How to Use this Manual

This manual is divided into 2 sections: Crowd Control "& Riot. It is intended for self-study as well as
for use in training classes. If training, these subjects are best taught with groups of at least 4, and up to
40. When training is conducted in preparation for potential conflict, it may be necessary to prioritize
material & shorten total number of classes. Physical training, including games such as Red Rover,
should" be included. These lesson plans are meant as a" guide & may be adjusted according to situation.
Lesson Plans
Class Content
8 Classes Total
Each class is approximately 45 min.-I
hour in length.
Introduction (Defme Crowd Control & Riot)
Equipment & Weapons (Individual & Team)
Crowd Behaviour & Psychology
Deployment of CCU, and Techniques of
Formations & Signals
Reserve Force
Lethal Overwatch "
Options, Threat Analysis
Identifying Leader/Agitator
Charges & Attacks on Crowd
Escape Routes
Verbal Warning
Formations & Signals Review"
Arrest Teams & Snatch Squads
Barricades & Blockades, Person & Vehicle
Burning TireslBarricades
Use of Projectiles/Vehicles/Lethal Force
Know Your Enemy: Riot Cop
Cheniical, Defense Against, Decontamination
Police Weapons
CC Tactics
Preparation for Riot
Individual Equipment. & Weapons
Recon ofArea, Routes IN/Out, RV Points
Team Code-Name
Moving Thru Crowd
First Aid
Avoid Arrest!Arrest
Riot Action & Conduct
Stay aware & with Team
Escape & Evasion
After-Action Analysis
Total: 8 Classes at 1 hour each: 8 hours
Training Aids
• Whenever possible, use actual
equipment, tools, & weapons as training
• When training involves physical actions,
these should be done. Ifthe training is
formations, these should be carried out;
if it is throwing proj ectiles, this should
be practiced.
• Crowd Control training is more effective
in larger groups, with some acting as
CCU-& others acting ,as rioters.
• "Padded plastic batons, rubbers balls, etc.
can be used for such training. Use
plastic water bottles with rag wicks to
substitute for Molotovs, etc.
• Use Video footage ofriots to educate &
Training Tips
• Be Motivated & enthusiastic.
• Know your subject. Studythis & other
manuals/reports. Keep up to date on
new technologies & tactics.
• Emphasize important points & concepts.
This manual covers a lot ofmaterial &
students may be at first overwhelmed
with new info.
• Use Intro, body; & conclusions.
•. Ifpractical, hold training classes
consecutively (one after another), or
split into two days.
• When practical, conduct CC/Riot
training in outdoor areas awayfrom
public view.
• Warm-rip prior to physically demanding
WARRIOR Crowd Control &RiotM,anual
Crowd control refers to the organized use of force to stop, .limit and/or disperse large, hostile
groups. As a warrior, it may be necessary to carry out crowd control against mobs of settlers,
vigilantes, drunk hooligans, etc.
Riots occur when large, hostile groups gather & carry out property destruction & looting,
frequently fighting with police who are deployed to carry out crowd control. As a member of the
resistance, it may be necessary for you to engage in riots.
This manual is divided into 2 main sections: Crowd Control & Riot Training. Although
similar, some important differences exist between the two. While crowd controls teaches you how to
control an unorganized crowd, riot training focuses on countering. police crowd control tactics &
techniques. By knowing the methods of both, you will be better prepared to carry one out, & to
counter the other. Crowd Control & Riots can occur in urban, suburban or rural settings.
Crowd Control Unit ~ 2
Training 2
Individual Equipment & Weapons 2
Team/Squad Equipment & Weapons 4
Crowd Behaviour & Psychology 5
Deployment of CCU 5
Crowd Control Techniques 5
Formations & Signals " 6
Marching/Check-Step " 7
Reserve Force 7
Lethal Overwatch 7
Crowd Control Option's 7
Threat Analysis 7
Identifying Crowd Leaders/agitators 7
Containment Vs. Dispersal, 8
Charges & Attacks on Crowd 8
Escape Routes 8
.Verbal Warning 8
Arrest Teams/Snatch Squad 8
Prisoners 8
Barricades/Blockade Road 9
Anti-Personal Blockades 9
Anti-Vehicle Blockades · 0 •• 10
Burning Tires Barricade 10
Burning ofBarricades 0 ••••••••••••• 0. 11
Use ofProjectiles in CC u
Use of Vehicles in CC . 11
Use ofLethal Force 11
Know Your Enemy: Riot cop 12
Police Riot Control Weapons 13
Chemical Agents 13
Tear Gas 13
Pepper Spray 14
Defense Against Chemical Agents 14
Decontamination 0 •••• 0 ••••••••••••••• 15
Police Weapons 15
Police Crowd Control Tactics 18
Preparation for Riot 19
Individual Riot Equipment 19
Individual Riot Weapons 19
Throwing Projectiles 20
Recon ofArea 21
Planning Routes InIOut, RV Points 21
Team Code-Name 21
Moving Through Crowd 21
First Aid 21
Actions to Avoid Arrest 21
Actions ifArrested 21
Riot Action & Conduct." """. " " 22
Stay Aware 22
Stay with Your Team! 22
Attacks 22
Escape & Evasion: 23
After-Action Analysis 23
Crowd Control is the organized use of
force to stop, limit and/or disperse a large,
hostile group (Le., 8 or more persons).
Organization for crowd control includes
squad/teammembers (the 'crowd control unit'),
formations, hand & audio signals, weapons &
equipment. - Stopping and/or dispersing a
hostile mob involves the use, or threat to use,
Crowd Control Unit (CCU)
The CCU (also referred to as riot squad) is
comprised of squad/team members trained &' equipped
for crowd control. A CCU can be as small as a team (4
members), a squad (12-13), or aplatoon (30). Each CCU
should have a commander and second-in-command (2iC)
to help with coordination & communications.
Crowd control training is included as part of
basic warrior training. Regular training should occur
afterwards to maintain skills & equipment. At squad
level & above, have some members act as hostile rioters
throwing projectiles .S: fighting. with sticks to simulate
conflict situations.
Crowd control can involve-running.ez marching'
many 'miles throughout a dayIornight). -It can be a
physically demanding task in which fitness is essential to
successful deployments. Training should involve some
running & marching with equipment & weapons. .
Training should include individual equipment,
use of weapons, formations, hand & audio signals, crowd
control strategies & tactics. Video footage & analysis of
riots can also be used as training aids, as well as other
manuals, news articles, etc.
Equipment &. Weapons
Special equipment & weapons. are used
for crowd control, for both defensive &
offensive purposes. This list is based on tools
& equipment that are commonly available (at
this time). Warriors should gather '& maintain
the following equipment, ensuring it is
serviceable & ready to go at short notice:
Individual Crowd 'Control 'Equipment
(head to toe)
1. Helmet. A,helmet is worn' to protect your head from
projectiles & batons. Helmet can be military surplus,
motorcycle, mountain climbing, or hockey. Other than
military helmet, all civilian versions should be spray-
painted matt black. If gas masks are to be worn, helmets
must not have face or mouth guards that will prohibit use
of gas masks.
2. Gas Mask. Gas masks protect you from the effects
of chemical agents such as' tear gas & pepper spray. A
military gas mask is recommended (either Canadian or
, US). These can ,be bought from surplus stores. Get an
unused filter without a broken seal. Ensure glass
eyepieces are not damaged and that all straps work.
Alternately, civilian gas masks can be
bought that consist of a filter piece over nose &
mouth. Wear eye goggles to protect eyes.
To Use Gas Mask:
a. Prior to deployment, attach filter to
b. When pepperlbear spray or some other
chemical agent is seen amongst crowd
or is discharged, OR, prior to your own
use of any chemical agents,' remove
mask from carrying bag. Hold your
breath if discharge is in your area.
c. Remove helmet.
d. Once mask is on, blow forcefully
outward. Replace helmet.
3. Eye GoggleslBandana in Apple-Cider Vinegar. As
a back up to gas mask, or if you do not have a gas mask,
a set of eye goggles, and a bandana soaked in Apple-
Cider Vinegar should be carried. This solution helps to
limit the effects of tear' gas & pepper sprays. Prepare
only prior to deployment.. Put soaked bandanain sealed
zip-lock. bag along .with goggles, and keep in easily
accessible pocket or pouch.
The eye goggles 'should cover & seal both
eyes. Swimming goggles tend to fog up. Find
larger, one piece skiing goggles, etc. Avoid
darkly tinted goggles as these will reduce
visibility at night or in low-light.
4. Uniform. Whenever possible, some type of uniform
clothing should be worn by CCU, for psychological as
well as tactical reasons. A group all wearing similar
clothing projects strength & unity, this can discourage
.opponents. Individuals wearing uniform clothing can be
hard to distinguish from one another, and make it hard
for our opponents to identify & track us during times of
action. Regular combat clothing or bluelblack coveralls
can be used. Body armour should be worn under
uniform. Civilian clothing should be worn under
uniform to assist in escape & evasion.
