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(INFT) – IVth Semester
SPECTRUM & NOISE
Jayen Modi Department of Electronics Engineering
Vidyalankar Institute of Technology Wadala (E), Mumbai – 400037
Jayen Modi jayen.in 2 .edu.modi@vit.Introduction to (Electrical) Noise General Description – What is it ? clean input signal v(t) t t noisy input signal v(t) PCOM by Prof.
Introduction to (Electrical) Noise General Description – What is it ? clean input signal v(t) t t noisy input signal v(t) PCOM by Prof. Jayen Modi firstname.lastname@example.org 3 .edu.
Introduction to (Electrical) Noise General Description • Noise is an unwanted electrical disturbance which gives rise to audible or visual disturbances in the communication process & errors in message signal • Noise may be uncorrelated or email@example.com 4 . where the correlated noise exists only for the signal but uncorrelated noise present always at all times • Noise may be generated from different sources & depending upon the sources it is classified either as internal noise or external noise PCOM by Prof. Jayen Modi jayen.
Jayen Modi jayen.modi@vit.Sources & Types of Noise General Classification Sources & Types of Noise External Noise Atmospheric Noise Extraterrestrial Noise Industrial Noise PCOM by Prof.edu.in Internal Noise Thermal Noise Transit Time Noise Flicker Noise Burst Noise 5 Shot Noise .
edu. Jayen Modi firstname.lastname@example.org. External Sources of Noise Generated outside the system/circuit External source of noise are those introducing disturbance from outside the system or circuit of the following types :- • Atmospheric Noise • Extraterrestrial Noise • Industrial Noise PCOM by Prof.in 6 refer class notebook for the description .
in 7 .modi@vit. electrical) • It is however inverse proportional to frequency hence above 30 MHz becomes insignificant PCOM by Prof.edu. External Sources of Noise (a) Atmospheric Noise • It is naturally occurring electrical disturbance which originates in the Earth’s atmosphere • Commonly called as the static electricity & it is cracking & sputtering of loudspeakers • Most common source of origination of the static electricity is due to lightning (natural. Jayen Modi jayen.1.
modi@vit. galaxies etc.1. sun & stars. External Sources of Noise (b) Extraterrestrial Noise • It is naturally occurring electrical disturbance which originates outside the Earth’s atmosphere • Commonly called as deep space noise & origins are from Milky Way.in 8 . in form of sun flares & sun spots • Cosmic noise is distributed throughout galaxies & is relatively small due to the large distance PCOM by Prof. • Solar noise directly generated from radiations of the sun.edu. Jayen Modi jayen.
modi@vit. automobile ignition. metropolitan areas like cities.1. called industrial noise PCOM by Prof. External Sources of Noise (c) Man Made Noise • Noise produced by mankind. artificially used by AC power generating equipment etc. • Impulsive in nature & contains a wide range of frequencies propagating in space like RF waves • Most intensive in the large urban.in 9 . switching etc. Jayen Modi jayen.edu. • Caused due to spark producing mechanisms like commutators.
Jayen Modi jayen.edu.in 10 . ignition systems PCOM by Prof. External Sources of Noise Generated outside the system/circuit • Atmospheric Noise – Generated in atmosphere in the form of lighting & is inversely proportional to frequency.modi@vit. stars. welding machine. hence less effect at higher frequency • Extraterrestrial Noise – Originates high above the atmosphere. the galaxy & other cosmic sources or other radiations • Industrial Noise – Called as man-made noise. in space from sun. it is due to make/break in current carrying circuits of electric motors.1.
Jayen Modi jayen.2.in 11 . Internal Sources of Noise Generated from inside the system/circuit Internal source of noise are those introducing disturbance from within the system or circuit of following the types :- • • • • • Thermal Noise Shot Noise Flicker Noise Burst Noise Transit Time Noise refer class notebook for the description PCOM by Prof.edu.modi@vit.