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1R-08

Guide to Shear Reinforcement for Slabs

Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,``,`,`,`,`,```,`,,``,`,,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reported by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 421

Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006, User=veloz, sergio Not for Resale, 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST

**First Printing June 2008
**

American Concrete Institute

Advancing concrete knowledge

®

Guide to Shear Reinforcement for Slabs

Copyright by the American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other distribution and storage media, without the written consent of ACI. The technical committees responsible for ACI committee reports and standards strive to avoid ambiguities, omissions, and errors in these documents. In spite of these efforts, the users of ACI documents occasionally find information or requirements that may be subject to more than one interpretation or may be incomplete or incorrect. Users who have suggestions for the improvement of ACI documents are requested to contact ACI. Proper use of this document includes periodically checking for errata at www.concrete.org/committees/errata.asp for the most up-to-date revisions. ACI committee documents are intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains. Individuals who use this publication in any way assume all risk and accept total responsibility for the application and use of this information. All information in this publication is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement. ACI and its members disclaim liability for damages of any kind, including any special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages, including without limitation, lost revenues or lost profits, which may result from the use of this publication. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish health and safety practices appropriate to the specific circumstances involved with its use. ACI does not make any representations with regard to health and safety issues and the use of this document. The user must determine the applicability of all regulatory limitations before applying the document and must comply with all applicable laws and regulations, including but not limited to, United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) health and safety standards. Order information: ACI documents are available in print, by download, on CD-ROM, through electronic subscription, or reprint and may be obtained by contacting ACI. Most ACI standards and committee reports are gathered together in the annually revised ACI Manual of Concrete Practice (MCP). American Concrete Institute 38800 Country Club Drive Farmington Hills, MI 48331 U.S.A. Phone: 248-848-3700 Fax: 248-848-3701

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--`,``,`,`,`,`,```,`,,``,`,,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

**ISBN 978-0-87031-280-9
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Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006, User=veloz, sergio Not for Resale, 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST

The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom.`. Keywords: column-slab connection. two-way slabs.3—Calculation of shear strength vn 4..1—Introduction 1.`. Copyright © 2008. Kamara* James S. Gayed* Amin Ghali* Hershell Gill Neil L. ACI 318 sets out the principles of design for slab shear reinforcement and makes specific reference to stirrups.1R-99 and was adopted and published June 2008.1—Strength requirement 4.1R-9 5. 421. p. American Concrete Institute.`. Gustafson for his contribution to this report. 421.1—Nominal shear strength Chapter 6—Tolerances. Santiago Stanley C. 421.ACI 421.1R-2 1.`. Tests have established that punching shear in slabs can be effectively resisted by reinforcement consisting of vertical rods mechanically anchored at the top and bottom of slabs.3—Stud length Appendix B—Properties of critical sections of general shape.1R-10 CONTENTS Chapter 1—Introduction and scope.``. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means.3—Evolution of practice Chapter 2—Notation and definitions.1R-08 Guide to Shear Reinforcement for Slabs Reported by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 421 Theodor Krauthammer* Chair Simon Brown* Pinaki R. Lai* Mark D. designing.```. p.2—Cited references Appendix A—Details of shear studs. Nawy Eugenio M. Marvin Sami H. This guide reviews other available types and makes recommendations for their design. p. 421.`. Manuals. 421. including the making of copies by any photo process. p. and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning.4—Design procedure Chapter 5—Prestressed slabs. unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.2—Definitions Chapter 3—Role of shear reinforcement. and shearheads.1R-14 ACI 421. or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device. Woodson * Subcommittee members who prepared this report.. 421. p. shearheads. Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 421.2—Scope 1. p. This document is intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains.1R-12 A. p.1R-10 Chapter 8—References. they shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by the Architect/Engineer.1—Geometry of stud shear reinforcement A. Reference to this document shall not be made in contract documents.. prestressed concrete.`. The committee would like to thank David P.``. slabs.`. printed. headed shear studs. shear stresses. --`. Guides. and inspecting construction. If items found in this document are desired by the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contract documents. moment transfer. 421. p. or by electronic or mechanical device. Chapter 4—Punching shear design equations.. The application of these recommendations is illustrated through numerical examples.`.1—Referenced standards and reports 8. Hammill* Mahmoud E.1R-13 Appendix C—Values of vc within shear-reinforced zone. concrete flat plate. Standard Practices. p.1R-3 ACI Committee Reports.2—Stud arrangements A.. 421.1R-08 supersedes ACI 421. 421.1—Notation 2. p. headed studs. 421.```-`-`.`--- Chapter 7—Requirements for seismic-resistant slab-column connections. User=veloz. sergio Not for Resale. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles.1R-4 4. 421. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST .1R-2 2. punching shear. written. or oral.1R-10 8. executing. Chakrabarti William L.`.1R-1 Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. Megally Edward G.2—Calculation of factored shear stress vu 4. Gamble Ramez B. p.

CHAPTER 2—NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS 2.`. The design is in accordance with ACI 318. 1.11 of ACI 318-08. Gayed and Ghali 2006) have confirmed the effectiveness of mechanically anchored shear reinforcement. p. 1. Birkle 2004.3—Corner column-slab connection D. 1.2—Scope Recommendations in this guide are for the design of shear reinforcement in slabs. mechanically anchored at each end. Van der Voet et al.`--- Fig. slab-column connections are subjected to high shear stresses produced by the transfer of the internal forces between the columns and the slabs.2—Top view of flat plate showing arrangement of shear reinforcement in vicinity of interior column. 1985. User=veloz.” To be fully effective. sergio Not for Resale. can be used.`.1—Notation Ac = area of concrete of assumed critical section Av = cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement on one peripheral line parallel to perimeter of column section bo = length of perimeter of critical section = clear concrete cover of reinforcement to cb.`. 1.1R-2 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT Appendix D—Design examples. Shear reinforcement consisting of vertical rods (studs) or the equivalent.5 of ACI 318-08 permits headed shear stud reinforcement conforming to ASTM A1044/A1044M. respectively cx.1(b)) are specified in ASTM A1044/ A1044M. and (b) double-headed studs crimped into a steel channel.`.cy = size of rectangular column measured in two orthogonal span directions D = diameter of stud or stirrup d = effective depth of slab.```.3 of ACI 318-08 allows the use of shear reinforcement for slabs and footings in the form of bars. Elgabry and Ghali 1987. average of distances from extreme compression fiber to centroids of tension reinforcements running in two orthogonal directions db = nominal diameter of flexural reinforcing bars fc′ = specified compressive strength of concrete fct = average splitting tensile strength of lightweight-aggregate concrete fpc = average value of compressive stress in concrete in two directions (after allowance for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006..ct bottom and top slab surfaces. Mokhtar et al..2 is a top view of a slab that shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement (stirrup legs or studs) in the vicinity of an interior column.`. all types of mechanically anchored shear reinforcement are referred to as “shear stud” or “stud.3—Evolution of practice Extensive tests (Dilger and Ghali 1981.`. Fig. Figure 1. Megally 1998. Mortin and Ghali 1991.```-`-`. Ritchie and Ghali 2005. especially in thin slabs. 1982. as in the vertical legs of stirrups. Andrä 1981. 1. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST .. In this report.421. measured on the first peripheral line of shear reinforcement. 1.1—Stud assemblies conforming to ASTM A1044/ A1044M: (a) single-headed studs welded to a base rail. 1. Cao 1993.11.. Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`.1(a)) or double-headed studs mechanically crimped into a nonstructural steel channel (Fig. 421. A general procedure for evaluation of the punching shear strength of slab-column connections is given in Section 11.11. Section 11. such as shown in Fig.``. The mechanical anchorage can be obtained by heads or strips connected to the studs by welding. the anchorage should be capable of developing the specified yield strength of the studs.1.`.1—Introduction In flat-plate floors. be equal to or less than 2d. The heads can also be formed by forging the stud ends.``. Numerical design examples are included.1—Interior column-slab connection D.1R-17 D. Brown and Dilger 1994.`.`. Stud assemblies consisting of either a single-head stud attached to a steel base rail by welding (Fig. Section 11. in increasing the strength and ductility of slab-column connections subjected to concentric punching or punching combined with moment.4—Prestressed slab-column connection CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE 1. ACI 318 emphasizes the importance of anchorage details and accurate placement of the shear reinforcement.. ACI 318 requires that the spacing g between adjacent stirrup legs or studs.2—Edge column-slab connection D. Dilger and Shatila 1989. Requirement for distances so and s are given in Chapter 4.

unbalanced moment—sum of moments at the ends of the columns above and below a slab-column joint. sergio Not for Resale.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421. equal to d multiplied by second moment of perimeter about x.`. for interior. Two shear-critical sections should be considered: 1) at d/2 from column periphery. psi (MPa) x. (4-4)).. psi (MPa) = nominal shear strength at critical section.`.. defined by ACI 318 as “analogous to polar moment of inertia” Jx . stud shear reinforcement (SSR)—reinforcement conforming to ASTM A1044/A1044M and composed of vertical rods anchored mechanically near the bottom and top surfaces of the slab. This means that the vertical part of the shear reinforcement should be as tall as possible to avoid the possibility of cracks passing above or below it. (6-1)) lx .ly1 = lengths of sides in x and y directions of critical section at d/2 from column face lx2 .`.MuOy = factored unbalanced moment about x or y axis through column’s centroid O n = number of studs or stirrup legs per line running in x or y direction s = spacing between peripheral lines of shear reinforcement so = spacing between first peripheral line of shear reinforcement and column face = vertical component of all effective prestress Vp forces crossing the critical section = factored shear force Vu vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete in presence of shear reinforcement. all relative to normalweight concrete of the same compressive strength = strength reduction factor = 0. 30.ly2 = lengths of sides in x and y directions of critical section at d/2 outside outermost legs of shear reinforcement Mux . ACI 318 also requires that the projection of the drop panel below the slab be at least 1/4 the slab thickness. 1. and corner columns.1R-3 = specified yield strength of shear reinforcement g = distance between adjacent stirrup legs or studs.`. Tests (Marti 1990) have shown.``.y = coordinates of point on perimeter of shearcritical section with respect to centroidal axes x and y x.ly = projections of assumed critical section on principal axes x and y lx1 . bends.`. (B-11)) l = length of segment of assumed critical section = overall specified height of headed stud ls assembly including anchors (Fig.1.`--- .`.75 2. shear-critical section—cross section.. ACI 318 requires that drop panels extend in each direction from the centerline of support a distance not less than 1/6 the span length measured from center-to-center of supports in that direction. Effective anchorage is essential. User=veloz.```. and its location should be as close as possible to the structural member’s outer surfaces. having depth d and perpendicular to the plane of the slab.γvy λ φ = dimensionless coefficient equal to 40.Jy = property of assumed critical section of any shape. edge. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST --`. The plan dimensions of drop panels are greater than shear capitals. measured in a parallel direction to a column face h = overall thickness of slab Jc = property of assumed critical section (Eq.y = coordinates of point on perimeter of shearcritical section with respect to centroidal nonprincipal axes x and y α = distance between column face and critical section divided by d Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS fyt αs β βp γvx ..Muy = factored unbalanced moment about the centroidal nonprincipal x or y axis MuOx . CHAPTER 3—ROLE OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT Shear reinforcement is required to intercept shear cracks and prevent them from widening. as defined in Chapter 13 of ACI 318-08. Eq. and hooks.```-`-`. The intersection of shear reinforcement and cracks can be anywhere over the height of the shear reinforcement. respectively = ratio of long side to short side of column cross section = constant used to compute vc in prestressed slabs = factor used to determine unbalanced moment about the axes x and y between slab and column that is transferred by shear stress at assumed critical section = modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight concrete. flat plate—flat slab without column capitals or drop panels. it may not intercept all inclined shear cracks. The strain in the shear reinforcement is highest at that intersection. For flexural strength. respectively (Appendix B) Jxy = d times product of inertia of assumed shearcritical section about nonprincipal axes x and y (Eq.Muy = factored unbalanced moments transferred between slab and column about centroidal principal axes x and y of assumed critical section Mux . When the shear reinforcement is not as tall as possible. psi (MPa) vu = maximum shear stress due to factored forces. that movement Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.`.``.2—Definitions drop panel—thickened structural portion of a flat slab in the area surrounding a column. shear capital—thickened portion of the slab around the column with plan dimensions not conforming with the ACI 318 requirements for drop panels. Anchorage of shear reinforcement in slabs is achieved by mechanical ends (heads). psi vn (MPa) vs = nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement.or y-axis. where shear stresses should be evaluated.`. and 2) at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement (if provided). and 20.. however.`.