5. Gloves. Thick leather or winter gloves can be used as
, protection against baton strikes & projectiles. The mo!e
padding on the top of fmgers & backhand the better, but
should .not impair movement of hand & fmgers. If it .is
necessary to remove your gloves to use equipment (i.e., ,
pepper spray) attach glove with string through sleeves &
back to other glove. r
6. Body Armour. In some situations, i.e., very large &
hostile crowds (or police CCU), b04Y armour should be
worn to, better.' protect your, body 'from projectiles &
baton strikes'. Improvised armour should not limit your
movement l1;0r be excessively thick & bulky. Its purpose
Ambushes .can be part of traps into which small
groups of police are lured, or set up when the opportunity
presents itself The team should hide behind a corner,
vehicle, in building entrance, roof-top, overhanging
bridge, etc., and on signal carry out the attack. An
escape route & RV Point should be established prior to
the attack.
2. Attacks on. .Govemmeut-Corporate Property:
There are 2 methods. of. attacking government &
corporate property: economic sabotage & looting of
resources. Whenever possible, these .should be pre-
panned, with targets selected, their security analyzed, &
tools brought to inflict damage/gain entry.
A. Sabotage: the systematic destruction of
vehicles, offices & equipment to disable, disrupt, &
damage the conduct of government or business. There
are also associated repair & insurance costs, lost time &
productivity, which increases the economic impact of
Sabotage can be carried out using whatever
means are available to smash & destroy. windows,
computers, cash registers, vehicle windows, dashboards,
& tires, etc. Tipping or throwing over machinery Sc
equipment, may be
sufficient. Set off, fire
alanns& sprinkler
systems (water
damage). Rocks,
metal pipes, hammers,
'etc. can also be used.
Fires can be set or
Molotovs used.
B. Looting:
the taking of material
resources from offices
or stores (i.e., tools &
equipment, clothing, food, etc.). Whenever possible,
looting should be pre-planned, with targets & methods of
gaining entry pre-selected. Bring the tools you'll need to
gain. entry (i.e., crowbar, sledgehammer, bolt cutters,
etc.). A careful recon of target & area will provide this
information. Devise a plan for getting looted goods out
of an area of conflict.
Escape & Evasion
When your team makes the decision to
withdraw from the .. riot zone, you should move along a
pre-designated escape route (or, one of opportunity).
Your escape route should avoid all, police checkpoints
leading out of area. At the first secure point (Le.,
sheltered from any video surveillance or observation),
remove your outer layer & protective gear. Stash in
back-packs (or, in emergency, dispose of all riot gear).
Fix hair & civilian clothing, review .cover story
(explaining what you are doing in area, destination, etc.).
-l-person teams should divide into buddy teams and re-
group at RV Point. The best buddy teams are male-
After-Action Analysis
After any militant action
.or attack, it is a good idea to de-
brief as soon as possible. .The
purpose of de-briefing is too review
team . action & conduct, what
worked & what didn't work, how
things could be done better, to
share what each member observed
& experienced, etc. The more
time that passes from the time of
the action to de-briefing, the less
detail will be remembered.
deployed to crowd control. Special detention centers
may be set JlP (in abandoned military bases, warehouses,
etc.). It I U ~ y take days for you to beprocessed & then
released (depending" on charges & bail conditions). If
you areInjuredmedical assistance may be delayed.
In some riot situations arising from political
protests, prisoners have refused to cooperate with police,
withholding their names, etc. When enough people
refuse to cooperate this can put a significant drain on
police resources. Demands have included immediate
release of prisoners, medical attention, etc. Otherwise, it
is advisable to follow the procedures outlined in the
escape & evasion manual for arrests (providing name &
date of birth will facilitate your .release, depending on
charges). You must refuse to answer any questions
during interrogation. When .large numbers of prisoners
are held, it is easy for undercover police to pose as
fellow prisoners to gather information.
Riot Action&. Conduct
Riots can be exciting & dangerous, with people
yelling & running, projectiles flying through the air,
police charging or firing tear gas,' etc. The' sounds &
sights can be confusing & overwhelm your senses.
Some people may be screaming in pain, or yelling
directions or warnings. Moments of chaos &
pandemonium occur during which the only thing you
may know is that something is happening. While one
area may be a scene. of violent conflict,' the next street
over could be totally peaceful, with
people taking a break from rioting.
Within moments this same area could be
charged by police. Riots are very fluid,
fast-paced & unpredictable.
Stay Aware!
The key to successful riot action
is maintaining awareness; you must
remain aware of what is happening at all
times, not just in your immediate vicinity
but over a wide area. You must observe
to the front & in the air for incoming
projectiles, to the front for police charges,
to the- rear & sides for signs of police
movement. You must be aware of who is
around you, and ensure you stay with
your team.
Stay with Your Team!
Your team provides you with
security for both defensive & offensive
actions. The team enables you to move
safely & confidently in a riot zone. As an
individual, you will be far less able to
carry out actions or resist arrest. If you
become detached from your team, call out
the team code-name to locate other
members (who respond).
Because of the larger numbers of people, riots
offer good opportunities to carry out attacks against
government & corporate targets, including the looting of
resources. Attacks should be carried _out from the front
area of a crowd (not its rear). SmaJI groups can leave the
main body to carry out attacks, then return to the larger
group for escape & evasion.
Whenever possible, attacks should be pre-
planned 8.z, rehearsed, with each team member knowing
their individual. tasks, responses to police action, etc.
When entering buildings for attacks or looting, an
outside guard should be posted to observe the
movements of police (or vigilante citizens). It may be
possible to enter building, carry out attack; and leave
through rear exits (remove outer layer for escape &
In some cases, it may be possible to delay police
responses to attacks by setting up diversions (to draw
their forces away), or by setting up barricades.
1. Attacks' on Police-Military Personnel: Attacks on
police are usually carried out as part of a street fight, 'to
deter or break up charges, or as ambushes. The throwing
of projectiles & baton strikes are the primary methods of
attacking police-military personnel. Paint bombs,
slingshots, and Molotovs can also be used to blind, injure
orincapacitate individuals.

Soaked in Vinegar &.
Carried ln Zlp-LocBag
Civilian Clothes
Shin Guards.

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is to decrease impact,1).ot
surround you like a giant
A. Upper Body
Armour. Depending on
situation, some form of. upper
body armour can be worn.
Bullet-proof Kevlar vests will
provide protection against small
arms fire, proj ectiles, & baton
strikes. Otherwise, body
armour can be made from
sporting gear (i.e., chest
protectors) or foam padding
rolled & taped around abdomen.
B. Forearm Guards.
Smaller shin guards can be used
as forearm guards. Ones with
hard plastic front pieces are
preferred. Forearm guards can
be improvised from . foam
padding, rolled &. taped
magazines, etc..
c. Upper Thigh
Guards. Improvise with foam
padding & tape, can be
reinforced with plastic.
D. Knee Pads. To
protect knees from projectiles &
baton strikes. Knee pads with
hard plastic front pieces are
preferred. Improvise using
foam padding, plastic & tape.
E. Shin Guards. To
protect against proj ectiles &
baton strikes. Hockey or
baseball shin guards are
preferred, with hard plastic front .:
pieces. Improvise using foam
padding, plastic & tape.
7. Water Bottle. A water bottle should be carried for
drinking & washing out eyes of pepper spray/tear gas
Individual Crowd Control Weapons
Primarily 3' long baton (Hanbo) Sc canister of
pepperlbear spray.
Hanbo. A 3' long hard-wood baton, about 1 'l4 inch
thick. Standard thickness for hard-wood dowels sold in
'hardware stores, cut to length & spray-paint black."
Hanbos can be used with one or two hands using a
variety of strikes (see weapons manual).
Tactical Baton
PepperlBear Spray. Sold in surplus & outdoor stores.
Pepper spray is usually sold in smaller canisters and is .
intended for defense against vicious dogs. It is goodfor
incapacitating one to four individuals and has an
intimidating effect. Bear spray is usually sold in larger
canisters and is good for incapacitating small groups of
4-10 'people and dispersing others. If only one canister
of bear spray is available, it should go to a designated
team member.
Crowd Control
:Equipment &. Weapons
Teams or squads should' have the following
equipment When deployed as crowd control units. Tool
& barricade kits should be nearby & mobile.' All other
items should be carried by unit.
A. First Aid Kit. Should include bandages, field
dressings, gauze pads, antiseptic, tensor bandages,
splints, and clean water. The main concerns in a riot
situation are blunt trauma wounds (from batons, rocks,
etc.), fractures, bums, & exposure t? chemical agents.
