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Table of Contents

PART I 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 PART II 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 PART III Conclusion.. 21 Differential services Advantages Disadvantages MPLS Advantages Disadvantages Quality of services Laboratory Work: Exercise 1 7 Exercise 2 .. 8 Exercise 3 ...10 Exercise 4 10 Exercise 5i.. 14 Exercise 5ii . 16 Exercise 6.......................................................... 17 Exercise 8i. 18 Exercise 8(b) ii.. 20 2

2 3 3 4 . 4 ... 4


1.1 Differentiated Services

Basically Differentiated services was introduced to provide end-to-end Quality Of Services (QoS). Differentiated services architecture is an effective technique to solve the traffic issue in IP networks by simple separation of packets. Packets entering the differential domain are classified and marked rather than reservation of packets. Various packet traffic are controlled by router by applying different per-hop behavior (PHB)in diffserv. It is resource allocation mechanism in which network service provider offers different levels of services to support variety of application. packet traffic is marked and routed in service level agreement (SLA). It performs the admission control by specifying traffic for transmitting in particular flow.[1]

Figure: conceptual model of DiffServ registration-domain-based wireless network architecture [2] Expedited Forwarding (EF) and Assured Forwarding (AF) are the two forwarding mechanism used in Diffserv architecture [3]. Assured Forwarding PHB uses multiple random early detection (MRED) technique to solve the internet traffic. In wireless networks handoff has higher priority than new connection hence classification is carried out for priority handoff mechanism. [2] 1.1.1 Advantages: It removes addition burden on the core network of imposing complex routing techniques.(4) It can be apply without scalability concern. Behavior of the network is easy to measure as there is no complexity in the network.

1.1.2 Disadvantages It is difficult with Diffserv to support end to end quality of services. Since classification is based on priority mechanism, on congestion low priority packets may get dropped. [2] It fails to packet losses in congestion when network capacity is low. It does not have facility for admission control.

1.2 MPLS
MPLS is basically performs packet forwarding mechanism by adding labels at the edge of the network.It represents the convergence of two fundamentally different approaches that is datagram and virtual circuit in data networking. Basic fundamental idea of MPLS is to separate control plane from data plane. Data plane consist of forwarding mechanism which carry out simple label switching operation and control plane is related to network level coordination function.[5][6] The main task of MPLS is to provide traffic engineering which ultimately reduces traffic on the network as well as minimizes cost of the network.

Figure: MPLS label switched path


To manage traffic on the network, at the entrance node of an MPLS domain a fix length label is added to the packet. MPLS forwarding scheme is based on the label information based (LIBs). For forwarding incoming packet MPLS checks for the label to be use in its LIB to determine outgoing interface which is based on forwarding equivalence class (FEC). [6] [7] 1.2.1 Advantages of MPLS MPLS optimizes Performance of operational IP network.[8] MPLS is deemed tunneling technology which support implementation of virtual private network (VPN) services. MPLS technique enhances the service integrity. [9] For increasing network efficiency MPLS offers traffic engineering and different levels of schemes. [9] It is simple as there is no need of managing routing table complexity. If voice and data compatibility added to MPLS it reduces cost compared to ATM or frame relay.

1.2.2 Disadvantage of MPLS It does not support all the equipments of existing IP network It reduces system overhead by IP over ATM. Layer 2 point to point offers support for higher bandwidth circuits (more than 10 Mbps).