1(b)). at Point A of Fig. where d is the average of distances from extreme compression fiber to the centroids of the tension reinforcements running in two orthogonal directions. sergio Not for Resale. The amount of movement is the same for a short or long shear-reinforcing bar. The movement at the end of the vertical leg of a stirrup can be reduced by attachment to a flexural reinforcement bar. vn is the nominal shear strength (psi or MPa).2—Calculation of factored shear stress vu ACI 318 requires that the shear stress resulting from moment transfer by eccentricity of shear be assumed to vary linearly about the centroid of the shear-critical section.`. Appendix B gives equations for Jx.1—Strength requirement This chapter presents the design procedure of ACI 318 when stirrups or headed studs are required in the slab in the vicinity of a column transferring moment and shear. (4-2) with Mux = 0 and Jy replaced by Jc .l y1 ⁄ l x1 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎬ 1 γ vy = 1 – -------------------------------. and γvy for a shear-critical section of any shape. For a shear-critical section in the shape of a closed rectangle. and the end of the vertical leg of the stirrup can move.. Hawkins 1974. 4. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . If fyt is 60 ksi (414 MPa). cannot be placed any closer to the vertical leg of the stirrup without reducing the effective slab depth d. 4.+ -----------------. Figure 4. expressed by Eq. 3.4 times the stirrup’s yield strength fyt . The flexural reinforcing bar. were also discussed by others (Marti 1990. Therefore.⎪ ⎪ 2 1 + -. CHAPTER 4—PUNCHING SHEAR DESIGN EQUATIONS 4. Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 426 1974. and φ is the strength reduction factor. User=veloz. The equations of Sections 4. Furthermore. (4-2). Design of critical slab sections perpendicular to the plane of a slab should be based on --`.`. the loss in tension is important.3. Under normal construction.1(a)).`..1(a)). These difficulties.`.3.```-`-`.+ ----------6 2 6 3 2 3 (4-4) The first term on the right-hand side of this equation is equal to Jy. before the yield strength can be reached in the shear reinforcement. ACI 318 gives Eq. occurs at the bends of shear reinforcement. the shear stress due to Vu combined with Muy. 4.``. however.1). These problems are largely avoided if shear reinforcement is provided with mechanical anchorage. of factored shearing force or factored shearing force combined with moment. it is very difficult to ensure such conditions for all stirrups.1—Geometrical and stress conditions at bend of shear reinforcing bar. Because this high stress can crush the concrete.`--- in which vu is the shear stress in the critical section caused by the transfer.`. between the slab and the column. 3. the average compressive stress on the concrete under the bend has to reach 0. slip occurs before the development of the full fyt in the leg of the stirrup at its connection with the bend.” For the closed rectangle in Fig.`. however. The shear stress distribution. 1975). such support is normally not fully effective. causing concrete crushing.```.`..`.⎪ 2 1 + -. satisfies this requirement.1(a).1(a) indicates the positive directions of the internal force Vu and moments Mux and Muy that the column exerts on the slab. Thus. and the stress is unlikely to reach yield in short shear reinforcement (in thin slabs). Flexural reinforcing bars can provide such improvement to shear reinforcement anchorage only if attachment and direct contact exists at the intersection of the bars (Point B of Fig. the ratio of the second term to the first is commonly less Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.3 apply when stirrups and headed studs are used. 3.. respectively. Jy.1R-4 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT vu ≤ φvn (4-1) Fig.+ -----------------Jx Jy Ac The coefficients γvx and γvy are given by ⎫ 1 γ vx = 1 – -------------------------------. 3.. It should also be satisfied at a critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of the shear reinforcement (Fig. Hawkins et al.``. causing a loss of tension.+ -------------.4fyt for equilibrium. 4. however. γvx.421. 4. including the consequences of improper stirrup details. as shown at Point B of Fig. The maximum factored shear stress vu at a critical section produced by the combination of factored shear force Vu and unbalanced moments Mux and Muy is V u γ vx M ux y γ vy M uy x v u = ----. ACI 318 gives l x1 l y1 l x1 l x1 d J c = d ------.2 and 4.l x1 ⁄ l y1 ⎪ 3 ⎭ (4-2) (4-3) where lx1 and ly1 are lengths of the sides in the x and y directions of a rectangular critical section at d/2 from the column face (Fig. which is defined as property of assumed critical section “analogous to polar moment of inertia.1. the concrete within the bend in the stirrups is subjected to stresses that could potentially exceed 0.1.`. Equation (4-1) should be satisfied at a critical section perpendicular to the plane of the slab at a distance d/2 from the column perimeter and located so that its perimeter bo is minimum (Fig.

-lb units) (4-10a) (4-10b) vn = λ f c′ /6 (SI units) (4-5) Equation (4-1) should be checked first at a critical section at d/2 from the column face (Fig. (4-9a). Positive directions for Vu . Muy = Muxsinθ + Muycosθ (4-6) where θ is the angle of rotation of the axes x and y to coincide with the principal axes.. the unbalanced moment Mux or Muy about the x. (4-6).-lb units) (φ f c′ /2 [SI units]).1(a)). and (4-12a). Muy = MuOy + Vu xO --`. its value is in pounds per square inch. ACI 318 requires that the maximum factored shear stress at d/2 from column face satisfy: vu ≤ 6φ f c′ (in. 4.-lb units) (4-8a) (SI units) (4-8b) Fig.1—Critical sections for shear in slab in vicinity of interior column. the moments about the centroidal nonprincipal axes x and y (Mux and Muy) are equivalent to the moments about the x and y axes (Mux and Muy) that are given by Eq. (4-1) is not satisfied.⎞ λ f c′ ⎝ β⎠ f c′ 4 v n = ⎛ 2 + -. 4.`. (4-7a). the shear strength of concrete at a critical section at d/2 from column face. User=veloz.`. (4-8a). For the shear-critical section in Fig.or y-axis through the centroid of shear-critical section is related to the unbalanced moment MuOx or MuOy about the x. 4. when fc′ is in MPa. (152 mm). Mux = Muxcosθ – Muysinθ. If Eq.2(b) and (c)).``.3—Calculation of shear strength vn Whenever the specified compressive strength of concrete fc′ is used in Eq.`.1 Shear strength without shear reinforcement—For nonprestressed slabs.2(c).`.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421. The value of vu obtained by the use of Jy in Eq.`. and Muy are indicated.`. the centroid of the column (Fig. sergio Not for Resale.3. Eq.3. but not less than 16 times the diameter of the stirrups.1R-5 4.-lb units) (4-7a) (SI units) (4-7b) where β is the ratio of long side to short side of the column cross section αs d v n = ⎛ -------.`. (4-7b)... 30 for edge columns or 20 for corner columns.+ 2⎞ λ f c′ ⎝ bo ⎠ f c′ αs d v n = ⎛ -------.``.`. (4-9b). than 3%.`. 4. 4. The shear strength at a critical section within the shear-reinforced zone should be computed by vn = vc + vs Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. (4-2) differs on the safe side from the value obtained with Jc. (4-10a). When the centroid of the shear-critical section does not coincide with O. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST where (xO.```. and vn = 4λ f c′ (in. When stirrup shear reinforcement is used.or y-axis through O by Mux = MuOx + VuyO. Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS (4-11) . yO) are the coordinates of O with respect to the centroid of the shear-critical section along the centroidal principal x and y axes. (4-8b).`--- where αs is 40 for interior columns. where shear reinforcement is not provided. 4.. For prestressed slabs.2 Shear strength with stirrups—ACI 318 permits the use of stirrups as shear reinforcement when d ≥ 6 in.+ 2⎞ λ --------⎝ bo ⎠ 12 (in.⎞ λ --------⎝ ⎠ 12 β (in. shear reinforcement is required.-lb units) (4-9a) (4-9b) vn = λ f c′ /3 (SI units) At a critical section outside the shear-reinforced zone vn = 2λ f c′ (in..```-`-`. refer to Chapter 5. Mux . (4-10b) and (4-12b) are used. should be the smallest of 4 v n = ⎛ 2 + -.

A line of stirrups too close to the column can be ineffective in intercepting shear cracks. The upper limits.2—Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shearreinforced zone. 4. of so and the spacing s between the peripheral lines are Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. the upper limit of s is to avoid failure between consecutive peripheral lines of stirrups. where so is the distance between the first peripheral line of shear reinforcement and the column face.``. in which vc = 2λ f c′ (in.`. where vn is calculated using Eq.1(b) and 4. permitted by ACI 318. so should not be smaller than 0.1R-6 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT Fig.`. and s is the spacing between peripheral lines of shear reinforcement.5d (4-14) (4-15) vc = 0.`. 4.35d..`.2) does not exceed φvn..-lb units) (4-12a) (4-12b) so ≤ 0.``.17λ f c′ (SI units) and A v f yt v s = ---------bo s (4-13) where Av is the cross-sectional area of the shear reinforcement legs on one peripheral line parallel to the perimeter of the column section.```.. Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.. Similarly.`.421. The shear reinforcement should extend away from the column face so that the shear stress vu at a critical section at d/2 from outermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement (Fig. User=veloz.`. sergio Not for Resale. The upper limit of so is intended to eliminate the possibility of shear failure between the column face and the innermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement.`.5d s ≤ 0. thus.```-`-`. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST .`.`.. (4-10a) or (4-10b).

with anchor heads of area equal to 10 times the cross-sectional area of the shank. ACI 318 permits upper limits for s based on the value of vu at the critical section at d/2 from column face v s ≤ 0.4. Megally 1998.`. Experimental data showing that the higher value of vn can be used are included in Appendix C.`.4. 1985. the stud shear reinforcement in slab-column connections reached a yield stress higher than 72. Other researchers (Dyken and Kepp 1988.b. ACI 318 requires conformance with ASTM A1044/A1044M. the minimum specified yield strength of headed shear studs is 51. The nominal shear strength provided by the concrete in the presence of headed shear studs. can be developed only over the middle portion of the vertical legs when they are sufficiently long. 4.3.`. (4-11) can be taken as high as 8 f c′ (in. 1984. (4-11).``.75d when ---u ≤ 6 f c′ (in. thus.5 f c′ [SI units]) φ v s ≤ 0. 1990.17λ f c′ [SI units]).3 Shear strength with studs—Section 11. clearly satisfied this requirement. In ASTM A1044/A1044M. Ghali et al. The plan dimensions of the shear capital are governed by assuming that the shear strength at d/2 from the edges of the capital is governed by Eq. The higher limit for s given by Eq.-lb units) (0. 1985. Institut für Werkstoffe im Bauwesen 1996) has indicated that the performance of higher-strength studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is satisfactory. Muller et al. Andrä 1981.3—Shear capital design. Gayed and Ghali 2004. when studs are used.3.5d when ---u > 6 f c′ (in.-lb units) (4-16a) (4-16b) vc = λ f c′ /4 (SI units) instead of 2λ f c′ (in. Elgabry and Ghali 1987. 1982.000 psi (350 MPa) based on what was commercially available in 2005. The nominal shear strength vn (psi or MPa) resisted by concrete and steel in Eq.3(a) shows a shear capital whose purpose is to increase the shear capacity without using shear reinforcement. a vertical branch of a stirrup is less effective than a stud in controlling shear cracks for two reasons: 1) the shank of the headed stud is straight over its full length. the specified yield strength Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.`. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST --`. Brown and Dilger 1994. ACI 318 permits the values given as follows when the shear reinforcement is composed of headed studs with mechanical anchorage capable of developing the yield strength of the rod. the use of the shear device. 1974) successfully applied other configurations.5 f c′ [SI units]).000 psi (500 MPa). Van der Voet et al. McLean et al.-lb units) (0.” Test results (Dilger and Ghali 1981. with or without reinforcement.000 psi (350 MPa). Further.. Regan 1996a.5 f c′ [SI units]) φ Fig. such as that shown in Fig.-lb units) (2 f c′ /3 [SI units]) instead of 6 f c′ (in. In a stirrup. is taken as vc = 3λ f c′ (in. Section 11. sergio Not for Resale. 1982.`. As mentioned in Chapter 3.```-`-`.-lb units) (0. Research (Otto-Graf-Institut 1996. Dilger and Shatila 1989.000 psi (500 MPa) without excessive reduction of shear resistance of concrete. using Eq. Sherif 1996).1. it limits fyt to 51.000 psi (414 MPa).`. Based on these results.2 of ACI 318-08 limits the design yield strength for stirrups as shear reinforcement to 60. Birkle 2004.-lb units) (0. Gayed and Ghali 2006) showed that studs. Discussion on the design value of vc is given in Appendix C. Mokhtar et al. Andrä 1981.13. fyt can be as high as 72. Mortin and Ghali 1991. Mokhtar et al. This type of shear capital rarely contains reinforcement other than the vertical bars of the column because its plan dimensions are small.. Regan 1996a. 4.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421. Elgabry and Ghali 1987. higher yield strengths are expected in future versions of ASTM A1044/A1044M. this practice is not (4-17) (4-18) When stirrups are used. whereas the ends of the stirrup leg are curved.``. 1980. This enables the use of thinner slabs.4 of ACI 318-08 requires that: “Stirrups and other bars or wires used as shear reinforcement shall extend to a distance d from extreme compression fiber and shall be developed at both ends according to 12.4 Shear capitals—Figure 4. In this experimental work. Institut für Werkstoffe im Bauwesen 1996. User=veloz. ACI 318 limits s to d/2. (4-7) to (4-9).`. 1. Van der Voet et al.`--- .1R-7 4. Thus.```. Cao 1993..`. (4-17) for headed shear stud spacing is again justified by tests (Seible et al. Ritchie and Ghali 2005. demonstrated a higher shear capacity.`. and 2) the anchor heads at the top and the bottom of the stud ensure that the specified yield strength is provided at all sections of the shank...

