotainers are read in as tanks. In addition. In subsequent versions of Hydromax we will add the capability to divide the main buoyant hull into different components. It is possible that this might cause problems for some models where the section through the hull at a certain location contains more than one closed contour. each tank. The buoyant hull is exported as a single part with a single buoyant component (Non-buoyant volumes are included in this part as components with negative effectiveness). three-dimensional model of the hull. A full GHS model file may be imported directly into Hydromax for analysis.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference

Save Main Criteria As

Exports the current criteria set to the specified file. It is good practice to save the criteria library with each project in a project folder. Note that a branch of the criteria tree may be saved in its own file by right-clicking on the branch folder in the Criteria dialog tree. The whole library may be saved by right clicking on the root “Criteria” branch; this is not normally necessary as this is done after any major changes to the criteria definition.
Import Prob Damage Criteria

As for main criteria but applies to the probabilistic damage criteria.
Save Prob Damage Criteria As

As for main criteria but applies to the probabilistic damage criteria.
Rest Prob Damage Criteria to defaults

Results the probabilistic damage criteria to their default values.
Load Densities

Loads density table data previously saved from Hydromax – can be useful for synchronising the densities on several computers.
Save Densities As

Saves the Fluid densities table data, see Density of Fluids on page 140.
Page Setup

The Page Setup dialog allows you to change page size and orientation for printing.
Print

The Print command allows you to print the contents of the frontmost window on the screen.
Exit

Exit will close Hydromax and all the data windows. If you have any data or results, which have not been saved to disk, Hydromax will ask you if you wish to save them before quitting.
Edit Menu

The Edit menu contains commands for working with tables.
Undo

Undo may be used with desk accessories, but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing windows or data windows.
Cut

Cut may be used in the Report window but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing or data windows.
Copy

The Copy command allows you to copy data from any of the windows, including the design view, input tables, results tables and graph window.

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Paste

Choose the Paste command to Paste data into the Loadcase window or other input tables, or the Report window. Paste cannot be used in the View, Graph or Results windows.
Select All

Selects the entire Report.
Fill Down

Copies text in a table down a column like a spreadsheet.
Table

Performs operations on Hydromax's Report window. Insert New Table Create a new table in the Report. Insert Row Insert a new row into the current table in the Report. Split Cell Split the currently selected cell into two separate cells in a table in the Report. Merge Cells Merge the selected cells in a table into a single cell in the Report. Delete Cells Delete current cell, column or row or a range of cells, columns or rows in the Report. Row Positioning Set Justification for the current table row or an entire table in the Report. Cell Border Set Cell Border Width for a single cell or range of cells in the Report. Cell Shading Set Cell Shading Percentage for a single cell or a range of cells in the Report. Show Grid Toggle table grid lines in the Report.
Add

The Add command is used to add an entry to the input tables (Load, tank, margin line point etc.).
Delete

The Delete command will delete rows from the input tables. If no rows are selected, the last row in the window will be deleted, otherwise all selected rows will be deleted.
Sort Items

Sorts the selected rows in the Loadcase window

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Move Items Up

Moves the selected rows up (if possible) in the Loadcase and Compartment definition tables.
Move Items Down

Moves the selected rows down (if possible) in the Loadcase and Compartment definition tables.
Add Surface Areas

This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull surfaces into the current loading condition. This is useful for estimating the initial weight of hull plating.
Activate / Deactivate GHS Export

This command activates the GHS Import command in the File menu if a Hydrolink License is available. It can also be used to release the Hydrolink license – a restart of Hydromax will be required for this to take effect.
Preferences

The Hydromax preferences dialog allows you to set your analysis tolerances (or: error values) and select the option to stream the report to a Microsoft Word document. Also see: Tolerances on page 135 Streaming results to Word on page 145.
View Menu

The View menu contains commands for controlling the views in the graphics windows.
Zoom

The Zoom function allows you to examine the contents of the design view windows in detail by enlarging the selected area to fill the screen.
Shrink

Choosing Shrink will reduce the size of the displayed image in the design view windows by a factor of two.
Pan

Choosing Pan allows you to move the image around within the View window.
Home View

Choosing Home View will set the image back to its Home View size.
Rotate

Activates the Rotate command, which is a virtual trackball which lets you freely rotate a design in the Perspective view window.
Set Home View

Choosing Set Home View allows you to set the Home View in the View window. To set the Home View, use Zoom, Shrink, and Pan to arrange the view, then select Set Home View from the View menu.

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Colours and lines

The Colours and lines function allows you to set the colour and thickness of the lines, labels, and graphs. Remember to always be careful when using colour. It is very easy to get carried away with bright colours and end up with a garish display that is uncomfortable to work with. In general it is best to use a neutral background such as mid grey or dull blue and use lighter or darker shades of a colour rather than fully saturated hues. From the scrollable list, select the item whose colour you wish to change. The item‟s current colour will be displayed on the left of the dialog. To change the colour click in the box and select a new colour from the palette. To Change the thickness select the thickness from the drop down list. When Loadcase window is frontmost, Colours for the loadcase items can be set. See Loadcase Colour Formatting on page 41.
Font

Font command allows you to set the size and style of text.

The text style chosen will affect the display and printing of all text in the Report, Loadcase, Graph, Curve of Areas, and Results windows.
Toolbar

Allows you to turn the Toolbars on and off.
Status Bar

Allows you to turn the Status Bar on and off at the bottom of the screen.
Assembly

Show or hide the assembly tree view.
Properties

Displays the properties sheet, which may be used to view parameters of selected objects (such as tanks).

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Full Screen

Maximises screen usage.
Case Menu

Commands associated with the Loadcases and Damage cases
Edit Loadcase

Edit the properties of the current Loadcase (name and whether it is a loadcase or Loadgroup). Loadcases are created, opened and closed through the file menu. See Working with Loadcases on page 35.
Add Damage case

Add another damage case
Delete Damage case

Delete the selected damage cases
Edit Damage case

Edit the properties of the selected damage case
Extent of Damage

Automatically finds the breached tanks and compartments due to a cuboid extent of damage (or in the case of Probabilisitic damage, the zone or sub-zone).
Create cases from Zone Damage

Automatically creates damage cases based on the zones that have been defined for Probabilistic damage analysis. (This is only required if you want to manually recreate some or all of the Proabilistic damage analysis conditions; when running Probabilistic damage analysis, temporary damage conditionas are created automatically.)
Max. number of Loadcases

Specify the number of loadcase tabs – this requires a restart to activate the changes made.
Analysis Menu

The Analysis menu can be used to change the current analysis mode. It also contains commands to set the input data and analysis settings and environment options required for the current analysis.

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Note: It is good practice when preparing to run analysis to work down the Analysis menu starting at the top and checking all of the settings and environment options.
Heel

Selecting Heel allows you to specify the three ranges of heel angles that you wish Hydromax to step through. Separate ranges are used for Large Angle Stability, KN and Limiting KG analyses.
Trim

Allows the specification of the trimming mode to be used for the analysis. This can be fixed trim; free-to-trim to loadcase; free-to-trim specifying initial trim value and free-totrim specifying LCG position.
Draft

The range of drafts used for the analysis of upright hydrostatics can be set using this command. KG for the upright hydrostatics is also specified in this dialog.
Displacement

The range of displacements used for the analysis of KN values, Limiting KG and Floodable Length can be set using this command. The vertical centre of gravity to be used for KN and Floodable Length analyses is specified here.
Specified Condition

Allows you to specify Heel, Trim, CG, Displacement and Draft for the Specified Condition analysis.
Permeability

The range of permeabilities used for the Floodable Length analysis are set using this command.
Fluids

Allows you to specify whether to use Corrected VCG method or Simulate Fluid Movement method when treating the fluid contained in slack tanks. See Fluids Analysis Methods on page 137.
Density

This command allows you to set the density of fluids used in the analysis. See Density on page 140.
Waveform

The Waveform command allows you to perform analysis for a flat waterplane or sinusoidal or trochoidal waveforms.
Criteria

The criteria menu item will bring up the criteria dialog. This allows you to specify which criteria will be checked during the analysis. See Criteria on page 153. When the floodable length analysis is selected, the criteria command will bring up a Floodable Length Criteria dialog with criteria that only apply to floodable length analysis.
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Also see: Margin Line Points on page 73. Start Analysis Selecting Start Analysis causes Hydromax to start performing the specified analysis. Resume Analysis may be used to restart the calculation from the point where it was interrupted. Also see: Tank Loads on page 43 Recalculate Tanks and Compartments Forces all tanks and compartments to be re-formed from their initial definition.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Grounding Specifies grounding on one or two points of variable length for use with the Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses. if you wish to recalculate at a different precision. Recalculate Hull Sections Deletes all existing hull. Page 195 . tank and compartment sections and recalculates them from the hull surface data and compartment definition. Also recalculates totals and subsubtotals after a row sorting or moving command. If any of the tank boundaries are made up from boundary surfaces. This is particularly useful if the underlying Maxsurf model has been modified. The analysis may be halted at any time by choosing Stop Analysis from this menu. also. This command also updates the loadcase. ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely. It then updates the loadcase with the correct capacities and free surface moments for the tanks. Resume Analysis If you have halted analysis by choosing Stop Analysis. it is better to use “Recalculate Hull Sections” after re-opening the Maxsurf model to make sure the latest internal structure surfaces are being used as well. Note: To be able to update the Hydromax model to changes made in Maxsurf see Updating the Hydromax Model on page 25 for a step-by-step procedure you can follow. Update Loadcase Checks for changed tanks and makes sure that any tanks and compartments that have not been formed are correctly calculated. Set Analysis Type Choose the analysis type you wish to use from the sub-menu. Snap Margin Line to Hull Project all of the margin line points horizontally onto the hull surface. or if you wish to modify whether skin thickness or trimming options are applied.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Stop Analysis This command halts the analysis at the current iteration. Display Menu The Display menu contains commands for controlling the data. This should be turned on before commencing the analysis to ensure that results are added to the report when the analysis is completed. Spool to Report Send the results of the analysis to the report upon completion. Equilibrium and Specified Condition). A dialog box allows you to choose from a range of stability variables. See Setting the Data Format on page 175. any data displayed for the final iteration may be incorrect. Results are written to a tab delimited text file as specified by the user at the start of the analysis. Stability. Hydrostatic results Data format dialog Used to select display options for Criteria results: Page 196 . which are displayed in the graphics and other windows. Note that the analysis may not have been completed and in the case of large angle stability. equilibrium condition and KN values. Data Format Data Format allows you to choose which data are tabulated and graphed (Upright Hydrostatics. Start Batch Analysis Hydromax will run the selected analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases using the batch processing command.

Safe heeling angle angles graph is shown as a result of a Large Angle Stability analysis the Data Format dialog may be used to customise the graph layout: Page 197 .Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Criteria table Data format dialog Used to select which columns are displayed in the Loadcase window: Loadcase Data format dialog When the Max.

the Loadcase will not update while editing – only when start another analysis). hull contours. Page 198 . not for tanks with the vessel at the final heel and trim of the last analysis. and other items in the design view may be set by using this dialog. This is to ensure that tank data in the Loadacase are for the vessel in the upright condition. compartments. This is required for automatic update of the Loadcase (note that if you do not rotate back to the DWL. Select View from Data This function may be used to synchronise the display in the Design View window with one of the sets of data in Results window. labels. Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analyses. the Design View will change to match the condition in the selected row or column in the Results window.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Max safe heeling angle Data format dialog May be used to customise the Floodable length graph: Floodable length Data format dialog Set Vessel to DWL Rotates the vessel back to upright and to DWL after an analysis has been completed (or Select View from Data used). The view may be set from any of the results from Upright Hydrostatics. Prob damage zones Toggle the visibility of the probabilistic damage zones. Simply highlight the column or row that corresponds to the condition you wish to view and select “Select View From Data”. Visibility The visibility of tanks.

Render Transparent makes the hull surfaces of the model semi transparent so that the rendered tanks and compartments within the model may be viewed. Animate This command is available for any analysis that steps through several steps. similar to the one in Maxsurf. the section chosen can be changed by pressing the left or right cursor keys on your keyboard. The section being displayed can be chosen by clicking on the section indicators at the top of the control box. The option to display the grid will be greyed out when the ship is currently displayed in. For example. If animation is chosen after an Equilibrium Analysis has been performed in waves. Switching analysis type puts the boat back into upright position on its design waterline. Roll and Yaw indicators. When Hydromax has finished calculating the frames the sequence may be replayed by moving the mouse from side to side. the animation will automatically cycle through the full range of wave phases. Hold the shift key down while selecting the command to save the animation. through the range of heel angles specified. You may set the initial viewing position in the Perspective View window using the Pitch. Render Transparent When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render Transparent option may be toggled on and off. Clicking the mouse button will terminate the animation. in the top right corner of the window. The grid can only be displayed when the vessel is in upright position on its design waterline. This allows you to rapidly step through the hull sections from bow to stern. Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan Selecting the Show Single Hull Section item from the Display menu will change the display in the Body Plan window to show only one section through the hull. giving a simple visual simulation of the motion of the hull through the wave.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Individual Loadcase masses Toggle the visibility of the individual mass items in the current loadcase. Grid The grid submenu allows you to hide the grid or show the grid with or without station grid labels. for example. a trimmed state at the end of an equilibrium analysis. Also see: Show Single Hull Section on page 29 Render When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render option may be toggled on and off to render the surfaces. as well as a control box. when a waveform has been specified and an equilibrium analysis is selected or after a Large Angle Stability analysis over a heeling range. Page 199 . Alternatively. Selecting Animate will animate the stability sequence in the design View window.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Data Menu Units The units used may be specified using the Units command. may also be set. Cascade Displays all the Windows behind the active Windows. View Direction Select the desired view direction from the sub-menu. units for speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to high-speed turn etc. See Setting Units on page 34 for more information. It is highly recommended that the correct frame of reference be set in Maxsurf prior to loading the design into Hydromax. Tile Vertical Layout all visible windows down the screen. Coefficients Allows you to customise how you wish to calculate the coefficients as well as the display format for the LCB and LCF. If the position(s) of the Baseline and/or Perpendiculars need to be changed from those defined in the Maxsurf model. See: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 17. Page 200 . Design Grid Access to the Design Grid is intended for information only. Selecting the item brings the appropriate window to the front. You are not expected to change the Design Grid in Hydromax. Tile Horizontal Layout all visible windows across the screen. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees. The selected design window will then be brought to the front. Frame of Reference Access to the Frame of Reference is intended for information only. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves. You are not expected to change the Frame of Reference in Hydromax. each represents a Hydromax window. Arrange Icons Rearranges the icons of any iconised window so that they are collected together at the bottom of the Maxsurf program window. This will ensure that a consistent frame of reference is used in all the programs. See Customising Coefficients on page 33 for more information. Window Menu For the items in this menu. In addition to the length and mass units classes. they may be changed using the Frame of Reference command.