B. Riot Shields. Ideally, .each member of a ceu would
have a plexiglass-riot shield. -Police riot shields can..
sometimes be, purchased from surplus stores. If this -is
not possible, at least 2, shields .should be acquired or
improvised to provide defense against projectiles. Clear
plexiglass, heavy duty plastic" or plywood, (with view
ports cut out) can be used as shields. Handles should be
frrmly attached. When necessary, team members should
huddle behind shield carriers to avoid projectiles thrown
by crowd.
C. Loud-speaker. Used to communicate to both the
CCU & the crowd.
D. Fire-extinguisher. A small hand-held fire
extinguisher should be carriedby a .designated person to
put out fires (including Molotov cocktails thrown at
E. Scanner.' A frequency scanner should be used to
monitor police radio communications whenever possible.
This can provide information on police movements,
positions, strategies & intent. In some areas, police now
use high frequency scrambled channels that most
scanners are unable to monitor. _
F. 2-Way Radios. Whenever a ceu must be divided in
order to cover two or more separate areas, some form of
communications must be established. The best are 2-
way radios. If not, devise some
other signal (i.e., whistle or fog-
horn blasts, flares, runners, etc.).
G. Handcuffs/Plasticuffs/Rope. '
To bind & secure prisoners. If
handcuffs are used, ensure keys
to unlock them are available. If
plasticuffs, ensure they are
strong enough to secure a large,
powerful man (double or triple,
them if necessary). Short cord
or rope (2 feet to 3 feet), can
be used to securely bind
prisoner's wrists. Another
method is to use duct tape.
H. Tool Kit. ' To construct
barricades, seal off entrances, break, through obstacles,
and, .to repair equipment. Tool Kit should include
sledgehammer, bolt cutters, crowbar; hammer & <nails,
saw, spike' nails, rope, .duct tape, wire; screwdriver,
pliers, wire-cutters, etc.
L· Barricade/Fortification Kit. A barricade kit should
be assembled if necessary. It should include a roll of
concertinalbarbed wire, rubber tires, gasoline, torch
material (rags, plastic' bags for tires), rebar metal spikes,
hacksaw (to cut rebar or other objects), 10-12" nail
spikes, axe, shovels, and a chainsaw.
" FireExtinguisher ;'
Recon of Area
If the zone of conflict is known beforehand, a
recon should be carried out to see the physical terrain,
potential targets, obstacles, danger areas, escape routes,
etc. Make a mental map ofthe area.
Terrain. Include areas of construction sites, chain-link
fences, etc. that can be used asbarricade material.
Danger Areas. Include dead-ends, areas in which you
could be trapped, heavy traffic areas, CCTV coverage,
etc. ,
Obstacles. Consider location of fences, traffic barriers,
construction zones, etc.
Escape Routes. Consider trails, alleys, tunnels, malls,
Planning Routes In/Out, RV Points
Whenever possible, the team/Squad should
conduct a recon -of the area to identify routes in and out
(trails or smaller roads are preferred to avoid check-
points), danger areas (Le., dead-ends, fenced off areas,
highways, etc.), escape routes (through malls, buildings,
forest, residential areas, etc.), and rendezvous points.
RV Points should be outside of the area of
conflict and provide concealment (or an excuse for
loitering, such as an all-night coffee shop). Some time
limit-should be made -fOT, waiting -at RV Points, and an
alternate location selected-for any time after that.
If vehicles are used, these- should be parked
away from the riot .zone. Pickup points should be
established as part of RV points, and 'designated times
made for pickup (i.e., at midnite, at 0600, at 1800, etc.),
A method of signaling from vehicle should be devised
,(Le., yes, this is the ,pick-up vehicle, indicated by
flashing ofheadlight, etc.).
Team Code-Name
Each team should devise a codename that
appliesto the entire group (not individuals). If dispersed
in large crowd, this codename should be called out to
identify group members (Le., a team code-name could be
Crazy Horse; which is then called out to regroup that
particular team), This limits use ofpersonal names.
(with team code-name)
Moving Through Large Crowds
At times, crowd density may be so great as to
limit movement. To move as a team through a thick
crowd, place one hand on shoulder of person in front and
do not allow chain to be broken. Move single file. If
you are detached from group, call out code-name to alert
team members. Another method of maintaining unit
integrity is through the use of flags.
First Aid
First Aid for riots!confrontations with riot
police should stress;
• Blunt trauma wounds. Caused by baton or
projectile strikes. Painful bruising, swelling and
cuts can occur. Treat cuts with antiseptic &
dressing bandage. Treat bruising with cold
packs to reduce swelling.
• Fractures. Can be caused by baton strikes or
falls. Immobilize with splints & slings.
• Sprains. Can be caused by falls, twisting of
ankle, etc. Immobilize with tensor bandage, or
treat as fracture if unsure.
• Chemical agents. Have clean water to flush out
eyes & exposed -skin. Move to fresh air &
remove contaminatedclothing.
• Burns. From .eitherTire or -pot -teargas
canisters. Treat as .for normal burns; wash burn
with.clean water,apply sterile-gauze dressing.
• Dehydration. Caused by running, overheating
& wearing of protective gear. Have clean water
on hand.
Actions to Avoid Arrest
• ' Depending on the situation, it may be possible
to fight. & escape arresting officers. Team
members should practise & rehearse holds,
locks, strikes, & escaping from holds & locks. '
• Wear Balaclava _ski mask. The best defense
, against identification & later arrest is a good ski
mask (or, hoodie, baseball cap & bandana).
• "Wear uniform clothing (coveralls or combats) to
limit ability of police surveillance to identify &
track individuals.
• Wear civilian clothing as under-layer to
Uniform. This way, the outer uniform can be
quickly removed to make you appear as a
, civilian/spectator.
Actions if Arrested
· In large riot situations, the normal routine of
arrest & processing (fmgerprinting, photograph) may be
disrupted due to the large numbers of arrests & police
-----Glass Bottle
Primary targets for projectiles are: commanders,
ARWEN gunners, snatch squads, and' K9 units
(none ofwhom usually carry shields).

Snatch Squads
Despite their heavy protective armour, riot police are
vulnerable to the accumulated physical & psychological
effects ofprojectiles.
Points to stress:
• Projectiles should be thrown from the front of a
crowd, not the rear. This is to prevent injury to
the 'front ranks should your throw be short.
Throwing from the front is also more accurate
and forceful.
• Proj ectiles should be aimed at individual targets
& body parts, not just thrown into a mass.
• Targets directly to the front can be thrown at,
but they may see your action & avoid the
projectile. Throw at an angle to L or R and you
will more likely catch a riot cop off guard.
Throwing Projectiles
C. Spray-Paint.
If there is no
time to make
paint bombs,
cans of spray
paint can be used
\ to blind riot
police. This
requires standing
within arms
reach and
spraying facial
area and/or shield.
5. Projectiles. Thrown or fired objects can injure, slow
down, and have a psychological impact on riot cops
(even if protective armour limits potential damage).
Whenever a barricade or position is established, the
gathering of projectiles should be ongoing. Common
projectiles include:
A. Rocks. Fist-sized rocks can be thrown with some
force & accuracy a distance of 40-50 feet. Aim at head,
upper body, arms or legs. Although common, rocks
should be gathered and stashed at certain points and/or
carried in pack.
B. Concrete/Bricks. In urban or suburban areas,
pavement & bricks can be dug up and used as·projectiles.
Large concrete chunks & bricks should be smashed up to
make smaller throwing pieces.
C. Slingshot. As noted, slingshots' can be used against
riot police-face area, as well as windows.
D. Paint-bomb. Can be used to blind riot cops (see
E. Molotov. .Can be used against riot copsto injure or
stop advance, to disable, vehicles \and set fire to
F. Flares. Flares that
shoot out can be used to
fire on police formations,
causing panic, confusion,
and possible injuries.
The best are pen-type
flare launchers.
G. Fireworks. Roman
candles & other shooting
fireworks can be used to
fire on police formations.
Some fireworks, such, as
,Screecheroos' , can be
modified to make flash-
bang grenades.
H. Bottles. Empty,
bottles thrown at police
have an intimidating
effect when they shatter. Flying glass shards can cause
injury. Aim for ground directly to front of riot cop, or
aim at head.

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'..< Shovel

Roll of BarbedWire
. Rubber Tires
Crowd Behavior & Psychology
A crowd typically gathers, grows, tires; and then
disperses. Crowds become more dangerous the longer
they exist, therefore they should be monitored &
controlled at the outset. Factors such as political events,
social crises, and alcohol can all affect a crowd, leading
to anger, frustration, tension & conflict.
In a large hostile crowd, only about 10 percent
may be actively participating in a riot, with, as many as
60 percent acting as passive participants. There may be
some overlap between these elements.' Another 30
percent could be spectators.
The presence of passive participants &
spectators provides cover for the. small group of active
participants. In a mob, individuals feel empowered and
are more likely to engage in violent acts than if they were
on their own. Mobs are easily influenced by .loud &
vocal individuals, who may instigate or provoke actions.