`. The shear capital that satisfies the recommended design should have an approximate effective depth ≥1. this greatly overestimates Vn compared with line ACDF or EDF calculated by Eq. whose slope is any angle ≤ 45 degrees. extending such that α = 1.```-`-`. and at d/2 outside the edges of the shear capital.`--- . with a 10 in.`.5(a). transferring a shearing force. (4-7) to (4-9) in absence of shear reinforcement. for the shear strength at critical sections at αd from the column faces. and the increase in Vn with α is not substantial. Accordingly. 0.2)φ4 f c′ The present guide considers the potential failure at EF.5(b)).2)φ4 f c′ To increase the strength by 50%. 0.5 – α⎞ -------.. The critical sections are at d/2 from the column face within the shear capital.```.``.. (4-1) at the critical sections at d/2 from the column face and at d/2 outside the edge of the shear capital. It can be verified that this design will satisfy Eq. (4-1). Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS At α > 4. Experiments (Megally and Ghali 2002) show that the failure of the shear capital is accompanied by a sudden separation of wedges ABC and DEF from the shear capital and brittle failure of the connection.1R-8 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT 1 v n ( α ) = ⎛ -----------------------⎞ 4 f c′ . (4-19) and (4-20). as α is increased. (4-10a) or (4-10b).`..-lb units) (4-20a) (SI units) (4-20b) Fig.5(b) is not recommended by the present guide.0 ⎝ 1 + 0. the shear strength (psi or MPa) drops (Fig. 4. φVn = φVn(b) = (576 in. square column supporting a 7 in.5 – α⎞ 4 f c′ . where bo = π(c + d) = the perimeter of the critical section at d/2 from the column face in absence of the shear capital. 4.5(c/d) + 2. 4.`. Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.3(b)) satisfy Eq. sergio Not for Resale.`. 4. while the area of the shearcritical section increases. Vu (lb) = 6 f c′ bod. The extent of the shear capital should be the same as the extent of the shear reinforcement when it is used instead of the shear capital. At d/2 from the column. transferring shearing force without unbalanced moment.`. respectively. Line DF represents Vn with vn (psi) = 2 f c′ .`. 0. the design in Fig. This is because: 1) EF is shorter than CD.. As a design example.5 < α < 4. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST --`. 4. At d/2 outside the edges of the shear capital.0 ---------------⎝ 7 ⎠ 3 (in. ACI 318 permits φVn = φbod4 f c′ . Based on experimental data.2)φ4 f c′ . Vn = vn(α)bod for a circular column of diameter c.-lb units) (4-19a) (SI units) (4-19a) (in. Analyses and finite-element studies indicate that this type of shear capital can be unsafe with a relatively low shear force combined with high unbalanced moment (Megally and Ghali 2002).⎠ 7 f c′ v n ( α ) = ⎛ 7. respectively. If the φVn equation is applied to the potential crack CD (Fig. The plan dimensions of the shear capital should be sufficiently large such that the maximum shear stresses at two critical sections (Fig. 4. It is obvious that the probability of failure at EF is far greater than at CD in a design that considers the shear strength.. Figure 4. vn is calculated by Eq.5 < α < 4.5(a)). Eligehausen (1996) and Dilger and Ghali (1981) proposed Eq.5 < α < 4.0 ⎝ ---------------.4(b) shows the variation of the shear strength. 0. (4-10)) is assumed. Line AB represents Vn when vn (psi) = 4 f c′ (independent of α). User=veloz. the one-way shear strength (Eq.`.0 ⎝ 1 + 0. For further justification of the recommendations in this section.25α⎠ f c′ 1 v n ( α ) = ⎛ -----------------------⎞ -------. vn is calculated by Eq. recommended.. Because within Zone A to D the variation of vn is not established.25α⎠ 3 v n ( α ) = ⎛ 7. The volume of concrete within the wedges ABC and DEF is too small to offer significant anchorage of the reinforcement that may be provided in the shear capital to prevent the separation of the wedges.4(a)). it is herein recommended to extend the shear capital to the zone where vn is known to be not less than the one-way shear strength.`.5 < α < 4.. consider the slab-column connection in Fig. slab with d = 6 in. the predicted strength would be φVn(b) = (576 in.421.4—Variation of: (a) vn and (b) Vn. consider a circular column of diameter c. φVn(a) = (348 in.``. (4-19) or (4-20). with the distance between the shear-critical section and the column face (= αd). Based on the potential crack AB (Fig. 4.5d.

the slab should be treated as nonprestressed. vn is to be calculated by Eq. h. Select so and s within the limitations of Eq.```-`-`. Special care should be exercised in computing Vp in Eq.`.3fpc + ------. When (vu/φ) ≤ 6 f c′ (in.`. by solution of Eq.1R-9 Find the minimum number of headed studs or legs of stirrups per peripheral line. Section D. no shear reinforcement or further check is required. and 3. a reduced or zero value for Vp should be used in Eq.2). (4-13).4 apply. CHAPTER 5—PRESTRESSED SLABS 5. At a critical section at d/2 from column face. calculate vu and vn by Eq. --`. (5-1a) (or Eq. (4-2) and (4-7) to (4-9).45 MPa). 4. and (4-18).`.. The difference [(vu/φ) – vc] gives the shear stress vs to be resisted by stirrups or headed studs.-lb units) (2 f c′ /3 [SI units]). 4. (4-11). If any of the aforementioned conditions are not satisfied. 3. ACI 318 permits only headed studs.5(b).3fpc + ------. 2. 4.```. If (vu/φ) ≤ vn.17λ f c′ /2 [SI units]). Arrange studs to satisfy the detailing requirements described in Appendix A.`. n running in x or y direction (Fig.-lb units) ( f c′ /2 [SI units]). 4.4 is an example of the design of the shear reinforcement in a prestressed slab.`. while EF may not cross any reinforcement.2. Repeat Step 1 at a trial critical section at αd from column face to find the section where (vu/φ) ≤ 2λ f c′ (in.1—Nominal shear strength When a slab is prestressed in two directions. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST . and s is to be maintained constant.5].-lb units) bo d f c′ Vp vn = βpλ --------. Mux. (4-12) or (4-16)) at the critical section at d/2 from column face.`. When it is uncertain that the actual construction will match the design assumption.`. Although that separation of the wedge EFG (at a shearing force < φVn(b)) may not produce collapse. Muy. This guide consistently recommends a shear-reinforced zone of the same size by the provision of shear reinforcement or by shear capital. The number n should be ≥ 2.. The design of shear reinforcement can be performed by the following steps (see design examples in Appendix D): 1. 2. 4. (5-1a) or (5-1b). (4-14). the distance in the x or y direction between the column face and the critical section is equal to so + (n – 1)s + d/2. Equation (5-1a) or (5-1b) is applicable only if the following are satisfied: 1.`.``.5 MPa). the shear strength of concrete at a critical section at d/2 from the column face where shear reinforcement is not provided.`--- Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.+ 0.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421. No other section needs to be checked. Select the distance between the column face and the outermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement to be ≥ [αd – (d/2)]. The trial calculations involved in the aforementioned steps are suitable for computer use (Decon 1996). it should not be an acceptable failure.3. and 4.3. and Eq. and 5. The position of the critical section can be determined by selection of the number of headed studs or stirrup legs per line. when (vu/φ) ≤ 8 f c′ (in. Vu. fpc is the average value of compressive stress in the two directions (after allowance for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section.(in. and d are given.``. If (vu/φ) > 8 f c′ (in. and calculate the required shear reinforcement area for one peripheral line Av.-lb units) (2 f c′ /3 [SI units]).5 and [(αsd/bo) + 1. and 2) CD crosses top and bottom flexural reinforcements whose amounts are specified by ACI 318.(SI units) bo d 12 (5-1a) Fig. No portion of the column cross section is closer to a discontinuous edge than four times the slab thickness h. fc′ in Eq. Examples of connections: (a) without shear capital. (4-17). User=veloz.-lb units) ( f c′ /2 [SI units]). For further justification of recommending against the design in Fig. For example.-lb units) (0. (5-1a) or (5-1b) due to the sensitivity of its value to the as-built tendon profile. Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS (5-1b) where βp is the smaller of 3. consider the potential crack at HI that does not intercept the shear capital. sergio Not for Resale. the slab thickness is not sufficient. Calculate the contribution of concrete vc to the shear strength (Eq.5—Potential shear cracks. and Vp is the vertical component of all effective prestress forces crossing the critical section. nor taken greater than 500 psi (3. This crack can occur due to high unbalanced moment in a direction that produces compressive stress in the column in the vicinity of H. (4-15). fpc in each direction is not less than 125 psi (0.4—Design procedure The values of fc′ . the equations and the design procedure in Sections 4.3. Vp is small with practical tendon profiles and the slope of the tendon is hard to control.86 MPa). go to Step 2. ACI 318 permits stirrups or headed studs.. (5-1b)) is not taken greater than 5000 psi (34. 4. In thin slabs.. is given by (ACI 318-08): Vp vn = βpλ f c′ + 0. When (vu/φ) > 6 f c′ (in. Within the shear-reinforced zone. and (b) with shear capital. (4-7) to (4-9) apply..`. fyt.

sergio Not for Resale. The designer should specify the overall height of the stud assemblies having the most efficiency ls = h – ct – cb (6-1) Fig. the column transferred a constant shearing force V and cyclic moment reversals with increasing magnitude.1). 6.`. If this requirement is not met. the slab-column connections transfer vertical shearing force V combined with reversals of moment M.`. (±38 mm). referred to in this document.`.3 Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings The above publications may be obtained from the following organizations: American Concrete Institute P.`--- . (7-1)). Gayed and Ghali 2006) show that headed studs. however. Ritchie and Ghali 2005. Tolerances for these dimensions should not exceed ±0. Brown and Dilger 1994. 6. In slabs in the vicinity of columns. For a given value of Vu. Tolerance for the distance between column face and outermost peripheral line of studs should not exceed ±1. without failure. ACI 421. CHAPTER 7—REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMICRESISTANT SLAB-COLUMN CONNECTIONS Connections of columns with flat plates should not be considered in design as part of the system resisting lateral forces. Birkle 2004.org Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. can be ineffective if the specified distances so and s are not controlled accurately.-lb units) vc = f c′ /8 (SI units) (7-1a) (7-1b) Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. the tensile flexural reinforcement is commonly at the bottom. Mokhtar et al. however. In these tests. Elgabry and Ghali 1987.```. are effective in resisting punching shear. 1982. Ritchie and Ghali 2005. The experiments showed that.`. respectively. MI 48333-9094 www.concrete... ACI 318 permits a manufacturing tolerance: the actual overall height can be shorter than ls by no more than db/2. Van der Voet et al. This reduction is analogous to the reduction of vc to 0 that is required by ACI 318 for framed members. Megally 1998. (±13 mm). Cao 1993.5 f c′ (in. Due to the lateral movement of the structure in an earthquake. User=veloz.1—Referenced standards and reports The documents of the various standards-producing organizations. the value of vc (Eq.2R Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates ASTM International A1044/ Specification for Steel Stud Assemblies for Shear A1044M Reinforcement of Concrete Canadian Standards Association A23. depending upon the magnitude of V.2R gives recommendations for designing flat platecolumn connections with sufficient ductility to go through lateral drift due to earthquakes without punching shear failure or loss of moment transfer capacity.O. Experiments (Cao 1993. and ct and cb are the specified concrete covers at top and bottom. Mortin and Ghali 1991. Brown and Dilger 1994. which indicate that the concrete contribution to the shear resistance is diminished by the moment reversals. American Concrete Institute 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete 421.org ASTM International 100 Barr Harbor Dr. anchored as close as possible to the top and bottom of slabs. which can be determined by the procedure and equations given in Chapter 4. A report on tests at the University of Washington (Hawkins 1984) does not recommend the aforementioned reduction of vc (Eq. drift ratios that varied between 3 and 7%. They could withstand. Andrä 1981. The drift ratio is defined as the difference between the lateral displacements of two successive floors divided by the floor height.``.``.`.1R-10 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT CHAPTER 6—TOLERANCES Shear reinforcement. Dilger and Shatila 1989. CHAPTER 8—REFERENCES 8. Tests (Dilger and Ghali 1981.1—Section in slab perpendicular to shear stud line. when the slab was provided with shear headed stud reinforcement. 1985. PA 19428-2959 www. the slab can resist a moment Mu. should be limited to vc = 1. This reduced value of vc is based on the experiments mentioned in this section.```-`-`. Gayed and Ghali 2006) were conducted on slab-column connections to simulate the effect of interstory drift in a flat plate structure. in the form of stirrups or studs.. are listed below with their serial designations. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST where h is the thickness of the member. Box 9094 Farmington Hills. where db is the diameter of the tensile flexural reinforcement (Fig.astm.5 in. West Conshohocken. Megally 1998. (4-12) or (4-16)). a punching shear crack can traverse the slab thickness without intersecting the shear-reinforcing elements. the connections behaved in a ductile fashion.`..5 in. in footings..421.`.`. the tensile flexural reinforcement is commonly at the top.`.