1.3 Quality of services (QoS) :

Quality of services is the ability to provide level of quality to several applications, priority to subscribers and information. Quality of services is one of the important issue that service provider takes into account. By providing better Quality of services network service provider should maintain high level of subscribers satisfaction. There are many forms of information can be transmitted such as texts, images , audio and video, these all together can be called as multimedia. As popularity of the internet and wireless communication is increasing rapidly, the demands for the more reliable services is major issue to the network service provider. With the more sophisticated devices like mobile, laptop etc and high speed world wide access the service providers are experiencing high demand for multimedia services rather than only voice and data transmission. Other challenges for service provider in providing multimedia services with better Quality of services in the wireless transmission are availability of bandwidth resources, effects of different

parameters in environment and mobility of user. MPLS with differentiated services and constraintbased routing is used to implement various QoS capabilities in IP networks. As explain above MPLS and differentiated services are used to increase system capabilities and reduce traffic burden on the network.[10] Basic issue in transmission of multimedia services is availability of bandwidth and size of the files. Hence audio and video compression needed, which are done by simple compression techniques. For compression of audio file MPEG audio encoder and Decoder are used. Video is considered as succession of still pictures MPEG compression module is used to compress video.[11] Adaptive resource allocation for multimedia: In Adaptive resource allocation for different types of applications resources are allocated adaptively based on different classes.

Figure: Adaptive module for QoS management

To solve the above problem QoS is separated at application-level QoS which deals with the quality of services provided at user end and connection-level QoS which measures connectivity of service and continuity of call during handoff. On the basis of delay requirement, multimedia services are divided into real-time and non real-time services. Bandwidth requirement for real-time services is less hence on its request call is established by virtual circuit concept. Best service concept is used for non real-time services. Best-effort model for IP fails in providing Video streaming application on internet in terms of packet losses. Fine-Granular-Scalability scheme for video coding was adopted to overcome packet losses and to gives the adjustment for irregular and variable bandwidth between two usres. [12] [13] [14]. Cross layer design technique is used for adaptation of dynamic behavior of the wireless network with respect to continuously changing environment. [15]. Voice over IP s basically voice calls made over internet protocol. Voice calls are made with the help of Public Switched telephone network (PSTN) reducing cost of the system and traffic on the IP network

Conservative and Adaptive Quality of services (CAQoS) Conservative and Adaptive Quality of services (CAQoS) was proposed to execute QoS provisioning for multimedia traffic on network. It increases network capability by maximizing use of total available bandwidth, reducing handoffs and call blocking. CAQoS performs this by executing early scaling-down of bandwidth for new connection. [16]

Controlled CIWP (Client-Initiated-With-Prefetchig ) One of the most demanding service in broadband internet service is Video on demand (VOD). For providing VOD services service provider have to multicast video continuously on the dedicated channel, which require high bandwidth. To provide VOD service proper utilization of bandwidth is require, the scheme called controlled CIWP was introduce that support large number of users while providing instantaneous service by controlling frequency of multicast video. [17]

IP video conferencing The aim of the service providers in IP video conferencing is to provide high performance audio and video experience to subscribers. H.323 gatekeeper is used to provide quality of services for the video conferencing. Mainly gatekeeper performs admission control of the QoS. Priories to the video conferencing traffic are given by using diffserv code point (DSCP) marking. Admission control with proper synchronization is executed by the RSVP signaling. For providing efficient video conferencing all the above elements should be considered together with proper synchronization. [18]


Exercise1: This example simulates two nodes and data traffic over link. The packets are being transfer from node0 to node1 by the CBR traffic source. Various analysis have been performed by varying parameters like packet size, link capacity, delay and packet interval etc.






Figure 1a 1b 1c 1d

link capacity 1 Mb 1 Mb 1 Mb 10 Mb

delay 10 ms 1 ms 10 ms 10 ms

Packet size 500 500 50 500

Packet interval 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005

start time 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

end time 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

Above shown values are used to get various results. Different figures in NAM animator will give the overview of the changes occurs by changing parameters.

Delay: delay is the time taken link to transfer one packet from source to destination. Figure 1b shows when delay is 1ms packet reaches destination before other packet is been release from source. Link capacity: it defines the maximum tolerable traffic on the link. It should be large in order to avoid losses. Packet size: figure 1c shows when packet size and interval decreased, efficiency of the system increases. Start and end time: it deals with the start and end of the simulation.