depending on which analysis mode is currently active. Check for Updates Provides access to our website with the most recent version listed. Key Points. The Graph window displays a number of different graphs. Hydromax Automation Reference Invokes the Automation Reference help system.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Loadcase Brings the Loadcase window to the front. Results Choose from the Results item to bring the desired Results window to the front and display the desired table. KN and Equilibrium analysis. Hydromax Help Invokes Hydromax Help. Input Choose from the Input item to bring the desired Input window to the front and display the Compartment Definition. Page 201 . Margin Line Points or Modulus table. These inputs are used to calculate the total Displacement and Centre of Gravity for Stability. together with their longitudinal and vertical distances from the zero point. About Hydromax Displays information about the current version of Hydromax you are using. Online Support Provides access to a wide range of support resources available on the internet. Graph Brings the selected Graph window to the front. The Loadcase window allows you to enter a series of component weights. Help Menu Provides access to Hydromax Help.

and investigates why differences with other hydrostatics packages may occur.Appendix A Appendix A: Calculation of Form Parameters This Appendix explains how the calculation of form parameters (CB.) is achieved in Hydromax. AM. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the baseline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the baseline. Page 202 . there are two frames of reference: Ship or upright frame of reference The “ship” or “upright” reference frame is that of the upright vessel with zero-trim. Definition and calculation of form parameters Below is a summary of the definitions of basic vessel particulars and form parameters used in Hydromax. these axis systems are no longer parallel. Measurement Reference Frames Results in Hydromax are given from the vessel‟s zero point. World or trimmed frame of reference The “world” or “trimmed” reference frame is that of the trimmed vessel. because Hydromax treats trim exactly (the hull is rotated not sheared when trim occurs). CP. Here the baseline is horizontal and the perpendiculars are vertical. Here the baseline is no longer horizontal and neither are the perpendiculars vertical. static waterline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the waterline Rotated reference frame (red) and measurements in the two reference frames: Measurements in the upright vessel reference frame (green) and trimmed reference frame (blue) When the vessel is upright (zero trim and zero heel) these axis systems are parallel. However. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the horizontal. etc. However if the vessel is trimmed or heeled or rotated in both directions simultaneously.

e. It is for this reason that. in general. that are explicitly vertical. LCB). Page 203 .Appendix A Ship-Fixed and Earth-Fixed(world) axis systems The majority of measurements are given in the “ship” frame of reference. are measured in the “world” frame of reference. Thus the metacentre is always vertically (in the earth-fixed axis system) above the centre of buoyancy by a distance BM = I / vol where I is the second moment of area of the waterplane. i. This is because if the vessel is trimmed and if the VCG and VCB are not the same. and measurements from the keel such as KB and KG. in generally for the vessel to be in equilibrium. then there will be a sin(trim angle) term introduced. KM is not equal to KB+BM (BM is in a different axis system to KB and KM. GM is the true vertical separation of the metacentre and the centre of gravity with the vessel inclined and are always measured normal to the water surface. These include longitudinal centres of gravity. GM. LCF. The same is true of TCB and TCG if the vessel is heeled. and only if the vessel is upright are the axis systems parallel and hence the equation holds). Measurements such as BM. floatation and buoyancy (LCG. LCG is not equal to LCB – if both LCB and LCG are measured in the ship-axis system (of course if they are measured in the earthfixed axis system then they are the same. Similarly.

Length of design waterline Length between perpendiculars length of waterline under investigation Draft from some arbitrary baseline (normally the lowest point on the design) Maximum immersed depth (draft) of hull Draft (immersed depth) of station under investigation Immersed volume of displacement at waterline under investigation Coefficient parameters There are several options for calculating hullform coefficients. measured in upright reference frame. measured normal to the baseline. These can be modified in the Data | Coefficients dialog shown below: Page 204 .Appendix A Nomenclature Amax Ams A AWP BOA BWL B b GM KB KG LOA LCB LCF LCG LWL LBP L T0 T t Maximum immersed cross-sectional area to waterline under investigation Immersed cross-sectional area to waterline under investigation amidships Immersed cross-section area: Amax or Ams as selected by user Area of waterplane at the waterline under investigation Overall beam of whole vessel (above and below waterline) Maximum waterline beam at design waterline Maximum beam of waterline under investigation Waterline beam of station under investigation Metacentric height: vertical distance from centre of gravity to metacentre. Length overall Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy. parallel to baseline. parallel to baseline. Longitudinal Centre of Gravity. measured in upright reference frame. parallel to baseline. measured in the trimmed reference frame Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of buoyancy. Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of gravity. measured normal to the baseline. Longitudinal Centre of Floatation. measured in upright reference frame.

In addition. it may be more appropriate to define an effective length of the underwater body. for calculations at drafts other than the DWL. Some of the more common lengths that may be used to characterise a vessel. will also be different from the LOA (overall length). Select Coefficients from the Display menu: Page 205 . In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. The forward perpendicular is normally defined as the intersection of the DWL with the bow.Appendix A Length The datum/design waterline or DWL is a waterline near which the fully loaded design is intended to float under normal circumstances. it may be appropriate to use the actual waterline length at that draft (L). Several lengths may be defined: the LBP is the length between perpendiculars. this may be different from the length of the DWL (LWL) and in general. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients. LWL and LOA quite different. or possibly the transom. features such as bulbous bows and overhangs can make the LBP. In some cases. The after perpendicular is normally defined as the position of the rudder post. particularly for resistance prediction purposes.

Appendix A Beam It is normal to use the maximum waterline beam for calculation of coefficients. in others. you can select various beams: Page 206 . Multihull beams You may choose which beam should be used from the following list: In the reported hydrostatics. the beam used would be the sum of B1. and this may be of the DWL or the waterline under consideration. submarine. For the case of a monohull this will be the normal waterline beam. the beam of the individual hulls may be required.g. vessel with tumble-home or blisters). Hydromax uses the total waterline beam of immersed portions of the section for calculation of block coefficient and other form parameters. For the calculation of section area coefficients it is normal practice to use the beam and draft of the section in question. Vessel with tumble-home Catamarans and other multihull vessels pose another difficulty. For catamarans this will be twice the demihull beam (remember that the total displaced volume is used and hence the block coefficient is the same as that of a single demihull). there may be times when it is appropriate to use the maximum immersed beam (e. B2 and B3. However. In some cases the overall beam is of importance. For the section shown below.

The other beam values are calculated by summing the breadth of waterline crossings as described above. Draft The draft is normally specified from a nominal datum. for vessels with raked keel lines or yachts. In Hydromax drafts are defined from the datum line. however. this will be the same as the extents value. For a monhull. Hydromax uses the depths that stations extend below the waterline for calculation of form coefficients. Hydromax uses these values for computing coefficients. the datum may be elsewhere. For a monhull without tunnels. include the appendages. You may select which depth should be used for the calculation of form parameters.Appendix A Calculated beams The values “Beam extents” are those that measure the beam across the maximum port and starboard extents of the vessel. there are also occasions when the immersed depth of the section is a more relevant measure of draft. It should be noted that the section area will. Both depths are measured in upright position.: Page 207 . However. including the option of measuring the draft to the baseline – this gives the option of ignoring appendages such as fin keels when determining the draft to be used to calculate the form parameter (if the baseline is defined to the bottom of the canoe body for example). However. but for a multihull. it will be less than the extents value. this is often the case when form parameters are calculated. For a catamaran this would be from the outside of the port demihull to the outside of the starboard demihull. this would simply be the distance from the port side to the starboard side. Normally this datum is the lowest part of the upright hull.

the section with greatest cross-sectional area may also be of particular interest. For vessels with no parallel mid-body. the draft is measured through the intersection of the upright waterline and the centreline. It is for this reason that as the heel approaches 90degrees.Appendix A Draft measurements Draft measurement at heel angle When the vessel is heeled. Page 208 . however for some vessels it is defined as the midpoint of the DWL. the draft becomes very large. In Hydromax. perpendicular to the heeled waterline (see figure below). Essentially the draft is measured along the heeled and trimmed perpendiculars on the centreline. Draft measured along the inclined perpendicular lines Immersed depth and Draft measurements The images below show the difference between the draft measurements (which are made in the inclined centreline plane of the vessel) and the immersed depth measurements (which are made normal to the free-surface). Difference between “Immersed depth” and “Draft” measurements Midship and Max Area Sections It is current usual practice to define the midship section as midway between the perpendiculars. the position midway between the perpendiculars is defined as midships.

Hydromax uses the length beam and draft as selected in the Coefficients dialog to compute the block coefficient. Block Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the block coefficient as: "the ratio of the volume of displacement of the moulded form up to any waterline to the volume of a rectangular prism with length. or may be defined according to another standard – this may be important for hulls with significant tumble-home or blisters below the waterline. CB L B T Section Area Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the midship coefficient as: "The ratio of the immersed area of the midship station to that of a rectangle of breadth equal to moulded breadth and depth equal to moulded draft at amidships. breadth and mean draft of the ship at that waterline. you may select which section area should be used: Hydromax uses the station with the maximum immersed cross-sectional area at the waterline under consideration. is calculated at either the station with maximum cross-sectional area or the midship section area (as defined in the Coefficients dialog). LWL or some effective length. for sections that have significant tumble-home or blisters below the waterline. In Hydromax midships is midway between the perpendiculars.Appendix A When computing form coefficients. The beam may be at amidships or the maximum moulded beam of the waterline. The beam and immersed depth of the selected section is used unless the draft to baseline option has been selected in which case this draft is used." It should be noted that. such as CP and CM. The section area coefficient used by Hydromax. Length may be LBP. the actual definitions of the length. breadth and depth equal to the length." However. The beam used is that obtained by summing the immersed waterline crossings of the specified section. the midship section coefficient can be greater than unity. beam and draft used vary between authorities. Options for Section area coefficient CM A b t Prismatic Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the prismatic coefficient as: Page 209 .

This is explained in the figure below: Effect of vertical separation of CG and CB on LCG and LCB measured in the Ship reference frame Page 210 . but not in the frame of reference. Therefore a difference between the LCG and the LCB value will occur when the vessel is trimmed. see Measurement Reference Frames on page 202. Hydromax uses the selected length and the selected immersed cross-section area Amax or Ams. See Customising Coefficients on page 33 for more information. The LCG and LCB are calculated in the “ship” or “upright” frame of reference.Appendix A "The ratio between the volume of displacement and a prism whose length equals the length of the ship and whose cross-section equals the midship section area. CP L A Waterplane Area Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the waterplane area coefficient as: "The ratio between the area of the waterplane and the area of a circumscribing rectangle. CWP AWP L B LCG and LCB Hydromax allows you to fully customise how you want to display the LCB and LCF values. When the vessel is free-to-trim." Hydromax uses the length and beam as selected. the LCG and LCB will be at the same longitudinal position in the global coordinate system." Again the definition of midship section and vessel length depend on the standard being used.

For example: The Max deck inclination is the maximum slope of the deck when combining the trim and heel angle of the vessel. Immersion The weight required to sink the model one unit-length below its current waterline. Hydromax calculates the steepest slope of the deck when the ship is trimmed and/or heeled. That can be either cm or inch depending on your unit settings. Trim angle The trim angle as defined by: tan 1 Ta Tf L pp where: is the trim angle. Deck camber and initial deck slope are not taken into account. Ta . Page 211 . This is the same for differences in TCG and TCB values due to heeling. The unitlength can be either in cm or inch depending on your unit settings. MTc or MTi The required moment to make the vessel trim one unit-length. Tf are the aft and forward drafts at the corresponding perpendiculars and LPP is the length between perpendiculars.Appendix A Note: LCG and LCB are calculated in the vessels‟ frame of reference and therefore will have different longitudinal positions when the vessel is trimmed then for when it is upright. Maximum deck inclination The inclination angle is a combination of heel and trim angle. assuming the deck inclination is zero when the vessel is in upright position.

it may seem that wetted surface area may be calculated by simply integrating the station girth along the length of the hull. in general. and the wetted surface area can only be accurately found by summing elemental areas over the complete surface. and hence the 2 2 R2 4/ 1. which are normally either based on Simpson's rule or the Trapezium rule. it is normal to use perhaps 21 sections and perhaps 3-5 significant figures. or integration of section girths underestimates by error factor of 0.5% (note that.27 . the accuracy increases as the step size is reduced. Page 212 2 . and their distribution. In general. and occur in both hand calculations. Different number of integration stations used. If the surface is exported as DXF poly-lines then the precision used and the number of straight-line sections used to make up the poly-line are important. Integration of wetted surface area At first glance. Differences in the hull definition. and most automatic calculations carried out by computers. The 0. These effects are noted from comparing the results of different hydrostatics packages on the same hullform.Appendix A RM at 1 deg The righting Moment at 1 degree heel angle. the error due to integrating girths along the vessel length cannot be removed simply by increasing the number of integration stations. This can be of particular importance if the waterline intersects the stem profile between two sections. Where there are large changes in shape. The differences are easily shown by considering the surface area of half a sphere. or higher order methods. Simpson. such as near the bow and stern. this is not the case.5 2 R 2 A' approximately 27%. with computer calculations. Both methods use numerical integration techniques. differences for basic parameters such as displacement etc. hence computer calculations offer an enormous advantage compared with hand calculations. may be attributed to a number of causes: Convergence limits when balancing a hull to a specified displacement or centre of gravity. However. Further. Differences in derived form parameters may show considerable variation. the stations should be more closely spaced. agreement of hand calculations to within 2% is considered good). As with all numerical integration schemes. note that this is with an infinite number of integration steps. are under 0. With hand calculations. in a similar way that one might integrate the station cross-sectional area along the length of the hull to obtain the volume. The integration method used: trapezium. The only accurate numerical method is to sum the areas of individual triangles interpolated on the parametric surface.5% error discrepancy noted above. This is given analytically by: A 2 R 2 . It may be shown that the area obtained by integrating the girth of the sphere along its length is given by: R2 . this is primarily due to differences in the definitions used – see discussion above. it is quite feasible to use 200 sections or more with 10s of significant figures. due to the increased speed and accuracy with which these calculations may be carried out. These mainly occur from the integration method used. and number of interpolation points used to define each section. However. calculated by RM Displ *GMt * sin(1) Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations There are a number of potential sources of error when calculating the hydrostatic properties of immersed shapes. where R is the radius of the circle.

Surface areas calculated by the 'Calculate Areas' dialog in Maxsurf are the most accurate. These designs are of simple geometric shapes and can be used to validate calculations performed by Hydromax. for normal ship hulls the differences will be much less. Reference Designs A folder of reference hull shapes is included with Maxsurf and Hydromax. which use a number of vertical stations to define the hull. will be subject to the error described above. due to the greatly reduced longitudinal curvature.Appendix A However. since they are derived from the actual parametric definition of the surface. Page 213 . Below is a table of results derived analytically from these shapes compared with results obtained from Maxsurf and Hydromax at different precisions. Those calculated by Hydromax and most other hydrodynamics packages.