AB.`. “Shear Strength of Slabs with Shear Reinforcement. “Shear Reinforcement for Concrete Slabs.” Beton und Stahlbetonbau. H. AF 96/6 – 402/1. 76.” PhD dissertation. July. Hawkins. Mitchell.. 1990.`. “The Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members—Slabs... 5. 7. (in German) Mart.-Oct. V. 1990. No.. Canada. A. H. Marti. Birkhauser Verlag. 807-819. T. Mar. A. Sept. and Walther. V. SP-42. G. Elgabry. S. M. B. 549-557.```-`-`. 42.” ACI JOURNAL. “Nonlinear Analysis of Moment Transfer between Columns and Slabs. H. H. Canada. Mokhtar. Parlong. No. sergio Not for Resale. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST --`. Dilger. V. 2004. 2. GMBH & Co.” Shear in Reinforced Concrete. “Shear Strength of Prestressed Concrete Edge Slab-Columns Connections with and without Stud Shear Reinforcement. H. 2nd International Symposium on Utilization of HighStrength Concrete. “Response of Flat Plate Concrete Structures to Seismic and Wind Forces.. Sept. “Seismic Design of Slab-Column Connections. B. A.. 6. pp..`. V. C. 4.ca 8.. 1987. Edmonton. Report No. Cao. 1985. G. A. Gross-Gerau.” ACI Structural Journal. and Ghali. and Kepp.” PhD dissertation. Mar. 6. Mar. “Bericht über Zugversuche mit Deha Kopfbolzen (Report on Pull Tests on Deha Anchor Bolts). A.. 1989. p. “Moment Transfer by Shear in Slab-Column Connections.. Elgabry....” Report SM84-1. Eligehausen. Berlin. Brampton. D. 3. 100-104. 2006. Oct.. Birkle..” Journal of the Structural Division. No. W. 1996. University of Stuttgart. Germany. 188 pp. pp.-Dec. ETH Zurich. No. A.” ACI Structural Journal.. Canada. No. pp. 1974. “Punching Shear Behavior of Lightweight Concrete Slabs and Shells. 24. 93. 1996. 2.. P.. and Huizer.” Bautechnik. 1981. A. V.-Oct.. 1975. 2006. “Seismic-Resistant Joints of Interior Columns with Prestressed Slabs..” ACI Structural Journal. A. L. Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 426. Calgary. 101.``. McLean.” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 321-332. 5. V. Rexdale. Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Conference. Basel and Stuttgart. Canada. and Ghali.” Computer Program for Design of Shear Reinforcement for Slabs. Apr. “Punching Shear Resistance of Concrete Slabs to Gravity and Earthquake Forces. B. “STDESIGN. pp. 82. 1996. H. 1994. Germany) Gayed. M.. R.. 1993. Aug. 87.. N. S. 103. Sargious. “Double-Head Studs as Shear Reinforcement in Concrete I-Beams. R. H. American Concrete Institute. Mar. 2403-2420. Nordic Concrete Research. DEHA.” MSc thesis. ASCE.” ACI Structural Journal. V. Dec... 676-683. Decon. Brown.” Institut für Werkstoffe im Bauwesen.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421. University of Calgary. V. 710-719. 386-392. “Welded Wire Mesh as Stirrup Reinforcement: Shear on T-Beams and Anchorage Tests. pp. S.. “Punching of Slabs: Thickness and Stud Layout.. User=veloz. pp. H. 84.`.`.`. S. Calgary. and Shatila. 16. and Ghali.. V. ON. 1996. J. Hawkins. ST12.. and Ghali. A. and Ghali. A.. Sept. 468 pp. Calgary. Norske Betongforening. Proceedings V.. 7305-2.. N. 2. 53-57. Dec. “High-Strength Lightweight Aggregate Concrete—Current Status and Future Needs. No. V... 1977. V. pp. (Research carried out on behalf of Deha Ankersystene. 81 pp.” Shear in Reinforced Concrete. American Concrete Institute.. N.`. 107.” ACI Structural Journal. 909.” Bericht Nr. SP-42. No.`. “Design of Concrete Slabs for Transverse Shear. R. 1996.. M. 1984. 5. Farmington Hills. Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006..-Oct. “Stud Shear Reinforcement for Flat Concrete Plates. T. R.. 100.” Proceedings. Institut fur Baustatik aund Konstruktion.” Proceedings. MI. 785-815. W. N. Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Conference. Ontario M9W 1R3 Canada www. and Thurlimann. Farmington Hills. S. No. 1965. University of Calgary. and White. pp. V.. 4. Phan. 3.” Proceedings. No... 2004. 87. A. Dec. H. pp. 572-582..” ACI Structural Journal. pp. AB. pp. “Seismic Response of Flat-Plate Column Connections.```. and No.” Proceedings. P. “Strength of Flat Slabs Reinforced with Stud Rails in the Vicinity of the Supports (Zum Tragverhalten von Flachdecken mit Dübelleisten—Bewehrung im Auflagerbereich).. Lew. 1990. W. 103. Ghali. MI. 1998. A. University of Calgary... 2002. pp.`--- . and Hanna. Megally. D. Germany.” Universität—Stuttgart. pp.. and Ghali. W.. 4.. Dyken. Leonhardt.-Apr. Nov.. Winnipeg. pp.” Publication No. July-Aug. “Bericht über Versuche an punktgestützten Platten bewehrt mit DEHA Doppelkopfbolzen und mit Dübelleisten (Test Report on Point Supported Slabs Reinforced with DEHA Double Head Studs and Studrails).`. pp. No. pp. H. V.. A.” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. Berkeley. “The Effects of Shear Reinforcement on Reversed Cyclic Loading Behavior of Flat Plate Structures. 152 pp. “Schubversuche and Stahlbeton-Platten.. pp. Also see Errata in ACI Structural Journal. A. Megally. “Properties of T-Headed Reinforcing Bars in High-Strength Concrete.-Apr. R... “Tests on Concrete Slab-Column Connections with Stud Shear Reinforcement Subjected to Shear-Moment Transfer. 1543-1591. University of Washington.. V. B. 905-920. Institut für Werkstoffe im Bauwesen. No. P. H. and Dilger. 1981. Oslo. Hawkins... A.2—Cited references Andrä. “Vertical Prestressing of Flat Plates around Columns. pp. 187-196. pp. 4. July-Aug.. 388-397. MB. Megally.. 180-190.``. Canada..1R-11 Canadian Standards Association 178 Rexdale Blvd. “Cautionary Note on Shear Capitals. 433-442. Report No. Hoff. 75-83. 2. Dilger. Decon. Sept.. No. DE003/01-96/32. ST8... Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Ghali. V. 1974. No.. and Ghali. S. S. CA. M. IIa. and Dilger.. No.. AB. V. A. Canada.. May. Gayed. 20-23. Norway. M.” Concrete International. AB.csa. 1988. F. ASCE. 1974.

A.1..```-`-`. and it was reported that such applications improved the structural performance significantly (Gayed and Ghali 2004. Several other approaches for mechanical anchorage in shear reinforcement can be used (Marti 1990.. Proceedings V. In the stirrup details shown in Fig. (1984). University of Calgary. Figure 4. H. the distance g between Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.” University of Westminster. July.2—Stud arrangements Shear studs in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. a bar has to be lodged in each bend to provide the mechanical anchorage necessary for the Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. User=veloz.” ACI Structural Journal.`. Gayed and Ghali 2006).`. 2. No. W. London. and Ghali.. and corner columns. Headed reinforcing bars were developed and applied in Norway (Dyken and Kepp 1988) for high-strength concrete structures. Regan. No. Matching this detail and the design spacing so and s in actual construction ensure the effectiveness of stirrups as assumed in design. development of fyt in the vertical legs. sergio Not for Resale.-Feb. Mortin and Ghali 1991. V.1R-12 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT Mortin. pp.`--- Fig.. 1984.`. P. Muller..`. Germany. F..``. A.. University of Stuttgart. Jan. Muller et al.-Apr. pp. Shear studs mounted on a continuous steel strip. 2. McLean et al. England. Birkle 2004. A. and Dilger. and Ghali.2 are aligned with column faces.. London. 1. 1. For this reason.2 shows a typical arrangement of stud shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. Van der Voet et al. Ritchie and Ghali 2005. Muller et al. 1980. A. Otto-Graf-Institut. (152 mm). Tests (Dilger and Ghali 1981) showed that studs are most effective near column corners. 1991. Calgary.. Canada.” ACI Structural Journal.. 2121634. 1996..`. Mart et al. 1990). A. Mar.1—Geometry of stud shear reinforcement Several types and configurations of shear studs have been reported in the literature.. Gayed and Ghali (2004). 1977. Cao 1993..`. It is recommended that the performance of the shear stud reinforcement be verified before their use. Mokhtar et al. Types (b) to (e) are from Dyken and Kepp (1988). Brown and Dilger 1994.. Ritchie. Elgabry and Ghali 1987. and Thurlimann. B. Basel and Stuttgart. A.421. have been developed and investigated (Dilger and Ghali 1981. Ghali et al. 102.1—Shear reinforcement Type (a) is copied from ACI 318. APPENDIX A—DETAILS OF SHEAR STUDS A. M. H. E.” ETH Zurich. “Preassembled Shear Reinforcing Units for Flat Plates. 28-35.. V.. 2005.. “Behavior of R..C.” University of Westminster. shear studs in Fig. Seible. Sherif. 397 pp. England. Regan.” PhD dissertation. F. and Ghali.” Report No.``. 7305-5. A. X. and Ghali et al.. pp. “Durchstanzversuche an Stahlbetonplatten mit Rippendübeln und Vorgefertigten Grossflächentafeln (Punching Shear Tests on Concrete Slabs with Deformed Studs and Large Precast Slabs). Dilger. 1982. Dilger and Shatila 1989. 1974).. (1974). “Punching Test of Slabs with Shear Reinforcement. 77. pp. The term “peripheral line” is used in this report to mean a line running parallel to and at constant distance from the sides of the column cross section. edge. but not less than 16 times the diameter of the stirrups. “Concrete Flat Plates with Well-Anchored Shear Reinforcement Elements.-Apr. 191-198. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST .. “Connection of Flat Plates to Edge Columns. Several types are depicted in Fig. Ghali. AB. No.1(a) (from ACI 318). No. V. Germany. A. W. Nov.```.`. Muttoni. Hoff 1990).. Research Report No. 107-114. ASTM A1044/A1044M specifies an anchor head area equal to 10 times the crosssectional area of the stud. and their area should be sufficient to develop the specified yield strength of studs. as discussed in the main text of this report. 1996. Aug. Birkhauser Verlag. A. fyt. 1984. Flat Slabs. E. Another type of headed shear reinforcement was implemented for increasing the punching shear strength of lightweight concrete slabs and shells (McLean et al. In the direction parallel to a column face. “Double Headed Studs as Shear Reinforcement—Tests of Slabs and Anchorages.. F. 1996a. 1996b.`. Van der Voet. 4. The anchors should be in the form of circular or rectangular plates. (1990). Megally 1998. 314-323. J. A. 9. ACI 318 permits stirrups in slabs with d ≥ 6 in.. Andrä 1981. “Durchstanz Versuche an Flachdecken mit Aussparungen (Punching Tests on Slabs with Openings). “Seismic-Resistant Connections of Edge Columns with Prestressed Slabs. P. 1985. Mar.`. 1982.” ACI JOURNAL. 88.

which ensure the specified concrete cover. the minimum concrete cover of the anchors should be as required by ACI 318.`.`. lx and ly are projections of the shear-critical sections on directions of principal x and y axes.. Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006..1 shows the top view of critical sections for shear in slabs. the same limit for g should be observed (Fig.2—Shear headed stud reinforcement arrangement for circular columns. . Interior column-slab connections (Fig.1). A.`. Mux. APPENDIX B—PROPERTIES OF CRITICAL SECTIONS OF GENERAL SHAPE Figure B. (B-1) and (B-2).``. Mux.1(a)). The stud arrangement for circular columns is shown in Fig.3—Stud length The studs are most effective when their anchors are as close as possible to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.`.2. Megally and Ghali 1996).`. (B-3) to (B-6) are based on finite-element studies (Elgabry and Ghali 1996. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST --`. where d is the effective depth of the slab..SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421. and Muy are shown in their positive directions. The cover of the anchors should not exceed the minimum cover plus one-half bar diameter of flexural reinforcement (Fig. ACI 318-08 gives Eq.. Unless otherwise protected. A. The mechanical anchors should be placed in the forms above reinforcement supports. A. 6. Vu. Vu.. is two.`--- lines of shear studs should not exceed 2d.`. B. Eq. A.1R-13 Fig. The centroidal principal x and y axes of the critical sections.`. When stirrups are used. in the vicinity of rectangular and circular columns. (B-1) to (B-6).```. The coefficients γvx and γvy are given by Eq. The minimum number of peripheral lines of shear studs.```-`-`. B. and Muy represent the effects of the column on the slab.1—Shear-critical sections outside shear-reinforced zones and sign convention of factored internal forces transferred from columns to slabs.1(a)) 1 γ vx = 1 – --------------------------2 l ⁄l 1 + -.``. sergio Not for Resale.y x 3 Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS (B-1) Fig. The shear force Vu acts at the column centroid.`.`. User=veloz.