Typically; the most vocal & active are at the
forefront .of a crowd, with less involved persons to the
rear. If possible, attacks to .disperse a crowd should be
made on this rear area (or the flanks). Some control over
the crowd can be exercised by exerting influence over
any perceived leaders or instigators. This can be through
dialogue, capture or incapacitation ofthe individual(s).
Large crowds are usually unorganized & poorly
equipped. Therefore, a smaller, organized & equipped
force can successfully control & disperse a large mob.
For example, 100 riot .police can control a mob of 2-
3,000 by using good strategies & tactics.
Use of force against .a crowd should only be
used when necessary (i.e., to stop assaults, property
destruction, arson, etc.). The use of force can easily
·enflame an otherwise peaceful crowd and should be
avoided if possible.
Emotions are an important factor in violent
..crowds & are displayed through angry language &
rhetoric, exaggerated' body movements, & facial
expressions. As noted, anger & frustration are the most
common emotional states encountered in a hostile group.
Understanding this, and the conditions which have
contributed to such feelings, may be the key to a peaceful
resolution of a hostile situation. This can be
accomplished through dialogue and a show of force
(although in some situations, a show of force may serve
to enflame a crowd).
Deployment of CCU
When & where to deploy a CCU is an important
consideration in crowd control. When some forewarning
of a .hostile crowd gathering is available, the CCU should
prepare to be deployed.. This may involve putting on.
protective gear, or having it near. A fully-equipped CCU
can be kept of out sight until needed.
As deployment of a CCU can further enflame a
crowd, it should only be done when necessary
assaults or other violence is imminent or occurring).
When deployed, CCU members should be calm,
confident & prepared to engage in violent confrontation
(both' mentally & physically).
Crowd Control Techniques
A Crowd Control Unit should:
1. Exercise self-control & restraint.
2. Not intervene with force, without just
3. Remain as impartial as possible.
4. Avoid unnecessary conversation with
crowd members.
5. Avoid unnecessary bodily contact.
. 6. Be firm and not bluff.
7. Spot & identify leaders/agitators.
8. Remain outside the crowd.
·9: Move the crowd when necessary, but avoid
attacking it to do so.
10. Maximize distance & barriers' between
crowd &·CCU.
11. Show no fear. Display' confidence &
12. Use physical force only as a last resort.
13. Always have withdrawal/extraction routes
14. When possible, maintain reserve force
(keep out of sight).
15. When threat level indicates, maintain lethal
overwatch (snipers- keep out of sight).
1. Column Formation
.,....., ,
t----------- f \ . ~ , f,';' -----I
' - ~ .
4.· Circle Formation '"-
Used as defensive formation .when vin a
stationary '. position. . Can be '. used with, semi-circle. and
back to wall. An alternate is a diamond for moving
through a crowd, or moving protected persons through a
Signals: Verbal· Command "Forin Circle-
MOyE!", arm/hand signal is arm held up to side, rotated
at elbow in circular motion (point index fmger out).
~ 3. ArrowheadlWedge Formation
From a column or 'line, members form an
arrowhead with commander at apex' (or point). Position
of members same as for line, except at an angle. Used to
enter a crowd, divide a crowd and/or to attack ·it.
Provides protection to flanks of each CCU' member by
the member to his/her immediate rear.
Signals: Verbal command "Form Arrowhead-
MOVE," hand/arm signal is arms held over head, bent at
elbows & hands clasped, in the form of a diamond.
'0 CD
CCU from one location to Used to move
another. Can also be
used to form a corridor
for passage of persons
through a crowd, In
column, 2 rows are
formed with
commander to front
(or side) \ and 2iC to
Signals: The
verbal command
"Form A Column-
MOVE" is used,
andlor arms held out to
side with forearms
pointed up (,ack-ack'
hand signal).
There are 4 basic formations:
1. Column 2. Line 3. Arrowhead/Wedge 4. Circle
2. Line
Usually. from a .: column;"".:'CCU. .forms one
extended line. facing-to thefronr, ..Withcommander to
front, .number one ranktakes position' in front & to either.
. side of commander. Number twos move to either side of
number ones, etc. L-ine formations are used to block
passage & to sweep through an area. It is also a standard
formation for confronting large crowds. Disadvantage:
little protection on flanks or rear.
Signals: Verbal command "Form A Line-
MOVE" andlor arms extended straight out to sides,
parallel to ground.
.1 5 ~ ,
"- ,
Individual Riot Weapons
3. Slingshot.
Useful against
riot police,
windshields &
Against riot
police, aim at face area.
1. Batons/Staffs. In some riot situations, it is not
possible to enter an area carrying large batons. Covert
methods of carrying baton sticks can be as part of
banners, flag poles, in bags carried by sympathizers.
When needed, they can be pulled out & used.
Against riot police, the 3' long Hanbo is preferred
(or even longer staffs of 5-6'). To break through plexi-
glass shields & visors, metal pipes or aluminum baseball
bats can be used. Baseball bats will also have greater
impact against fully armoured riot police.
4. Paint Bombs. An effective defense against riot
police are paint bombs. When thrown at visors, gas
masks and/or shields, paint can.blind.riotcop..There are
two methods ofpreparing paintbombsr..
A. Condom. The. simplest· .method is to fill
condoms with paint and tie off the top. Use a funnel.
Carry condom paint bomb in bottom portion of plastic
pop/water bottlesror cardboard frozen juice containers
(to prevent breakage ·of paint bomb). When throwing,
use an 'overhand lobbing technique with enough force to
break condom on impact.
B.' Empty Egg. Take an egg and carefully
puncture small hole on top (no more than half-an-inch in
diameter). Carefully but forcefully empty egg using
vigorous up-down shaking motion. Egg yolk will 'glob'
out of hole. Let egg dry, then add paint using funnel.
Seal top of egg using small piece of cardboard, plastic,
taped over top, or candle wax. Carry egg paint bomb in
cut out sections of egg carton or some other container.
Can be thrown with greater accuracy but does not have
paint load of condom bomb.
2. PepperlBear Spray. Pepper or Bear Spray can be
used against police not wearing gas masks, or vigilante
citizens. .
. In preparing for a potential riot situation, the
primary c<?ncern is countering the actions of riot police.
Other important factors maybe the inflicting of
maximum economic damage to an area, or gaining
resources. Whatever the case, organization involves
assembling & training team 'members, 'preparing'-
equipment; planning routes in/out.rRv Points if
dispersed, First Aid, & actions to avoid arrest.
Individual Riot Equipment (head to toe)
Preparation for
Riotl Confrontation with Riot
1. Helmet.
2. Balaclava ski mask (to conceal identity).
3. Gas Mask.
4. Eye' Goggles/Bandana in' Apple-Cider
5. . Uniform (with civilian under-layer of
clothing to aid in escape & evasion).
6. Gloves (for protection of. 'hands &
7. Body Armour (minimum: forearm & shin
8. Water Bottle.
9. 12" crowbar. Used for digging up
pavement, bricks, opening windows, doors,
10. Small Back-Pack (used to carry tools &
. gear).
11. Garbage Bag. Used to carry clothing
contaminated with chemical agents.
The best defense against surveillance &
identification is a ski mask or other disguise that covers
your entire head & face (Le., not just a bandana over
your nose & mouth). Wearing 2 layers' of contrasting
clothing can assist in escape & countering surveillance.
The wearing of uniform clothing (Le., all black) by large
numbers of people can also counter identification &
surveillance of individuals.
Individual riot equipment is the same as for
crowd control, with the addition of a. few tools &
Police Crowd Control Tactics
Police formations for crowd control are
explained in the section on Crowd Control
(above). The function of riot police may be to
stop entry into certain areas, to clear the crowd
from a certain area, or to form a passage
through a large crowd. Some tactics to be
aware of include:
1. Baton Charges: Baton charges into a crowd are used
to clear an area or create a passage. If equipped with tear
gas, this is usually deployed prior to any charges. In an
urban area,' baton charges may be used to clear streets
block by block. Unless it is the desire of the commander
to contain the entire group, escape routes are usually left
open to facilitate clearing of an area.
A common response to police baton charges is
panic & running away. This can be dangerous as it
triggers a 'chase instinct' in the pursuer. As well,
turning your back can embolden a pursuer to strike you,
whereas if he/she were looking at your face, they would
be less able to do so (in battles, the real killing has begun
when the enemy has turned & begun fleeing the
The best response to baton charges is a heavy
barrage of projectiles to slow or break up the charge, as
wellas barricades. When retreating from a baton charge,
move at a, quick pace or slow jog. Do not run like a
maniac as-this will only spread panic. Tell others not to
run and not to panic. Remain calm & spread confidence,
not fear.
Those with protective gear 8{- weapons should
reinain at the rear to protect the withdrawal of others.
This should include returning tear gas projectiles,
reinforcing barricades, assisting. the injured, elderly or
children to move out ofthe area, etc.