105 WP Area m^2 78.93873 -0.121 -2.874 0 -1.532 257.4998 260.00% Long.72% 0.20% 0.875 0 -1.00% 0. I % error 0. I m^4 Long.6807269 489.874 WP Area m^2 100 100 100 100 100 VCB LCB m m -2.874 0 -1.04% 2.00% 0.333333 833.00% 0.00% Page 214 .991 391.03% Analytically derived Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 10m Cylinder 10m diam.18% 0.357 78.761 -0.33333 -0.875 0 -1. I % error 0.Appendix A Reference Calculations Hydrostatics calculations for various reference designs.79% -0.57 485.00% 0.522 389.191 480.33333 % error % error % error 833.118 0 0 0 0 Trans.79939 260. I 490.00% 0.53982 78.00% 833. I m^4 Long.10% -0. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.89 -1.00% 0.121 -2.14247 -0.333 -0.871 0 Trans.122 0 -2.333 833.87385 % error % error % error 488.39% 1.56% -0.699 Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 391.381 78.35% 0. I 833.333 -0.849 VCB LCB m m -1.05% 0.33333 -0.00% 833.57% Long.991 392.06% 483. at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 392.25% 0.00% 0. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.873852 490.564741 488.333 833.00% 833.88% 1.333333 833.23% 0. comparison of Maxsurf and Hydromax with analytical values sphere 10m diam at 5m draft Volume m^3 261.333333 833.122 -2.47% 490.45% 488.50% -0.34279 261.18% 0.341 77.

927 168.92527 168.985 14.667 6666.00% 0.621 -0.07% 0.351 9.24% 1.666666 6666.39% 0.6667 % error % error % error 1666.00% 0.5 -2.4685 -0.92875 168.5 -2.63 -0.91 167.00% 0.5 -2.302 14.92418 168.00% 0.5 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.78% -0.00% 1666.6667 0.75 % error % error % error 1.10% 0.D=0.03% -0.98 14.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.13% 0.351 0 -0.17% 0.18% 1.364 9.667 6666.352 0 -0.6667 0.942 -0.12% -0.375 15 -0.352 0 Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 9.352 0 -0. I % error 0. I m^4 Long.00% 1666.B=1.00% Parabolic Wigley type Hull.666666 6666. I 1666.00% 0.3773 -0.22% 0.667 0.97% Long.372 9. I m^4 Long.01% 0.667 0.00% 0. LWL=15m. I 1.Appendix A Box 20m long 10m beam at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 1000 Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 1000 1000 1000 1000 WP Area m^2 200 200 200 200 200 VCB m -2.999 14.5 -2.9375 Volume WP Area VCB LCB m^3 m^2 m m Analytically derived 9. I % error 0.00% 1666.26% -0.666666 6666.09% 1.00% 0. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.67% Page 215 .00% Long.351 0 Trans.5m.

0 0.hcr. The file is a normal PC text file.000 Page 216 .rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan false true false false false true true 0.Appendix B Appendix B: Criteria file format The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension . which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria.0 30. The typical format of the file is given below: Please refer to the file C:\Program Files\Maxsurf\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp. Hydromax Criteria File [units] LengthUnits = m MassUnits = tonne SpeedUnits = kts AngleUnits = deg GZAreaGMAngleUnits = deg [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = Specific Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = My Custom Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = STIX input data ParentGroupName = Specific Criteria [end] [criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare UseLoHeel UseEquilibrium UseHiHeel UseFirstPeak UseMaxGZ UseFirstDF UseVanishingStab LoHeel HiHeel RequiredValue [end] = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = CTStdAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits STIX input data GZ area to the lesser of downflooding or… Area under GZ curve between specified heel… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp.html for a full list of all the parameters for all the different criteria types.

Appendix B [criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare RequiredValue [end] = = = = = = = = = = = = CTStdAngleOfVanishingStab STIX input data Angle of vanishing stability Calculates the angle of vanishing stability… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp. There are two angular units: AngleUnits Specifies the units for angular measurements. The first section of the file is the units section and this specifies the units that are to be used in the file. The criteria then appear after the units section and as many criteria as required may be included. The common parameters for all criteria are as follows: Type Describes the type of criterion RuleName Text which specifies the rule to which the criterion belongs CritName Text which specifies the criterion‟s name CritInfo Verbose description of the criterion Locked Whether the criterion may be edited in Hydromax or not.0 The file must have “Hydromax Criteria File” in the first row. If Locked is set to true. e.rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan 0.g. it is not possible to edit the criterion‟s parameters in Hydromax The other parameters that may be set depend on the criterion type. range of stability GZAreaGMAngleUnits Specifies the angle units used for area under GZ graph and for GM. Page 217 .

please contact support@formsys.general wind heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas XRefHeelRatioOfAreas2 XRefHeelGenericWindHeeling CritHeelRatioOfAreas2 CritHeelGenericWindHeeling . Currently this has only been implemented for the IMO roll-back angle calculation used in the IMO code on Intact Stability. In this section: Parent Heeling Arms Parent Heeling Moments Parent Stability Criteria For all general help on criteria or working with the criteria dialog. The new parent calculations are listed above the parent heeling arms: Parent calculations in Hydromax Criteria dialog As with other criteria and heeling arms. Page 218 Ratio of areas type 2 Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) Ratio of areas type 2 . severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion. This information can also be found in the lower right of the Criteria Dialog in the Criteria Help section.com with details of the required calculations. see Chapter 4 Stability Criteria on page 153. In the criterion select the required calculation from the pull down list: Angle calculators These calculators produce an angular measurement and may be referenced by the following criteria: Criteria that currently support roll-back angle calculations Heeling arm criteria (xRef) Combined heeling arm criteria (xRef) Heeling arm criteria (stand alone) Heeling arm. Selecting a calculation in a criterion Using a calculation in a criterion is very similar to using a heel arm: Define your custom calculation by copying it from the parent list. you should make a copy of the parent calculation by dragging it to your custom criteria folder. If there are any other calculations that you would like implemented. This allows for complex calculations to be cross referenced into criteria.Appendix C Appendix C: Criteria Help In this Appendix all individual Parent Criteria are explained in detail. Parent calculations Special calculations are provided for some criteria parameters.

from which custom heeling arms may be derived: Available heeling arms and moments Page 219 .wind heeling arm CritHeelWindHeeling IMO roll-back angle calculator The IMO roll back angle calculator calculates the roll back angle as per the severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion as defined in the IMO Code on Intact Stability. combined criteria (stand alone) type 2) .7” or “Tabulated value for k” – these are auto completed so you only need to type the first letter. Input parameters for IMO roll-back angle calculation Parent Heeling Arms As with the criteria. “Sharp bilge: k = 0. The method used for the k-factor can be one of three options: “Round bilge: k = 1.Appendix C combined criteria (stand alone) Heeling arm. The input parameters may be specified by the user or calculated by Hydromax for the vessel in the upright condition for the current loadcase.general wind heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . there is a list of parent heeling arms. The block coefficient is calculated with the current user settings for length and beam (not necessarily the waterline beam which another parameter required for the calculation).0”.

in this case n=0 should be used. some criteria. such as IMO Severe wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude. the Parent heeling arms will be reset to their default values each time you start up Hydromax. For wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever decrease with the cosine of the heel angle. A is the magnitude of the heeling arm. Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle. Make sure you read Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 226. There are several heeling arms that are used for the criteria. Heeling Arm Definition This section describes how to define heeling arms and is valid for both the parent heeling arms that can be cross referenced into the heeling arm criteria. General heeling arm General heeling arm with gust General cos+sin heeling arm User Defined Heeling Arm Wind Turning Lifting heeling Towing heeling Forces heeling arm Trawling heeling arm Areas and levers Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement Note: When you are working with the parent heeling arms. Page 220 .Appendix C To learn how to cross reference these heeling arms into criteria. They are defined below. and for the Old heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified for each criterion separately. please see Heeling arm criteria (xRef) on page 246. General heeling arm The general form of the heeling arm is given below: H( ) where: A cos n ( ) is the heel angle. make sure you copy them into a custom heeling arms folder before editing them. General heeling arm with gust Some criteria require a Gust Ratio. cosn describes the shape of the curve. Same as for the Parent criteria. However. this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind.

R 2 A 2 B and 2 tan B A Make sure you read Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 226. A is the magnitude of the heeling arm. (To aid input of the data. H steady ( ) A cosn ( ) H gust ( ) where: A GustRatio cosn ( ) is the heel angle. Page 221 . require a heeling arm with both a sine and cosine component: H( ) k A cos n ( ) B sin m ( ) It should be noted that provided the indices are both unity. the ratio of the heel arms will be the square of the ratio of the wind speeds. General cos+sin heeling arm Some criteria.) A single coefficient may be adjusted and this is used as a multiplication factor (whist the shape of the curve remains unchanged). notably lifting of weights. D C tan( ). First. 1. cosn describes the shape of the curve.2 meters at 45 degrees angle of heel.2> for a heeling arm magnitude of 1. It should be noted. that in this case. the same heeling arm form may be used for computing towing heeling arms of the form: H( ) k A cos( ) B sin( ) in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing. the user can specify the number of points and the shape of the heeling arm curve. Some criteria specify the ratio of the wind speeds. the definition of gust ratio is the ratio of the heeling arms. With the heeling arm. These should be comma delimited for example <45 .Appendix C GustRatio H gust H steady Both the steady and the gust heel arm have the same shape. if only one value is supplied it is taken as the heel angle – and the magnitude is left unchanged. User Defined Heeling Arm A user-defined heeling arm may be used in the criteria. the angle of the tow above the horizontal) is included. if it is assumed that the wind pressure is proportional to the square of the wind seed. It may be shown that this is equivalent to: H( ) where: k C cos( ) D sin( ) C R2 1 tan 2 ( ). and if a value preceded by a comma is given. This heeling arm can then be cross-referenced into any of the heeling arm criteria. this is taken as the magnitude – and the heel angle is left unchanged. the number of points is specified and then for each point the angle and magnitude of the curve can be specified.

Appendix C Passenger crowding heeling arm The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H pc ( ) where: n pas MD cos n ( ) n pas is the number of passengers M is the average mass of a single passenger D is the average distance of passengers from the vessel centreline is the vessel mass (same units as M ) The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option number of passengers: nPass passenger mass: M distance from centreline: D cosine power: n Description Number of passengers Units none Average mass of one passenger Average distance of the passengers from the centreline Cosine power for curve .defines shape mass length none Wind heeling arm In the case of the wind pressure based formulation. the wind heeling arm is given by: Page 222 . theoretically unity A is the windage area at height h is the vessel mass P is the wind pressure H is the vertical centre of hydrodynamic resistance to the wind force In the case of the wind velocity based formulation. the wind heeling arm is given by: Hw( ) a PA h H cosn ( ) g where: a is a constant.

an area to be added to the windage area computed by Hydromax based on the hull sections There are four options for specifying H (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified H is taken as half the mean draft. u'water area H = waterline cosine power: n Height of user defined total or additional windage area User may specify either a total windage area Or.depends on wind model mass/(time2 length) or length/ time length length2 length2 Units none for pressure based formulation. Option constant: a Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm. H is taken as the waterline Cosine power for curve .defines shape length length length length none Turning heeling arm The magnitude of the heel arm is derived from the moment created by the centripetal force acting on the vessel during a high-speed turn and the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and hydrodynamic lateral resistance to the turn. And the other parameters are described as above. H is taken as the vertical centre of underwater lateral projected area. The heeling arm is obtained by dividing the heeling moment by the vessel weight. normally unity for pressure based formulation or 0.5 ρair CD for the velocity formulation. mass/length3 for velocity based formulation wind model wind pressure or velocity area centroid height: h total area: A additional area: A height of lateral resistance: H H = mean draft / 2 H = vert. where ρair is the density of air and CD is an average drag coefficient for the windage area Pressure or Velocity (type “P” or “V”) Actual velocity of pressure . centre of projected lat. theoretically unity Page 223 . The heeling arm is thus given by: Ht ( ) a v2 h cos n ( ) Rg where (in consistent units): a is a constant.Appendix C Hw( ) a v2 A h H cosn ( ) g where: a is now effectively an average drag coefficient for the windage area multiplied by the air density and has units of density v is the wind speed.

centre of projected lat.vert. normally unity Vessel speed in turn Turn radius may be specified directly Or. Cosine power for curve . This value is positive if the suspension position is above the original stowage position. as some criteria require. The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H lw ( ) M h cos( ) v sin( ) where: M is the mass of the weight being lifted h is horizontal separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position v is vertical separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position is the vessel mass (same units as M ) The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option Mass being lifted: M vertical separation of suspension from stowage position: v Description Mass of weight being lifted Vertical separation of suspension point from weight‟s original stowage position on the vessel. as percentage of LWL Vertical lever: h Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm.position of G above baseline in upright condition h is taken as KG less half the mean draft.Appendix C v is the vessel velocity R is the radius of the turn h is the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and lateral resistance The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option constant: a vessel speed: v turn radius: R turn radius.defines shape Units none length/time length % length h = KG h = KG . Horizontal separation of suspension point from weight‟s original stowage position on the vessel This value is positive if the horizontal shift of the weight should Units mass length horizontal separation of suspension from stowage position: h Page 224 length .mean draft / 2 h = KG . as percentage of LWL There are four options for specifying h (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified h is taken as KG . u'water area cosine power: n length length length none Lifting heeling arm This is used to simulate the effect of lifting a weight from its stowage position. R. h is taken as the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and underwater lateral projected area.

Towing heeling arm The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H tow ( ) T v cosn ( g ) h sin( ) where: T is the tension in the towline or vessel thrust. Horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline. The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H forces ( ) 1 A1 h1 g H cosn1 ( ) A2 h 2 H cosn2 ( ) where: A1 and A2 are two forces acting on the vessel. expressed as a force. h1 and h2 are the vertical heights (from the zero point) at which these forces act. This value is positive if the offset is in the direction of the tow. n1 and n2 define the shapes of the heeling arms created by the two forces. such as those applied due fire-fighting or manoeuvring using thrusters.Appendix C produce a positive heeling moment. This value is positive if the towline is above the thrust centre. h is horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline v is vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel‟s vertical centre of thrust is the vessel mass n is the power index for the cosine term which may be used to change the shape of the heeling arm curve is the (constant) angle of the towline above the horizontal. Angle of tow above the horizontal Cosine power for curve . H is the assumed vertical position of the vessel‟s centre of lateral resistance (or the centre of rotation from which the forces are applied) is the vessel mass g is acceleration due to gravity Page 225 . expressed as a force. It is assumed that the towline is sufficiently long that this angle remains constant and does not vary as the vessel is heeled. not a mass. The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option tension or thrust: T vertical separation of propeller centre and tow attachment: v horizontal offset of tow attachment: h Description Tension in towline or vessel thrust Vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel‟s vertical centre of thrust.defines shape Units force length length angle of tow above horizontal: tau cosine power: n angle none Forces heeling arm This heeling arm can be used to model up to two forces acting on the vessel forces.