User=veloz.421.2 x 1 + -. The values of Ac.`.`. B. the anchorage by hooks or 90-degree bends is subject to slip.. enough experimental evidence that use of the empirical equation vn = vc + vs with vc = 3 f c′ (in. xj.– 0.1(c)) γvx = 0.`. and γvy Muy..– 0.-lb units) Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. All of these effects reduce the shear capacity of the concrete in slabs with stirrups.( y i + y i y j + y j ) 3 (B-8) Jx = d 2 l 2 -. rather than on a side.`. when the value is positive.( x i + x i x j + x j ) 3 (B-9) where xi.``. γvx Mux . (1 mm) when the stress in the stirrup leg approaches its yield strength (Leonhardt and Walther 1965). When the critical section has no axis of symmetry.but γvy = 0 when --x < 0.4d from the peak point. vu may be investigated at a point located at a distance 0.``.. and Jy can be determined by summation of the contribution of the segments Ac = d The x and y coordinates. To reflect the stirrup slip in the shear resistance equations.`.-lb units) ( f c′ /6 [SI units]) when stirrups are used. determined by Eq. and yj are coordinates of points i and j at the extremities of a typical segment whose length is l. B. sergio Not for Resale.1(b)) 1 γ vx = 1 – --------------------------2 1 + -. Jx . the peak value of vu does not govern the strength due to stress redistribution (Brown and Dilger 1994).4 (B-5) l 1 γ vy = 1 – --------------------------------.1R-14 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT 1 γ vy = 1 – --------------------------2 1 + -. (B-8) and (B-9) to give the values of Jx and Jy.`--- . refinement of the shear failure model is required.-3 ly Equations (B-7) to (B-9) give the values of Ac. When the maximum vu occurs at a single point on the critical section.04 in. The value allowed for vc is 2 f c′ (in. and • Reduction of the shear friction across the crack. In this case. The influence of the slip is manifold: • Increase in width of the shear crack. substituting x and Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. This slip is detrimental to the effectiveness of stirrups in slabs because of their relative small depth compared with beams. whose resultant components are exactly Vu. Jxy is equal to d times the product of inertia of the perimeter of the critical section about the centroidal nonprincipal x and y axes J xy = d ∑ l -. Generally. In structural elements reinforced with conventional stirrups. given by – 2J xy tan 2θ = -------------Jx – Jy (B-10) The absolute value of θ is less than π/2. For a circular shear-critical section. This will give a reduced vu value compared with the peak value. and Jy that determine by Eq. the reduction should not be allowed to exceed 15%. The reason for the higher value of vc for slabs with headed shear stud reinforcement is the almost slip-free anchorage of the studs.-3 ly Corner column-slab connections (Fig. APPENDIX C—VALUES OF vc WITHIN SHEAR-REINFORCED ZONE This design procedure of the shear reinforcement requires calculation of vn = vc + vs at the critical section at d/2 from the column face. θ is measured in the clockwise direction. the centroidal principal axes can be determined by the rotation of the centroidal nonprincipal x and y axes an angle θ. which can be as high as 0.( 2x i y i + x i y j + x j y i + 2x j y j ) 6 (B-11) (B-3) The coordinates of any point on the perimeter of the critical section with respect to the centroidal principal axes can be calculated by Eq. There is. The empirical equation vn = vc + vs.```.2(c).l y ⁄ l x 3 (B-2) y for x and y. 4.2 (B-4) ly 2 l. (4-2) the distribution of shear stress vu.```-`-`. (B-8) and (B-9). A mechanics-based model that is acceptable for codes is not presently available. such as in Fig.`. Jx and Jy can be calculated by Eq. adopted in almost all codes.-lb units) ( f c′ /4 [SI units]) when headed shear studs are used. • Reduction of the shear resistance of the compression zone. can now be substituted in Eq.2 (B-6) ly 2 l. Jx. (B-12) and (B-13) x = xcosθ + ysinθ y = –xsinθ + ycosθ (B-12) (B-13) l 1 γ vy = 1 – --------------------------------. • Extension of the shear crack into the compression zone. yi. Ac = 2πd (radius) and Jx = Jy = πd (radius)3.`.l x ⁄ l y 3 Edge column-slab connections (Fig. the critical section perimeter can be considered as composed of straight segments.. however.2 x 1 + -.. and 3 f c′ (in. is not the ideal approach to solve the shear design problem. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST ∑l (B-7) Jx = d ∑ ∑ 2 l 2 -.but γvy = 0 when --x < 0.`. (B-12) and (B-13).`.

3.. sergio Not for Resale. fct is average splitting tensile strength of lightweight aggregate concrete.2 lists only the tests in which the failure occurred within the shear-reinforced zone.0 (298) 67.75 4. or at a section at d/2 from the outermost studs when failure occurs outside the shear-reinforced zone. MPa) and (3 f c′ + vs . f c′ is replaced in calculation by fct /6.39 1.5) 798 (90.`.” Stuttgart. 1982 Experiment no. 1985 Seible et al.```.13) 444 (3.8) 4080 (28.5) 552 (62.49 (114) 0.00 1.1 (442) 55.2 gives the ratio vtest /vcode .60 MPa).7 (460) 66.3 summarizes experimental data of numerous slabs in which the maximum shear stress vu obtained in test.3. (4-17) and to calculate the strength with the provisions in Section 4. This approach is adopted in the Canadian code.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421.0 indicates that it is safe to use headed studs spaced at the upper limit set by Eq.1 (380) 55. 38 to 41 Reference Regan 1996a Regan 1996b Sherif 1996 Van der Voet et al. † (kN) (kN-m) kip-in. ( f c′ /4 [SI units]) gives a safe design for slabs with shear headed stud reinforcement.75 4.8) 4890 (33. 26 to 29 30 to 36 42.5 and (114) 0. Table C.59) 673 (4.66 (426) 0.0) (4) 6.3.1 (325) (11) 1.52 1. the failure is at sections outside the shear-reinforced zone.97 4.7) 5660 (39.570 (1013) 1.42) 665 (4. Table C. 1980 — “Grenzzustände der Tragfäkigheit für Durchstanzen von Platten mit Dübelleistein nach EC2 (Ultimate Limit States of Punching of Slabs with Studrails According to EC2). psi (MPa) (MPa) (mm2) vtest /vcode (6) 214 (952) 47. Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. (mm) (MPa) (mm) (1) 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 30* 39 --`.1 (380) 55. The values of vtest /vcode greater than 1.7) 4210 (29. in.7. 37 25.``.43 — Reference Elgabry and Ghali 1987 Mokhtar et al. reaches or exceeds 8 f c′ (in.88 Mean Coefficient of variation * Semi-lightweight concrete.`.0 (298) 101 (449) 117 (520) 113 (507) (7) 0 651 (73.0) 1257 (142.7 (460) 40.0 (116) 27. † vcode is smaller of 8 f c′ . section centroid.02 1.06) (10) 64.1 (380) 66. fc′.07) 641 (4. MPa).-lb units) ( f c′ /4 [SI units]).4) 708 (80.0) 755 (85.84 (250) 9. kip-in.3) 1434 (162.70 0. In Table C.```-`-`. CSA A23.84 (250) 9. 16 to 18 19.`--- s/d (5) 0.14 1. shear stress fyt .66 (426) 0.lb units) ( f c′ /4 [SI units]) (Eq.0) 1328 (150.7 (460) 66.402 (905) 0.2—Slabs with stud shear reinforcement failing within shear-reinforced zone Square column size.`.93) 641 (4.84 (250) 9.64) 454 (3.. The value vcode is calculated at d/2 from column face when failure is within the shear-reinforced zone.0) 5920 (40.49 (114) 0.78) 570 (3.`. with vc = 3 f c′ (in. ksi Av .1) 929 (105) 0 0 (8) 0 491 (55.64) 590 (4. (4-16a) or (4-16b)).0 (151) 67. fct used herein = 377 psi (2.2 (121) 34. 1 to 5 6.02 1.0 indicate there is safety of design with vc = 3 f c′ (in.3.4.3.49 (114) 4.03 1.3.1) 4470 (30.6) 730 (82.7) 1434 (162.95 4.1R-15 Table C.. 20 21 to 24.18 0.1 (380) 55.4 (211) 52.28 1.30 (160) 4.49 (114) 0.7 (460) 66.49 0.49 0.84 (250) 9.880 (568) 1.570 (1013) 0. Table C.-lb units) (2 f c′ /3 [SI units]) (Section 4.84 (250) 9.1).6) 5470 (37.3 (278) 47.84 (250) 9.66 (426) 0.1) 929 (105) 0 0 (9) 599 (4.460 (297) (12) 1. User=veloz.320 (852) 0. psi (2 f c′ /3.8 (235) 26. 1996. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST .49 (114) 4.3). Experiment in.13) 528 (3. Table C.1—List of references on slab-column connections tests using stud shear reinforcement Experiment no.84 (250) 9. kips Mu .84 (250) 9. where vs = Av fyt /(bo s).8) 6610 (45.42) 693 (4.3) 4030 (27. Column 12 of Table C. 9 10 to 15 * Reference Andrä 1981 Footnote* Otto-Graf-Institut 1996 Intitut für Werkstoffe im Bauwesen 1996 Experiment no. The ratio vtest /vcode greater than 1.`.5 and (114) 0.2) 847 (95.`.0) 1328 (150.08 1.84 (250) (3) 5660 (39.49 (114) 4.`. in. 7 8.84 (250) 9.17 Remarks (13) Interior column Edge column Edge column Edge column Edge column Interior column Interior column Interior column Interior column Interior column Interior column (2) 7.70 Tested capacities Maximum M at critical 2 Vu . at the critical section at d/2 from column face. vcode is the nominal shear stress calculated by ACI 318.0) 1257 (142.3 indicates that vn can be safely taken equal to 8 f c′ (in.48 1. with the provisions given in Section 4.06 1. (4-17).-lb units) (2 f c′ /3 [SI units]).87 (200) 9.4 gives the experimental results of slabs having stud shear reinforcement with the spacing between headed studs greater or close to the upper limit given by Eq. Numerous test slab-column connections reinforced with headed studs are reported in the literature (Table C.`.66 (426) 1. 15 pp.70 0.49 (114) 4. Table C.`.880 (568) 0. determined experimentally. where vcode is the value allowed by ACI 318.``. psi) ( f c′ /4 + vs .75 0. Germany.70 0..0) 4100 (28.. In the majority of these tests. psi d. (kN-m) vu.49 (114) 4.75 0.

