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Lecture1:EnergyandEnvironment

Energyisaprimemoverofeconomicgrowthandisvitaltosustaintheeconomy. Energyconsumptionisanindicatorofeconomicgrowthofanation Economicgrowthdepends,amongotherfactors,onthelongtermavailabilityof resourcesthatareaffordable,accessibleandtheirusedonotpollutethe environment. Industrializationcontributestoeconomicgrowthandrequiresenergy.Major energyintensiveindustriesconsumed68%ofthetotalenergyavailablein2005.A similartrendcontinuesinthesubsequentyearsalso. Energyconsumptionisstronglyrelatedtoenvironmentcleanliness,whenfossil fuelisthemainsourceofenergy Fossilfuelaccountsformorethan70%ofthetotalenergyrequirementofIndia andothercountries

Energyresources:Classificationofenergyresourcesisgiveninthefollowingflowsheet:
EnergyResources NonRenewable(FossilFuel) Coal Petroleum NaturalGas Solar Geothermal Wind Biomass Hydrothermal Primary(Natural) Secondary(Synthetic)

Renewable

Coke

FuelGas (Producer Gas)

Oil

Itmustbenotedthatallfossilfuelreservesareplantoriginandittakesmillionsofyearsto formadepositbelowtheearthcrustthroughphysicochemicalreactions

TypesofNonRenewablesourcesofenergy
Coal:
Coalisformedbytheprolongedactionofgeologicalforcesontheplantandvegetal matteraccumulatedbelowtheearthcrust.TheprocessiscalledCOALIFICATION. Coalificationisbothtimeandforcedependent.Coalificationbringsfollowing changestotheaccumulatedplant:

WoodPeatLigniteBituminousAnthraciteGraphite Increaseintimeandmagnitudeofforces Both,physicalchangelikecolour,strength,densityandstructure;andchemical changeoccur. Chemicalchangesareimportant: Oxygendecreasesfrom40%forwoodto305forpeat,20%forlignite,5%for bituminousand2%foranthracitecoal. Volatilematterdecreasesfromabout70%forwoodto5%orlessforanthracitecoal. Increaseincarbonfromabout30%forwoodandpeatto9095%foranthracitecoal.

Petroleum:
Petroleumisformedintheearthscrustfromtheaccumulatedvegetalandanimalmatter metamorphicprocessessimilartocoalification. Fromcrudepetroleumgasoline,lubricatingoil,fueloilsetc.areobtained.

Naturalgas:
Itisuseddirectly

Renewablesourcesofenergy
Geothermal:energyobtainedbytappingtheheatoftheearthbelowitssurface. Hotundergroundwaterorsteamisusedtoproduceelectricity. Biogas:producedfromwastesofpaperandsugarindustries,animalandsoon.CH4 istheproduct. Biofuel:Biodiesel,ethanoletc.arederivedfromplants. SolidBiomass:Woodfuel,biogenicportionofmunicipalwaste,certainplants. Biomassmassmaybeusedinanumberofwaystoproduceenergy.Thecommon methodsaregasification,combustion,fermentationandanaerobicdigestion.Indiais veryrichinbiomass Hydrothermal:EnergyinwaterintheformofKE,temperaturedifference SolarEnergy:Energycollectedfromsunlight.Itcanbeusedinmanyways: Generateelectricityusingphotovoltaiccells. Generateelectricityusingconcentratingsolarpower. Photovoltaiccellshavealowefficiencyfactor

EnergyScenariounderIndianCondition
Indiaranks6thintheworldintotalenergyconsumptionandneedstoacceleratethe developmentofenergysectortomeet89%economicgrowthinthecountry. Indiathoughrichincoalandabundantlyendowedwithrenewableenergyhasvery smallhydrocarbonreserves(0.4%oftheworldsreserve). Indiaisanetimporterofenergy,morethan25%ofprimaryenergyneedsbeingmet throughimportsintheformofcrudeoilandnaturalgas. Inenergyproduction,coalandoilaccountfor54%and34%respectivelywithnatural gas,hydroandnuclearcontributingtotherest.IndustrialsectorinIndiaconsumes 52%energy.ConsumptionofprimaryenergyinIndiais530Kgofoil equivalent/personin2004comparesto1240Kgoilequivalent/personinChinaand theworldaverageof1770Kgofoilequivalent/person.

Primaryenergyconsumptionperpersonwillgrowwiththegrowthineconomy becauseenergyconsumptionisanindexofcountryseconomicgrowthand prosperity.

IssuesrelatedtoFossilFuelUsage
Fossilfuelcontainspotentialenergy/chemicalenergyandisobtainedbycombustion.The figureshows:
IncreaseinCofenvironmentis proportionaltofossilfuelinput DischargeofPOCatTTsink(IfTsinkis1200oC thenTPOC1200oC) HeatTransferbetweenPOCandthesink (sink:furnacewalls/product)toraisethe sinktemperature Potentialenergyoffuel

Combustion
SensibleheatinPOC atflametemperature

Lossofhighqualitythermalenergy (qualityofenergytemperatureofPOC)

Thususageoffossilfuelenergysourcerelatestoenvironmentsustainability (increaseduseoffossilfuelincreasestheCemission)andenergysecurity (limitedfossilfuelreserves).

Whatshouldbedone????
Energyconsumptionisanindicatoroftheeconomicgrowthofanation.Adevelopingnation likeourshastheneedsofenergyforindustrialgrowth.Unlessrenewablesourcesofenergy areexploitedonamassivescale,fossilfuelistheonlysourceofenergy.Limitedreservesof fossilfuels andthewayinwhichfossilfuelenergyisavailable(combustionand unutilized energy in Products of combustion) need ways to search means to optimize energy consumption.Energysavingwillautomaticallyreducethecarbonemission. Weshouldthinkintermsofthefollowingconcept Switch:Canweswitchovertorenewableenergysource?Ifyes,towhat extent? Reduce:Canwereducethepresentlevelofenergyconsumption?Ifyes, thenhow? Capture:CanwecapturetheheatofPOCwhichisexitingtheindustrial furnace?Ifyes,how?

Keywords:Energyresources,Environment,furnaces,energyefficiency