For example. increasing the number of sections will increase the accuracy of the area calculation. The user may also specify additional areas and vertical centroids or the total areas and vertical centroids. The lateral projected area and its centroid of area are calculated for the upright vessel (zero heel) at the draft and trim defined in the loadcase or trim dialog. In all cases the vertical centroids are given in the Maxsurf/Hydromax co-ordinate system. For these types of heeling arms you should use the various heeling moment curves that are available – see below: Heeling moment curves Parent Heeling Moments Heeling moments work the same way as Parent Heeling Arms in that they can be cross referenced into criteria. The area is calculated from the hydrostatic sections used by Hydromax. Page 226 . i. Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement Some heeling arm criteria are dependent on the displacement of the vessel for the calculation of the Heeling Arm.e. positive upwards.Appendix C Trawling heeling arm This heeling arm can be used model the effects of trawl net snagging as defined in Annex G of the Australian NSCV requirements : H trawlsng ( ) m y cosn ( ) m where: m is a mass parameter determined from the breaking load of the trawl gear and the downwards angle of the trawl net. The advantage of using heeling moments is that they provide a constant heeling moment (varying heeling arm) as the vessel displacement changes (due to different loadcases or during a limiting KG analysis). the value “A” in: H( ) A cos n ( ) .“Structure” surfaces are ignored. is assumed to be at the baseline (as set up in the Frame of Reference dialog). y is the transverse distance of the line of action of the trawl wire from the vessel centreline n defines the shape of the heeling arm.: from the model‟s vertical datum.is manually calculated from: A M . thus. only “Hull” surfaces are included in the calculation . further. The vertical position of the keel. K. is the vessel mass Areas and levers Some criteria require the evaluation of above and below water lateral projected areas and their vertical centroids. where M = heeling moment Δ = displacement. even if the baseline does not correspond to the physical bottom of the vessel.

The following heeling moments are available in the Hydromax criteria dialog: General heeling moment General cos+sin heeling moment General heeling moment with gust User Defined Heeling Moment General heeling moment The general form of the heeling moment is given below.. some criteria. require a heeling moment with both a sine and cosine component: H( ) where: k A cosn ( ) B sin m ( ) is the heel angle. cosn describes the shape of the curve. General cos+sin heeling moment Some criteria.Appendix C These are in addition to the existing specific heeling arm curves for passenger crowding. wind heeling etc. thus the vessel displacement A is the magnitude of the heeling arm (length). such as IMO Severe wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude. It allows you to specify a constant heeling moment as opposed to a constant heeling arm: H( ) where: A cosn ( ) is the heel angle.length) and heeling arm (length). A and B the magnitudes of the cosine and sine components of the heeling moment (mass. Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle. A is the magnitude of the heeling moment (mass. the angle of the tow above the horizontal) is included. However.length) and (mass). which take account of the vessel displacement as required. notably lifting of weights. the same heeling moment form may be used for computing towing heeling moments of the form: the vessel displacement (mass). For wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever decrease with the cosine of the heel angle. in this case n=0 should be used. It should be noted that provided the n and m indices are both unity. thus A and B are the magnitude of the H( ) k A cos( ) B sin( ) in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing. It may be shown that this is equivalent to: H( ) where: k C cos( ) D sin( ) Page 227 .

this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind. if it is assumed that the wind pressure is proportional to the square of the wind seed. Defining User Defined Heeling Moments works in much the same as for User Defined Heeling Arm. (mass). Pitch or Maximum Slope (compared with an originally horizontal and flat deck). the ratio of the heel arms will be the square of the ratio of the wind speeds. Both the steady and the gust heel moment have the same shape.length) and A is the magnitude of the heeling arm (length). Criteria at Equilibrium These criteria are calculated after an equilibrium analysis and relate to the equilibrium position of the vessel after the analysis. It allows you to specify a constant heeling moment as opposed to a constant heeling arm. This heeling moment can then be linked into a Heeling arm criteria (xRef) for evaluation. the vessel displacement It should be noted. R2 A 2 B and 2 tan B A General heeling moment with gust Some criteria require a Gust Ratio. User Defined Heeling Moment With the User Defined Heeling Moment. A is the magnitude of the heeling moment (mass. GustRatio H gust H steady The general form of the heeling moment is given below. Maximum value of Heel. Parent Stability Criteria The parent criteria are divided up into different categories depending on their basic types.Appendix C C R2 1 tan 2 ( ). that in this case. H steady ( ) H gust ( ) where: A A cosn ( ) GustRatio cosn ( ) is the heel angle. thus cosn describes the shape of the curve. Option Description Units Page 228 . Trim or Slope at Equilibrium This criterion may be used to check the value of maximum Heel. The equilibrium criteria are only displayed in the report if you run an equilibrium analysis. the user can specify the number of points and the shape of the heeling moment curve. D C tan( ) . Some criteria specify the ratio of the wind speeds. the definition of gust ratio is the ratio of the heeling arms.

Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length Maximum Freeboard at Equilibrium Check that the maximum freeboard is less than a maximum required value. This could be used to check that an embarkation point is sufficiently close to the waterline. Value of GMT or GML at Equilibrium This criterion is used to check that the GM (transverse or longitudinal) exceeds a specified minimum value.Appendix C The angle of Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Heel Pitch MaxSlope Permissible value deg deg Minimum Freeboard at Equilibrium Checks whether the minimum freeboard is greater than a minimum required value. use a combination of both forms of the minimum/maximum freeboard criteria. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): GMtransverse GMlongitudinal) Units length Page 229 . Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length To check that the freeboard lies within a specified range. This could be used to check margin line or downflooding point immersion.

then the criterion will fail. are calculated from the Large Angle Stability analysis in Hydromax. calculated from the GZ curve. If all the upper limit values are less than the lower limit. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater than the required value. This functionality is to allow criteria such as “The maximum GZ at 30deg or greater”. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater then the required value. If any of the calculated angles for the upper limit are less than the lower limit. Option specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Value of Maximum GZ Description Value of GZ at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg length Finds the maximum value of GZ within a specified heel angle range. The criterion is passed if the value of GMt is greater then the required value. GMt is computed from waterplane inertia and immersed volume (not the slope of the GZ curve as this is inaccurate if the heel angle resolution is insufficient). Option specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Value of GZ at Description Value of GMt at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg length Finds the value of GZ at either a specified heel angle. Note: Upper limit and analysis heel angle range It is required that the range of heel angles specified for the Large Angle Stability analysis is equal. Option in the range from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Page 230 Description Value of maximum GZ Lower limit for heel angle range. or exceeds. first peak in GZ curve. If you want to check the value of GZ at a certain angle you can set both specified angles as the required angle.Appendix C Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Permissible value length GZ Curve Criteria (non-heeling arm) These criteria. the upper range heel angle specified in the criterion. Value of GMt at Finds the value of GMt at either a specified heel angle or the equilibrium angle. they will be ignored when selecting the lowest. angle of maximum GZ or the downflooding angle. the greater of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Units deg .

Units deg Page 231 . the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle.Appendix C to the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Upper limit for heel angle range. Option heel angle at which required GZ is constant Description If the angle of maximum GZ is greater than or equal to this value. the required value of GZ is constant and is taken at this specified angle. see graph below. See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value deg deg deg deg length Value of Maximum GZ Value of GZ at Specified Angle or Maximum GZ below Specified Angle If the angle at which maximum GZ occurs is greater than a specified value. this should normally be specified and be less than or equal to the upper limit of the range of heel angles used for the Large Angle Stability analysis. Otherwise the value of maximum GZ is calculated. This is 0 . the value of GZ at the specified angle is calculated. Otherwise the required value of maximum GZ varies as a hyperbolic function with the angle of maximum GZ. The required GZ value depends on the angle at which the maximum occurs.

measured and compared. The righting moment RM is given by: RM gGZ where: is the vessel volume of displacement is the density of the liquid the vessel is floating in is acceleration due to gravity = 9. Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to the location of the first peak in the GZ curve. Page 232 . Value of RM at Specified Angle or Maximum RM Below Specified Angle As above (Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle) except the righting moment rather than the righting lever is specified.Appendix C Option required value of GZ at this angle is limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than If If GZ m ax 0 Description Required value of GZ at the heel angle specified above. Permissible value. 0 GZ max GZ m ax 0 then GZ m ax must be greater than GZ 0 where: is the specified angle at which the required GZ value becomes a constant 0 GZ m a x is the heel angle at which the maximum GZ of value occurs 0 GZ is the GZ value at 0 and GZ m ax is the maximum value of GZ. constant value. Units length deg deg length then GZ 0 must be greater than the specified. Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to first downflooding angle. This is GZ 0 .80665m/s2 g GZ is the righting lever. Variation of required GZ with angle of maximum GZ The angle at which the GZ was measured is listed in the results.

first heel angle. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Second heel angle. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg % Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 Page 233 . the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Phi2. second heel angle. Ratio Option GZ GZ 1 2 Phi1. The criterion is passed if the ratio is less then the required value. the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 First heel angle.Appendix C Ratio of GZ Values at Phi1 and Phi2 Calculates the ratio of the GZ values at two specified heel angles.

e. If the equilibrium angle is negative. heel angle can be limited by first peak in GZ curve and/or first downflooding angle. the user is advised that the vessel should be heeled in the opposite direction and the criterion is failed.: it is possible to check that the equilibrium angle does not exceed half (or any other fraction) the downflooding angle. If the ratio is less than the required value. Option limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Angle of Equilibrium Description Angle of maximum GZ The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first GZ peak occurs The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first downflooding occurs Permissible value Units deg deg deg Finds the angle of equilibrium from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value. Option spec. Option Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Angle of equilibrium Permissible value Units deg Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of The equilibrium angle and the lesser of the selected angles are compared. The user may choose the type of Key point to define the downflooding angle (downflooding point.Appendix C Angle of Maximum GZ Finds the angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum positive value. embarkation point. GZ angle of vanishing stability Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Ratio of equilibrium angle to the lesser of: Specified heel angle Angle of first immersion of the margin line Angle of first immersion of the deck edge Smallest immersion angle of the specified type of Key Point Angle of first local peak in GZ curve Angle at which maximum GZ occurs Angle of vanishing stability Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg % Page 234 . Using a ratio gives more flexibility.g. potential downflooding point. immersion point). then the criterion is passed. The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value. heel angle angle of margin line immersion angle of deck edge immersion first flooding angle of the angle of first GZ peak angle of max.

The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the deck edge immerses is greater then the required value. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of downflooding Permissible value Units deg Angle of Margin Line Immersion Finds the first/minimum angle at which the margin line immerses. Angle of Downflooding Finds the angle of first downflooding. The criterion is passed if the angle of vanishing stability is greater then the required value. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of margin line immersion Permissible value Units deg Angle of Deck Edge Immersion Finds the first/minimum angle at which the deck edge immerses. The actual criterion is passed if either of the individual criteria is passed. The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the margin line immerses is greater then the required value. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of deck edge immersion Permissible value Units deg Angle of Vanishing Stability Finds the angle of vanishing stability from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis. Option from the greater of Description Range of positive stability Lower limit Units Page 235 . Option Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Angle of vanishing stability Permissible value Units deg Range of Positive Stability The angular range for which the GZ curve is positive is computed. The criterion is passed if the computed range is greater then the required value. This type of criterion is used to formulate criteria such as: The maximum allowable angle of equilibrium is 15 degrees in the damage condition.Appendix C Equilibrium heel angle satisfies either This criterion is nothing more than two “Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of” criteria. The criterion is passed if the downflooding angle is greater then the required value. but this can be allowed to increase to 17 degrees if the deck edge is not immersed.

angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description GZ area between limits type 1 .standard Lower limit for integration. Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec. from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg See Nomenclature Permissible value deg length.angle Page 236 . from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.Appendix C Option specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of the range See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg GZ Area between Limits type 1 .standard The area below the GZ curve and above the GZ=0 axis is integrated between the selected limits and compared with a minimum required value. The criterion is passed if the area under the graph is greater than the required value.

3. 1.6.2 and IMO A.Appendix C GZ area between limits type 1 . The required area is defined below and is based on the area required for IMO MSC.749(18) §4.055 30 30 15 max m ax or simplifying: 0. then the required area would be given by: A A 0. and A2 is the For example.3.55 0.rad. required area = A1 .1. However the required minimum area depends on the upper integration limit.standard GZ area between limits type 2. if the lower angle was 15 and the required area at this angle was 0.rad and the upper angle was 30 and the required area at this angle was 0. A2 If 1 Where: m ax m ax 2 A1 2 A2 2 1 max : required area = .07m.55 0.07 0.5. is the upper integration limit.36(63) §2. The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater then the required value.2. A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified lower heel angle area under the GZ curve required at the specified higher heel angle 2.HSC monohull type The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits. The required area is defined as follows: If If m ax m ax 2: 1: required area = A2 .055m.001 30 Page 237 .

from smallest angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Minimum angle that requires a GZ area greater than. Until this angle the required GZ area is constant Value of GZ area that is required until the lower heel angle Angle from which the required GZ area remains constant onwards Value of GZ area that is required from the higher heel angle onwards Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg required GZ area at lower heel angle higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length.Appendix C Variation of required area with upper integration limit Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.. from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration..angle deg length.angle Page 238 .angle length.HSC monohull type Lower limit for integration. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability lower heel angle Description GZ area between limits type 2.

HSC multihull type The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits.Appendix C GZ area between limits type 2 . The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater than the required value. required area = A1 Where: m ax 1 / m ax .1.055m. 1. The required area is defined below limit ( and is based on the area required for IMO MSC. is the upper integration limit.36 (63) Annex 7 §1.HSC monohull type GZ area between limits type 3 . if the specified angle ( 1 ) was 30 and the required area at this angle ( A1 ) was 0. then the required area would be given by: A 0. A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified heel angle For example. However the required minimum area depends on the upper integrationA1 1 / m ax).rad.055 30 / max Page 239 .

angle Page 240 . from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Heel angle at which required GZ area is specified Value of GZ area that is required until the higher heel angle Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length.Appendix C Variation of required area with upper integration limit Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description GZ area between limits type 3 . from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.HSC multihull type Lower limit for integration.angle length.

HSC multihull type Ratio of GZ area between limits This criterion calculates the ratio of the two areas between the GZ curve and the GZ=0 axis. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Area 1 upper integration limit. where “abs” means the absolute value of. Area 1 Ratio = = abs Area 2 abs 1 4 GZ 3 d Option Area 1 from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Area 1 to the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Area 2 from the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Description Ratio of GZ area between limits Area 1 lower integration limit.Appendix C GZ area between limits type 3 . User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Area 2 lower integration limit. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature 3 Units 1 2 deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg Page 241 . 2 GZ d .

Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 1 In the following example the upper limit for Area 1 has been set to the downflooding angle.Appendix C Option Area 2 to specified heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Area 1 upper integration limit. In the example below. the lower and upper integration limits for Area 1 are equilibrium and vanishing stability. User specified heel angle Permissible value 4 Units deg % This criterion is designed to be calculated on the positive side of the GZ curve only. respectively and the limits for Area 2 are vanishing stability and 180 deg. Area 1 would be from equilibrium to vanishing stability and Area 2 would be from vanishing stability to 180 deg. The limits for Area 2 remain unchanged. see graph below. Typically. Page 242 . GZ areas below the GZ=0 axis on the negative heel angle side of the GZ curve are not considered positive.

Appendix C Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 2 In the final example. the lower integration range for Area 2 has been reduced to the downflooding angle. Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 3 Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits This criterion calculates the ratio of GZ area above the GZ=0 axis to that below the axis in the given heel angle range. Note that Area 2 is now A1 – A2. Option Description Units Page 243 .

abs Area 2 where “abs” means the absolute value of. Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. where the value of GZ > 0. upper limit = 180deg. Area 1 is positive. where the value of GZ < 0. Positive heel: lower limit = 0deg.Appendix C Option in the heel angle range from to Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits User specified lower limit heel angle User specified upper limit heel angle Permissible value Units deg deg % Ratio = Area 1 . Area 1 is positive. Page 244 . where the value of GZ > 0. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. If both heel angle limits are < zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Area 2 is negative. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Area 2 is negative. And the areas are defined as follows: If both heel angle limits are ≥ zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. where the value of GZ < 0.

Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits.Appendix C Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. upper limit = 0deg. and the upper heel angle limit > zero (the upper limit is assumed to be greater than the lower limit): Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. upper limit = 180deg. Area 1 is positive. Area 2 is negative. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. If the lower heel angle limit < zero. where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Page 245 . where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles < 0. Positive and negative heel: lower limit = -180deg. Negative heel: lower limit = -180deg. where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles < 0.

MSC 19(58) Probabilistic damage s-factor according to MSC 19(58) Option Lower angle of range : the greater of Description The greater of the selected angles is be to specify the lower limit of the range of positive stability and the range in which the maximum value of GZ should be found. these can be cross-referenced into new heeling arm criteria: Page 246 . After you have defined your heeling arms. except for the fact that you don‟t have to specify the heeling arm for each criterion separately. but can simply select which heeling arm you wish to apply.Appendix C Subdivision Index s-factor . The criteria themselves work much the same as the Heeling arm criteria (page 247). GZ limit Range limit deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length deg S = C sqrt( 0. Heeling arm criteria (xRef) The cross-reference heeling arm criteria are set up to allow you to define heeling arms or heeling moments in a central location and then cross-reference or link them into the criteria. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature The lowest of the selected angles is be to specify the upper limit of the range of positive stability and the range in which the maximum value of GZ should be found. See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing s Units specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Upper angle of range: lesser of deg deg specified heel angle spec. range) Both the values of maximum GZ and range of positive stability can be clipped. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge angle of vanishing stability Max.5 GZmax .

This is because a wider range of heeling arm formulations is available and for some criteria.Appendix C The heeling arms are cross-referenced simply by selecting the desired heeling arm from the pull-down list: For information on defining heeling arms or moments. these are where several criteria are applied to the same heeling arm Value of GMT at equilibrium .general heeling arm Calculates the transverse metacentric height (GMT) at the intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. GM sin( ) HA( ) Page 247 . see Parent Heeling Arms on page 219. GMT is computed from the waterplane inertia and the displaced volume at the equilibrium heel angle. these are where the same criterion is applied to up to three heeling arms and/or combinations of these heeling arms Heeling Arm. Heeling arm criteria The preferred method is to use the xRef heeling arm criteria rather than the stand alone heeling arm criteria. they only exist in xRef form. The criterion is passed if the GMT value is greater then the required value. Also available are: Multiple heeling arm criteria. The heeling arm criteria available in the Hydromax Criteria dialog are listed below. Ratio of GMT and heeling arm Calculates the following ratio and the criterion is passed if the ratio exceeds the specified value. combined criteria.

heel arm) is greater then the required value. The criterion is passed if the value of (GZ . Finally.general heeling arm Calculates the value of the GZ curve at the equilibrium intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. Value of GZ at equilibrium .general heeling arm Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm Finds the maximum value of (GZ . The first downflooding angle may be selected as an upper limit.Appendix C Where the heel angle. or first flooding angle of the specified key point type. this angle may also be multiplied by a user-specified factor. The transverse GM is taken at a user-specified heel angle or angle of equilibrium (without heel arm). The criterion is passed if the GZ value is greater then the required value.heel arm) at or above a specified heel angle. In addition. Ratio of GMt and heel arm criterion Value of GZ at equilibrium . angle of deck edge immersion. angle of margin line immersion. The specified cross-referenced heel arm is then evaluated at this heel angle to give: HA( ) . Page 248 . . is the lesser of: a user-specified heel angle.

Maximum ratio of GZ to heeling arm This criterion calculates the maximum ratio of GZ : Heeling arm (for the same heel angle) within the range of heel angles specified. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”. then the point with maximum positive GZ (where the heeling arm 0. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”. Examples: Page 249 . This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. including “specified heel angle”. The value of GZ at this heel angle must be greater than zero.0) will be selected. including “specified heel angle”. The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits.Appendix C Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits. This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. If the heeling arm is zero or negative in the range.

In this case a constant heeling arm is used. In the range 0 to 21.5 ). thus the maximum ratio occurs at the angle of maximum GZ (62.5 .5m giving a ratio of 224%. the maximum ratio of GZ:heel arm occurs at 21.553m and the heel arm 0. At this heel angle the value of GZ is 1.930m giving a ratio of 59%.Appendix C Upper limit is 50% of angle of margin line immersion (43 / 2 = 21. At this heel angle the value of GZ is 0.5 . Page 250 .4 ).122m and the heel arm 0.

Hence the maximum ratio reported is infinity and occurs at the angle where GZ is maximum in this heel angle range.Appendix C Finally.3 . In this case the heeling arm is zero between 50 and 70 .) The same is true if an unusual user-defined heeling arm is used. Page 251 . the exact value will depend slightly on the heel angles tested in the Large Angle Stability analysis. The angle and value of GZ is given for the location where it is a maximum (in the region where the heel arm is zero. the downflooding angle is 94. at this heel angle the heel arm is zero (thus the ratio infinite). Hence the criterion is passed.

heel arm) is maximum.Appendix C Minimum ratio of GZ to heeling arm This criterion calculates the minimum ratio of GZ : Heeling arm (for the same heel angle) within the range of heel angles specified. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value. Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm . the same criterion may be used to check that the GZ is positive over the specified range. Page 252 . The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value. The heel arm is used to define the equilibrium angle and the heel angle where (GZ .Heel Arm is maximum. This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .general heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the specified heeling arm. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”. including “specified heel angle”. If a heeling arm with zero amplitude is used. The criterion is passed if the ratio is less than the required value. And checks that this ratio is greater than a specified value. positive). The equilibrium angle is the smallest positive angle where the GZ and heeling arm curves intersect and the GZ curve has positive slope.general heeling arm Used to check the ratio of GZ values at two points on the GZ curve. The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits. This criterion can be used to check that the GZ is at least as great as the heeling arm over the specified range.general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium . GZ Ratio = GZ 1 2 Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm Calculates the heel angle at which the difference between the GZ curve and the heeling arm is greatest (GZ .

general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium ratio . Ratio = equilibrium specified The other angle used to compute the ratio may be one of the following: Required angle for ratio calculation Auto complete text Marginline immersion angle MarginlineImmersionAngle Deck edge immersion angle DeckEdgeImmersionAngle Angle of first GZ peak DownfloodingAngle Angle of maximum GZ MaximumGZAngle First downflooding angle FirstGZPeakAngle Angle of vanishing stability with heel arm VanishingStabilityWithHeelArmAngle Angle of vanishing stability .Appendix C Angle of equilibrium . This criterion should not be confused with the range of positive stability.general heeling arm Calculates the ratio of the angle of equilibrium (with the specified heeling arm) to another. Page 253 .general heeling arm Calculates the location of the first intersection of the GZ curve and heel arm curve where the slope of the GZ curve is negative. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value. The angle of equilibrium is computed as described in §Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm. selectable angle.

general heeling arm Computes the range of positive stability with the heeling arm.general heeling arm Range of positive stability .Appendix C Angle of vanishing stability .general heeling arm Page 254 . [Range of stability] = [Angle of vanishing stability] – [Angle of equilibrium] The criterion is passed if the value of range of stability is greater then the required value. Range of positive stability .

The required value is based on a constant plus a proportion of the area under the GZ curve (Area 2). 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 .general heeling arm GZ area between limits type 2 .Appendix C GZ area between limits type 1 .general heeling arm Computes the area below the GZ curve and above the heel arm curve between the specified heel angles. The criterion is passed if the area is greater than the required value. 2 Area = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 GZ area between limits type 1 . Area 1 constant kArea 2 Page 255 . The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value. 4 3 GZ ( )d .general heeling arm The area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ curve is computed (Area 1).

This criterion is based on the area ratio required by various Navies‟ turning and passenger crowding criteria. 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 . 4 3 GZ ( )d . Type 1 stands for which areas are being integrated to calculate the ratio (see graph).general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 1 . The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value.Appendix C GZ area between limits type 2 .general heeling arm The ratio of the area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ curve is computed. Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Page 256 .

2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) gust heel arm( ) d gust heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d 1 2 1 Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Page 257 . For more information see: §Heel.: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope).Appendix C Ratio of areas type 1 . The roll back may be specified as either a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the steady wind heel arm or can be rolled back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i. If a gust ratio of greater than 1.0 is used. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward (under the action of waves with the steady wind pressure acting on it. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated. Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle.general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 2 . Hence the rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the steady wind heeling arm. but the integration for Area 1 is taken from the equilibrium with the gust wind heeling arm. then roll to leeward under a gust.general heeling arm This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves.e.

The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value. heel arm( )d .general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 3 . 2 1 Area GZ Area HA Page 258 . Area GZ = Area HA = Ratio = 2 1 GZ ( )d .general heeling arm The ratio of the area under the GZ curve to the area under the heel arm curve is computed.Appendix C Ratio of areas type 2 . Areas under the GZ=0 axis are counted as negative. This criterion is based on the area ratio required by BS6349-6:1989.

for example passenger crowding.general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.general heeling arm Multiple heeling arm criteria These criteria are used to check the effects of combinations of up to three heeling arms and their combinations. The combined heeling arms are computed by adding the values of the individual heeling arms at each heel angle.multiple heeling arms Checks the ratio of GZ values as per §Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 . turning. Page 259 . wind.Appendix C Ratio of areas type 3 . Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .

multiple heeling arms Angle of equilibrium . Page 260 .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §GZ area between limits type 1 . Angle of equilibrium .Appendix C Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .multiple heeling arms GZ area between limits type 1 .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.multiple heeling arms Checks the equilibrium heel angle as per §Angle of equilibrium .

general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms. 4 3 GZ ( )d . Area 1 constant kArea 2 Page 261 . 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 .Appendix C GZ area between limits type 1 .multiple heeling arms GZ area between limits type 2 .multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §GZ area between limits type 2 .

Page 262 .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 1 .Appendix C GZ area between limits type 2 .multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §Ratio of areas type 1 .

Appendix C Ratio of areas type 1 .216(82) is computed. Page 263 . Several extra options are presented to the user.MSC_216(82) The Subdivision Index s-factor as described in IMO MSC.multiple heeling arms Subdivision Index s-factor .

If the equilibrium heel angle exceeds this value then sIntermediate is zero. Cargo. User Upper angle of range: lesser of first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge s-Final Max. Parameters for computing the sMoment factor Displacement of the intact vessel at the subdivision draft Reduction to be applied to maximum GZ Link to passenger heeling moment mass length mass. The lowest of the selected angles can be used to specify the upper limit of the range of positive stability.Appendix C Option Description Subdivision Index s-factor – MSC. allowable equilibrium heel angle deg s-Moment intact displacement at subdivision draft GZ reduction Passenger heel Page 264 . This is used to determine default parameters and which s-factors should be computed. heel K-factor max.length length deg length deg K-factor min. The beginning of the range of positive stability is taken as the first positive equilibrium angles See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Units Vessel type : Passenger. GZ limit Range limit deg deg deg Parameters for computing the s-Final factor Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s-Final Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing sFinal Theta_min used to determine K Theta_max used to determine K Parameters for computing the sIntermediate factor Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s-Intermediate Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing sIntermediate Maximum allowable equilibrium heel angle after damage. heel s-Intermediate Max.216(82) The type of vessel being analysed. GZ limit Range limit deg deg Max.

length Vessel type: If Passenger is selected. Page 265 . If Cargo is selected. respectively.Appendix C moment Wind heel moment Select survival craft heel moment Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Link to wind heeling moment Link to heeling moment that defines the effect of launching survival craft Permissible minimum value for sfactor mass. The Angle of steady heel is obtained as per §Angle of equilibrium . The result is the minimum of s-Intermediate and (s-Final * s-Moment). 2. then only the s-Final factor is computed and in this case. Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value.general heeling arm 3. then all three s-factors are computed as for the Passenger ship. respectively.general heeling arm. The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. then s-Intermediate and s-Moment factors are computed. The criterion result is then the minimum value of s-Intermediate and (s-Final * s-Moment). s-Final = K. the minimum and maximum heel angles are set to 7 and 15 deg. For the s-Final factor. Although it is possible to evaluate these criteria by evaluation of their individual components. allowable equilibrium heel angle then s-Intermediate = 0 s-Moment = (GZmax – GZ reduction) . Range / limitRange}1/4 if equilibrium heel > Max. and any values for the s-Final factor minimum and maximum heel angles may be specified. The area ratio is evaluated as per § Ratio of areas type 1 . Range / limitRange}1/4 where: K = 1 if equilibrium heel <= Theta_min K = 0 if equilibrium heel >= Theta_max K = {(Theta_max – equilibrium heel) / (Theta_max – Theta_min)}1/2 s-Intermediate = {GZmax / limitGZmax .length mass. Displacement / Mheel where: Mheel is the maximum of the three selected heeling moments. Note: At least one of the individual criteria has to be selected. {GZmax / limitGZmax . If User is selected. for simplicity the common combinations have been combined into single criteria. the minimum and maximum heel angles are set to 25 and 30 deg. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . These are: 1.general heeling arm This is a combined criterion where three individual criteria must be met. All s-factors are in the range 0 <= s <= 1 Heeling arm. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value. combined criteria Several criteria require the evaluation of several individual criteria components.

general heeling arm. The heeling arm is specified simply by a magnitude and cosine power. 3. The area ratio is evaluated as per Ratio of areas type 2 . a gust wind can be applied.general heeling arm. The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. 1. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value.general wind heeling arm This is a widely applicable wind heeling criterion in its most generic format.Appendix C Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value. 2. Optionally. Page 266 . For more information see: §Heel.general heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . The angle of steady heel is obtained as per Angle of equilibrium . Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle.