2) 5290 (36.8) 4630 (31.91 (150) 9. in.14) 543 (3.1R-16 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT Table C.02) 725 (5.28) 589 (4.84 sq.17) 456 (3..) 9.76 (248) 5.42) 665 (4.7 (150) 1434 (162. (200 sq.84 sq.) 10. (250 sq.) 9.55 1. Other experiments are on interior slab-column connections. (kN-m) (MPa) (8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 491 (55.0) 4. (235 cr. (mm) (7) 9.`.06) 456 (3. (190 cr.07) 641 (4.48 cr.68) 623 (4.5) 5550 (38.1) 924 (104) Mean Coefficient of variation * † Experiment (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 --`.00 1.70) 934 (6.19) 449 (3.`.) columns or diameter of circular (cr.24) 585 (4. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST .49) (5) 476 (2120) 428 (1900) 346 (1540) 665 (2960) 790 (3510) 600 (2670) 620 (2760) 271 (1200) 343 (1530) 142 (632) 350 (1560) 159 (707) 128 (569) 278 (1240) 255 (1130) 207 (921) 216 (961) 234 (1040) 236 (1050) 214 (952) 47.48 1.1) 4.84 sq.```-`-`. kip-in.08 1. (190 cr.23) 621 (4.7) 5870 (40.) 12.) fc′.84 sq.37) 667 (4.13 1.14 (156) 6.8 (235) 26.03) 488 (3.4 (300) 1257 (142.3) 4030 (27.5) 4890 (33.22 (285) 9.00) 661 (4. (250 sq.34 1.) 9.45 (113) (9) 629 (4. (300 sq.) 7.8) 3260 (22.48 cr.9) 5250 (36.) 7.07 (205) 5.60 (244) 6.06 (230) 8.`.87 sq.69) 523 (3..64) (10) 1. Edge slab-column connections. (250 sq.0) 1257 (142. (370 sq.06) 651 (4.81 sq.59) 673 (4.) 9.68 cr. (190 cr.07 1.) 7.14 1.56) 599 (4.) 11.6) 3310 (22.) 9.03 1.78) 532 (3.02 1.`--- d.3) 0 1434 (162. MPa) V.57 sq.9) 5660 (39.72 (247) 9.`.44) 965 (6. (200 sq.5) 6020 (41.5) 552 (62.02 1.48 cr.```.26 1.14 1.4) 5550 (38.16 1.5) 3270 (22.1) 4470 (30.4 (211) 52. sergio Not for Resale.81 sq.2 (121) 135 (600) (6) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 651 (73.6) Tested capacities M.0) 755 (85.00 1.) 7.48 cr. (260 sq. User=veloz.) 7.74) 441 (3.52) 535 (3.25 1. (2/ f c′ 3.49 (114) 101 (449) 929 (105) 4. psi section centroid.7) 5660 (39.48 cr.00) 582 (4.51 (267) 11.92) 601 (4. (260 sq.) 9. in. (190 cr.24 1.93) 641 (4. (235 cr.8) 6610 (45.66) 482 (3.84 sq.04) 462 (3.13) 528 (3..32) 728 (5.87 sq.17) 582 (4. (250 sq.66 (220) 10.) columns.0) 3340 (23.4) 708 (80.49) 613 (4.17 1.15) 615 (4.60 cr.28) 447 (3.) 10. (235 cr.30 (160) 6.42) 693 (4. Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.) 7.5) 4610 (31.03 1.50 (165) 6.``.9 (120) 27.94 (151) 6.) 9.13 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21† 22† 23 † 24† 25 26 27 28 29 33. psi (4) 621 (4.6) 730 (82.29 1.) 9. (250 sq.66) 459 (3.24) 651 (4. (500 cr.30) 516 (3.17 0.01) 582 (4.0) 5920 (40.``.15) 460 (3.50) 511 (3.25 cr.07 1.07 (205) 8.64) 590 (4.8) 4280 (29.0) 4100 (28.23 sq.10) 544 (3.`.81 sq.03 1.14) 589 (4.30 (160) 4.14) 513 (3.7) 0 Maximum shear M at critical stress vu .5) 798 (90.60) 682 (4..33 (237) 9.48 cr.`.3—Tests with maximum vu at critical section of d/2 from column face exceeding 8 f c ′ psi (2 f c ′ /3 MPa) (slabs with stud shear reinforcement) Column size.) 9.08) 457 (3. (190 cr. (250 sq.8) 4080 (28.0) 1328 (150.54) 508 (3.) 7.`.27 1.49 (114) 4.) 14.75) 580 (4.8) 3050 (21.) 11.60 cr.25 cr.) 12.56) 530 (3.01) 569 (3.02 (153) 5. (250 sq.86) 602 (4. (300 sq.) 9.16 1. (250 sq.0) 4.67) 570 (3. (300 sq.84 sq. (320 cr.25 1.`.83 (148) 9.84 sq.) 7.3) 6620 (45. vu /8 f c′ kip-in. (mm)* (2) 11.05 1.49 (114) 67.0) 3160 (21.`.61) 559 (3.01) 679 (4. (250 sq.4 (300) 1328 (150.) 19.) 9.07 1.49 (114) 4.2) 847 (95.49 (114) Column 2 gives side dimension of square (sq. kips (kN) (kN-m) 8 f c′ .421.25 cr.86 (225) 8. psi (MPa) (3) 6020 (41.33 (237) 8.23 sq.3) 3250 (22.) 9. (190 cr.06 1..49 (114) 4.5) 3120 (21.84 sq.49 (114) 4.84 sq.00) 725 (5.49 (114) 67.5) 5060 (34. (320 cr.52 1.