Exercise 2: This example shows the data transfer between four nodes. Here two types of traffic sources CBR and FTP also UDP and TCP agent are used to transfer traffic over bottleneck link between n2 and n3. For bottleneck link, the link capacity should be more greater than sum of the bit rates of the incoming traffic. Result:







Figure 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f

Link capacity 1.7 Mb 1.7 Mb 5 Mb 1.7 Mb 1.7 Mb 1.7 Mb

Delay 20 ms 20 ms 20 ms 5 ms 20ms 20ms

Packet size 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 5000

CBR packet rate 1Mb 1Mb 1Mb 1Mb 3Mb 1Mb

CBR start 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

FTP start 1 1 1 1 1 1

Queue limit 10 10 10 50 10 10

Above shown values are used to get various results. Different figures in NAM animator gives the overview of the changes occurs by changing parameters. Here two traffic source CBR ( constant bit rate) and FTP (variable) are used with two traffic agent TCP and UDP. TCP transfer packet only after acknowledge whereas UDP keep sending packets without acknowledge. Link capacity: it is clear from figure 2b and 2c where link capacity is different. Figure 2c shows no packet loss when link capacity is increased to 5Mb. Queue limit: figure 2d shows the condition where queue limit have increased to 50 hence there is long queue rather than packet loss. Packet rate: figure 2e shows the transfer of packets with the rate of 3Mb. As the link capacity is 1.7Mb there is sudden packet loss and there is no share capacity for FTP packets.

Exercise 3: This example gives more realistic network with bottleneck link. Number of links are established on either side of the bottleneck link. Link established may be FTP or CBR. Start time and end time for the traffic is random which makes the network more realistic. In this example FTP links are established and as start and end time for traffic is random it is difficult to predict what traffic would be there on link o specific time which make the network realistic. Since this traffic is routed through bottleneck link which has low link capacity packets are dropped at different rate due to variable traffic. Result:

3a Various parameters are change to get different result.


Number of Nodes: As number of nodes increased traffic on a shared link was increase which result in high packet loss. Delay: As delay is increased packet losses increased and vice-versa. Link capacity: When link capacity increased traffic on link decreases which results into low packet loss. Traffic Type: When TCP traffic were used even in case of packet loss packets are resent. In case of UDP loss were increased.

Exercise 4: In this example we are going to measure performance metric of the network. There are four types of performance metric discussed here they are throughput, packet loss, delay and jitter. Throughput: It is very important performance factor that figures out the capability of link to transmit particular data. Link capacity has major influence over throughput as link capacity was increased throughput of the link were increased. However link delay did not affect much on the throughput. When the traffic of UDP was replace by TCP traffic throughput overall performance decreased by small amount as TCP need time for connection establishment.


Figure: initial throughput

Figure: throughput with link 15Mb Figure: throughput with delay 2ms

Figure: throughput with UDP

Figure: throughput with 5 nodes

Packet loss:It is one the important parameter as it gives efficiency and reliability of the link. Various analyses were performed in order to measure packet loss. However with the increased in link capacity, throughput was increased significantly packet losses were negligible and more number of packets sent by the link increasing performance of the network. When values of link delay were varied, a small amount of change observed in packet losses. As traffic were changed from TCP to UDP more numbers of packets sent with more packet losses as shown in table below.

Link Capacity 1Mb 15 Mb

Link Delay 10ms 10ms

Traffic Type TCP TCP

Number of Nodes 3 3

Packet Sent 4324 57216

Packet Lost 8 0

1Mb 1Mb 1Mb 1Mb

2ms 10ms 20ms 10ms


3 3 3 5

4390 11184 4312 4370

11 822 5 19

Table: packet losses for different parameters Delay: It is mostly used as performance indicator in QoS of real-time application. Link capacity is an important factor that should be consider during measuring delay. Here when link size was decreased overall delay were increased to great extend while on increasing link capacity there was considerable reduction in delay. When link delay decreased to 2ms there was not any major change in overall delay but on increasing the link delay overall delay was increased considerably. When traffic is change from UDP to TCP delay decreased considerably and was constant.