2. Containment: In some cases, a commander may see
it as practical to contain 'a crowd by surrounding it with
officers, who prevent any person from leaving (also
known as a 'kettle'). Individuals can then also .be
removed one at a time for arrest.
Another' form of containment is by moving the
crowd down streets, blocking all escape routes but
leaving the desired route open. The crowd is then
- 'herded' along the route to a certain point where it can be
encircled (i.e., a dead-end).
If this is occurring, you should move .fast to get
out of the "area at the first available escape route (an
alley, footpath between buildings, etc.). Depending on
the situation, it may be best for the crowd to disperse in
order ,to escape containment. Outer layer of clothing &
protective gear should be removed at the first available
3. Undercover Officers: It is routine forpolice toinsert
undercover officers into a crowd to identify instigators,
gather information ~ . carry out arrests. They may appear
as regular citizens or as protesters. At times they can be
identified by communications gear (ear phones, radios)
or waist-packs (with their weapon, cuffs, etc.).
Suspicious individuals or small groups should be
monitored & not allowed to overhear plans or routes to
be used. If they are masked & appear as militants
challenge them to authenticate.
4. Snatch Squads: As noted in the section on Crowd
Control, snatch squads are small groups of officers (4-6)
who are sent into a crowd to carry out arrests, taking
their prisoner(s) back through the police lines. Their
targets are pre-selected and they move quickly to carry
out the arrest. It may be possible to observe the actions
of a snatch squad prior to deployment & assess their
intentions (i.e., pointing out targeted individuals,
movement of squad to a certain location in police line,
etc.). Snatch squads should be targeted with 'a heavy
barrage ofprojectiles when they exit police lines.
5. Surveillance. Surveillance is an important part of
police & military crowd control. It provides .information
to commanders' on the size, direction & activities of
crowd. It can be used to track & monitor individuals
throughout a crowd or area of conflict. All of this can
later be used to identify, arrest & convict individuals,
months after the riot has occurred.
In the days, weeks & months following the
1990 Poll Tax Riot in London, & the 1994 Hockey Riot
in Vancouver, police launched campaigns to identify
rioters caught on surveillance & news footage. This
included publishing photos in print media, TV news
footage, & video terminals in malls. People could call in
to special phone lines, or use the video terminals to
identify individuals and collect a reward. Many people
were later identified & charged as a result, most of whom
wore no disguise.
Surveillance of riots can occur through both
physical & technical means. In physical surveillance,
officers are positioned to observe the crowd from
overlooking buildings or roofs, helicopters, on the street,
or from within the crowd itself (undercover). Technical
surveillance of riots is primarily carried out through
video & still ~ a m e r a s held by officers. During the 1999
Anti-WTO Riots in Seattle, undercover officers &
military personnel walked through crowds with hidden
pin-hole cameras. Other means of video surveillance
include TV news cameras, traffic surveillance cameras,
&. civilian security-surveillance cameras in stores, etc.,
that capture portions ofthe street or entrances.
IdentifYing Crowd
Leaders &. Agitators
presence of frrearms among a crowd. Partly because of
hunting traditions, Native activities that occur in rural
settings are often approached as a high threat level &
will involve some form of lethal overwatch. Other
contributing factors in this approach are racism & fear.
Crowd Control Options
The CCU has several options at its disposal,
depending on the situation:
1. Monitor crowd to gather intelligence, determine
level of threat, observe actions, identify leaders,
2. Block crowd's advance into an area or building,
3. Disperse the crowd.
4. Contain the crowd.
Appropriate responses to crowd control are
based on threat analysis. Factors to consider include:
1. Crowd Size & Type: how many people? Of
those, how many are combatants? What are
crowd demographics (all young men, or
families with children, women, etc.)?
2. Motivating Factors: observe emotion and
intent of crowd. Listen to what
Has the crowd formed spontaneously. er .is it
planned &.deliberate? . Is alcohol present or are
crowd members obviously drunk? Will
deploying CCU affect crowd & how?
3. MovementlMotion: Where is the crowd trying
to go?
4. Weapons.& Projectiles: Are any weapons
observed in the crowd? Include flag poles &
picket signs as potential
weapons, as well as
obvious ones such as
. sticks, metal pipes,
baseball bats, firearms,
etc. Are there rocks,
bricks or other sources
of projectiles in the
area (Le., a
construction site)?
Threat Analysis
Identifying leaders &
. agitators in a crowd can greatly
assist in defusing a potentially violent conflict. This may
be accomplished through dialogue with perceived
leaders, or through, their capture & removal from the
area, or incapacitation.
Leaders & agitators can greatly affect the
intensity & type of crowd behavior. A good agitator can
. ~ .
Reserve Force
Marching in Formation: Check-Step
When marching in riot formations, it is
necessary to maintain balance, proper alignment &
intervals between CCU members. One method used is
the 'check step', consisting of a 12" step forward with
front foot, followed by moving of the rear foot. Another
step is taken with front foot, then rear, etc. The feet do
not cross. The stance is the same as for unarmed combat
(Boxer's stance, with batonJweapon held in rear hand).
Signal: The signal to advance is given by the
verbal command "Advance at the Ready- MOVE,"
and/or arm signal for advance. Count is one-two, one-
two (one is left foot, two is right). If shields are carried,
these can be struck with batons on every left foot for
psychological effect on both crowd & CCU members (a
Zulu tactic).
. Depending on
threat level (see below)
lethal overwatch may be
used comprised of
snipers. They should be
kept out of sight in
concealed positions,
.preferably overlooking
the area of conflict from
nearby hills, rooftops,
etc. Snipers can carry
'out observation of crowd, counter any armed threat from
within the crowd, or from enemy snipers. Deploying
snipers necessitates establishing control of overlooking
rooftops, etc. (which itself limits enemy sniper activity).
Lethal overwatch is a standard police-military
technique used when threat level indicates the potential
If possible, a reserve CCU force should be
, formed and kept out of sight (a standard police-military
technique). Its purpose is to reinforce the CCU and fill
breaches. The reserve force can be concealed in
vehicles, large trucks, garages, multi-level parking lots,
etc. It must have some form of communication with the
CCU and pre-arranged signals for deployment (radio
code, runners).
turn a crowd of agitated persons into an angry mob.
Such persons may be combative, vocal or seemingly
low-key, and may change roles as needed.
Containment vs. Dispersal
Dispersing a crowd may result in the -crowd
breaking into smaller groups, causing greater problems.
It may be necessary to disperse a crowd, however, before
it grows larger or more unified· in its efforts.
Commanders should issue a proclamation to assist in
dispersal (see below).
A contained group may tire and diminish,
however the CCU must be large enough to surround &
control the crowd. Backing crowds up to walls or other
obstacles can assist in containment. Once under control,
individuals can be removed from the crowd & released
or detained. If released, they must leave the area and
should be prevented from re-grouping. Leaders &
agitators can be detained for questioning and
Charg-es &. Attacks on Crowd
At times, it may be necessary to violently
disperse, or force a crowd back, using baton, charges.
Prior to charge, commander should indicate the forward
extent of the charge (i.e., 50 feet, the line of advance, this
can be' indicated by numbers and/or objects &
landmarks), at which point theCCU should stop &
regroup. .
When charging, only enough, force as is
necessary to disperse a crowd' should be used. Use
pepper spray/bear spray when necessary to break a group
up (use protective gear). Baton strikes should-be limited
to arms, torso, and legs (avoid head strikes).
.' Control & restraint must be exercised by CCU
members, who should avoid being overcome by 'chase
instinct' when crowd begins dispersing (often the most
brutal attacks occur when the enemy turns & begins. to
flee the.battlefield).
Escape Routes
Unless it is the intention of the CCU commander to
capture an entire group, some form of escape route should be
left open for a crowd to disperse through when baton charges
are made. If trapped, a group may grow more combative and
determined to fight ("Do not press a desperate foe," Sun Tzu).
Verbal Warning
Prior to dispersing a hostile mob, some verbal
warning can be given, i.e., "Attention! Attention! You
must disperse! Go back to your homes! Our Warriors
are now ready to disperse you with force! For your
safety, you must disperse!"
This can be delivered through a loudspeaker or
PA system, and should be repeated several times over a
period of 2-4 minutes. Such a warning can serve to
separate less-committed crowd members, who may fear
violence & injury, from more determined elements.
Once a warning has been given, the ceu must
be prepared to back it with force and to commit itself to
action. ' At the same time, commanders should monitor
the situation as it develops. If some crowd members
begin' with withdrawing, it may create the momentum
that shifts most of the crowd into dispersing. .
If possible, baton charges should be made with
arrest teams following behind to detain persons who
continue to resist, as well as the wounded. Serious
casualties (Le., those with head injuries) should receive
first aid and may require transfer to civilian medical
Arrest Teamsl Snatch Squads
Arrest teams are usually comprised of 4-6
persons who are responsible for capturing' & arresting
targeted individuals in a crowd. They are usually
positioned behind a line formation; which provides cover
& concealment." When they are sent in to capture an
individual, the line formation opens up a gap to permit
the arrest team to pass through.