(250 sq.74) 49.4—Slabs with stud shear reinforcement having s approximately equal to or greater than 0. kip-in. (kN-m) vu.`.42) 454 (3. (250 sq.) 4080 (28.45 (113) 9.88 1.4 (300) 1257 (142. Section D.46 (942) 181 (1.45 (113) 12. (250 sq.0) 1257 (142. (305 sq.28 1.52) 49. or diameter of circular (cr. (448 mm).0) 4.) 4790 (33.) 4030 (27.55 and 346 (1540) 0.00 0. User=veloz.3 (278) 1..88 1.84 sq.0) 4.5 (500) 1.26) 72.0 sq.0) 4.42) 693 (4.39) 523 (3.7 × 109 mm4).5 (500) 1.07) 641 (4. ||(v ) u outside in Column 12 is maximum shear stress at failure in critical section at d/2 outside outermost studs.4 (11.0) 4.70 0.1—Interior column-slab connection The design of headed studs.70 0.75 – (5/8) = 5.) 5380 (37.8 kN-m).8) 0 0 0 0 0 40.0) 4.1 (380) 0.62 1 + -.14 (156) 9.73 7.84 sq.0) 117 (520) 123 (547) 131 (583) 131 (583) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 637 (72.3 (278) 1.45 (113) 9.) 4890 (33. fc′ = 4000 psi (27.49 (114) 9.70 0.7 (150) 1434 (162.0) 5.48 (955) 273 (1.06) 522 (3.1 (380) 0.) 5660 (39.8 (235) 26. (250 sq.65 0.75 in.9 (330) Av.1 (325) 0.36 2 17.75 and 9.) 4350 (30.-----------3 25. is illustrated by numerical examples for connections of nonprestressed slabs with interior.|| vtest / ** psi (MPa) vcode (12) (13) 214 (1. (235 cr.26 1.02 (153) 7.52 1. (250 sq.75 122 (543) 0.5) 552 (62.84 sq.`.1) 4.0) 4..3 (278) 1. is required at an interior column (Fig. (250 sq.84 sq.75 0.64) 590 (4.32 (852) 143 (0.6) 730 (82.09 (703) 195 (1.87 sq. (4-3)) 1 γ vy = 1 – -----------------------------.89) fyt . yield strength of studs fyt = 51 ksi (350 MPa).23) 55. (mm) (4) s/d (5) V.48) 1.99 (639) 221 (1.62 --`.3) 488 (3. and flexural reinforcement nominal diameter = 5/8 in.78) 570 (3.28) 509 (3. ksi (MPa) (10) 47.4 are followed: Step 1—The effective depth of slab d = 7 – 0.6) 4.0) 4. concrete cylinder strength in Column 3 calculated using f ′ = 0.84 sq.25 cr. (300 sq.1 (380) 0.84 sq.2) 847 (95. centroid.60) 444 (3.86 1.49 (114) 9. APPENDIX D—DESIGN EXAMPLES The design procedure.00) 661 (4.75 0.35 1. in.) columns.7.83f ′ . Jy = 28.75d Tested capacities fc′.56) 528 (3.32 (852) 178 (1. The fraction of moment transferred by shear (Eq.95 1.7) 4.66 (426) 55. 4. D.03 1.) 4100 (28.5 in.5 (293) 1. edge.) 5800 (40.84 sq. kips (kN) (6) M at critical Maximum section M. (250 sq.13) 476 (3. The five steps of design outlined in Section 4.Column size.`.9) 6.52 1.```-`-`.84 sq. presented in Chapter 4. f c′ replaced in calculations by fct/6.06 1.84 sq. sergio Not for Resale.) 5290 (36.49 (114) 9.32 (852) 145 (1.84 sq.06) 492 (3.45) 444 (3.6 (466) 1.45 (113) 9.31 0.0) 755 (85. (250 sq.38 1.1) based on the following data: column size cx by cy = 12 × 20 in.14) 40.34 1. concrete cover = 0.02 1.86) Mean Coefficient of variation * Slab 30 is semi-lightweight concrete. (143 mm) Properties of a critical section at d/2 from column face shown in Fig.94) 70. (250 sq.66 (426) 55.49 (114) 0.25 cr.6 (397) 1.25 cr.8) 4.3 (361) 1. c cube §Column 9 is maximum shear stress at failure in critical section at d/2 from column face.26 1.1(a): bo = 86.) 4630 (31.49 (114) 9.75 0.51) 509 (3.08 1.0) 4.00) 40.30) 517 (3.02 1. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST . (2197 mm).0) 4.62 in..``. (250 sq.84 sq.14) 55. (250 sq.0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 476 (53.84 sq.20 1.30 (160) 9.66 (220) 0.25) 54. vcode calculated at d/2 from column face when failure is within stud zone and at section at d/2 from outermost studs when failure is outside shear-reinforced zone.) 4610 (31.) 4470 (30.77 1.) 4210 (29.70 0. †Column 2 gives side dimension of square (sq.2 (121) 67.32 (852) 166 (1.) columns.5) 6.) 5060 (34.46 (297) — — 0.) 5080 (35. Ac = 486 in.‡ Exper.49 (114) 9.4) 708 (80.7) 33.4 (211) 52.49 (114) 129 (574) 1.48 cr.49 (114) 9. in.9 (489) 1.7) 4. **v code is value allowed by ACI 318 in Section 4. (16 mm).62 in.10) 72..84 sq. (250 sq.2 (314 × 103 mm2). (250 sq.75 159 (707) 128 (569) 207 (921) 216 (961) 234 (1040) 236 (1050) 47.54 (994) 270 (1.00) 725 (5.1) 4.60 MPa). kip.00 1.43 1.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421.2 (339) 1.75 0.5) 798 (90.76 (121) 0. slab thickness h = 7 in.`. and corner columns.0) 1434 (162.93) 641 (4. (235 cr. ‡For cube strengths.1 (373) 1.) 5250 (36.49 (114) 9.4 is a design example of shear reinforcement for a connection of an interior column with a prestressed slab. iment (mm) psi (MPa) (1) (2) (3) † d.7 (460) 1.shear stress § (kN-m) in.57 (1010) 66.94 0.) 4210 (29.49 (114) 9.66 (426) 55.42 1.3 (278) 1.75 0. in.62 in. (178 mm).91 (150) 9.9 (489) 1.34) 57.) 3340 (23. conforming to ASTM A1044/ A1044M.66 (426) 47.48 cr.49 (114) 0.88) 73. (250 sq.75 114 (507) 9.94 (151) 9.61 0.66 0.49 (114) 9.`--- Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. (250 sq.32 (852) 136 (0. (250 sq.2) 6.= 0.) 3250 (22.30 1.51) 473 (3.2 (mm2) (11) ? (vu)outside.0) 67.1 (380) 0.``.57 (1010) 40.) 5300 (36. fct used herein = 377 psi (2.00 48 (214) 113 (503) 125 (556) 133 (592) 133 (592) 134 (596) 52.09 (703) 160 (1.84 sq.8) 4.0 × 103 in.`.6 MPa).) 5470 (37. psi (MPa) (7) (8) (9) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 491 (55.9 (120) 27.24) 42.46 (942) 182 (1.) 4240 (29. fct is average splitting tensile strength of lightweight-aggregate concrete.50 (165) 7.`.4) 8.18 0.66 (426) 66.75 0.49 (114) 9.00) 70. (235 cr. (200 sq. (190 cr. determined experimentally. (250 sq.3.) 4880 (33.61) 523 (3.9 (489) 1.3.) 3050 (21.70 0.2 (305 × 508 mm2).61) 419 (2.74 (1120) 253 (1.`.2 (339) 0.84 sq.7 (460) 1.26) 500 (3.```. The factored forces transferred from the column to the slab are: Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Vu = 110 kips (489 kN) and Muy = 600 kip-in.46 (942) 180 (1.`.84 sq.7) 4.93 1.) 5950 (41. lx1 = 17.1R-17 Table C.66) 728 (5.23 3 12 13 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 26 27 30* 31 32 33 34 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 43 11..81 sq.1 (380) 0.37) 623 (4. (67. (19 mm).0 (503) 1.`.2) 4.88 0.07 1.99) 70.9) 5.84 sq.3) 4. (250 sq.02) 725 (5. (190 cr. D. (651 mm).32 (852) — — — — — — — 651 (73.49 (114) 9.84 sq.77 0.40 (903) 165 (1. and ly1 = 25.50 9.75 0.94 1.8) 6. (vu)outside not given for slabs that failed within stud zone.32 (852) 145 (1.

```.1) Av 10 ( 0. assume a critical section at 4. (4-11). 1 kip = 4.``.```-`-`. lx2 = 62. Taking cover of 3/4 in. (6-1)) ls = 7 – 2 ⎛ 3⎞ = 5.62) = 25. Try 3/8 in. indicating that the choice of studs and their spacing are adequate. = 25.7 mm) s f yt 51.. indicating that shear reinforcement is required.`.5d = 2. (B-2)). and (4-13) gives vu vs ≥ ---.1—Example of interior column-slab connection: stud arrangement.) = 5-3/16 in. sergio Not for Resale.= --------. so = 2. choose the spacing between peripheral lines.5d = 2.4 f c′ (or 0. (8.3 in.5d from column face (Fig.34 in.`. (4-2)) 0. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST Fig.`.. (4-7) to (4-9)) 4v n = ⎛ 2 + --------.) The maximum shear stress occurs at x = 17. Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. s ≤ 0.`.6 in.62 ) v n = ⎛ -------------------.4 mm.37 f c′ ) ⎝ 1.`--- .= ----------------------. Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. (1590 mm).1R-18 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT Step 2—The quantity (vu /φ) is greater than vn. (Note: 1 in. Stirrups are not permitted by ACI 318 because (vu/φ) is greater than 6 f c′ (in. (57 mm) (Fig. The shear stress resisted by concrete in the presence of headed studs at the critical section at d/2 from column face vc = 3 f c′ = 190 psi (1. (71 mm). (643 mm).1 mm) s 2..75 in. (71 mm) This example has been provided for one specific type of headed shear stud reinforcement.8 in. the same quantity is less than the upper limit vn = 8 f c′ (in.6 f c′ (or 0.40 in.448 kN.5 mm) diameter studs welded to a bottom anchor strip 3/16 x 1 in.`. Step 4—For a first trial.34 in.81 in.``.-lb units) (2 f c′ /3 [SI units]). the specified overall height of headed stud assembly (having most efficiency) (Eq.⎞ f c′ = 4.`.≥ --------.000 Step 3 so ≤ 0. D.1(b)): α = 4..38 f c′ ) ⎝ 86. and the spacing between column face and first peripheral line.25 in.`.7 mm).03 MPa) ---------------------3 486 28.– vc = 392 – 190 = 202 psi (1.= 0. s = 2.= -------------------. (224 mm).8 in.5(5.2 f c′ (2.31 MPa) Use of Eq.74 MPa). but the approach can be adapted and used also for other types mentioned in Appendix A. (70 mm).+ ------------------------------------------------.5 ) ---. γvy = 0.75 The nominal shear stress that can be resisted without shear reinforcement at the critical section considered (Eq.0 × 10 vu 294 ---.36 ( 600 × 10 )8.= 294 psi (2.81 v u = 110 × 10 . 4.6 in. which means that the slab thickness is adequate. (9.. (1793 mm). αd = 4.39 MPa) φ Av vs bo 202 ( 86. ly2 = 70. (8. and its value is (Eq.75 This value is greater than 0.= 392 psi = 6. (4-1).5 ⎠ vn = 4 f c′ (or f c′ /3) 3 3 Use the smallest value: vn = 4 f c′ = 253 psi ( f c′ /3 = 1.5. (19 mm) at top and bottom.62/2 = 8.67⎠ 40 ( 5.`.2 (5 x 25 mm2). (140 mm) -⎝ 4⎠ The actual overall height (considering manufacturing tolerance) should not be less than ls – 1/2 the diameter of flexural reinforcement bars (5/8 in.`.39 (Eq. User=veloz.= 0.+ 2⎞ f c′ = 4.5 in.52 f c′ ) φ 0.-lb units) ( f c′ /2 [SI units]). (132 mm) With 10 studs per peripheral line.70 MPa = 0.421. D. (10.11 ) ---.

-----------3 23.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421.98 MPa) φ 0. The value of Vu used to calculate the maximum shear stress could have been reduced by the counteracting factored load on the slab area enclosed by the critical section. is adequate.17) = 1530 kip-in.4 mm.= --------.8 α = --------.2 to D. D. (529 mm). occurs at Point A (Case I) and |(vu/φ)A| = 338/0. (4-2) gives 110 × 10 0. ct. in Section D. Cases I and II are considered.`. D. (757 mm) 29.39 ( 600 × 10 )31. or xB = 6.98 MPa) is greater than vn = 126 psi (0. The fraction of moment transferred by shear (Eq. this reduction is ignored in Sections D. 4.) MuOx = 0 For the shear-critical section at d/2 from column face. The connection is designed for gravity loads combined with wind load in positive or negative x-direction. D. The factored forces.62 vu/φ = 125 psi (0.62 The shear stress at Points A and B.`--- Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.4 (7. and db.75 = 451 psi = 7. (5329 mm). (686 mm) Check shear stress at a critical section at a distance from column face αd = 27 + d/2 = 27 + 5.2(a) and (b)).86 MPa) vn = 2 f c′ = 126 psi (0. Step 1—Properties of the shear-critical section at d/2 from column face shown in Fig.25 + 9(2. xO = –5.```.1. Mux = 0 Case II—Wind load in positive x-direction Vu = 10 kips (44 kN).. Case I—Wind load in negative x-direction Vu = 36 kips (160 kN).1. (194 kN-m).1 f c′ (3. --`.17 in. shown in Fig.2 (760.. D.2—Example of edge column-slab connection: shear-critical sections and stud arrangement.2(a) are: bo = 65.2(a). D.8 in.= 142 psi (0.338 × 106 mm4)..25 in. (795 mm). (Note: 1 in. (–102 kN-m) Muy = –900 + 10(–5. The maximum shear stress.```-`-`. (1581 mm). Jy = 17. are given. fc′ .. Eq.3 × 103 in.2 1 + -. User=veloz. which produce extreme stresses at Points B and A of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column or at D and C of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs (Fig. and Eq.8 × 109 mm4).6 × 103 mm2).4 are followed.87 MPa) Step 5—The value of (vu/φ) is less than vn. Ac = 1179 in.62/2 = 29.1(a)) at: x = 62.`.17 in. (4-5) gives Muy = 1720 + 36(–5. fyt.3 v u = ---------------------. The nominal shear stress that can be resisted without shear reinforcement at the shear-critical section. calculated by Eq. which indicates that the extent of the shear-reinforced zone.``. Ac = 367 in. and ly1 = 23. = 25. in absolute value. MuOy = –900 kip-in.`..81 in. are given in Table D.4 (227.1R-19 bo = 209.= 0.`. Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Fig. Jy = 547.81 – 0. due to gravity load combined with wind load.74 MPa) 3 1179 547. The maximum shear stress in the critical section occurs on line AB (Fig.5. Try 10 peripheral lines of studs.13 MPa = 0. the values of h. (600 mm).= --------.`.63 × 103 in.6/2 = 31.`. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST . (–107 kN-m) The five steps of design outlined in Section 4. the distance between column face and outermost peripheral line of studs is so + 9s = 2. (4-2) with xA = –14.64 in.3 d 5.``. which indicates that shear stress should be checked at α > 4. (173 kN-m).59 f c′ ). D.2 (457 × 457 mm2)..74 MPa).8 29.`. cx × cy = 18 × 18 in. vn = 4 f c′ = 253 psi ( f c′ /3 = 1.3 × 10 3 3 vu 107 ---.4.75 The value (vu/φ) = 142 psi (0.17) = –952 kip-in.+ ------------------------------------------------. MuOy = 1720 kip-in. based on the following data: column cross section.62 in. (B-4)) 1 γ vy = 1 – ------------------------------------------.87 MPa).`.3 in.75) = 27 in.2 (237 × 103 mm2).= 5. D.. lx1 = 20.8 in. sergio Not for Resale. d.36 2 20.`.1 apply herein.2—Edge column-slab connection Design the studs required at the edge column-slab connection in Fig.= 107 psi (0.

arranged as shown in Fig. Step 5—The value of (vu /φ) is less than vn . (4-5)): Case I: Vu = 36 kips (160 kN).80 MPa) φ Av vs bo 261 ( 65. Case I—Wind load in positive x-direction Vu = 6 kips (27 kN). The same values of: h. D. fc′ . indicating that the extent of the shear-reinforced zone. D.2(b). D. D. Mux = 407 kip-in. (3353 mm).87 MPa).`. (445 mm). Note: 1 MPa = 145 psi.5d = 2. (–472 mm). (–181 mm) and θ = 45 degrees..– vc = 451 – 190 = 261 psi (1. fyt.1 for Cases I and II. The nominal shear strength outside the shear-reinforced zone.2) Shear-critical section At d/2 from column face At d/2 from outermost peripheral line of studs * Case I (vu)B (vu)A –338 (vu)C –13 302 (vu)D 87 Case II (vu)A (vu)B 299 (vu)C 77 –100 (vu)D –27 vu represents stress exerted by column on slab.3—Example of corner column-slab connection: shear-critical sections and stud arrangement.80 MPa = 0.`. (B-4)). ly2 = 72 in. due to gravity loads combined with wind load.6 in. as shown in Fig. γvy = 0.`. (27 kN-m) For the shear-critical section at d/2 from column face. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST . (1829 mm).4 (59.9 × 103 in. xC = –27. (9.`. lx2 = 45 in.1 apply in this example.8 f c′ (0. with so = 2.. D.25 in. MuOy = –338 kip-in.6 in.`. D. shear reinforcement is required.000 Step 3 so ≤ 0. = 25. (70 mm) gives: (Av /s) = 9(0.5 mm) s f yt 51.17 f c′ = 0.2(b).33 in. thus.2 (479 × 103 mm2). indicating that the choice of studs and their spacing are adequate. with positive sign indicating upward stress. (71 mm). Ac = 742 in. vn = 2 f c′ = 126 psi (0. occurs at Point D (Case I) and |(vu/φ)D| = 87/0. indicating that the slab thickness is adequate. Mux = 238 + 6(–7. MPa). (118 kN-m) Case II: Vu = 10 kips (44 kN). (4-5) and (4-6) give Muy = –338 + 6(–7. MuOx = 238 kip-in.4 mm. producing extreme shear stresses at Points A and B of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column or at C and D of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs (Fig. The shear stress resisted by concrete in presence of headed studs at the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column face is vc = 3 f c′ = 190 psi ( f c′ /4 = 131 MPa) Use of Eq. (–38 kN-m).``. (–123 kN-m) Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. are given.48 × 109 mm4).3(a) is designed for gravity loads combined with wind load in positive or negative x-direction. Step 4—Try nine peripheral lines of studs.8 in.`.`. xO = –18. The factored shearing force and unbalanced moment at an axis. D.11) = 195 kip-in. (8.3—Corner column-slab connection The corner column-slab connection in Fig.36 in. (46 kN-m) Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.5 mm) diameter studs. D.75 = 116 psi = 1.421. are (Eq. (Note: 1 in.4 in.= -------------------------. (8.30 (Eq..```-`-`. passing through the centroid of the shear-critical section outside the shear-reinforced zone.11) = –381 kip-in.``.`. and db. (–701 mm). (57 mm) and s = 2. the properties of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs are: bo = 132 in. Eq.1R-20 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT Table D.8 in. Muy = –132 kip-in. Muy = 1720 + 36(–18. (71 mm) Using 3/8 in.≥ --------.3(a) and (b)).6) = 1050 kip-in. This value is greater than 0. ct . the same quantity is less than the upper limit vn = 8 f c′ .11 in.11)/2. The factored forces. is adequate.75 in.`. sergio Not for Resale. edge column-slab connection (Fig. d.25 ) ---. (–15 kN-m). in absolute value. psi (2 f c′ /3. (508 mm) (Fig.5 mm). (1143 mm).75 = 0. Two cases (I and II) are considered.= 0. (9.. Jy = 142.6) = –1090 kip-in. User=veloz. s ≤ 0.1 mm). Step 2—Because the value (vu/φ) exceeds vn. Muy = –900 + 10(–18. The maximum shear stress. (4-1). D. and (4-13) gives vu vs ≥ ---. xD = 17.. xO = yO = –7. The cross-sectional dimensions of the column are cx = c y = 20 in.5d = 2. listed in Table D.15 f c′ ).) Equation (4-2) gives the shear stresses at Points C and D. (4-11)..3(a)).1—Shear stresses* (psi) due to factored loads.```. in Section D.`--- Fig.33 in.