§1.1 ISO/FDIS 12217-1:2002(E) Small Non-Sailing Boats §6.2.Appendix C Area definition If required.3.5 IMO A.2.9.2 Page 267 . §079-1-c(9) 4.3. §1.2 Initial impulse and Wind heeling criteria RAN A015866: §4. a reduction of the GZ curve may be applied.2 IMO MSC. all calculations are done using a reduced GZ‟ curve which is computed at each heel angle as follows: GZ ' ( ) GZ ( ) B cos m ( ) This criterion may be used to evaluate the following specific criteria (as well as many others of similar format): US Navy DDS079-1: §079-1-c(9) 1.5.36(63) High-speed craft code §2.8.3.2. Royal Navy NES 109: §1.3.4. If this is done. §4.4.4. §4.749(18) Code on intact stability: §3.

angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of max. and is then compared with a minimum required value. The shape of the heeling arm (e. the magnitude of the heeling arm is derived (rather than specified directly) from a required relationship between the GZ curve and the heeling arm curve. cos1. GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability It is also possible to specify a minimum heel angle for the upper integration limit. spec.3) must be specified. A where: GZ cosn Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) Specified heel angle Value of GZ at specified heel angle Required ratio = GZ / HA A n GZ GZ area derived heeling arm type 1 This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the area under the GZ curve between specified limits. 1: specified angle of heel angle of equilibrium Upper integration limit. The heeling arm is normally derived from a GZ value. Lower integration limit. Page 268 .g. GZ derived heeling arm This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the value of GZ at a certain heel angle. heel angle 2: spec. The area under both the GZ and heeling arm curves is integrated between the same specified limits.Appendix C Derived heeling arm criteria For these criteria. The GZ value used to define the heeling arm is the GZ at one of the following heel angles: specified angle of heel angle of first peak in GZ curve angle at which maximum GZ occurs angle of first downflooding immersion angle of margin line or deck edge The heeling arm is then calculated as described by the equation below. GZ area or angle of equilibrium requirement. Any negative areas (due to negative GZ) up to this minimum upper integration heel angle will be deducted from the total area under the GZ curve. see below. The criterion is then evaluated by comparing some requirement of the derived heeling arm with a specified value.

With the wind pressure acting on it. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated. 2 2 1 GZ d A cos n d 1 A n GZ Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) heel angle GZ curve Required ratio GZ area derived heeling arm type 2 This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves.Appendix C The amplitude of the heeling. or roll back to a specified heel angle. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward under the action of waves and then roll to leeward. The rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the wind heeling arm. Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. roll back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i. which satisfies the equation below arm is then found and compared with a minimum required value. Area 1 = 2 1 GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d Area 2 = 2 1 Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Page 269 . For more information see: §Heel. A heeling arm of prescribed shape is found such that the specified area ratio is met. The amplitude of the heeling arm is then compared with a required minimum value. The roll back may be specified as either: a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the wind heel arm.e.: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope).

Angle of equilibrium . This means that the lesser of: a specified heel angle. if the angle of steady heel is greater than the angle. angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle. The steady heel arm is derived from a gust of specified ratio. angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle. should be large enough to withstand a gust from a steady wind heeling angle larger than ….Appendix C GZ area derived heeling arm (type 2) . The wind gust will cause the vessel to heel over to the lesser of a specified heel angle.derived wind heeling arm Page 270 . angle of the first GZ peak. first peak in GZ curve.GZ derived wind heeling arm The derived wind heeling criterion is used to check that the steady heel angle due to wind pressure exceeds a certain value.general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium . The vessel is assumed to be safe from gusts up to the specified ratio.

GZ area derived heeling arm This criterion is used to compare the equilibrium angles with two different heeling arms. are in the specified ratio. A1 and A2. The second equilibrium angle. φ2. Thus if it is required that φ2 be less than φ1. Ratio of equilibrium angles .Appendix C Ratio of equilibrium angles . The first equilibrium angle. then the ratio φ2 : φ1 must be less than unity. The specified heeling arm is specified by an amplitude and cosine power. is the angle of equilibrium with a specified heeling arm. There are several options which can be used to define the upper and lower ranges for the area integrations. is the angle of equilibrium with a derived heeling arm. φ1. The derived heeling arm is chosen such that the areas. the same cosine power is used for both the specified and the derived heeling arms. Option A Description Magnitude of specified heeling arm Units length Page 271 .derived heeling arm Area 1 = 2 1 GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d Area 2 = 2 1 Area 1 Ratio of areas = Area 2 φ1 = Angle of equilibrium with heeling arm derived from required area ratio (purple heeling arm) φ2 = Angle of equilibrium with specified heeling arm (orange heeling arm) The criterion is passed if the ratio φ2 : φ1 is less than the required value.

either 0 or 5. has reserve buoyancy and positive righting lever at a heel angle of 90º .STIX The stability index criterion or STIX criterion as described in ISO/FDIS 12217-2:2002(E) is used to assess the stability of sailing craft. length length Page 272 . Option delta Description Adjustment to STIX rating. which do not easily fall into the categories above. The required input parameters are described below. 5 if the vessel. indicating that the equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm must be less than the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm deg deg deg Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. zero trim condition. 0 in all other cases. Note that no additional windage areas are calculated by Hydromax for this criterion. Other combined criteria Other criteria. Units AS. Hull length as defined by ISO 8666. Sail area as defined in ISO 8666. sail area ISO 8666 length2 height of centroid of AS length LH. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright. this is not the same as the STIX variable hCE which is measured from the waterline. are found here. when fully flooded with water. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. the upper integration limit is always the angle of equilibrium with derived heel arm Specifies the maximum allowable ratio of equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm to the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm (phi2 / phi1).Appendix C n required area ratio Area1 / Area2 options options options required value Cosine power to describe shape of both specified and derived heelning arms The required area ratio used to find the derived heeling arm magnitude Specify lower integration limit for Area1 Specify upper integration limit for Area1 Specify lower integration limit for Area2. Please refer to ISO/FDIS 12217-2:2002(E) for exact definitions of parameters and how they should be calculated. positive up). For more information see: §Heel. Height of sail area centre of effort from model‟s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline. Other criteria . This value is normally less than or equal to 100%.

may be specified or calculated by Hydromax. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax.Appendix C Option BH. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. beam waterline height of immersed profile area centroid Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Hull beam as defined by ISO 8666. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. Specific stand alone heeling arm criteria These criteria provide some specific stand alone heeling arm criteria. but it is highly recommended to use the equivalent xRef criteria with the desired heeling arms. if no downflooding points are defined. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. Height of centre of the lateral projected immersed area of the hull from model‟s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline. Note that a downflooding angle is required to calculate the STIX index. Units length length length length Hydromax calculates the various factors and STIX rating according to ISO/FDIS 122172:2002(E). the angle of downflooding is taken to be the largest heel angle tested. Hull waterline beam in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. Page 273 . beam of hull LWL. Hence. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. Hydromax calculates this parameter at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. length waterline BWL. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. zero trim condition. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. or defined downflooding points do not immerse within the selected heel angle range. Hydromax uses the numerical STIX rating value rather than the STIX design category. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright. Hull waterline length in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. They are included for compatibility with criteria sets defined in earlier versions of Hydromax. this is not the same as the STIX variable hLP ). if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. This affects the calculation of the Wind Moment and Downflooding factors. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity.

passenger crowding This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .passenger crowding heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to passenger crowding applied.high-speed turn This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . Angle of equilibrium . Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Stand alone heeling arm combined criteria Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . The heeling arm is calculated from the number.general heeling arm. vessel speed and height of the vessel‟s centre of gravity. This is used to simulate the effects of lifting weights and is used by several Navies. The modified form of the heeling arm is given below. the only difference being the shape of the heel arm.general heeling arm.high-speed turn heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to high speed turning applied. GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 4 3 GZ ( )d . see §Passenger crowding.general heeling arm. however the heel arm is the specific high-speed turning form. see §Turning.general cos+sin heeling arm This is a very similar criterion to § Ratio of areas type 1 . for further information also see §General cos+sin heeling arm H( ) Area 1 = Area 2 = k A cos n ( ) 2 1 B sin m ( ) . Ratio of areas type 1 . Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .Appendix C Stand alone heeling arm criteria Angle of equilibrium . weight and location of the passengers. however the heel arm is the specific passenger crowding form. Page 274 . The heeling arm is calculated from the turn radius. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general cos+sin heeling arm The lifting criterion is the same as the Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . In this criterion the heel arm has both a sine and a cosine component.general heeling arm except that the heel arm has both a cos and sin component.

however the heel arm is the specific towing form.lifting weight This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . projected area and area lever information. however the heel arm is the specific lifting of a heavy weight form. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general cos+sin heeling arm.towing This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general cos+sin heeling arm.wind heeling arm This criterion is exactly the same as §Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .general wind heeling arm except that the magnitude of the heeling arm is automatically calculated from the wind pressure (or velocity). Page 275 .Appendix C Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) – cos+sin heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .

Page 276 .Appendix C Area definition Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. For more information see: §Heel.

is presented in quite different ways by different regulatory bodies. Finally since the dynamic heeling arm is a straight line with constant slope we know that the corresponding heeling arm is a constant value. Furthermore. constants such as acceleration due to gravity are explicitly shown in the formulations and consistent units are used – thus removing the need for obscure constants with strange units. we have tried to distil the essence of the various stability criteria and present them in their simplest form whilst preserving the physical significance of the stability characteristic under assessment. from this we can deduce that the value of GZ and Heeling arm are the same at these angles. Dynamic stability criteria In some cases the criteria are expressed in terms of the so-called dynamic stability curve. Capsizing moment Often a capsizing moment is determined from the dynamic stability curve by drawing a line through the origin which is tangent to the GZ area curve. This is the dynamic heeling arm curve (blue) and is the integral of a constant value heeling arm. the values are the same indicating that the areas under each curve from 0 to 2 are the same. The problem is to reformulate this so that this capsizing moment can be found from the GZ curve: Dynamic stability curve and Dynamic heeling arm. In Hydromax we have always sought to keep the physical significance transparent in the formulation – for this reason. From these facts we can derive the following GZ and heeling arm curves: Page 277 . In this section we look at some common criteria and demonstrate how they may be evaluated in Hydromax. This is the integral of the GZ curve where the ordinate is the area under the GZ curve integrated from zero to the heel angle in question. From the figure above we can see that the slopes of both curves are the same at 1 and 2 . at 2 . Remembering this relationship and that the slope of the dynamic stability curve is the value of GZ it is often possible to reformulate the same criterion in terms of one based on the GZ curve. In some cases. The capsizing moment is taken as the magnitude of GZ at this tangent heel angle 2 .Appendix C Appendix D: Specific Criteria In Hydromax. what is essentially the same criterion.

Area 1 corresponds to the area under the heeling arm curve up to the second intercept Stability curve.Appendix C Stability curve. Area 2 corresponds to the area under the GZ curve up to the second intercept Knowing that Area1 = Area2 we can deduce that Area 3 = Area 4 in the figure below: Page 278 .

Thus 1 knot = 1852/3600 = 0. it is necessary to divide by vessel mass. Hydromax uses an internal conversion of knots to m/s based on the International Nautical mile which is defined as exactly 1852m (International Hydrographic Conference. the conversions for some common criteria have been explained.75(69) 3.Heeling due to turning Heeling moment defined by: MR Where: 0..51477333.2 V02 L tonne KG d [kNm] 2 MR V0 = heeling moment in kNm = service speed in m/s = length of ship at waterline in m = displacement in tonne Page 279 L tonne .2. m/s.length.. (Note that the UK nautical mile is 6080ft = 1853.. IMO Code on Intact Stability A. 1929).749(18) amended to MSC. To obtain the heeling arm from the heeling moment.length. The approach that has been taken in Hydromax is to reflect the physics of what is generating the heeling moment.) In the following section. Be careful as some criteria specify heeling arms and some specify heeling moments or “moments” in mass. it is necessary to divide by vessel weight ( g ). giving a conversion multiplier for knots to m/s of 0. Monaco.5144444..Appendix C The magnitude of the heeling arm must be chosen so that Area 3 = Area 4 So the capsizing moment can also be determined by finding the heeling moment that gives Area3 = Area4.6 .Note on unit conversion There are quite a few different ways in which different authorities define their heeling arms.1.184m. Heeling arms for specific criteria . All Hydromax criteria use a heeling arm since this is what is ultimately plotted on the GZ curve. and in the case of “moments” in mass. This can easily be done in Hydromax using the GZ area derived heeling arm type 2 criterion.

2 . we obtain: R L and 510% 0. we obtain: a V2 Rg h V02 0.81 l w1 tonne [m] Where: P Page 280 = heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa . Where: V R h a = vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.2 V02 KG Lg d [m] 2 HR 0 .02 and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and constant R a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen. is given by: d 1000 2 g 0.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: HR a V2 Rg h [m].Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion) Heeling arm defined by: a lw1 PAZ 1000 g 9.02 L Note that it suffices that a 1. 3.2 KG Lg d 2 Equating similar terms: h V KG V0 d 2 and assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length is 5. the choice of a ratio of 5.Appendix C d KG = mean draft m = height of centre of gravity above keel in m Hence the heeling arm.1:1 merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity. H R 1000 M R / g [m].1:1.2 510% 1.2 V02 KG L 1000 Where: g = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.

80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. H v HR 0.81 The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Hw a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.001 PAZ [kNm] = heeling moment in kNm = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m Where: Mv P A Z Hence the heeling arm.001 PAZ 1000 g 1000 M v / g [m].Appendix C A Z tonne = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m = displacement in tonne = IMO assumed value of gravitational acceleration . is given by: PAZ g [m] Where: g = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Page 281 .80665 9.4 .1. we obtain: a PA(h H ) g PAZ 1000 g 9.81 tonne Equating similar terms: h H and Z g 9.99966 IMO HSC Code MSC.81 a g 9.81m/s2 g 9.81 0.9.Heeling moment due to wind pressure Heeling moment defined by: Mv 0.36(63) Annex 6 1.

Heeling due to wind Heeling arm defined by: HL1 Where: PAZ 9800 tonne [m] = heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroid of A and half the lightest service draft in = displacement in tonne HL1 P A Z m tonne The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Hw a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of half the lightest service draft in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. we obtain: a PA(h H ) g PAZ g Equating similar terms: h H and Z a 1. we obtain: Equating similar terms: h H Page 282 Z .Appendix C Hw a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.3 .0 Annex 7 1.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.