Two members are tasked with the actual capture
of a person; they' do not carry weapons or shields in their
hands but .instead handcuffs/plasticuffs/rope to bind &
secure prisoners. Other members of the snatch squad
surround the arresting pair & provide security against the
.All members of a snatch squad should .wear
protective' gear & carry defensive weapons (pistols,
pepper spray, batons). Only as much force as necessary
should beused in capture to prevent further antagonizing
Once a prisoner is taken, he/she is brought back
through the line formation, which again opens to provide
passage for the arrest team.
Apply the 5-S Rule for dealing with prisoners:
Secure, Search, Silence, Segregate,. Speed (to rear).
Prisoners should' have their hands cuffed or bound
behind their backs. Hoods can be placed over their heads
Destroying this device or moving out of range may be
the best defense.
14. Lethal Force. When confronted with a hostile
crowd, police-military commanders have a variety of
weapons & levels of force at their disposal. Their
actions are based on graduated levels of force, usually
.beginning with verbal warnings, minimum force
(movement & physical restraint), use of chemical agents,
baton strikes & proj ectiles, etc. The fmal level is use of
deadly force (small arms fire).
Lethal force can be authorized by the
commander or at the initiative of individual personnel if
they believe their lives or serious injury may result if an
attack is not stopped. To carry out deadly force, each
officer carries a 9-IDJ;l1
pistol. In addition,
shotguns & assault rifles
from ERT's will commonly
be on hand during
riot/crowd control
Example of Open Fire
Policy(Canadian Forces):
Right of Self-Defence: Every soldier. has the
right to take all necessary and appropriate action for self-
Minimum force: Only the minimum degree of
force required to deal with the situation shall be used.
Graduated Response (the level of response to be
exercised initially will depend on the situation, as
common sense dictates):
a. warning (verbal, visual)
b. minimum force (movement, physical
c.. warning shot; and
d.. deadly force (use of firearms or crew-
served weapon)..
Use of deadly force permitted for:
a. SelfDefense.
b. Defense ofAllies.
c. Defense of Relief Personnel & Supplies.
d. Defense ofNoncombatants.
. The main defense against small arms fire is to
take cover behind material thick enough to stop rounds
from penetrating' (i.e., concrete or brick walls, vehicle
engine blocks, etc.). The next best is the wearing of
Kevlar vests (and helmets). Depending on the situation,
the return of small arms fire may be the best way to stop

':.':- ·E;d:,-._.._ .. VEHICLE
attached. When fired, it entangles itself around target,
usually the legs, causing the individual to be
immobilized. ,-------1--------------------------,
11. Armoured Vehicles. With
the ongoing' militarization of
police forces, many departments
now have armoured vehicles as
part of their SWAT/ERT units.
These are. usually 4-wheeled
armoured cars, used to transport
SWAT units & protect them
from small-arms fire...Police can also obtain military
armoured personnel carriers (i.e., Ts'Peten & Ipperwash,
1995) or even commandeer civilian armoured cars used
in transporting money.
In a riot situation, armoured cars/vehicles are
used to protect riot cops from projectiles, to move a
crowd, & to intimidate them. Armoured vehicles can be
blocked with vehicle barricades and their vision limited
with burning tires. If forced to close all hatches due to
projectiles, .vision ports' can be paint-bombed. Molotovs
can also be used to destroy, them and/or force vehicle
9. Water Cannons. Primarily used in very
large crowd control situations, water cannons
are heavy trucks (sometimes armoured) fitted
with a small cannon used to spray streams of
high-pressure water. The pressure of the water
can be strong enough to knock an adult off
his/her feet.
.During the April 2001 riots in Quebec City, a
water-cannon was quickly disabled when its driver side
window was smashed with a rock (although some
models of water cannon vehicles will have reinforced
glass with metal cages). Molotovs have also been used
against armoured water cannons.
10. Vehicles'. Police routinely use their patrol vehicles
for crowd control. This is done by driving vehicles into
crowd, forcing its dispersal, or by blocking roads &
streets.. Patrol vehicles can be damaged with projectiles,
tires cut, destroyed with Molotovs, or blinded with paint-
12.. Chemical Dyes. Not commonly used, consists of a
chemical dye (i.e., purple) that is sprayed 'into crowd..
Stains both clothing & skin. Used to identify
participants in aprotest or riot for later capture. Best
defense if sprayed is to remove outer layer when exiting
.area. Can also be fired as a projectile round, sometimes
mixed with pepper spray.
,,13. Frequency Wave Disruptors, Once the stuff of
science fiction, frequency wa:ve disruptors have been
used to control crowds in Palestine (Israeli settlers).
They emit a high-frequency screeching sound that.
disrupts the central nervous & audio systems, causing
disorientation, . dizziness, nausea, & vomiting.
the effects, while relaxing makes recovery quicker. As
of June 2005, there had been 126 deaths from Tasers in
N. America.
8. Projectiles. Projectiles are frred from the above
weapons. Most projectiles are
produced in a variety of calibers,
meaning that all can be frred from
ARWEN, L6, shotgun, etc. Their
descriptions & effects are:
A. Plastic Bullets. First
used by the British in Northem
Ireland, plastic (or rubber) bullets
are hard baton rounds 'from 2-4" in
.length. They can cause blunt
trauma wounds & fractures. If
fired at the head, they can cause
loss of eye & death. In N. Ireland
& Palestine, plastic bullets have killed dozens & maimed
hundreds more. Although specifically intended to be
frred at the legs of targets, they are frequently used to
strike upper body targets (including chest & head).
B. Rubber Pellets. Usually frred in
groups, rubber pellets are small, round hard plastic
rounds, sometimes with a rubber coating on the
surface. They can inflict painful welts & swelling.
Rubber pellet rounds may also contain pepper
spray, which is dispersed on impact as outer shell
breaks apart.
-M26 TASER C. Bean Bag Round. Small sacks filled
Range from 20-35 feet. with sand, when fired are propelled forward at a
high velocity to impact target surface. Can cause
blunt trauma wounds, concussions,
unconsciousness, and even death (in some cases breaking
bones that penetrate heart andlor lungs).
D. Nets. Not commonly used, rounds fire a net
that opens discharge & is propelled forward to
envelop target, thereby disabling himlher. Multiple'
rounds can be fired to further incapacitate individual.
E. Bolo Round. Not commonly used, round
consists of a rope with two metal or hard plastic balls

with Tear Gas Launcher Attachment
6. Shotgun.' Shotguns are versatile weapons and are
often used by riot police. They can fire plastic baton
rounds, rubber pellets, bean bag rounds, pepper spray,
nets, and bolo rounds. With a special attachment on the .
end, shotguns are also used to fire tear gas canisters.
7. Tasers. Frequently used by police to immobilize
individuals 'resisting' arrest, or drunk, etc. Tasers
resemble a pistol, often with a striped black & yellow
design and carried on the
front of the service belt.
They can be held up to .
person or fired from a
distance (20-35'). They are
aimed & fired like a pistol,
most often with a red dot
laser beam vto assist in
aiming, When fired, two
small needles attached by
fine wirevcables to the
Taser pistol are shot out. .
These small needles attach themselves to
clothing or skin. They discharge up to 50,000 volts of
electricity, overwhelming the central nervous system &
causing immediate incapacitation as all muscles tense up.
Falling is a common response to being tasered. This
initial shock lasts approximately 5 seconds. Further
shocks can be administered by the shooter pressing the
trigger. Tensing up & resisting the shock only increases
Upper Wad.
••,..II6'It--+--- Rubber'

,.......-.......- Black
I11III:_ ..,,1;__ Fuze Assembly
Flash Powder .
.Baton Round
37/38 MM STINGER '
Round w/ Rubber Balls
_Rubber Balls, also
With CS or OC '
. 1. Snatch Squad Ready
2. Line opens, squad goes through, takes prjsoner, .
and returns through line.

Methods ofHooding:
• Hoods can be sacks, sandbags, etc. placed over
prisoner's head to blind & disorient.
• Bandanas can be used to blindfold & gag (if
• Goggles can be blackened and placed over eyes.
• When using hoods & gags, ensure prisoner's
breathing is not impaired. r----------------,
to disorient & control them. Bandanas can be used to
blindfold & gag. Uncooperative prisoners can have their
legs bound and be carried/dragged to secure area.
Prisoners should be removed from the area &
view of crowd as soon as possible. They should be
thoroughly searched as soon as practical, to ensure they
have no weapons, to identify individuals, etc. They
should be taken to a pre-designated area or vehicle for
transport. Whenever practical,' separate prisoners to
prevent discussion & planning of stories; etc.