26 in.```. Mux = 407 kip-in. are: Case I: Vu = 6 kips (27 kN).2.11)/2. in absolute value. The maximum shear stress. θ = 45 degrees. Jx = 22.) for Cases I and II.= 0.) in Case I is (Eq. vn = 4 f c′ = 253 psi ( f c′ /3 = 1. (1439 mm).4 (48.26 in.26 × 10 5.59. s ≤ 0. which are listed in Table D. sergio Not for Resale. (B-6)).88 f c′ (0. (380 mm). 16. bo = 69 in. 28.13 in.11) = 797 kip-in. (–46 kN-m) The five steps of design. with so = 2. D.-lb units) (2 f c′ /3 [SI units]). (–25 kN-m) Case II: Vu = 22 kips (97 kN).75 = 485 psi = 7. Jx = 116. is sufficient. indicating that the extent of the shear-reinforced zone. Step 4—Try seven peripheral lines of studs.4 (4.``.7 f c′ (3. The factored shearing force and unbalanced moment about the centroidal principal axes of the shear-critical section outside the shear-reinforced zone (Eq. (1754 mm).26 in.7 in.25 in. Muy = 402 kip-in. shear reinforcement is required. This value is the same as that calculated in Step 2. The fractions of unbalanced moments transferred by shear are (Eq. (9. (820 mm).13 0.– vc = 485 – 190 = 295 psi (2.`. Ac = 257 in. vn = 8 f c′ (in. (71 mm) Using 3/8 in.8 in. (4-7) to (4-9)).33 MPa) 3 3 3 Table D.31 MPa) Use of Eq.4. γvy = 0. MuOx = 377 kip-in.= 295 ( 45.`.60 × 103 in. (B-5)).13 in.`.3(b)) are: xO = yO = –17.267 ( – 132 × 10 ) ( – 8. (57 mm) and s = 2.4 1 + ( 2/3 ) ( l x1 /l y1 ) – 0.27 × 109 mm4) and Jy = 5. arranged as shown in Fig. Step 1—Properties of the shear-critical section in Fig.. 13.63 in.57 × 103 in. indicating that the slab thickness is adequate. D. vn = 2 f c′ = 126 psi (0.16 f c′ ). (B-5) and (B-6)) 1 γ vy = 1 – ---------------------------------------------------------. The projections of the critical section on the x and y axes are: lx1 = 16..`. (6. (6. Jy = 9. in absolute value.`--- .5 mm) diameter studs. Step 2—Because the value (vu /φ) exceeds vn. Mux = –407 kip-in. User=veloz.07.≥ --------.`. γvx = 0.87 MPa). Muy = –218 kip-in. ly2 = 56. D.07 ) ( v u ) A = ---------------. occurs at Point B (Case II) and |(vu/φ)B| = 364/0. (81 kN-m). (71 mm).`.= 0. (–46 kN-m).3(b).267 .2 The factored shear stress at Point A (–8. (45 kN-m) Use of Eq.000 Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. The shear stress resisted by concrete in the presence of headed studs at the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column face is vc = 3 f c′ = 190 psi ( f c′ /4 = 1. Mux = –407 kip-in. as shown in Fig. occurs at Point C (Case I) and |(vu /φ)C| = 89/0.2 (251 × 103 mm2).36 in. The nominal shear stress that can be resisted without shear reinforcement at the shearcritical section. listed in Table D. The maximum shear stress. Step 3 so ≤ 0. (4-2) gives the values of vu at Points C (–10.75 = 119 psi = 1..64 × 109 mm4).5 in. the properties of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs (Fig.7 mm). (410 mm).00 × 109 mm4).`.. (4-2)) 6 × 10 0.. transferring Vu = 110 kips (490 kN) combined with Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. corner column-slab connection (Fig.07. The nominal shear stress outside the shear-reinforced zone. lx2 = 15.3) Shear-critical section At d/2 from column face At d/2 from outermost peripheral line of studs * Case I (vu)B (vu)A 192 (vu)C 89 –28 (vu)D 19 Case II (vu)A (vu)B –312 (vu)C –46 364 (vu)D 65 vu represents stress exerted by column on slab.``. Ac = 388 in.57 × 10 = 192 psi (1.3(b). Muy = 720 kip-in.+ --------------------------------------------------------------3 3 257 22.4 (2. (4-11) and (4-13) gives vu vs ≥ ---.0 in. (4-1).03 MPa) φ Av vs bo ) ---.2—Shear stresses* (psi) due to factored loads. (46 kN-m).26 × 103 in.35 MPa = 0.17 f c′ = 0.```-`-`.74 MPa) (Eq.4 (9.2. are followed. D.8 in.4—Prestressed slab-column connection Design the shear reinforcement required for an interior column.4 ( 407 × 10 )16.5d = 2.11) = 221 kip-in.) and D (4. 0 in..40 (Eq.5d = 2.+ ------------------------------------------------. (108 kN-m).`.`. (4-5) and (4-6)).82 MPa = 0.1R-21 Case II—Wind load in negative x-direction Vu = 22 kips (97 kN). (1159 mm). (–441 mm). 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST Similar calculations give the values of vu at Points A and B (8. (64 mm) gives: (Av /s) = 6(0. outlined in Section 4. the same quantity is less than the upper limit.33 in. D. and ly1 = 32.) for Cases I and II.63 . Mux = 377 + 22(–7.38. γvx = 0.32 × 109 mm4). indicating that the choice of studs and their spacing are adequate.5 = 0. (43 kN-m) Muy = 953 + 22(–7.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421.37 in. Step 5—The value of (vu /φ) is less than vn. Note: 1 MPa = 145 psi.9 × 103 in.64 f c′ ). with positive sign indicating upward stress. MuOy = 953 kip-in.7 mm) -------------------------s f yt 51.3(a) are: bo = 45.14 (Eq.2 (166 × 103 mm2). D.

`.4 × 10 vu 281 ---. thus. A check that the cross-sectional areas of the bonded and nonbonded reinforcements satisfy the ultimate flexural strength required is necessary.2 (140 mm2).88 v u = ---------------------.4 mm. sergio Not for Resale. D. (5-1a) or (5-1b). assume that Vp = 0. the bonded bars are not shown in Fig.`.39 MPa).0. will have slopes matching those used in calculating Vp (≈ 0. plus the superimposed dead load of intensity wsd can be calculated as (Gayed and Ghali 2006) (Fig. and geometrical parameters: α and hc are defined in Fig.4 (Eq. D.1 m2).3(194) + 0 = 280 psi (1.1 m).`.`.1 apply herein.94 MPa) 3 500 39. (4-2)) 110 × 10 .421.) unbalanced moment Muy = 550 kip-in.217 in. are followed. Two tendons from each direction intercept the critical section at d/2 from the column.49 f c′ ) 0. L = 280 in..2 (323 × 103 mm2). the arrangement of the tendons as shown in Fig. indicating that shear reinforcement is required. Choose the values: κ = 0. γconc = 153 lb/ft3 (24 kN/m3).```-`-`.02). (552 mm). The crosssectional area per strand = 0. bo = 87 in.8 in. wsd = 27 lb/ft2 (1. Tendon profiles are commonly composed of parabolic segments.93 MPa) Step 2—The quantity (vu /φ) is greater than vn. User=veloz. (Note: 1 in. Vp = 6 kips (26 kN).```. (4-1). (hγconc) per unit area. and γvy = 0..6 in. but is beyond the scope of the present report.75 in.9 f c′ (2. the sum of the vertical components of these tendons at the location of the shear-critical section.= 194 psi (1. (2210 mm). h = 7 in. The column size is 16 x 16 in. (62 kN-m). Punching shear design: Vu = 110 kips (490 kN).`.1R-22 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT Prestressing tendons are typically placed in bands over support lines in one direction and uniformly distributed in the perpendicular direction. The slab has equal spans 280 x 280 in. α = 0. in the x and y directions. and (4-13) gives vu vs ≥ ---. fyt .1 x 7.3 kPa).75/2 = 10. D.= 375 psi = 5..59 MPa = 0.75 in.`. D. Muy = 550 kip-in.`.4—Example connection of interior column-prestressed slab. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST 3 3 Fig.4. choose eight bars of diameter db = 1/2 in. and D. It is uncertain that the actual cable profiles. lx1 = ly1 = 21.34 MPa) 280 ( 7 ) Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 3 --`..1.``. Ac = 500 in. h = 7 in. (62 kN-m) to a posttensioned flat plate of thickness. the prestressing tendons are banded in the x-direction and uniformly distributed in the y-direction (Fig. the average value of the effective compressive stress provided by ten tendons in each of two directions is 10 ( 38 × 10 ) f pc = ------------------------------. required to balance a fraction κ of the self-weight.= --------. ACI 318 requires that at least two tendons should pass through the column cage in each direction.4. (178 mm). (B-2)).28 MPa) φ Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006.85.+ ---------------------------------------------------. Jy = 39.31 MPa) Use of Eq. in Section D. and its value is (Eq.`. outlined in Section 4. are satisfied at the considered connection. seven-wire post-tensioned nonbonded strands per panel.5 4000 + 0.``. In the current example.4(b)). The values of ct. = 25. D. (4-11).4 (16. which means that the slab thickness is adequate.. for clarity. The five steps of design.`--- . fc′ . for safety.= 281 psi (1.75 φ The three conditions. for which the average effective prestress fpc. and hc = 3.`. D.88 in.– vc = 375 – 190 = 185 psi (1. (5-1a) gives vn = 3..4(b) satisfies this requirement. The maximum shear stress occurs at x = 21.4(a). warranting the use of Eq.4(a)) κ ( 1 – 2α ) ( γ conc h + w sd )L f pc = ---------------------------------------------------------------8hh c 2 (D-1) where L is the panel length.4 × 103 in. (276 mm).2 (7.2 (406 x 406 mm2). Step 1—Properties of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column are: d = h – ct – db = 7 – 3/4 – 1/2 = 5.. Substituting the values of fpc and Vp in Eq. Equation (D-1) gives fpc = 202 psi (1. The shear stress resisted by concrete in the presence of headed studs at the critical section at d/2 from column face vc = 3 f c′ = 190 psi ( f c′ /4 = 1. This level of prestressing is closely acquired by ten 0.40 ( 500 × 10 )10.4 × 109 mm4). ACI 318 requires a minimum amount of bonded top flexural reinforcing bars in the vicinity of the column. the same quantity is less than the upper limit vn = 8 f c′ (in-lb units) (2 f c′ /3 [SI units]).. (7.

bo = 235 in. indicating that the choice of studs and their spacing are adequate. so ≤ 0. as shown in Fig. 1.= 91 psi (0.`.17 f c′ = 0.11 ) ---.SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS 421.`. Step 4—Try seven peripheral lines of studs. 3 3 --`..75d.`. indicating that the extent of the shear-reinforced zone. User=veloz.`..1R-23 Av vs bo 185 ( 87 ) ---.4. Properties of critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs (Fig.≥ --------.`--- Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. γvy = 0.. and Jy = 848. (117 mm) With twelve 3/8 in.4 mm) s 4 This value is greater than 0.``. Av 12 ( 0. D. (4-2) gives 110 × 10 0.40 ( 550 × 10 )37.`.4 (Eq.87 MPa) Step 5—The value of (vu /φ) = 91/0.32 in. eight studs per peripheral line will not satisfy the requirement g ≤ 2d (Fig.``. D.32 in. s ≤ 0.= 0.4(b)) are: lx2 = ly2 = 75..`.4(b).8 v u = ---------------------.```-`-`. (8.75d = 4-5/8 in.5 in.+ ------------------------------------------------. studs per peripheral line and spacing s = 4 in. thus. use studs with s ≤ 0.5/2 = 37. (8. sergio Not for Resale.0 mm) s f yt 51. (73 mm).. Eq..000 Step 3—(vu /φ) < 6 f c′ (psi).`. (959 mm)..5d = 2-7/8 in.`. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST .2. Because the column width is large with respect to d.= 0.2).```.`. is adequate. The maximum shear stress in the critical section occurs at: x = 75. (102 mm).33 in. (B-2)). Ac = 1351 in.63 MPa) 3 1351 848.8 in.= -------------------.75 = 121 < 126 psi.2 × 103 in. For ease of installation of the prestressing tendons.= ------------------. stirrups or headed studs can be used.2 × 10 vn = 2 f c′ = 126 psi (0. choose 12 studs per peripheral line..

`.``.`..`. Phone: 248-848-3700 Fax: 248-848-3701 www. internships.```-`-`. ACI chapters provide opportunities for interaction of professionals and practitioners at a local level.” In keeping with this purpose. ACI members receive discounts of up to 40% on all ACI products and services.`.S.`--- As ACI begins its second century of advancing concrete knowledge. specifications.org Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. · Periodicals: the ACI Structural Journal and the ACI Materials Journal.`. American Concrete Institute 38800 Country Club Drive Farmington Hills. In addition. ACI supports the following activities: . · Student programs such as scholarships. construction.`. its original chartered purpose remains “to provide a comradeship in finding the best ways to do concrete work of all kinds and in spreading knowledge. · Formal coordination with several international concrete related societies. sergio Not for Resale. and codes. · Sponsoring and co-sponsoring international conferences and symposia.`.`.A.. and Concrete International. Benefits of membership include a subscription to Concrete International and to an ACI Journal. User=veloz.```. seminars and convention registration fees.`. · Spring and fall conventions to facilitate the work of its committees. you join thousands of practitioners and professionals worldwide who share a commitment to maintain the highest industry standards for concrete technology. and competitions.American Concrete Institute Advancing concrete knowledge ® · Technical committees that produce consensus reports. and practices. including documents. MI 48331 U. · Educational seminars that disseminate reliable information on concrete.concrete.. guides. As a member of ACI..``. · Certification programs for personnel employed within the concrete industry. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST --`..

Members are encouraged to participate in committee activities that relate to their specific areas of interest.`. sergio Not for Resale.```-`-`. The committees.concrete. contractors.`. Individuals interested in the activities of ACI are encouraged to become a member.`.. ACI gathers and distributes information on the improvement of design. operate under a consensus format.`--- www.``.`.`. and education.`. contact ACI. educators. Committee activities include the development of building codes and specifications.`..Guide to Shear Reinforcement for Slabs The AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE was founded in 1904 as a nonprofit membership organization dedicated to public service and representing the user interest in the field of concrete. Copyright American Concrete Institute Provided by IHS under license with ACI No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. 02/11/2009 12:29:38 MST . For more information. as well as ACI as a whole.. User=veloz. and representatives from a variety of companies and organizations. ACI’s membership is composed of engineers.`.. There are no educational or employment requirements. The work of ACI is conducted by individual ACI members and through volunteer committees composed of both members and non-members. scientists. construction and maintenance of concrete products and structures. presentation of construction and repair techniques.```.`. architects.``. analysis of research and development results.org American Concrete Institute Advancing concrete knowledge ® Licensee=SNC Main for Blind log in /5938179006. which assures all participants the right to have their views considered..

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