Figure: initial delay

Figure: delay with link 15Mb

Figure: delay with delay 2ms

Figure: delay with UDP

Figure: delay with 5 nodes


Jitter: It is the measure of smoothness of the data transmission, so it should be as low as possible. Changing link capacity to 15Mb, a significant fall in jitter was observed. Link delay also affected jitter considerably as it is shown above. As number of nodes increased to 5 nodes, a slight change was observed in jitter though traffic on link was increased. When traffic type was change to TCP jitter value dropped significantly. The major change observed in TCP was that the jitter remained constant throughout.

Figure: initial jitter

Figure: jitter with link 15Mb

Figure: jitter with delay 2ms

Figure: jitter with UDP

Figure: jitter with 5 nodes

Exercise 5i:

SFQ and Droptail are two types of queuing policies that we have compared in this exercise. Both the policies are analyzed for different parameters. Results of which are shown if table below. From the values from the value it is clear that there is no much difference between them. Only difference between them is in terms of amount of packet losses where SFQ has more packet loss than Droptail. When parameters for both queuing policies were changed and performance metric of the network such as throughput was measured, different results were observed. Graphs for these are shown below which shows hardly any difference between Droptail and SFQ queuing policies.

Queue type Drop tail SFQ Drop tail SFQ Drop tail SFQ Drop tail SFQ Drop tail SFQ

Link capacity 1MB 1MB .3MB .3MB 15MB 15MB 1MB 1MB 1MB 1MB

Packet size 500 500 500 500 500 500 5000 5000 500 500


Packet lost 403 435 853 889 0 0 376 412 0 0

Packet sent 1402 1402 1402 1402 1402 1402 973 973 490 490



throughput for droptail queuing policy

figure: throughput for SFQ queuing policy

Figure: throughput for droptail with 0.3Mb link

figure: throughput for SFQ with 0.3Mb link

Figure: Throughput for Droptail with TCP

Figure: Throughput for SFQ with TCP

Exercise 5ii: In this exercise we are implemented and analyzed RED queue type, then is compared with previous two types of queuing by measuring different performance metrics of the network. On analyzing, it is observed that there is no large difference between all three queuing policies. Delay of RED queue is comparatively smaller and variable. But by comparing it with previous result it seems that droptail is the best queuing policy amongst all three as it has minimum packet losses.

Queue Type

Packet Sent

Packet Lost

DropTail SFQ RED

1867 1867 1846

0 0 13

Figure: throughput for droptail figure: throughput for SFQ figure: throughput for RED

Figure: Delay for droptail

Figure: Delay for SFQ

Figure: Delay for RED

Exercise 6: In this exercise we analyzed routing schemes for network. It is one of the important factor on which performance of the system depends. Here two routing algorithms viz. Fixed and Adaptive (DV) were analyzed by using nam simulator. In fixed routing when the link was broken transmission stops till link gets re-established which is clearly shown in graphs below. In adaptive routing when link was broken after loss of one packet transmission was routed through another possible link hence maintaining consistency. Packet losses for both types of routing were one even though link was broken as traffic used was TCP, Hence on not receiving acknowledgment after dropped down of link it stopped transmission. It was further analyzed for performance metrics to get more detailed which is shown in graphs below.

Routing type Fixed routing

packet transmitted 548

Packet loss 1 1

Dynamic Routing (DV) 1008

Start of simulation

Fixed routing after link break

Adaptive routing after link break

Figure: throughput for fixed routing

Figure: throughput for adaptive routing

Exercise 8i: In this exercise comparison between different enhancement techniques for implementing TCP protocol is carried out. The analysis reveals that performance of the sack is better than Reno and

New Reno technique even though there is not much difference between them. Further verification is done and all the results are shown in table below and measured performance metrics of the network. From the graph of throughput it is clear that overall throughput of sack is much constant than other two.