Typically, those taken prisoner are instigators or
leaders in a violent crowd. Their capture & removal
from the area may be all that is required to facilitate
dispersal of the crowd. Some form of punishment &
release may be all that is necessary (they should not be
. released until the crowd is dispersed, however).
Otherwise, prisoners can be held for interrogation.
• Ensure restraints do not cut blood flow,
indicated by discoloration in fingers, pain &
Anti-Personnel Blockade
In some cases, barricades might be constructed
to block entrance to a building, on a foot-bridge, or traiL
A. Concertina/Barbed Wire. The quickest &
.easiest to' deploy is concertinalbarbed wire,
which can be purchased in rolls from hardware
stores & is common in cattle raising' areas. In
an emergency,' concertina can be unbundled to
form large, loose coils in front of CCU (and
later .secured when practical). Use hammer & .
nails/spikes to secure wire to walls, fence posts,
stakes in ground, etc. Small metal wire should
also be carried & wire-cutters to secure barbed
. wire to pipes, fences, etc.
·B. Improvised materials. If no concertina is
available, or to better barricade a point, use
whatever materials are available: blocks of
wood, pieces of fencing, stairs, doors, fridges,
couches,' chairs, . carved wooden stakes
emplaced at an angle, etc. some objects can be
Barricades are obstacles placed on roads, paths,
trails, stairs, etc., to stop passage of personnel and/or
vehicles. Barricades can help a small force stop a large
Normally, barricades are used to stopor control
entry into a certain area..At the entrance to reservations;
for example, barricades might be constructed
entry of a hostile mob (as in Kahnawake & Six
'Nations 2006).
Ideally, barricades should be placed' at choke
points to block the smallest pass (not the widest). If
possible, barricades should look down on hostile group
(never up). Place barricades on turns in road, near top of
hills, on steep narrow passes, at bridges, etc.
Palms Out
Methods ofHandcuffing:
• Plastic Flexi-
cuffs/plasticuffs can be
used of suitable
strength, Use 2-3 if
necessary for larger
• Strong cord (paracord)
or small ropes can be
used to lash wrists (and
ankles); wrap several
times around wrists,
then around wrap to
ensure it doesn't come
undone. Tie with a knot (Le., square knot).
, duct tape in same way.
secured with rope to door entrances, etc. The
team/squad tool kit can be used.
Anti-Vehicle Blockade
A. Vehicle. The quickest & easiest anti-
vehicle .blockade is another vehicle, or
vehicles, parked so as to block passage on a
road. If it is expected that the vehicles may
be damaged, abandoned vehicles can be
brought to the .blockade point. Vehicles
can also be burned to further immobilize
B. Trees. Large trees cut & felled across a
road can block vehicles. Cut a few on
either side of road to form interlocking
barricade material.
C. Improvised Materials. Other objects that
can be used to block roads include trees
felled across road, sharpened metal spikes
imbedded in ground at angle (Le., rebar),
fridges, washers & dryers, cabinets, sofas,
D. Spike Board. A .spike board can be used
that will impede (though not block)
oncoming vehicles by puncturing the front
tires. A board long enoughto dover road &
1. "Stop traffic "".
force front tires to drive over it is used. As
many 8-10" metal spikes are driven through
the board as necessary to puncture tires if
driven over. They face up into the air. A
small rope is attached to one end, which is
pulled to move the board onloffthe road.
Burning Tire "Barricade I
Often used as a quick & nasty way to block a
road for both vehicles & personnel. Car tires are placed
across a road, their inner rim stuffed with plastic bags
over which gasoline is poured (or, rags doused with
gasoline). Use a torch to ignite fuel.
Burning tires produce" a thick, toxic; black
smoke (avoid using in occupied residential areas). They
have more of a psychological effect, as a determined
person could easily jump over --or drive through --
burning tires. Despite this, most will not do so and are
deterred by the sight of the flames, smoke, and the
danger that lies on the other side of the barricade (that's
Burning tires can be used to temporarily impede
foot or vehicle traffic, used as part of a barricade
defense-in-depth, or to cover a withdrawal. "
"i. Blockade Examples
..-...... -_.... ---".._-- -
Automatic & Semi-Auto.fires
3-gram marble-sized balls that,
explode intoOe pepper spray ,
onimpact. Powered byC02..
. Fires 40-mm rounds, single shot.
3. 40-MM Grenade Launcher. Like original ARWEN,
frres one 40-mm round at a time.
4. Rubber Pellet Gun. Resembles a paint-ball gun, has
large C02 canister used to fire small, marble-sized
rubber pellets. Rounds can contain spray, which
2. L6 Multi-Launcher. The L6 has a large round
'cylindrical magazine that holds 6 rounds. Ammunition
includes tear gas grenades, plastic bullets, bean bag
rounds, & rubber pellets. Effective range of plastic
bullet rounds: 100 metres.
. "(.-6 Min.
Rain Gear/Ponchos. Along with facial protection, rain
coats or ponchos can also be. worn that can be easily
washed off of chemical residue. Shirt collars & cuffs,
pants bottoms, can also be' sealed. Thick gloves should
be worn to handle tear gas canisters & protect your hands
from exposure.
Thick Leather Gloves. When tear gas
canisters are thrown or frred into your area, you
should be able to pick it up & throw it back at
police lines. This serves to, remove the canister
& to use it as a projectile.
Decontamination from chemical agents
should be carried out as soon as
possible/practical. Remove contaminated
clothing & place in garbage bag, seal it until washed.
Wash your body thoroughly withsoap & water. Wash
any equipment, packs, etc. with warm soapy ...-__---1- ----.
water and leave exposed to fresh air for a few
Modem police & military forces tasked
with crowd control have a wide variety of anti-
riot weapons at their disposal. Beginning in the
1970s, new technologies & methods. of 'less;.lethal',
weaponry began to be developed. Some are the result of
lessons learned from riots in the 1960s, as well as
British crowd-control operations in Northern Ireland.
1. ARWEN: The ARWEN is a standard anti-riot
weapon. In fact, ARWEN stands for Anti-Riot
Weapobl, and was frrst developed by British
security forces for use in N. Ireland in the early
1970s. It can fire tear gas rounds or plastic
bullets. Use of the ARWEN to fire rubber'
bullets in N. Ireland resulted in .scores of deaths
& hundreds of serious injuries.
The original ARWEN is a short, 37-
mm rifle that breaks open like a shotgun and
fires one round at a time. It has a short, fat
barrel with a pistol grip and stock. Newer
ARWENs have 5-round cylindrical magazines
& a ribbed barrel. They are effective up to 100
Police Weapons
Fires 37/38,mm rounds from
5 round cylinder magazine.
is dispersed upon impact. Can cause welts &
.5. Batons. There are 3 main types of batons
used by riotpolice, A 3' long riot stick is carried
by riot squads. Some may carry a PR-24 baton
(Tonfa), or a medium length tactical baton
(extends out' from handle). All can causeblunt
trauma wounds & fractures. If used to strike the
head area, serious injury or death can result.
rub eyes). Tip head to side and squeeze water bottle into
eye and down side of face (to avoid further
contaminating person), repeat on opposite side. It may
be necessary to hold the casualty's eye open with your
fingers. Skin should be washed with water as well.
Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible &
wash (tear gas will persist in clothing & continue to
contaminate rooms & people).
Pepper Spray
Pepper spray contains capsaicin, a chemical
derived from cayenne, paprika or chilies. Pepper spray is
carried by individual police officers on their service
belts, and is sold commercially as defense against dogs.
It is also used by riot police for crowd control. It is
usually encountered as a fme 'mist spray with a pepper-
like taste & sensation.
Method of Dispersal: Pepper spray can be
released through hand-held aerosol spray canisters or as
part of a projectile round (usually rubber pellets). Police
must be within 10-15 feet to be effective with aerosol
spray, or up to 50 feet with pellet dispersal.
Effects: The effects of exposure ,to pepper
spray is the same as for tear gas: blurring, tearing &
closing of eyes, coughing, sneezing, difficulty breathing,
Time-Line: Effects of exposure can occur
within seconds and persist for 20-30 minutes after.
First Aid: Same as for 'tear gas: remove
casualty to fresh air, flush eyes with water, wash exposed
skin, remove contaminated clothing.
Goggles wi
. Goggles
(soaked in
Put clothlnq& gear in bag
Chemical Agents
Thefirst indications that tear gas will be used
are: the sight 'of grey or white grenade' canisters in hand
and/or the positioning of ARWEN/shotgun gunners to
fire projectiles. As well, riot cops will put on gas masks.
Since pepper spray is a directional weapon,
police use it frequently without wearing any protective
gear. The only indication that pepper spray may be used
could be a canister in hand.

If there is the potential "for you or your team to
be exposed to chemical agents, protective gear should be
immediately put on.
Gas Mask. The best defense against chemical
agents is a military-issue gas mask, either Canadian or
US (MI7). New, Unused filters- with unbroken seals
should also be acquired. These can be purchased from
military surplus stores.