00068 Where the effect of wind plus gust is required.1.000102 1000.m] Where: h H P A = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 Thus the heeling arm is given by: H 0.000102 PA(h H ) 1000 simplifying and rearranging: a 0.Wind heeling moment USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as: M 0.m] L Where: v kts tonne = vessel speed in knots = displacement in tonne Page 283 .Heeling moment due to turning USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as: M 0. in the case of wind plus gust.5. a becomes 1.0053 2 v kts tonnes h [tonne.80665 9.50102 USL code (Australia) USL C.8 1.1.1.4 .1.000102PA(h H ) 1000 [m] The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: H a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.0002783 USL C.0 g 0.80665 1.Appendix C and a g 9800 tonne 9.102 9. the factor a should be multiplied by the gust factor – typically 1. Hence.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g a Thus equating: H a PA(h H ) g 0.000102PA(h H ) [tonne.3 .

0 finally. is assumed to be constant at all angles of heel and shall be calculated as follows: Page 284 . whichever is the least.0 simplifying and rearranging: a 5.80665 [ms-2]: a 0.5144 1000 . = vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: V R h a Thus equating the required USL heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.0053 2 v kts tonnes h1 L 1000 . MW. we obtain: a V2 Rg h 0.999798 a R L 0.3g 2 R v kts L V2 tonnes 5. The heeling moment due to wind.Appendix C h L = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = waterline length of vessel in m Thus the heeling arm is given by: H 0.2 Rolling in beam waves and wind The curve of righting moments of the boat shall be established up to the downflooding angle or the angle of vanishing stability or 50°.0 [m] Where: = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: H a V2 Rg h [m]. “6. and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and constant a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen. L a 0.196424 R L 509% gives a value for a: R Assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length. the choice of a ratio of 509% merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity.3g R 1 1 2 L 0.196424 Note that it suffices that . ISO 12217-1:2002(E) This section explains how the ISO 12217-1 code calculates the heeling arm and how you can replicate this calculation with a Hydromax criterion.196424 509% 0. with g = 9. expressed in newton metres. using annex D.0053 2 vkts tonnes h1 L 1000.3.

the heeling moment is given as: MW = 0. You can calculate (ALV / LWL + TM) manually and then make sure the (h-H) value in Hydromax is the same by specifying: Velocity based heeling arm.1 + 1. TM is the draft at the mid-point of the waterline length.1 + 1. For example.55*LH * BH. Make sure you check your total windage lever in the intermediate results in the criteria results tab of the Results window. area centroid height: h = ALV / LWL + TM = 72 / 21. and the lever is (ALV / LWL + TM) This lever is a bit confusing so let‟s concentrate on that.9 = 5. where the force is calculated as 0. and 21 m/s for design category B. ALV is the windage area as defined in 3. Thus the lever is (h-H) in Hydromax should be the same as the (ALV / LWL + TM) lever from ISO.applies to the additional windage area or the total windage area depending on which option you have selected.9) * 282 = 89961 Nm Thus the heeling arm = MW / Displacement = 89961 / 1037000 = 0.3 kg/m3 giving the expected result for heeling arm amplitude: Page 285 .” Basically they are using moment = force * lever.1 m TM 1.Appendix C MW = 0. expressed in metres.312 m. positive up. a = 0.7 tonne = 1037 kN LH 24 m BH 5 m LWL 21.3 kg/m3 Note: the centre of the windage area -h. h = (ALV / LWL + TM). Hydromax‟ wind heeling arm calculation uses H for the vertical height of the hydrodynamic centre (underwater area) and h as the vertical height of the aerodynamic centre (windage area) – all measured consistently from the zero point.7.55 LH BH = 66 m2) Thus according to the ISO 12217 formula. supposing we have a vessel with the following characteristics: Displacement 105. vW = 28 m/s for design category A.3 * ALV * vW2.3. but shall not be taken as less than 0.9 m vW 28 m/s for design category A ALV 72 m2 ( this is greater than 0.3 * 72 * (72 / 21. H = 0.0868 m The input for Hydromax requires: Total area A = 72 m2.3 ALV * (ALV / LWL + TM)* vW2 Where LWL is the waterline length.0. a = 0.

Appendix C

Intermediate results for the wind heeling arm.

ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation.

This section gives some details on implementing the ISO 12217 stability criteria in Hydromax. See also the note on converting units for the definition of the heeling arms in ISO 122171:2002(E).
Part 1: Non-sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m

In many cases the user must determine the required pass value for the criteria, which depends on the category and length of vessel being tested. In most cases the default required value would exceed the worst case. 6.1.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figures 2 and 3 (Section 6.1.2) and entered into the required value field; the default value is set at 1.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length. 6.1.3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category; see Tables 3 and 4 (Sections 6.1.3, 6.2). The default value is set to 49.7 6.2: Offset-load test There are several ways of evaluating this criterion: 1. Define a heeling arm and calculate the intersection of the heeling arm with the GZ curve to determine the angle of equilibrium. 2. Specify a loadcase with the offset load specified and carry out an equilibrium analysis. Verify that the angle of equilibrium does not exceed the maximum permissible value. An additional requirement in this section is that a specified freeboard must be exceeded. 6.3: Resistance to wind and waves Determine the windage area and lever and enter them in the appropriate fields in the criterion. Also determine the required wind speed and roll-back angle (depending on the design category) and enter these values. In Hydromax, there is no option for placing the height, H, of the centre of lateral resistance at the bottom of the vessel, so this must be specified manually (it is measured from the model zero point, positive upwards). 6.3.3: Resistance to waves This criterion comprises two parts, one to check that the righting moment is sufficient and a second to determine whether the righting lever is sufficient. 6.4: Heel due to wind action
Page 286

Appendix C

Determine the parameters required for calculation of the wind heeling moment as per 6.3, but note the different wind speeds to be used. Determine the limiting heel angle from Table 4 (Sections 6.2)
Part 2: Sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m

6.2.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6.2.2) and entered into the required value field, the default value is set at 1.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length. 6.2.3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category, see Tables 3 (Sections 6.2.3). The default value is set to 40 6.3: Angle of vanishing stability Determine the required angle of vanishing stability which depends on design category and vessel displacement. The default value is 130. 6.4: Stability index (STIX) Determine the required STIX value depending on the design category, see Table 5 (Section 6.4.9). Also specify the sail area and vertical position of the sail area centroid and enter these values in the appropriate fields in the criterion. If desired you can specify the other values or let Hydromax calculate them for you. 6.5: Knockdown-recovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle, it should self right. 6.6.6: Wind stiffness test Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.6.6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6, Section 6.6.7). Convert this to a heeling lever. Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward, this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm.
Part 3: Boats of hull length less than 6m

These criteria are evaluated after an equilibrium analysis under the specified loading condition. Non-Sailing Boats: 6.2.2: Downflooding-height tests Determine the required downflooding height and specify the appropriate loading condition. The criterion is evaluated after an equilibrium analysis. 6.3: Offset-load test This criterion is most effectively evaluated by performing an equilibrium analysis with the required offset loading condition Sailing Boats: 7.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6.2.2) and entered into the required value field, the default value is set at 1.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length. 7.5: Knockdown-recovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle, it should self right. 7.6.6: Wind stiffness test
Page 287

Appendix C

Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.6.6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6, Section 6.6.7). Convert this to a heeling lever. Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward, this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm.

Page 288

Appendix C

Appendix E: Reference Tables
This appendix contains the following reference tables:
File Extension Reference Table Analysis settings reference table

File Extension Reference Table
The following table lists files that are used in Hydromax. The .hmd file contains all the additional information that defines the Hydromax model and you need only save this file when working in Hydromax. However, if you wish to transfer loadcases or compartment definitions from one model to another, this can be done by going to the appropriate window and saving it to a separate file. File
Maxsurf Design

Extension
.msd

Description
Contains control point and surface information. E.g. precision, flexibility, thickness, outside arrows, trimming, colour When opening a .msd file Hydromax looks for a .hmd file with the same name. Contains hydrostatic sections information and all Input information that may also be stored separately in the files below The .hmd file does not contain: - Maxsurf surface information - Links to or information on the Stability Criteria Library - Links to or information on the Results tables - Links to or information on the Report

Hydromax Design

.hmd

Separate Input files
Loadcase Compartments Damage cases All Input window tables

Extension
.hml .htk .dcs .txt

Description
Each loadcase can be saved separately The compartment definition can be saved separately The damage case definition can be saved separately All tables in the input window can be saved as text files. Downflooding/embarkation points, margin lines, sounding pipes and modulus

Output files
All Result Window tables

Extension
.txt

Description
Result tables can be saved separately Results tables can not be opened in Hydromax The report can be saved separately

Report

.rtf

Library
Hydromax Criteria Library

Extension
.hcr

Description
The library is not related to the Hydromax Design File, i.e. is not model related. The library is loaded when the program starts, not when the model is opened. For more information see the section on criteria.

Page 289

Appendix C

Analysis settings reference table
The following table can be used as a reference to the various analysis settings for each analyses type. Analysis Settings Analyses type Trim Heel Draft DisplaceLCG TCG VCG ment
Upright stability Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Specified Condition KN values Limiting KG Floodable Length Tank Calibration S S/ FTTLC result S S / FTT S / FTT FTT S Upright R result S R R Upright Upright R result result S result result result n/a result LC LC S / LC R R R n/a n/a LC LC S / LC S/ FTT S/ FTT FTT n/a n/a LC LC S / LC S/ LC4 S/ LC4 n/a n/a For GM etc. LC LC S / LC S1 result2 S3 n/a

Where, result S R LC FTTLC FTT

Cannot be specified – they are a calculated resul Specific (fixed, single) value to be set by user Varied within Range specified by user Calculates values from loadcase – specifies displacement and COG only Free-to-trim to loadcase CG Free-to-trim to LCG calculated from a specific initial trim angle or specified LCG (and VCG) 1 The VCG is used in two ways in the KN analysis. a) The VCG only has an effect on the results if the analysis is free-to-trim. b) The GZ curve is calculated for the specified VCG and then the normalised KN curve is calculated as KN = GZ + VCG*SIN(heel).

2

The VCG is not required for the Limiting KG analysis. When calculating the LCG from a specified trim and displacement, the current VCG is used.
3

The VCG is required for the floodable length analysis because of its effect on trim. During the floodable length analysis, the trim can be substantial and the vertical separation of CG and CB needs to be taken into account.
4

The TCG may be specified directly of derived from the lost cargo / ballast water in damaged tanks from the current loadcase.

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Index

Index
A About Hydromax ....................................... 200 Add Damage case ...................................... 192 Add Load ..................................................... 38 Add Surface Areas ..................................... 190 Allowable shears and moments ................... 73 Analysis Menu ...................................................... 193 Output .................................................... 144 Settings................................................... 288 Toolbar ................................................... 185 Analysis in waves ........................................ 86 Analysis type Equilibrium .............................................. 84 Floodable Length ..................................... 99 KN Values Analysis ................................. 89 Large Angle Stability ............................... 78 Limiting KG ............................................. 92 Longitudinal Strength ............................ 102 Specified Conditions ................................ 87 Tank Calibrations ................................... 104 Upright Hydrostatics ................................ 75 Animate ...................................................... 198 Arrange Icons ............................................. 199 Assembly View .......................................... 171 Automation Reference ............................... 200 B Batch Analysis ........................................... 128 Beam .......................................................... 205 Block Coefficient ....................................... 207 Boundary Box .............................................. 48 Bulkheads............................................. 74, 175 C Calibration Increment .................................. 67 Cascade ...................................................... 199 Case Menu ...................................................... 192 Cell Border ................................................. 190 Cell Shading ............................................... 190 Centre of buoyancy .................................... 171 Centre of flotation ...................................... 171 Centre of gravity ........................................ 171 Check for Updates...................................... 200 Closing a Loadcase ...................................... 38 Coefficient parameters ............................... 203 Coefficients, calculation of.......................................... 199 Hydrostatic ............................................... 32 Colour ........................................................ 191 Compartment Definition .......................47, 174 New .......................................................... 48 Saving .................................................... 150 Compartment types ...................................... 65 Compartments .......................................... 66 Linked ...................................................... 66 Linked Tanks ........................................... 66 Non-Buoyant Volumes ............................ 66 Tanks........................................................ 66 Compartments, add, delete ................................................ 48 Forming .................................................... 58 Convergence Error ..................................... 136 Coordinate system........................................ 31 Copy ....................................................147, 189 Copying Graphs ......................................... 181 Copying Tables .......................................... 147 Corrected VCG .......................................... 139 Create cases from Zone Damage ............... 193 Creating a Compartment definition file ....... 48 Creating a new Loadcase File ...................... 35 Criteria ....................................................... 194 Criteria File Format.................................... 164 Criteria Libraries ........................................ 162 Criteria, Main Import..................................................... 188 Save As .................................................. 188 Criteria, Prob Damage Import..................................................... 188 Reset to defaults ..................................... 188 Save As .................................................. 188 Curve of Areas ............................................. 80 Curves of Form ............................................ 80 Cut.............................................................. 189 D Damage .................................................68, 144 Damage Case Add........................................................... 68 Delete ....................................................... 68 Display ..................................................... 69 Extent of damage ..................................... 70 Rename .................................................... 68 saving ..................................................... 149 Select........................................................ 69 Damage Window ....................................... 173 Data Format ........................................175, 195 Data layout ................................................. 176 Data Menu.................................................. 199 Delete Cells ................................................ 189
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........................... 135............ 198 Initial Conditions .... 201 Frame of Reference ........................ 19 Saving .................................. 150 Input Window .......... 179 double click ................ 188 Export Bitmap ................... 187 File Toolbar.............................................. 52 Extra Buttons Toolbar .................................................. 83 Downflooding points ........................................ 20....... 85 Full Screen ................................... 71............ 79 E Edge Visibility Toolbar....................................... 12 Page 292 Floodable Length Criteria dialog ........................................................................... 195 Downflooding Angles ..... 32................................. 189 Insert Row .................................................... 185................................................................................................................................................................................. 200 Input Tables.................................... 178 Graphs .............................. 192 G Graph ................ 191 Horizontal lever ......................... 190 Sort Items ........................................................................................ 69 Fluid analysis method .................................... 190 Delete ......................................................................... 188 Exporting ........................ 187 Individual Loadcase ............... 194 GZ ........................................................................................................ 194 Flooding .............................................................. 194 Design Grid ............. 188 I Immersion ............................................................ 179 Data interpolation.. 199 Design Grid Toolbar ................. 140.................... 174 Insert New Table .............................................................................................................. 186 Edit Damage case..... 180 Graph Printing to Scale ........... 192 Density ...... 179 Grid .................................................... 187 Fill Down ......................... 186 Design Preparation ...... 189 Floodable Length .............. 192 Edit Menu ............................ 190 Move Items Up ..................................... 8 H Heel ............... 282 ...................... 193 Display Menu ............................................................................... 150 Extent of Damage ........................................... 180 Righting Lever (GZ) .................................... 138 Fluid VCG....... 187 Open ..................................... 39 Hull Sections Recalculate ............................ 187 Save As .............................................................................................. 189 Installing Hydromax ............. 180 Graph Formatting ....................................................... 179 Graph colours ............... 184 Edit................................. 189 Hydromax Version 8........................................................... 179 Curves of Form ......76............ 134.......................................................................... 15 ISO 12217-1 .............................................. 198 Grounding ......................................... 83 Equilibrium .............................................. 84 Equilibrium Condition ......0 file ............................................................................................................................... Add.................................................143.................................... 72 Draft ....................171...................... 287 File Menu ............ 225 Help Menu ..................................................................................... 150 Dynamic Stability ................................ 180 get data .....................0 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 179 Type .................................................................... 9 Export.............. 17 Design.............................................................................................................. 200 Home View ....................................................... Close ......................................... 189 Edit Toolbar ..... 192 External Tanks ........................ 193 Font .......................................... 149 Displacement..................................................... 83 Import......131......17..... 194 Hydromax v8........47...................... 151 New ........ 192 Edit Loadcase .. 206 DWL ........ 31 Input ...... 190 Move Items Down................................. 148 Graph Window ....................... coherence .......................................... 139 Freeboard ....... 175 Linking to tanks or compartments .................................................Index Delete Damage case .... 184 File............................ 193 Heeling Moments ........................47......................... 187 Save . 187 Exit .................................... 190 Emergence Angles ..... saving ........... 186 F File Extension Table .............................................................................. 9.............................................. 191 Form parameters .. 140 Fluids .... 200 Curve of Areas .................................... 76 DXF export .................................................................................................... 193........................... 199 Free Surface Moment ................... 210 Immersion Angles ...............................