TCP type

Window size 24 24 24 50 50 50 24 24 24



New Reno Reno Sack New Reno Rano Sack New Reno Reno Sack

4 ms 4 ms 4 ms 4 ms 4 ms 4 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms

986.4 kbps 884.8 kbps 996 kbps 980.8 kbps 881.6 kbps 992.8 kbps 976.8 kbps 879.2 kbps 992.8 kbps

Total number of packet transmitted 1263 1142 1275 1266 1152 1282 1252 1135 1272

Packet loss

16 15 16 25 24 25 12 11 13

Figure: throughput for Reno

Figure: throughput for NewReno

Figure: throughput for Sack 18

Figure: Delay for Reno

Figure: Delay for NewReno

Figure: Delay for Sack

Figure: Jitter for Reno Sack

Figure: Jitter for NewReno

Figure: Jitter for

Exercise: 8 b) ii In this exercise simulation of wireless network is been performed by using various propagation models routing protocols. Propagation model used are Two-ray Ground and Shadowing. Analysis result of this is shown in table below. On analyzing performance by changing source from CBR to FTP more packet were sent. In UDP traffic packet losses were more compare to TCP for Two-ray Ground model, on changing this model to Shadowing packet sent were less but packet loss reduced to zero. There was not much difference in throughput for these models but packet delay differed a bit. It is shown in the graphs below.

Channel Type Two Ray Ground Two Ray Ground Two Ray Ground

Traffic Type UDP TCP TCP

Application CBR CBR FTP

Packet sent 456 385 30566

Packet Lost 237 25 55






Figure: throughput for Two-Ray Ground

Figure: throughput for Shadowing

Figure: delay for Two-Ray Ground

Figure: delay for Shadowing

Part-III: Conclusion Part-I Part-I of this report gives the overall technology involved in implementing Differential services and multiprotocol label switching as well as Quality of services for multimedia services in wireless communication.


[1] :[ Giuseppe Bianchi1, Nicola BlefariMelazzi2] [2]: IEEE Communication magazine, may 2002, DiffServ Resource Allocation for Fast Handoff in Wireless [3]: empirical study of buffer management scheme for Diffserv assured forwarding PHB. [4] : Meilenstein 3: Preliminary Quasar QoS Architecture, [5] : E. Rosen, D. Tappan, G. Fedorkow, Y. Rekhter, D. Farinacci, T. Li, A. Conta, MPLS label stack encoding, RFC-3032, January 2001. [6]: Jacquenet C, Bourdon G, Boucadair M, Service Automation and Dynamic Provisioning Techniques in IP/MPLS Environment [7] : E. Rosen, A. Viswanathan, R. Callon, Multiprotocol label switching architecture, RFC 3031, January 2001. [8]: IEEE Communication magazine. December 1999, George Swallow, Cisco Systems [9] : IEEE Communication magazine. December 1999, MPLS Advantages for Traffic Engineering , George Swallow, Cisco Systems [10]: Internet traffic engineering using multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) Daniel O. Awduche a, Bijan Jabbari ] [11]: William S, Data and Computer Communication [12] : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA, VOL. 3, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2001, Mihaela van der Schaar and Hayder Radha [13] : J. Lu, Signal processing for internet video streaming: A review, in Proc. IVCP, vol. 2974, Proc. SPIE, Jan. 2000, pp. 246 259 [14]: V. Paxson, End-to-End internet packet dynamics, in Proc. ACM SIG-COM, vol. 27, France, Oct. 1997, pp. 1352 [15] : IEEE magazine, august 2005, CROSS-LAYER DESIGN OF AD HOC NETWORKS FOR REAL- TIME VIDEO STREAMING [16]: A conservative approach to adaptive call admission control for QoS provisioning in multimedia wireless networks , Y.C.Yee [17]: Supplying Instantaneous Video-on-Demand Services Using Controlled Multicast, Lixin Gao [18] : Quality of Service for IP Videoconferencing Engineering White Paper, Subha Dhesikan Mobile Internet