Filter Mask. The .next best are chemical filters
available at hardware stores. These cover the nose &
mouth. A clear, tight
fitting' goggle -piece
must be worn over
eyes. They should seal
around eyes.
The next best, and
used 'as backup if gas
'mask filter fails, is a
bandana soaked in
vinegar or apple cider
vinegar, or lemon
juice. Along with the
, bandana, eye goggles
must also ,be worn.
Team/Squad should
carry bottle of vinegar
to keep bandanas wet.
Douse with Gas.
Light wI
Burning of Barricades
In an emergency, it may be necessary to set
barricades on fire in order to cover a retreat & delay a
hostile crowd. This is usually a last resort when the
barricade is in danger of being overwhelmed & the CCU
must fall back to another defensive position. Once a
barricade is set on fire, it will burn away most of your
barricade material.
" . To ignite barricade: .ensure plenty of fuel is
placed among the barricade. Fuel can be wood, paper,
andlor gasoline. Throw a torch onto barricade if gasoline
is used to avoid being engulfed by fireball,
Use of Projectiles in Crowd Control
Modem police & military riot squads have a
:vide :ariety of projectile weapons at their disposal,
mcludmg plastic bullets & pellets, bean bags, concussion
and tear gas. We do not. The following
projectiles can be used to disperse or stop the advance of
a hostile crowd:
1. Rocks. Fist-sized rocks can cause serious injury
and even death. Unless otherwise instructed
rocks should be aimed at legs and torso:
avoiding the head (which can be fatal). CCU
members should have rocks in packs or in crates
near barricades. "
2. Slingshots. Good for "inflicting moderate' pain
& discomfort on individuals, slingshots "can also
be fatal if used to strike the head area. Fire
small rocks,. marbles or bolts at legs' & middle
body. Designated slingshot persons should
slings & small proj ectiles.
3. Molotovs. In extreme cases,. it may be
necessary to use Molotov cocktails to stop or
disperse a large, violent crowd. These should
be made of gas-oil- combinations and thrown to
the front of an advancing crowd (only in a life-
or-death situation should Molotovs be thrown
into crowd, as they can cause extreme injury &
death). Gasoline, motor oil, bottles, funnels,
and rags should be on hand"' to construct
Use of Vehicles in Crowd Control
-, Vehicles may be used to move crowds" or as
barriers. If possible, install improvised protective metal
screens over windshields prior to use. Members of CCU
should position themselves as close to front comers of
vehicles as possible to prevent attacks on side or rear of
vehicle, as well as tires. Larger, heavier trucks are
preferred to small cars. Drivers should have security
(shotgun) who can assist in observation & early.warning,
should exercise caution and not unnecessarily
mjure crowd members.
Use of Firearmsl
Lethal Force in Crowd Control
In extreme cases; it may be necessary to use
small arms to stop or disperse a large, hostile crowd.
Firearms should not be displayed until necessary, and
should be kept in a secure location. near the zone of
conflict. If any"firearms are observed in "the crowd, then
the CCU should defmitely carry some firearms for self-
While pistols are ideal due to their small size &
close-range applications, when faced with a violent
armed crowd whatever firearms are available should be
used. Designated scouts/snipers can, and should be
(when necessary/possible), positioned to' monitor crowd
& warn of any firearms being carried. In an emergency,
they can also be used to incapacitate armed individuals
(lethal overwatch, see above).
A shotgun can be used to fire .bird pellets into
-legs of crowd members. Rubber pellets & bean-bag
. rounds can also be fired from 12-guage shotguns and
should be acquired if possible.
. The decision to use lethal force should be made
by .the CCU commander, or by individual CCU
members, if they believe that their own life, or the lives
of others, are at risk, or that serious injury may result
(see section below, police use of lethal force).
Participating in a riot is similar to crowd control, except that in most riots you will be confronted with,organized &
equipped police or military forces (unless they are caught off guard & you are quick enough to escape their deployment).
While crowd control training can provide insight 'into how police-military forces work, riot training focuses on countering
these methods. To begin with, we must be clear on why we would participate in a riot. '
Riots are collective expressions of anger, frustration, and rage. They have been a common response by oppressed
groups to government laws & repression. Today, riots are possible any time large crowds gather for political or social
reasons (i.e., protests, police killings, sporting events or festivals).
Most riots are directed towards government authorities, or become so through the intervention of police-military
forces. Many are also aimed at corporate businesses through property destruction & looting. Riots can cause economic
damage, disrupt & demoralize our enemy, and raise the fighting spirit of our own forces.
Participating in a riot can serve to radicalize an individual" to empower them, ·and to alter their concepts of what is
possible in the realm of organized conflict. Riots involve larger numbers of people in low-level conflict with government
forces than do armed standoffs.
Looting. In urban or suburban areas, riots can create opportunities to take resources from our enemy (government or
corporate) that would not otherwise be possible.
Know, Your En'emy:
the Riot Cop
Modem police forces in large urban areas
are well equipped to control large, hostile crowds. '
With time, training & preparation can, be carried
out to ensure officers are' able to act effectively as
part of a Crowd Control Unit (CCU). Officers
who form CCU's are regular patrol officers issued
with riot gear and who have some basic training in
formations, use of equipment, etc. In some cases,
members of EmergencyResponse Teams (ERT's)
form a part of a CCU and aregenerally responsible
for firing ARWEN or other projectile weapons.
Protective Gear: A fully equipped riot
cop can wear up to 80 lbs. of protective gear,
including helmet with visor, shoulder & chest pad,
upper & lower arm pads, thigh and shin guards,
gas mask,baton, shield, coveralls, padded gloves,
and boots. On top of this is the service belt with
pistol, cuffs, pepper spray, & 2-way radio. The
coveralls are usually made of fire-retardant
material to counter the effects of Molotovs
(although they can still be set on fire ifenough of
the fuel load lands).
All this gear provides good protection
against projectile & baton strikes, but can limit
mobility, On hot sunny days,fully-equipped riot
police can easily become overheated, especially if
wearing gas mask. Constant running &
maneuvering can tire them out.
Less equipped riot police may wear ,a
helmet with visor and carry a gas mask & shield.
Although more mobile, they are vulnerable ,to
projectile & baton strikes. Riot helmets can. also
be fitted with communications gear, enabling
officer to communicate with others & for
commander to issue directions (limited when
wearing gas masks).
Helmet wI
'& 2-WayRadio,
Made' of
, .Ill
under Uniform
Police Riot Control
Weapons &Agents
It is important to know. the weapons & chemical
agents used by police & military forces in crowd control.
Early identification of weapon or chemical dispersal can
mean less injuries (and arrests). The technology & use
of riot control weapons is a rapidly' expanding &
developing industry. New weapons are being constantly
made, .and more .police-military forces are being
Chemical Agents
Chemicalagents include CN & CS gas (referred
to as tear gas) & Capsaicin (or pepper spray, also
referred to as OCr They are used by police & military
forces to render members. of a crowd, or enemy forces,
temporarily .incapable of fighting or resisting. All attack
the respiratory system & mucous membranes. This
includes the eyes, nose, mouth, throat and lungs.
20-60- seconds duration
There are two main types of tear gas used by
police & military forces:
1. CN- Chloroacetophenone, developed after World War
CN can be identified by its white smoke & the smell
ofapple blossom.
2. cs- A' more potent and less toxic compound
synthesized by Corson & Stoughton (from which CS is
derived). CS can be identified by its white smoke at
point of dispersal & for several seconds after. It has a
pepper-like smell.
Method of Dispersal: Both, CN & CS can be
released from aerosol spray canisters, usually as
grenades which can be thrown or fired from ARWEN or
shotguns with a special attachment on the end. These
canisters can be extremely hot & should be picked up
wearing thick gloves. Some canisters land but continue
to. 'jump' around on ground, making it difficult to grab
Effects: The main effects are pain, burning &
irritation of exposed mucous membranes & skin. The
eye is most sensitive to tear gas, & will close
involuntarily & begin tearing (hence the term 'tear gas'),
effectively blinding you (although temporarily). In the
airways (nose, mouth, throat & lungs) there is a burning
& irritating sensation, Large amounts of saliva & snot
may be produced, coughing, a tightening of the chest and
an overall inability to breath may be experienced. On the
skin, a burning & irritation may be felt, that if untreated
can lead to blisters. Other effects include nausea &
vomiting. Confusion, fear & panic can also occur.
Time-Line: The effects of tear gas can be felt
within seconds of dispersal, first with coughing and
stinging in the eyes. Within 30 seconds an individual
can be incapacitated. The effects can persist for 20-30
minutes after point of exposure.
First Aid: Persons exposed to tear gas should
be removed from the area of contamination as soon as
possible, preferably to a cool, windy place. The eyes
should be flushed with clean ~ a t e t (casualty should not
Approx..5 meter radius '

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