.......... 193 Perspective view .............. 208 Prob damage zones .......................................................... 73 Moment to trim ........... 149 Update ..................... 89 L Large Angle Stability ......................................... 38 Free surface correction ............................... 108 Probabilistic Damage – Principles ..56...................14............ 186 Report Window .............................................................. 72 editing ............. Workshop structure ..................................... 189 Permeability ......... Snap to hull .............. 72 Results .... 193 Loadcase... 191 Paste .......... 40 Headings lines ............... 198 Report Toolbar ......................... 10.... 172 Precision................... 189 Midship Section ...................................... 181 Keystrokes .... 71 Data ....... 197 Probabilistic Damage . 8............. 183 Reporting ............................................................. 201 Menus............................... density .......................................................................................Index K Key points ........... 269 Reference Calculations ..................................................................................... 212 Reference Designs ............................. 189 Print Preview................ 39 Grouping tanks ......... Area Section ................. 54 Loadcase ............................................. 207 Modulus points .......................................................... 43 Loadgroup................................................ 39 Loadcase Template ........................... 208 Length ................................ 200 Page 293 .. 148 Prismatic Coefficient ............................ 173 Loadcase....................... 34......................................... 78.......... Tank loads ....................... 37 saving ....... 92 Linked negative compartments .......................................................... 13.................. 135.................... 194 Max.......................................... 45 Loadcase.... 39 Totals ...19(58) ...... 188 Pan ............ 34............................................................................ surface ...................... 198 Render Transparent ............................. 80 lateral projected area ........................ 190 Print................................... LCG ..................... 40 Loadcase Formatting.......... cross referencing .................................... 83 deleting...................................................... 110 Properties ................ 175 adding................................................ 162 Limiting KG ....................... column selection ............. 107 Probabilistic Damage – Saving input parameters ................................................. 107 MSC.... 43 Loadcase................................................................................................................................................................................................. 126 Probabilistic Damage – Inputs .................. 42 Loadgroup ...... 73........................................................ Distributed Loads ............................................................ 41 Loadcase............................ 148 Printing to scale ................. 71.............. 18 overlap ......... 38 Distributed loads ... 107 N Non-Buoyant Volume Definition ..................................... 36 Loadcase Window....... 171 R Ratio of equilibrium angles – GZ area derived heeling arm ................. 107 Probabilistic Damage – Analysis ........................................................................... 38 Renaming ....................................... 207 Maximum deck inclination .... 41 Editing loads ........................................................... 204 Libraries .............................. 102 M Margin Line points........................ 224 LCB.....................171...........216(82) ....................... 211 Relative Density ............. 210 MSC................................ 192 Property Sheet ........................................................... 175 Modulus Window ............................................................... 140 Render .................. 145 Results............ 73 Measurement reference frames ..... 47 Loading a Saved Loadcase...................................................... 176 KN Values..................................... 11........... 110 Probabilistic Damage – log file.................................................... 148 Printing............................................. number ....................................................................... max................................................ 209 Maximum shears and moments .......... formatting.................... 47 maximum number ....................................... 43 Loadcase Colour Formatting.............. 40 Loadcase Sorting..................................... 47 O Online Support .. 200 Adding and Deleting loads.......................................................... 40 Loadcase.......... 54................13..................... 55 P Page Setup............. 21 Preferences .................... 37 Longitudinal Strength ............................................... 39 Blank lines ..................................................... 200 Outside arrows ............................................................................................................15............................ 175 Margin Line.............................................................................. 187 Merge Cells .......

......................... 150 Resume Analysis.. 224 Stability criteria.......... 30 Sections.............. Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm ........ 189 S Safe steady heeling angles ..... 141 Section Area Coefficient ........... 253 Stability criteria..................... Angle of equilibrium .......................... 218 Stability criteria........... 67 Edit .................................. 216 Stability criteria........................ 26 Select All............ Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ...................... 219 Stability criteria................ check boxes ............................ glossary .. 189 Spool to Report .............. Angle of maximum GZ ...................... 250...... 139 Stability criteria...... 177 Stability criteria....... 174 Calibration Increment ... 263 Stability criteria.... 195 Stability booklet . 80 Save ............................. 197 Set Analysis Type ...... 251 Stability criteria.......................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .......................................... 140 Skin Thickness ................ Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm . Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ............... 29 Shrink .......................... 191 Set Vessel to DWL... 171.....GZ derived wind heeling arm.............. Angle of equilibrium passenger crowding heeling arm ............ 272 Stability criteria........................... GZ area between limits type 1 .................... 18 Sounding Pipes.......... equilibrium ......................... GZ area between limits type 1 ... 272 Stability criteria................................................... 15 Show Grid ... 272 Stability criteria......... Angle of equilibrium ..general wind heeling arm 264 Stability criteria................................................................. 210 Rotate ............................. 128. 250 Stability criteria................................passenger crowding ............................................................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ................ Angle of deck edge immersion ......... 193 Specified Conditions...................................................................HSC multihull type .... capsizing moment...... GZ area between limits type 1 ... 135 Split Cell ................. Forming .............. 233 Stability criteria....... General cos+sin heeling arm ........... 258 Stability criteria..... 66 Specific Gravity .... GZ area between limits type 2 ....... 140 Specified Condition ..................multiple heeling arms ...........general heeling arm .............. show single..................................... 169 Stability criteria.............general heeling arm .... GZ area between limits type 2 ..... 234 Stability criteria. 273 Stability criteria.. 148............................. 160 Stability criteria........ 272 Stability criteria...................... defining custom criteria.................... 191 Row Positioning ...... 195 Set Home View ............................... 226 Stability criteria............................. Gust ratio ..........................towing........ damage and intact settings ...................... 275 Stability criteria...................... 253 Stability criteria......... General heeling arm ........ 251 Stability criteria.................... 218 Stability criteria.. Angle of equilibrium ............... Angle of downflooding .... 234 Stability criteria... saving ..........................................high-speed turn ......................... 162 Stability criteria....standard. 162 Stability criteria......... dialog ................ Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .............. 232 Stability criteria............... 74 Stability Criteria Results ................... angle calculators ........................... 87............highspeed turn heeling arm . Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ..... Angle of vanishing stability ... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . 160 Stability criteria............... Areas and levers ............ Angle of vanishing stability general heeling arm .... 208 Section... 233 Page 294 Stability criteria................................................... 191 Simulate fluid movement ........... 195 Righting Moment ................................................................... GZ area between limits type 3 .. 56.......................................... 175 Results....... 259 Stability criteria........... 190 Show single hull section ................... 272 Stability criteria. 259 Stability criteria................................................... 273 Stability criteria.................................................... 189 Select View from Data ............ 273 Stability criteria................... 235 Stability criteria......... 198 Sectional Area Curve .................. 237 ...... 232 Stability criteria....................... Angle of margin line immersion ...... 268 Stability criteria.......Index Results Window ........................................ Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) ..............................lifting weight ................................ criteria library file ............. copying criteria .........................................................................................................general heeling arm ....multiple heeling arms ....................HSC monohull type .... GZ area between limits type 2... Angle of equilibrium multiple heeling arms ......................... 10.................... 161 Stability criteria........ 234 Stability criteria.......... 66..... 197 Shift Key ......wind heeling arm ............ 150 Saving Densities.general cos+sin heeling arm .........................

.................... IMO HSC Code MSC... 267 Stability criteria..... list ....... parent criteria ................ saving ... 226 Stability criteria............................... 239 Stability criteria.................... 223 Stability criteria.......... 277 Stability criteria...........36(63 .... 163 Stability criteria....... 164 Stability criteria.... 250 Stability criteria......... 228 Stability criteria...... 15 Page 295 . 155.... Heeling due to towing ........ 257 Stability criteria......general heeling arm...................... 153 Stability criteria. Ratio of areas type 1 general heeling arm ....... 224 Stability criteria................................................ 224 Stability criteria............. 219 Stability criteria..............general heeling arm ......... heeling arm dependency on displacement .................... Maximum ratio of GZ to heeling arm... 254 Stability criteria......... GZ definitions ........ pitch or slope at equilibrium ....... IMO Code on Intact Stability A.......... GZ curve features ........... ISO 12217 .......... 162 Stability criteria. non-healing arm ...... Value of GZ at equilibrium general heeling arm ... IMO roll back angle calculator ...... 228 Stability criteria..... 246 Stability criteria.................................... 217 Stability criteria... 261 Stability criteria..... 266 Stability criteria....... 281 Stability criteria............... 270 Stability criteria................ 166 Stability criteria.................. tree list ..... 266 Stability criteria............ USL code........................ Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle . Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 ...... 230 Start Analysis .... 227 Stability criteria.... 160 Stability criteria............. 228 Stability criteria.... Value of maximum GZ ..... 168 Stability criteria.................................. Range of positive stability general heeling arm . 218 Stability criteria.................. pass/fail test ........................... 223 Stability criteria................... Value of RM at specified angle or maximum RM below specified angle ..... 231 Stability criteria............ moving criteria ................................... GZ area derived heeling arm type 1...................................... Ratio of areas type 1 general cos+sin heeling arm...... 272 Stability criteria............................... Survivability Index MSC_216(82) ..................................................... Heeling due to bollard-pull ........................... 227 Stability criteria.............. 163 Stability criteria........... 245 Stability criteria......................................... Value of GZ at ...... heeling arm units .......... GZ area derived heeling arm type 2......................................................................... 250 Stability criteria.......................................... 234 Stability criteria. 221 Stability criteria............... 220 Stability criteria... GZ derived heeling arm ....... 247 Stability criteria.......................................... Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .............................................................................. 244 Stability criteria........ Ratio of areas type 3 general heeling arm .. 255 Stability criteria............. Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2.... 256 Stability criteria..... Heeling due to trawling ....... selecting for analysis ... Other criteria ............ 227 Stability criteria............................................. 279 Stability criteria. Heeling due to lifting of weights .. Minimum Freeboard at equilibrium ................................. Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm ................................................... 260 Stability criteria.......................................................................................Index Stability criteria.... User Defined Heeling Arm ......................................STIX ..... 227 Stability criteria................127....... Subdivision Index s-factor MSC 19(58 ........... Value of GMt at equilibrium ............ Heeling due to turning ............... Maximum value of heel......... importing ..... Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits ...... Heeling due to wind .............. heeling arm definition ..... 229 Stability criteria................749(18) .............. 195 Starting Hydromax ... report and batch processing . 195 Start Batch Analysis.. Ratio of GZ area between limits .. Heeling due to arbitrary forces ............. 162.......... 166 Stability criteria.................. Value of GMt at ....................................... Ratio of areas type 1 multiple heeling arms .......... 160 Stability criteria............................................................. 228 Stability criteria.... Value of GMt or GMl at equilibrium ................ 252 Stability criteria........ Maximum Freeboard at equilibrium ...... results ...................... Ratio of GMT and heeling arm ...........multiple heeling arms ......... 245 Stability criteria......................... Range of positive stability . 247 Stability criteria........................... GZ......................................... 159 Stability criteria............................ 223 Stability criteria...... 241 Stability criteria...................... 284 Stability criteria................... 277 Stability criteria.................... Heeling due to passenger crowding ......... 222 Stability criteria............... Minimum ratio of GZ to heeling arm........................... Ratio of areas type 2 general heeling arm ... 220 Stability criteria................

194 sinusoidal ............................................................................... 13......................................................... 52 linked .. 75 V Validate Hydromax model .... 189 Units ........ 199 Tile Vertical ............................. 186 W Waterplane Area Coefficient .... 145 Z Zero Point ................ 199 Tolerances ... 57 Tank Calibrations ................................................. 15 Word................................................................................................................. 190 ............................... 18 U Undo........................... 39 Zoom ................................ 142 Waveform ....................... 186 View Direction ..................................... report streaming to ............................................... 184............................................................. 184 View Window ............................................................... report templates..................... KN ..................................... 189 Tank adding.................................................................................. 194 Tanks within Compartments .......................................................................................................................... 56 Saving .................................. 199 Window Toolbar ............... 33......................................... 134 Page 296 View (extended)Toolbar .................................... 57 Permeability . 55 Tanks Recalculate ........................................................... 26 Trim .. 190 View Toolbar ........ 50 simple .......... 185 TCG...... 193 Fixed .... 211 Window Menu ................ checking ..... 142 Wavelength ........ 133 Trim angle ................... 136 Toolbars ............................. 32.......................................................................................... 7.............................. 54 Tanks............................................ 134 Tile Horizontal ........................................ 209 Trimmed surfaces.................................. 142 Wave height ................. 54.................................................... 199 Update Loadcase ..................... 29 VCG for trim balance.......................................................... Limiting KG............................................ 104 Tank Type external. 57 Visibility ......... 133 Free-to-trim to a specified LCG value ..................... 192 Trapezoidal integration .................................. 132........................ 145 Word................. deleting ................................................ 17 T Table ............ 171 Visibility .............................. boundary surfaces ..............................................................171........ 134 Free-to-trim using a specified initial trim value ............................................... 145 Surface Use .............................. 142 Wetted surface area..............................17...... 48 tapered .......... 52 Recalculate . 192 Stop Analysis .................................................. 48 Fluids ................................................................... 185 Windows Registry................................ 208 Wave definition...................................... integration of ... 142 trochoidal ... 199 View Menu .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 50 complex ..................... 194 Upright Hydrostatics .... 49 tanks overlap ...................... 150 Surface Thickness ........................................ 50 Non-Buoyant Areas ........................Index Status Bar ................................... 197 Visibility Toolbar .................... 195 Streaming results to Word ............ 56 Ordering .....................185.................................................... 128.........

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